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To Die for God: Martyrs' Heaven in Hebrew and Latin Crusade Narratives Author(s): Shmuel Shepkaru Source: Speculum, Vol. 77, No. 2 (Apr., 2002), pp. 311-341 Published by: Medieval Academy of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3301324 Accessed: 18/12/2009 09:41
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To Die for God: Martyrs'Heaven in Hebrew and Latin Crusade Narratives
By Shmuel Shepkaru
A unique window onto the socioreligious life of twelfth-century Franco-German
(Ashkenazic) Jews is provided by three contemporary Hebrew accounts that describe the crusaders' massacres of Jews during the spring and summer of 1096.1 By answering Pope Urban's call at Clermont to join the First Crusade, the faithful left Europe, not only to redeem the Christian holy places in the East, but also to follow Jesus on the path of self-sacrifice for personal salvation. This Christian pursuit of salvation in paradise unexpectedly forced European Jews to preserve their own faith by choosing death over conversion. All Jewish victims who had maintained their religious identity by dying voluntarily for the "sanctification of the Divine Name" (qiddush haShem) became martyrs. Following the legal (ha-

I would like to thank Speculum's anonymous readers for their careful reading of this article. They have made important suggestions in a most constructive fashion, which only strengthen the thesis of this article. 1 The three Hebrew documents were first published in a critical edition by Adolf Neubauer and Moritz Stern in Hebrdische Berichte iiber die Judenverfolgungen wdhrend der Kreuzziige (Berlin, 1892). They were reprinted in Abraham Habermann, Sefer Gezerot Ashkenaz ve-Zarfat (Jerusalem, 1971). For discussions of these twelfth-century sources and early scholarly works see Anna Sapir Abulafia, "The Interrelationship between the Hebrew Chronicles of the First Crusade," Journal of Semitic Studies 27 (1982), 221-39. A few English translations are available: see Shlomo Eidelberg, ed. and trans., The Jews and the Crusaders: The Hebrew Chronicles of the First and Second Crusades (Madison, Wis., 1977), and the translation of two of the three-the report attributed to Solomon bar Samson and the Mainz Anonymous-in Robert Chazan, European Jewry and the First Crusade (Berkeley, Calif., 1987). (All Hebrew and Latin translations and italics below are mine, unless otherwise indicated. The reader is advised to keep in mind that, in addition to their standard technical use, italics indicate parallel usage of symbols and language in the Hebrew and Latin accounts. Note, too, that all references to talmudic tractates are to the Babylonian Talmud.) See also Chazan, European Jewry, pp. 40-49; "The Hebrew Crusade Chronicles," Revue des etudes juives 133 (1974), 235-54; "The Hebrew First-Crusade Chronicles: Further Reflections," AJS Review 3 (1978), 79-98; "The Facticity of Medieval Narrative: A Case Study of the Hebrew First Crusade Narratives," AJS Review 16 (1992), 31-56; and more recently his God, Humanity and History: The Hebrew First Crusade Narratives (Berkeley, Calif., 2000), esp. pp. 19-110. See also Jonathan Riley-Smith, "The First Crusade and the Persecution of the Jews," in Persecution and Toleration, ed. W. J. Sheils, Studies in Church History 21 (Oxford, 1984), pp. 51-72; Ivan G. Marcus, "From Politics to Martyrdom: Shifting Paradigms in the Hebrew Narratives of the 1096 Crusading Riots," Prooftext 2 (1982), 40-52; idem, "History, Story and Collective Memory: Narrative in Early Ashkenazic Culture," in The Midrashic Imagination: Jewish Exegesis, Thought, and History, ed. Michael Fishbane (Albany, N.Y., 1993), pp. 255-79; Gerson D. Cohen, "The Hebrew Crusade Chronicles and the Ashkenazic Tradition," in Minhah le-Nahum: Biblical and Other Studies in Honor of Nahum M. Sarna, ed. Michael Fishbane and Marc Brettler (Sheffield, 1993), pp. 36-53; Jeremy Cohen, "The Persecution of 1096: The Sociocultural Context of the Narratives of Martyrdom" [Hebrew], Zion 59 (1994), 169-208; and idem, "The Hebrew Crusade Chronicles in Their Christian Cultural Context," in Juden und Christen zur Zeit der Kreuzziige, ed. Alfred Haverkamp, Vortrage und Forschungen 47 (Sigmaringen, 1999), pp. 87-106. Speculum 77 (2002)

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Martyrs' Heaven

lakhic) requirement, Ashkenazic martyrs publicly expressed their unconditional devotion to God when forced to passively protect their religious identity with their own lives.2 This devotion, however, did not go unnoticed in the three Hebrew accounts. A dominant theme in these accounts is the heavenly reward that awaited martyrs. Although Jews had exercised the option of martyrdom in past conflicts, a comparison with earlier Jewish martyrological texts reveals the unique contribution of these twelfth-century Hebrew narratives to Jewish celestial imagery.3As I will show, the depictions in the Hebrew sources display a strong affinity to contemporary Latin sources. While medieval Christian martyrologists could always turn to the early passion literature for inspiration of heavenly depictions, no such elaborate facilitator existed for the Jewish narrators of the First Crusade. The martyrological parallels that are to be discussed here and the lack of similar representations in early Jewish martyrological texts indicate that the Hebrew accounts pertaining to the First Crusade embraced crusaders' images, which were themselves found also in earlier hagiographies and passions. This is not to say that the images under discussion are utterly idiosyncratic in relation to early Jewish texts. Both medieval Jewish and Christian depictions often rely on early shared symbols and metaphors, making the nature of their relationship somewhat ambiguous. The features that make the Jewish imagery novel are its martyrological application, symbolic interpretation, and frequent utilization by medieval Jewish martyrologists.4 Both twelfth-century Christians and Jews considered the martyr's recompense in heaven to be the ultimate boon that the faithful could receive from the Divine. As such, open admissions of borrowing "positive" images from the "erroneous other" are, at best, rare. One way of proving such adoptions of images may be achieved by examining the exactitude of literary parallelism. In the case of martyrdom, this literary parallelism displays an Ashkenazic awareness of the Christian imagery of heaven, which was added to the concept of qiddush haShem. As a result, a new detailed system of celestial reward for the Jewish martyr emerged from the bloody conflict of 1096. This literary symmetry, I believe, is mainly the result of the direct violent encounter of crusaders and Jews. Studying the relationship between Jews and Christians in the Latin West, Ivan Marcus has described Christian influence on Jews as "inward acculturation," which traveled mainly through the process of "social polemics." As Marcus explains, "Ashkenazic inward acculturation involves the complementary processes of preservation and transformation: Ashkenazic Jews continued to observe ancient Jewish traditions yet reshaped them in light of a contemporary Christian context
2 On rabbinic definition and usage of the term qiddush haShem see E. Grunewald, "Qiddush haShem, an Examination of a Term" (Hebrew), Molad 24 (1968), 476-84, and S. Safrai, "Qiddush haShem in the Teachings of the Tannaim" (Hebrew), Zion 43 (1979), 28-42. 3 Shmuel Shepkaru, "From After Death to Afterlife: Martyrdom and Its Recompense," AJS Review 24/1 (1999), 1-44. 4 Adding the Muslim dimension would have gone beyond the limits of this article. It is my hunch that the possibility of Islamic influence on twelfth-century Ashkenazic Jews is very unlikely, although an investigation of the Islamic imagery and its relation to Christianity and Judaism would be most useful.

p. Wilson. See also The Vision of Paul: "I looked at it [the door of heaven] and saw that it was a golden gate and that there were two golden pillars before it and two golden tables above the pillars full of the letters" (New Testament Apocrypha. Approaching these images as "social polemics" will answer more specifically why such representations came to play their role particularly in twelfth-century Ashkenazic accounts of qiddush haShem. Conn."5 This article will attempt to unravel the functions of these parallel images with respect to martyrs' heaven. A. the intention here is not to confirm or confront the historical authenticity or accuracy of the martyrdoms these images cloak. however. . [Cambridge. pp. The postpatristic Christian heaven is well defined. Eng.. as he led me through the midst of the troops of joyful inhabitants . Jeffrey Burton Russell. clearer than the brightness of the daylight or the rays of the noontime sun. In his vision of hell and heaven "a man of shining countenance and wearing bright robes" guided him through a very pleasant plain. and trans." Relevant to this article is Marcus's analysis of Ashkenazic inward acculturation. 488-95. 220-23. Perpetua. Bertram Colgrave and R.Martyrs' Heaven 313 in a polemical fashion. 23.. 11-12 for his definition of "acculturation" and p. 10 for "everyday interactions of ordinary Jews and Christians who lived in the same small towns and villages. His study. Sources Chretiennes 53 (Paris. B. rev.s. A History of Heaven. 1991]. 1958). 200-1336. which he applies to all premodern Jewish subcultures. and many companies of happy people sat around. Eng. who envisioned crowned martyrs in the company of angels and living with the Son of God. but at the same time they selectively absorbed parts of the Christian culture in order to negate them symbolically. A History of Heaven: The Singing Silence (Princeton. Both Hebrew and Latin sources combine the realms of history and theology to commemorate events and consecrate the dead (this is even more so with respect to the Hebrew sources). provides a general model. Hagiography.. 2:771-77). pp. Jews drew on an earlier Jewish legacy. Robert Joly. McL. R. translation ed. IN CAELUM TRIUMPHANTES Following early visions such as that of the Shepherd of Hermas (circa 150). 6 Le Pasteur. Marcus. N. not only that of Ashkenaz. 1997). descriptions of heaven flourished in Christian antiquity. The accounts clarify how and why so many lost their lives in the terrestrial arena and still "continued to live" thereafter in the celestial realm. 104. ed. served as its foundation. According to Bynum's interpretation. p. and trans. and Russell.J. the reference is a metaphor for resurrection: Caroline Walker Bynum. and amidst it I heard the sweetest sound of people singing": Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. ed. see pp. ed. The medieval Christian environment contributed to the process of Jewish self-definition. Rituals of Childhood: Jewish Acculturation in Medieval Europe (New Haven. 15 (New York. 7 Dryhthelm's vision is among the more famous examples. n. I saw in front of us a much more gracious light than before. Since the focus is on imagery.. confined only by the limits of its authors' imaginations. Lectures on the History of Religions. as well as mystical experiences. p. "In this meadow there were innumerable bands of men in white robes.. The Resurrection of the Body in Western Christianity. 57. 59. Wilhelm Schneemelcher. 1969).7 During this period Tertullian's ideas that "The sole key to unlock Paradise is your own life's blood" and that martyrs are. ed. 1995).. Mynors (Oxford.6 and the visions of St. 1996). "as- 5 Ivan G. p.

19. pp.Y. In the late tenth century. Colleen McDannel and Bernhard Lang. 6 vols. 8.. Medieval Women's Visionary Literature (New York. therefore. 34. and coming on the clouds of heaven. of Duke Maurice and his companions. p. Barontius's soul. 1986). "Jesus was taken up into Heaven and was enthroned at the right hand of God". 3:215. 125. 8Tertullian. in 7 (Paris. at the right hand of the father. "I am. 215-20. He recollected for his followers "tales of combats of holy knights from the Old Testament and from recent Christian stories for [his people] to imitate. Heavenly orders may vary. Historia peregrinorum. 1978). and martyrs constituted an indispensable group in it. Conn.30 and 25. efficacious in the sight of Christ" were revived.. Mark 16. and you will see the Son of man seated at the right hand of Power". ed. 121. [who] [fllew swiftly as victor through the stars to heaven. Seeingthe "Sonof Man" in is mentioned Matt." the Song of Roland promised martyrs they would "sit on high in Paradise eternal": La chanson de Roland. Christianizing Death: The Creation of a Ritual Process in Early Medieval Europe (Ithaca. Scapula. N." He was "seated above the stars... in "To trans. for they were believed to be segregated from other righteous in heaven.31. n Elizabeth Alvilda Petroff. 9 Damien Sicard. Dorothy L. On various occasions. Heaven: A History (New Haven. He told them vivid stories of the conflict of Demetrius and George. heavenly hierarchy was well established. p. and "OnPurity. Historia ecclesiastica. 74 n. trans. Matt. 130.12The imitatio mortis Christi thus begins on earth but ends in a special location in heaven.1950).8 No wonder. Writers: Worksof the Fathersin Translation The (London. who won through martyrdom the crown in heaven.9 Martyrs welcome martyrs. Frederick Whitehead." trans.13 Hierarchy further modified this location. (Oxford. "But I tell you. By the mid-eleventh century.William LeSaint. To encourage fighting and sacrifices. 196880).1959). lines 1127-38. Hrotsvit crowned her martyred protagonist. Pelagius. 1946). of Theodor and Sebastian.RudolphArbesmann al. 1988). 12 Mark 14. (Oxford.in AncientChristian P. below). 5 vols. Liturgiewissenschaftliche Quellen und Forschungen 63 (Miinster in Westfallen. the "soldier of the Heavenly King . 2nd ed. Eng. 26. Gerold of Avranches promoted the reward of heaven. 3:216-17. p. and trans. then. But martyrs were not thought to be like other believers. Sayers (Harmondsworth. 10Orderic Vitalis. Fathers the et of Church10 (New York. La liturgie de la mort dans l'eglise latine des origines a la reforme carolingienne. p. hereafter you will see the Son of man seated at the right hand of Power. ed. See also Frederick Paxton. cited as RHC Oc. 24."10For Gerold of Avranches the heavenly crown could be achieved by all through the sacrifice of martyrdom. believers were advised not to delay their entrance into the celestial city. in Recueil des historiens des croisades: Historiens occidentaux." 13 As in Hrotsvit's praises for "Christ enthroned on high.61-64.." where he received the palm for his "laudable death. but the hierarchical concept had become a component of medieval thinking by the seventh century. and may they guide you to the holy city of Jerusalem" became popular at the end of the first millennium. 1844-95. p.. that the liturgical words "may the martyrs welcome you when you arrive. for instance. Their uniqueness is demonstrated by the special and specific heavenly location that was reserved for them.61-62. 1957). 1990).314 Martyrs' Heaven suredly."1 Placing the martyr's body at "the right hand of the father" follows the description of Jesus' standing at the right hand of the Father in heaven after his bodily rising. . Marjorie Chibnall. Such promises could have made any believer hopeful." ApologeticalWorks.

Luke 10. 199-201 and 203. pp.. The notion of seven heavens appeared in Babylonian and Greek astronomical works before being adapted by Christianity. pp. Peter W. for example. Especially after Pope Urban's call for the crusade in 1095. Pope Urban leaves heaven a mystery and the crusade a restricted endeavor. E. In his spiritual ascent Isaiah discovers the structure of heaven. heaven's gates appeared more welcoming to all in the minds of the populace. ed.27. see and love.Martyrs' Heaven 315 enters the gates of paradise."18Anselm adds that in heaven God's lover "shall then see [the Supreme Beatitude] face to face. souls of children. love and praise [God]": PL 41:802-4. Schneemelcher. 1986). Regarding angelic singing in heaven. see also Russell.E. "We shall see him as he is. Anselm's Monologion and Proslogion (Minneapolis. which will be echoed repeatedly in the Hebrew narratives of 1096. MacCulloch. chanting angels. A History of Heaven. 22. Already in the early eleventh century.37. an angel reveals: "It is for the praise of him who is in the seventh heaven. 2:653-56. "Martyrdom and the First Crusade.."19 Seeing God face to face became the ultimate goal of the righteous. 4:137-40. Documents Relatifs a l'Histoire des Croisades 12 (Paris." History 55 (1970). Akiva (B. 16. and all his mind. and for his Beloved. Cowdrey. for he could have been quoting from Matt. however." The prophet sees in the seventh heaven angels and the righteous "Stripped of the garment of the flesh": The Ascension of Isaiah. 1932). The notion of seven heavenly divisions is mentioned also in the Christian version of The Ascension of Isaiah. Divisions of heaven can also be found in The Vision of Paul: Russell. His followers.): Russell. 1985). saints. Medieval Faith and Fable (London. Edbury (Cardiff. An important study is provided by H. 16 Anselm. in Jasper Hopkins. 21 Guibert of Nogent.37. Known as the visio Dei (beatific vision).. in New Testament Apocrypha. 20 Guibert of Nogent. 22. RHC Oc. p. 15 PL 142:943-62. 189 n. "There we shall rest and see. ed. Odilo's hagiography of Maiol bestowed upon the abbot of Cluny the "reward of the heavenly beatitudes." Maiol ardently desired to participate in the heavenly banquet and stand with the blessed ones who enjoy the "vision of the Lord. 19Obviously in the spirit of John 3. 177-88. pp. A.16 In language typical of the period. 17 Peter Tudebode. and a "multitude of martyrs. at the third. 61. The pontiff presented to them "wars that contain the glorious reward of martyrdom. at the second gate. This is one more example that illustrates the difficult task of tracing cultural influences. 35-36.who advocated martyrdom. Hill. p. where he meets the souls of fellow monks. It is not necessary to assume that Anselm relied on Akiva's statement about divine love. 4:137-40. for him who rests in eternity among his saints. 1977). it constituted the culmination of martyrs' bliss in heaven. all his soul. p. Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere. . or Mark 12. RHC Oc. clearly relying on Matt. see also his "Pope Urban II's Preaching of the First Crusade. 58-59."20Faithful to his Cluniac education. mentions the beatific vision in his Monologion." and Augustine's City of God 22.2. trans. 8 above. John Hugh Hill and Laurita L."15 Anselm of Canterbury. 46-56. A New Interpretive Translation of St. A History of Heaven." in Crusade and Settlement. J."14 The idea of heavenly hierarchy enabled martyrs to be with each other and to glimpse the Divine. Thereafter it surfaced in the Secrets of Enoch (first or second century C. expected martyrdom to be more than "gloriosum martyrii munus"21 and its reward more than an image of the 14 J. ed. See also n. Monologion 74.17Anselm writes: "Every man is supposed to strive for this same good by loving and desiring it with all his heart.30. 18 This statement is reminiscent of a view expressed by R. in contrast. A History of Heaven. pp. 69. Berakhot 61b).30.

By associating the crusade with the imitatio mortis Christi. in Le "Liber" de Raymond d'Aguilers. Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem.24From the canonical viewpoint that emphasized the voluntary aspect of martyrdom.23 Descriptions of the early stages of the crusade generally attribute to the martyrs' blissfulness only a few individual elements of heaven that were taken from earlier Christian imagery. Crosses were also found. ed. 4:12-16. . Stephen the crowned martyr. RHC Oc. whom we shall meet later. RHC Oc.316 Martyrs' Heaven earthly Jerusalem. 24 Fulcher of Chartres. whether at the first or the eleventh hour. 4:12-16. included only certain generic elements of heaven in stories that did not meet the canonical requirements for martyrdom per se.. Raymond of Aguilers. Urban's mentioning of heavenly rewards with the examples of early crowned martyrs provided merely an initial model that his followers could elaborate into full-blown images of heaven. And by attributing to these casualties the belief in imminent heavenly recompense.22which they might never live to see. Heinrich Hagenmeyer (Heidelberg." Fulcher found these crusaders worthy of eternal life because the imprinted crosses indicated that their deaths. Yet the rhetoric in the crusaders' self-representations considered all the casualties of "Jesus' army" martyrs. . those dead had already by God's mercy obtained the peace of everlasting life..27 Baldric of Dol. . 27 Fulcher of Chartres. although not voluntary. all casualties could be depicted as overjoyed martyrs. As the march eastward became deadlier. 25 "Be sure that to die on the way is of equal value to" death in Jerusalem. "with the same shilling. 102.. at best. They are to be paid. according to Raymond of Aguilers."26 of Chartres applied this view to the drowning catastrophe at Brindisi. Documents Relatifs a l'Histoire des Croisades 9 (Paris. Tales circulating among believers asserted that even crusaders who might not live to see Jerusalem recaptured25would earn through death on their way to the city a special place in the heavenly Jerusalem. 1. Perhaps for this reason. ed. 3. RHC Oc. Historia Hierosolymitana. "By such a miracle. prol.8. victims who succumbed to superior forces involuntarily could hardly be considered martyrs deserving of reward. according to Baldric of Dol's version of Urban's speech: RHC Oc. 1969). p. the authors of the Latin reports made only general references to heaven or. 1913). 4:12-16. John Hugh Hill and Laurita L. His exemplars are apostles. Some of the four hundred bodies floated in the port with crosses imprinted on their backs. Latin sources of the First Crusade and those that followed frequently characterize individual images of heaven as the motivation for vigorous fighting unto death. these distinct characteristics come together in more detail to provide a fuller picture of martyrs' heaven in subsequent reports. 23 22 . 26 Baldric of Dol. according to Fulcher Urban.. The stories dedicated to an anonymous knight and to Rainald Porchet. even when death in the name of Christ was not voluntary. both Fulcher and Raymond were able to reward all casualties regardless of motivation. Hill. on the right shoulders of six or seven Christians killed by the Saracens. provide good illustrations that display the culmination of this process. and John the Baptist: Baldric of Dol. occurred in imitation of Christ.3. 4:12-16.

"32 What made all crusaders potential martyrs. They all cried in one voice. 1962). 29 Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum. William the Picard.30 a call that was answered "with one accord" by those who promised "to follow in the footsteps of Christ. our blood which was shed for thee. 1. After all. 1095-1274. however. but also the living. not only the dead. all crusaders could earn through self-sacrifices the reward of the martyrs' heaven. 'Avenge. The Councils of Urban II. p.4. ed. acceptable to God. [g]ave a great cry: 'How long." This included also the poor who could not afford food and so "starved to death for the Name of Christ.16. uttering "in one voice (una uoce dicentes). 17. was the pontiff's association of any death on the way to Jerusalem with self-sacrifice. and trans. "Vindica Domine sanguinem nostrum. pp. By the significant metaphor of human sacrifices. In Baldric of Dol's version of Urban's speech at Clermont crusaders should offer themselves "to [God] as a living sacrifice":RHC Oc. At the same time. 0 Lord. 3:727-30. the Gesta Francorum's account of "a certain priest" further alludes to this twofold benefit of martyrdom as a 28 Fulcher of Chartres. Robert Somerville. Although reward did not motivate them to give up their lives. the reward after death that crusaders were promised throughout the campaign caused the elation they experienced at death. 32 The response.. Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum. 1: Decreta Claromontensia. Urban is said to have promised revenge on the enemy and reward for the crusader who "shall offer himself to him as a holy living sacrifice. .9-10: "The souls of those who had been slaughtered for God's word . did not prevent him from asserting that all triumphed in heaven in order to beseech God to avenge crusaders' blood. Urban's call referred to the journey to Jerusalem as "the right kind of sacrifice (recta oblatio). 6. Since such deaths qualified as martyrdom." This recalls Rev. Vengeance is a powerful aspect of the evolving Christian doctrine of reward." In heaven they continued to exhibit their combative characteristics. 74. 2. Casualties as holy human sacrifices could beseech the Divine to bring heavenly retribution against the enemy that had shed their blood.. This. must it be before thou wilt vindicate us and avenge our blood on the inhabitants of the earth?'" 30 See Urban's letter to the monks of the congregation of Vallombrosa.28The Gesta Francorum holds that Anselm of Ribemont. sovereign Lord. therefore. 1972)."31Robert the Monk explicitly applied this notion to his version of Pope Urban's speech.. 39-40. 4:12-16. p. 1 (Amsterdam. Documents of Medieval History 4 (London. Supplementum. It also tells how many suffered martyrdom and "gave up their souls to God with joy and gladness. 1981). the crusaders' sacrificial blood was expected to bring divine retribution upon the enemy that shed theirs. the act of imitatio mortis Christi benefited.Martyrs' Heaven 317 Fulcher of Chartres thus affirmed that "even if the assassin's sword had not failed. the author ignores the distinction between historical and theological reasoning for their departure.' "29Clearly. While Jesus shed his blood to redeem humanity. ed. p. and many others who perished in the course of fighting were martyred. was overwhelming. The Crusades:Idea and Reality. See also Louise and Jonathan Riley-Smith. "It is God's will": RHC Oc. holy and true. 31 Gesta Francorum.. qui pro te effusus est. Rosalind Hill (London. many would have voluntarily completed a martyr's course through the requisite agony" endured while taking part in a crusade. according to Robert.

As the number of crusader casualties increased. 15. 153. de Marsis abbatem Casinensem. these crusaders." Also reported in Peter Tudebode." because they refused to renounce God and submitted to death as live targets for Turkish bowmen. 37 Hagenmeyer. Komneni ad Oderisim I. others were killed."33The killing on the altar or the oblatio at the moment of celebrating Mass thus exemplifies pure sacrifice dedicated to God on behalf of crusaders. 4.34 For the enthusiastic believer. 36: "Unum quoque presbyterum celebrantem missam super altare invenerunt eumque statim martyrizaverunt. Die Kreuzzugsbriefe aus den Jahren 1088-1100 (Innsbruck. p. 4. we ought not at all consider them as dead. At Civitote the Turks killed surprised crusaders who were sound asleep. According to the Gesta Francorum. p.1: "Lord. since in good intention they completed their end. 1901)." in Heinrich Hagenmeyer. so "they martyred him at once upon the altar. before Anselm's final battle. As such they believed themselves to be the beneficiaries of their imitatio. 35 The emperor. 36"Epistula II. are depicted as willingly performing the ritualistic act of imitating Jesus' sacrifice. Life in the other world was believed to succeed such noble acts. p. Blessed. which Anselm could observe and which compared with none. or at least this medieval notion.38 For the more generous Raymond of Aguilers the living martyrs deserved more than just a tabernacle in heaven. whether after fatal blows or prolonged suffering. who "were put up" to be killed. p." I have altered Hill's translation from "they killed him" to "they martyred him. "quem statim super altare martirizauerunt. Alexii I. casualties at Nicaea "were the first to suffer felicitous martyrdom for the Name of our Lord Jesus.. Some perished. Peter Tudebode. indeed.318 Martyrs' Heaven sacrifice directed to heaven. in order to foretell his death. All those who died received the glorious crown of martyrdom." 34 Gesta Francorum. It is this association with the reenactment of the imitatio mortis Christi that instantly made crusaders worthy of heavenly reward. In a letter to the abbot of Monte Cassino after the battle of Antioch in June 1098."36 Tragedy on earth turned into a celebration in heaven." As we shall see. Offering themselves voluntarily. a notion Alexius had already employed in an epistle he sent Robert I of Flanders around 1088. Besides. Die Kreuzzugsbriefe. martyrdom earned instant personal gratification.. but as living and transported to eternal and incorruptible life (sed ut uiuos et in uitam aeternam atque incorruptibilem transmigratos). The deceased Engelrand credited his exceptional physical beauty to his beautiful home in heaven. Die Kreuzzugsbriefe. are they. He disclosed that the recently fallen knight Engelrand of Saint Pol revealed himself to Anselm of Ribemont. pp. 176. 35-36. who shall sojourn in thy tabernacle? . was probably influenced by Ps. p. Emperor Alexius made it clear that the dead continued living in their ce"A lestial "Eternal Tabernacle"35: multitude of knights and foot soldiers have gone to the Eternal Tabernacle (ad aeterna tabernacula). living with Jesus in heaven. 38 Hagenmeyer. 136. Engelrand confirmed to the astonished Anselm his upcoming demise and comforted him with the important assertion 33 Gesta Francorum.37Celestial dwelling is every martyr's immediate recompense ("mercedem habeatis in caelum"). so did the heavenly population of martyrs. Psalms is clearly the source in the Hebrew accounts. . p. A fully awake priest was attacked while celebrating Mass.

and I shall appear and offer better counsel than I did in life. 96. Ralph of Caen. 3:68081.. Already in Rev. Karl Breul (Cambridge. p. p. 200. 46 Raymond of Aguilers. Muller. PL 44:931)."46 39 Raymond of Aguilers.44Arnulf of Chocques's version of Anselm's vision included in the dazzling palace individuals beautiful beyond recognition. 44 According to Cyprian's On Morality 26 (third century). 85. brothers. pp. Inter alia. See also p. 118: "clericus ante me albis vestibus indutus" ("a clerk before me dressed in white garments"). 66-82. 17. 59. not an impossible reading. pp. The term candidati also means "radiant. Eng. 1891). we came to God. 1843). Commentatio de locis quibusdam Epistolae Pauli ad Philippenses (Hamburg."43 Besides a lavish life in heaven and a dazzling physiognomy. 108-9. Gesta Tancredi. pp. Medieval Faith. Heriger. 1. and p. Jonathan Riley-Smith suggests the man to be the knight Enguerrand of Saint Pol: The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading (Philadelphia. Gesta Francorum. p. 118. Peter: The Cambridge Songs: A Goliard's Song Book of the XIth Century. One of them identified himself and the rest as former crusaders. three further inducements are said to have driven crusaders to strive for paradise.21-22). RHC Oc. those who passed through great ordeals "washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. 108-9.40 where they were dressed in white ("candidati")41 and were wined and dined. Eng. In this state and garb. A great number of those who are dear to us are expecting us there. 69. "Mihi enim 41 40 . If it is to be life in the flesh. Peter the Apostle revealed to him the reason for their bodily appearance and the transformation that awaits martyrs in heaven: "'We chose this habit for our appearance so that you may recognize the great profits for God's devoted servant. 43 Raymond of Aguilers. I and all departed brothers shall live with them.. p.. The Gesta uses "alba" and "albos" to denote the color white. "I shall be more useful in death than in life" is reminiscent of Paul's dilemma in his letter to the Christians at Philippi: "For to me to live is Christ. ed. that we may hail our relatives. p. 69: "duo viri astiterunt in veste clarissima" ("two men clad in brilliant clothes"). because he is "far more useful in death than in life. trans. 1915). For the play on words Christos and Chrestos (useful) see C. p.Martyrs' Heaven 319 that those who fall in the service of Christ never die. 108-9. He also revealed to Anselm that a much more splendid mansion was in preparation for him in heaven. Christians embrace death so that they "may see our [heavenly] fatherland. the would-be martyrs joined their martyred friends and put on white robes: The Passion of S.42While appearing before Peter Bartholomew. 45 See again Raymond of Aguilers..45The deceased Adhemar appeared to Peter Bartholomew in Raymond's chapel to give instructions about the election of his replacement. A good reason for finding joy in martyrdom was the belief in reunion with relatives. now crowned martyrs. Alberto Giglioli. and behold us now. A dense and abundant crowd of parents. was none other than St. p. pp. MacCulloch.. despite his yearning to be with Christ. 1986). 40. 7. Yet which I shall choose I cannot tell" (Phil. Perpetua.' After saying these things Peter and Andrew became brighter and more beautiful. J. Adhemar affirms his usefulness as a form of his leadership from above. 3:215. the cook. and sons are longing for us" (quoted by Augustine in The Predestination of the Saints. p. Armitage Robinson (Cambridge. as I shall show." 42 According to the eleventh-century archbishop of Mainz.. Historia peregrinorum. and to die is gain. just as you see us." which is. In Saturus's vision. and brothers in arms. Raymond of Aguilers narrates.39In heaven the martyred crusaders were believed to dwell in palaces or chambers surrounded by unimaginable magnificence and brilliance. Paul put off his martyrdom to continue his leadership as the announcer of the Gospel. RHC Oc. friends.. he advised the crusaders not to mourn for his death. that means fruitful labor for me.14-17. Raymond of Aguilers.

p." 50"Letter of Daimbert of Pisa. endeavoring to die a blessed death and thus enjoy rest with Christ. "multi itaque in hac nostra peregrinatione zelo Dei efferventes et vitam suam breviari optantes. prol." in Annali genovesi di Caffaro e de' suoi continuatori. ed. Sts. modeled in part after the early passions. 119-21. from the Land of Israel to the Pope. martyrdom earned crusaders an exclusive place in the divine ranking with saints and past heroes in whose footsteps they followed. informing him that Adhemar now resided in the heavenly hosts of his saintly companion."52The knight Arvedus Tudebodus relished the same fate: "he left the world. for hesitating to believe in the lance. with me today you. 1: 10991293. 21. 184-88. . and the Maccabees. The Franks' altruism equaled the Maccabees' for Fulcher of Chartres. too. 2 (Paris.179-82."47 lieved that angels received those who perished in Antioch in 1097 and sited them in heaven with the Maccabees. Prayers were offered that God would allow all Christians-all bishops. II ierent tot mi fil. not only to provide a dwelling place for the spirit of Christ in them." 53Peter Tudebode. portrayed them as perishing in the same painful ways as the Maccabean martyrs. Tu soies hui cest jor avoec moi corones": La chanson d'Antioche. Among them we find Abraham the Patriarch (discussed below. they will be my children. followed by Arthur J.10. p. 97. will soon be crowned.48 St. In similar ways The pilgrim Caffaro be"many thousands met the death of a blessed martyr. makes this notion the promise of Jesus himself." in Hagenmeyer. p. L. 1991). 48 "De liberatione civitatum liber. 11617: "Ego sum in uno choro cum beato Nicholao. who were seen as the perfect combatant martyrs. "they will serve me as if I had begat them. is the offer to all Christians to be next to (or in) God and enjoy the vision of him. however. 52 Fulcher of Chartres.. La chanson d'Antioche. Die Kreuzzugsbriefe. and monks "who are leading devout lives. 47 Fulcher of Chartres.49 The strongest motivation. 1976). ."51For Fulcher of Chartres. living now in Christ. g'iere lor avoues. Tabor. ed. and Raymond of Saint Gilles. 305-15. Godfrey of Bouillon.320 Martyrs' Heaven Second. George and Michael. 2.27. 173. 103. their heritage will be in celestial Paradise. martyrs could gain eternal life in him. 49 After spending time in hell. and in Raymond of Aguilers. The crusaders' epic. 1 (Paris. Belgrano (Rome. 1978). Not only will crusaders regain the land and free the country. and all the laity-to sit down at the right hand of God (ut ille uos ad dexteram Dei considere faciat)." Revista biblica 16 (1968). see also L'echelle des morts in vol. these seats are located at the right hand of God. Raymond of Aguilers. A Noble Death: Suicide and Martyrdom among Christians and Jews in Antiquity (San Francisco. pp. 1890).Descriptions of the crusaders' death. Nicholas and the departed Bishop Adhemar revealed themselves to the priest Peter Desiderius. pp. beato fine defungi et cum Christo frui quiete studuerunt. 53. During the crusades these three incentives were no trivial prizes. 9. clerks. Through dying for God. T. Voluntary vivere Christus est: Congeturra al texto de Phil. but also to inhabit themselves in Christ. that I promise. "50 Martyrdom thus offered both the religious and the laity heavenly seats. Suzanne DuparcQuioc. 1. As already seen. p.."53The militant ambience required the benevolent believers. Droge and James D. in a wider context). also in Guibert of Nogent's version of Urban's speech. En paradis celestre sera lor iretes. pp. many who "burned with zeal for God chose to sacrifice this life. 51 "Ausi me serviront com ses aie engenres. 3-4.

Isaac. and thus. he is the martyrs' heavenly gathering place. Urban himself is said to have authorized this belief. the glorious reward of martyrdom." Since Lazarus is not a martyr. for whom they had so loyally suffered in the reign of our Lord Jesus Christ": Peter Tudebode. made possible by the mediation of Abraham in heaven. 4: "Those who would not renounce God were killed. Then Rainald with clasped hands prostrated himself in prayer toward the East. fell asleep in the Lord. .55Emir Yaghi Siyan is said to have employed tactics of persuasion. wearing in heaven their white stoles before the Lord (portantes in celum candidas stolas ante Dominum). "the angels immediately received his soul with joy and singing of Psalms in the sight of God. like the rich man.22 shows that initially Abraham's bosom was not reserved only for martyrs. 3-4. As seen.22. 35. on the feast of St. Lazarus "died and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom. Although he did not die a martyr's death. pp.' And the emir with pleasure conceded. 55 In Luke 16."57Two elements are clearly intended to be emphasized in the story: the voluntary nature of Rainald's behavior and his being motivated by heavenly rewards. . Rainald achieved his heavenly rewards instantly. bishop of Le Puy. The Gesta Francorum omits the dialogue between Rainald and the emir. who escape the physical suffering in which others. resting in peace. although the example of Lazarus in Luke 16. Being in the sight of God constituted Rainald's ultimate goal. in sancti Petri a Vinculis Sollempnitate)." As a result Rainald was beheaded. The captured hero preferred the company of martyred friends and biblical protagonists over the companionship of Muslims. "who by God's will fell mortally ill and by God's nod.58 Self-designed martyrdom for the purpose of being with friends and angels around the Divine in paradise surfaces also in Fulcher of Chartres's account. stirred by a pagan's blasphemous provocation.54 The three mentioned reasons for martyrdom come into play in the story of Rainald Porchet and his polemical dialogue with Emir Yaghi Siyan. . that is. and so they all entered martyrdom on this day. he narrates how a zealous knight. await the resurrection. p. 116. Rainald replied: "'Give me time so I can consider it. in the bosom of Abraham. pp."56 Like Lazarus. the same terminology indicates the reward of Adhemar. humbly he beseeched God to come to his aid and that his soul be received with dignity in the bosom of Abraham (suamque animam in sinu Abrahe dignanter suscipiat). Rainald instead preferred a celestial resting place "in the bosom of Abraham. 56 "Their voices resounded in heaven to God for whose love their flesh and bones were cremated. Borrowing elements from Jesus' own final hour. making it possible for the crusaders to "retain now and forever . in comparison with which the profane incentives offered by Yaghi Siyan pale. Peter in Chains (in Abrahe videlicet sinu et Isaac et Iacob. Abraham's bosom indicates a special interim situation for the righteous. 57 58 Seen. is not just a member of the celestial upper echelon. but even a better one. Abraham. from whose love he had undertaken martyrdom (pro cuius amore martyrium suscepit)." See also Peter Tudebode. and Jacob. offering Rainald not only life. p. however. 79-81. who was immediately carried away by the angels into Abraham's bosom.Martyrs' Heaven 321 death for Christianity was a choice of imprisoned crusaders who rejected Islam. His most happy soul rejoiced with the angels": Peter Tudebode. 20 above. invited his fellow crusaders at 54 Gesta Francorum p." In response to the emir's offer.

and so they are a rear guard as well as protectionin case of retreat. They were able to complete their astonishing self-immolations because Jesus' spirit had dwelled in their temporal bodies.322 Martyrs' Heaven Antioch to join him in paradise. offered to its dwellers according to their merit and 59"..I may say. 113-14. an eternal dwelling.. [P]ropterea laetamini caeli et qui habitatis in eis. I am in them and they are in me.64]."59The knight "died joyfully. he called from his horse: "If any of you wishes to sup in paradise. [I]am iam enim abibo. Historia Hierosolymitana 2... nunc mecum veniat et mecum prandeat. not even the cross. for I am about to go there.. pp. was only a foretaste of what awaited him in heaven. The knight initiated his voluntary death with a declaration at an imaginary dining table.. Suffice it here to stress their major relevant characteristics.They resemblethe apostles. They died for me as I died for them.e. [P]rope autem erat qui eum audiebat et donativum ei pensabat et sedem perennem parabat": Fulcher of Chartres... This heavenly order is perhaps best recapitulated by Raymond of Aguilers in his story of Peter Bartholomew's encounter with Jesus.fearingnot swords and lances.. the crusaders] placedin fiveorders. The "Lord himself" is said to have revealed martyrs' recompense in a hierarchical heaven: are Do you see my fivewounds?Likethese. Raymond focuses here on the benefits of death for the crusaders and thus provides no detail on the fate of the former. Visions praised the beauty and splendor of heaven. Martyrs' recompense is their superior heavenly status in the company of saints. Their visions are too numerous to be included in this article.Those in this order resembleme. surpassing even the apostles.who followed and sharedfood with me.60 Crusaders sacrificed themselves for Jesus and Jerusalem. and last. The divine place that was initially reserved for Jesus alone was now shared with crusaders.while my the they beattheirbreastsproclaiming injusticeagainstme..26. let him now come and eat with me.you [i.27.They providing remindme of those who watchedme hangingon the cross suffering passion.Upon their deaththey are seatedon God'sright. 60 Raymond of Aguilers. to themwith suchthingsas stonesandjavelins.. Trying to convince others to follow. Togetherin fact we dwell one in the other. relatives. His "last supper" on earth. like Jesus who had sacrificed himself for them in Jerusalem. si quis vestrum in Paradiso cenare desiderat.11-13.the placewhereI sat aftermy resurrection ascensioninto and of heaven[Matt." glorified in heaven while still lying on the ground. "Therefore heaven and those in it celebrate. clubs and sticks. The thirdorderis of those who minister the former. therefore. . Thereafter. The secondorderis of those who areassistants the former.." transporting him to a world of joy in the companionship of angels around God." The battle scene turned into his "last supper. Peter. The fourth and fifth ranks are of those who did not take up the cross and displayed cowardice. The first orderis of those who fear not swords or any kind of torment. Employment of such images culminated in the visions of twelfth. and the other apostles. Jesus and they would become one celestial body on God's right. and brothers in arms around the visible God.and thirteenthcentury mystics. For he was near one who heard him and rewarded him with the gift which he had arranged. Martyrs thus are at the top of the divine hierarchy. I came into Jerusalem. Andrew.

Petroff. ed.3.. in Corpus Christianorum. discussion in McDannell and Lang. monks and widows. 150. 14. once more. p. Carnandet (Paris. p. the apostles. or The Flowing Light of the Godhead. their Jewish contemporaries are far less explicit. 7:168. 66 Petroff. 165. seated on a divine throne.Martyrs' Heaven 323 rank ("secundum ordinem suum"). your redemption." Thereafter the hierarchy of heaven was revealed to Elisabeth. Visionary Literature. now including silk and white shoes. they will be the most splendid in my sight. esp. pp. Visionary Literature. Fathers of the Church 58 (Washington. and see bibliography there. see the dead Roger in his heavenly chapel "shining brilliantly": Petroff. p. L. Heaven. trans. p. 73. and twenty-four elders seated and falling to worship before the throne of Him who lives forever. the reward of sitting with one's relatives and the martyrs' golden seats paled into relative insignificance beside the bliss of the visio Dei. which obviously reflects the interpretation of medieval life.63In the hierarchy of heaven. pp. 62 Gregory of Nyssa. the confessors and the virgins. McDannell and Lang. Scivias 3. Virginia Woods Callahan. Ascetical Works. God's holy ministers rejoicing and uttering benedictions in perfect praise of the Lord. 43:371. J. Mechthild of Magdeburg included in her vision multiple heavens and "nine choirs. "who are all crowned and robed in festal garments. the renowned queen of heaven crowned with the purest gold and cloaked in bright colors. sharing a single substance and power.. 1953)."62 but also the martyrs themselves shine in heaven. p. 74-77." which are sent in order "to confirm the faith of Christendom. St. Theodora.C. Note also the cross "much brighter than the sun" emanating from Jesus' head in a priest's vision at Antioch: Raymond of Aguilers. OLAM HA-BA AND GAN EDEN In contrast to the early Christian depictions of martyrs in paradise." 67 The Revelations of Mechthild of Magdeburg (1210-1297). Visionary Literature.64 A divine voice assured the German mystic Elisabeth of Schonau (c. "in the choir of the cherubim. 63 Christina of Markyate. Rather than strictly indicating a place. The visions of Perpetua include a similar but embryonic depiction of martyrs in the divine "garden."66 Similarly. 165. p. And in the center of the throne and around it you beheld the mysteries of God. on the right of that same throne." are reserved for the martyrs.1.. and holy women. the message of the divine voice reads like a standard medieval mystical text: "In your vision you have seen what seemed to be three figures in a single essence. 64 Hildegard of Bingen. "the citizens of heaven" receive their special garments. Seeing. On the left you saw the holy rood."67In these descriptions. 1967). has her heroine. for instance. 79. the three uppermost levels. 64-66. 1157) that "those who have toiled the most. 3. Heaven. D. also called Christina." In the second heaven. Continuatio Mediaeualis. trans. And you saw also the holy apostles. you saw in that same vision that I speak of. 1866). 61 An . 65 Quoted from Petroff. thrones and palaces based on their merit in life. the anonymous description of Gerardesca's contemplation in Acta sanctorum."65 The divine voice tells her that "it is proper and necessary to reveal such visions.61Not only the relics of martyrs radiate "as happens when the sun is reflected on a bright mirror. Visionary Literature. the martyrs. At this point. 78 n.. Menzies (London.

346-89. 68 This . pp.39: trans. A good summary is provided by Abraham Cohen. B. 22.. (New York. On top are the students of the Torah. works such as Tanhuma and Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer still viewed the world to come as a posthistoric phase in the eschatological worldly drama. chap.69 According to the second-century rabbinic exegesis Sifre Deuteronomy 356. even Moses could not tell what goodness the righteous would receive in the world to come. Leviticus Rabba 36. 1995). Jewish Views of the Afterlife (Northvale. it [i. esteemed there as here. trans. 1989). Ketubot lllb. Gerald Friedlander. The midrash Eleh Ezkerah about ten martyred rabbis makes inconsistent allusions to a "second world" (olam sheni). 1986)." we understand that the world to come connotes physical resurrection:Sifre: A Tannaitic Commentary on the Book of Deuteronomy. 121-30. 1981). Because of the importance of Torah study in the world to come (B. Everyman's Talmud (New York. Such descriptions suggest that the world to come is lived on earth.2 also affirms the terrestrial location of Olam ha-Ba. 24 on Deut.148b. Joseph. Berakhot 17a promised the righteous that they would "sit with crowns on their heads and enjoy the radiance of the Shekhinah (the presence of God). B... N. appears to allude to a new earthly social order (B. The Christian mystics examined in this paper also believed that God's presence can be experienced in this life. Townsend (Hoboken. pp. Shabbat 30b and B. no procreation or commerce. Missing in these descriptions of Gan Eden are specific references to martyrs. John T. the Torah] shall talk with you. "when thou walkest. His vision.324 Martyrs' Heaven world to come (Olam ha-Ba) in the Talmud (the body of exegetical material on Jewish law) frequently denotes a future time in which the righteous or Israel reigns supreme. Yale Judaica Series 24 (New Haven. Compare Matt." but this does not necessarily mean in heaven.4th ed. also B. no jealousy or enmity or rivalry-but the righteous sit with crowns on their heads and enjoy the radiance of the Shekhinah" (B. a name that recalls the primordial existence described in Gen.68Talmudic discourse associates the world to come with the eschatological drama and the Messianic era-which is also the time of the dead's physical resurrection. and draw from it enough wine to fill a large flagon. Vayikra 8. the scholastic abilities of talmudic martyrs position them above all others in R. Megillah 28b). and Simcha Paull Raphael. Berakhot 64a. It also refers to the "academy on high" (yeshivah shel discussion by no means exhausts this complex talmudic subject. Joshua b. Pirkei deRabbi Eliezer. however. Joseph's vision..74b.J. Talmudic discussions regarding the geographic location of Gan Eden (B. N. Commentary on this miraculous existence often locates the world to come within the terrestrial realm and featuring terrestrial bounty: "In the world to come a person will bring a single grape in a wagon or a ship. By the ninth century.e. Levi. and its stalk will be used as fuel under the pot. Reeh 4: Midrash Tanhuma. Baba Bathra 75b and 84a) allude to its temporal and Messianic nature. 69But on the other hand. Ta'anit 64a). Conn. 71 Tanhuma.70 In the world to come there appears to be a reversal of roles according to R. Berakhot 17a). "In the world to come there is no eating or drinking.71 Another reference to the place of happiness at the end of days is to Gan Eden. 2. trans.J. B. the son of R. B.30. Reuven Hammer. There will not be a grape which will not yield thirty measures of wine" (B. 1994). who envisioned such an order while in a coma.8 and 3. Erubin 19a. Pesahim 50a). Tamid 32b. store it in the corner of his house. But hints of a somewhat different world to come appear in Tanhuma.23-24 and that is synonymous with complete delight. 70 From Sifre Deuteronomy 34. 32.

2." Recall that Adhemar "fell asleep in the Lord (obdormivit in Domino). 72. 31. the martyrs' world to come represents a vibrant heavenly dwelling place.67. some Christian motifs had already been internalized before 1096 and. 58. 74 Redumim. The only benefits ascribed to his death are the avoidance of transgression and maintenance of purity. Although held as one of the most pious rabbis of his generation. While this academy appears as the destiny of every righteous scholar of the Torah. All the midrash says is that his "soul has departed in purity. Eidelberg. even he could not know "in which way I am about to walk" after his execution. 31. 55. p. Abraham admonished: "We ought not question [the destiny of] the dead (redumim). Note that no description of heaven follows the executions of the rabbinic martyrs in the Talmud or of the seven sons in Second Maccabees. p. that is. ed.72 In sharp contrast." Many thanks to Ivan G. "From After Death to Afterlife. After graphically describing the brutal massacres by the crusaders. 68. there is no indication that martyrdom itself guarantees a place in it. but only Akiva's activity as an expounder of the Torah in the yeshivah is described. n. a contemporary liturgical poem by a certain R. n. p. Hanina to his disciples. Chazan. No references to an afterlife follow the executions of most of the rabbis in the story. 291 (see above. Regardless of status or erudition.72. Once again. p. 1967). Akiva and R. the Hebrew sources that succeeded the First Crusade provide detailed descriptions of a heavenly world to come (Olam ha-Ba) or paradise (Gan Eden). 2.68. Nor does the story provide information about his posthumous fate." above. martyrs' reward came automatically. 2. this notion nicely concurs with the phrase "Abraham's bosom. "Everyone who has been killed and slaughtered and died for the sanctification of his Name is destined to the world to come. Adolf Jellinek (Jerusalem. p. 1). literally "the sleeping ones. Those who gave up their lives in defense of their conviction gained the bliss of the world to come "in n brief moment. the final resting place of the martyr."75 Like the Latin sources. 2. That martyrdom did not secure or carry a reward after death is clear from the answer of the ascetic R. but as living and transported to eternal and incorruptible life")." indicating their interim situation between slaughter and return to life. the Hebrew accounts popularize the living society of heaven. As Marcus has suggested to me. Marcus for his suggestion that I consider the references to the "academy on high" and for his remarks on Abraham's bosom in tractate Semahot 8 and on Saul Lieberman's article. 76 Gezerot."73Strikingly similar to Emperor Alexius's statement in his letter to the abbot of Monte Cassino ("we ought not at all consider them as dead. cited in n. which martyrdom alone could unlock. p. See again Shepkaru. in Bet ha-Midrash. Eidelberg. Shimon ben Gamliel are mentioned in relation to the academy on high.Martyrs' Heaven 325 ma'alah). Eleazar ben Shammua."76 "Everyone" meant everyone: men 72 Midrash Eleh Ezkerah. in the bosom of Abraham. 62. including that of R. 75 Gezerot.71. ." In fact.74for they have been destined and bonded for everlasting life. 73Gezerot. were intensified and reinforced thereafter. 254. 65. 2. No more an obscure talmudic phrase. the Hebrew sources elevate their martyrs to the serene realm of the world to come. Chazan.71. only the names of R. as my article demonstrates. 104 below. who described the academy on high. p.

35.326 Martyrs' Heaven of all ranks. 268. 55. "Those killed for the unification of his holy Name. 97. In respect to women in paradise. p. Eidelberg. Eidelberg. But. p.. If you kill me.' These saintly ones desired to sanctify the revered and awesome Name with joy and cheer. Chazan. Eidelberg. 31. .79Even after undergoing painful death. Eidelberg.11)."80 As in the polemical speeches attributed to martyred crusaders who made rewards and vengeance their goals. rabbis and laymen. 78 See below. 260. Chazan.. and their souls in Gan Eden. p. At this moment Gehenna and Gan Eden are open. in the great luminous speculum eternally. Into which of them do you wish to enter now?' They answered and said to him: 'We wish to enter Gan Eden. martyrs still "remain alive. . p. Eidelberg."83 Biblical verses embellish this popular medieval connection between martyrs' compensation and voluntary death: "'How abundant is the good that you have in store for those who fear you. p. Christian martyrs are said to have echoed the same condemnations. 37. the Most High. 31. Chazan.. 12.82 As in the Latin accounts. both materialistic and spiritual elements provided reasons for confidence with respect to the world to come. in the light of life. 44. "a world full of bounty. p. 52. including converts. p. 287. p. 79 As seen.77slaves and maidens. In him have I trusted to this very day and so I shall do until my soul departs. our souls in Gan Eden. 40. 329. bound in the bond of life": Gezerot. who dwells in the highest of heaven. as seen. the Jewish author assigned his actors rewards because of their desire to be sacrificed for God. p. 61. that you do for those who take refuge in you (Ps. 81 Gezerot. B. 80Gezerot. 83Gezerot. while the Latin sources ascribed rewards to crusaders for their wish to be sacrificed like God."81 The language and the notion are biblical.20). Chazan. 38.. p. the Hebrew accounts of the First Crusade seem to be innovative as well.24." At the same time he promised his enemies that "you will descend to 'the nethermost pit (Ps. Helbo "called to his sons and said to them: 'My sons. But despite such overtones. Descriptions of women in heaven in the First Crusade accounts deserve more attention. Chava Weissler attributes women's appearance in paradise to a later period: "Women in Paradise. 31. David the gabbai (i. 82 Although relying on Jewish sources. 253-54..' They shall forever exult. 84 Gezerot. such declarations in the Latin accounts represent the general attitude of the period toward the "impious opponent. p. 43-46.. "84 "Those who take refuge in you" indeed echoes the theme of imitatio Christi. p. 65." See n. 36. For example. p. Martyrdom offered life in a heavenly world full of all the riches of this world. p. 291. p. I know the truth.78 Through their sacrifices they all attained the heavenly world to come. p. are destined for the world to come.'" Thereafter. Eidelberg. Although the Hebrew sources speak collectively of the generation of 1096 as 77 Moses ben R. Berakhot 28b)' to 'everlasting abhorrence (Dan. a repeated motif in these sources. where they were said to go on living. He tells the crusaders his belief "in an everlasting living God." Tikkun 2/2 (1987). Helbo and Simon. pp. Chazan. radiance for the upright (Ps. Chazan.3). my soul will be placed in Gan Eden. 29 above.e.p. women and children. 55.' In Gehenna you are condemned with your deity. 'Light is sown for the righteous. p. they were believed to exist "in the light of life": Gezerot. a synagogue leader) had expressed similar aims before the crusaders fell upon him in Mainz. Women almost find themselves on an equal footing in paradise. 262.

25. Again. In reassuring his readers that all martyrs "are destined for the life of the world to come. 74. 88 Gezerot. In particular. 40-41. pp. Eidelberg. the parnas (i.p. a community leader). one of precious stones and pearls and one of fine gold.n. See also below. 283. pp. These martyrs' "materialistic" rewards draw on general imagery and expressions found already in nonmartyrological legal and midrashic material. although the theological reasoning differs. these interrelated rewards surface as the martyrs' motivation for their altruistic acts. 244. p.three more types of reward appear to be of great importance in the sources. 82. Chazan.88 In the heavenly palace each newcomer is dressed in the eight vestments of clouds of glory.Martyrs' Heaven 327 the generation that "had been chosen to be his portion. .93Joining the victims in heaven was also the aspiration of the author of the report. 22. 33. 87 Gezerot. Driven by his guilty conscience. . . Joining deceased friends and family appears to be of great importance to the martyrs. 91Gezerot."89 Each of the medieval martyrs is told in heaven: "Go eat your bread happily.7. p. Buttheyareused in the medievaltexts to conveythe rewardsof martyrdom to correspond with the symbolsand and writingstyle of the period. martyrdom precedes rewards that only heaven could make possible. 58. Chazan. 'He who loses his life for my sake will find it (Matt.They receivethe forgiveness theirsins as completely if they had beencleansedby the water of baptism. p. 37-38.. p. p. 32. 48-49. 87. They are the same three inducements as in Latin descriptions. Chazan. 263.pp. the narratives counseled. slaughtered his children and burned himself to repent for his betrayal.. p. where they continue to live harmonious lives. Entire communities in fact will reunite in the heavenly world to come.p. which also made him an equal in the parallel community of Jewish martyrs in heaven. 109. Martyrdom.94 Another reason for elation was the unification with biblical. Eidelberg. 92 Gezerot. Eidelberg. In 1096 these images were applied to reward martyrs individually with luxury suitable for Europe's monarchs. Isaac the son of David.87golden necklaces adorn their necks."90 In addition to this personal extravagance. 257.p. Eidelberg. pp. 50. 56-57. 89 Gezerot. Eidelberg."85 they emphasize their protagonists' personal heavenly reward. 90Gezerot. tal85 Gezerot. After surviving the massacre in Mainz by conversion. Maccabean. Eidelberg. "maybe he will do according to his benevolence and I shall still join my comrades and come with them to their circle. p.this is not to say that suchimagescannotbe foundin earlyJewishtexts. he hoped that because of his offerings. "crowned with two crowns. 281-82. 82. 94 Gezerot. 86 p." he himself hoped to have his portion with them."91 A certain convert asked Rabbi Moses the Cohen: "What will be my fate if I slaughter myself for the unity of his great Name?" His answer could not have been more comforting: "You shall sit with us in our circle.p. Often. 16.86A golden throne awaits them in heavenly palaces.p.25)'": The Cityof God 8.pp. Chazan. 93Reminiscent Augustine's "I of views on martyrdom: havein mindthose unbaptized personswho of as died confessingthe nameof Christ. reunites loved ones in heaven. Chazan. On each head a golden crown with precious stones and pearls is placed. to the great light."92 Through voluntary death the convert was believed to obtain his final social and religious recognition.e.p.

"Lord. p.101 Psalms were also the songs that martyrs like Rainald heard upon entering heaven. 149.328 Martyrs' Heaven mudic.. n. 40-41. her place in heaven was unquestionable. 54. . Jewish martyrs were believed to receive their rewards instantly. p. "The Legend of the Ten Martyrs and Its Apocalyptic Origins. Judah ben R."98 Through voluntary death it was believed they would "come this day among the saintly and be in their circle. Thereafter he slaughtered his son as well. The pious Judah said to her: 'My daughter. Michael. who shall dwell in thy tabernacle?" may suggest that heaven was also Judah's reward. Blood and Defamation: From Jewish Martyrdom to Blood Libel Accusations. p. 31 and 39. 264." Jewish Quarterly Review 36 (1945-46). Shmuel the bridegroom and Yehiel the saintly are said to have declared: "Better for us to die here for his exalted Name and we shall stroll with the saintly ones in Gan Eden. 1-16. Abraham remains unclear. Chazan. p. 44 n. 96 Referring to the martyred rabbis in the Talmud. Eidelberg. 36. 51. 45. p. 102 In his Hebrew article." it should be recalled. Abraham.. 101 Above. "Vengeance and Damnation. p. indicated heavenly reward for the living martyrs in Emperor Alexius's epistle to the abbot of Monte Cassino. the young Sarit attempted to escape the horrifying scene. After watching the mass self-killing of three hundred Cologne Jews. Gezerot. would not let fear stand in the way of her religious loyalty.'96 who were killed [by the Romans] for his Name. See Solomon Zeitlin. 47. 60. but his heroism earned him more. however. pp."100The fate of Judah ben R. Eidelberg. Reenacting in fact the Akedah story (the binding of Isaac). p.1). Her fiance's father. . pp. is not only a dweller but also the heavenly dwelling place. pp. Eidelberg. 279.97After failing to drown themselves in the Rhine in order to prevent forced conversion. later transformed into the story of the Ten Martyrs. 100 Gezerot. Isaac the son of David desired to reach the circle of his friends in heaven. Akiva and his associates. 276. R. in the author's view: "His soul is hidden in the portion of the saintly in Gan Eden. 51. What is clear is that both Peter Tudebode and the author of this account utilized the Psalm of David to ornament their stories about their martyrs in the "bosom of Abraham. and cut her with his sharp sword into two pieces. Despite her initial reluctance to join the mass sacrifices. for in one moment you shall acquire your future and shall enter the circle (mehitzah) of the saintly and pious. R. come and lie in the bosom of Abraham our ancestor. 99Echoing Akiva. her father-in-law. p."99As in the Latin narratives. 285. Chazan. Chazan."102 95Gezerot. Israel Jacob Yuval points to the . 98 Gezerot. As in Peter Tudebode's story about Rainald. pp. Eidelberg. 31 and 43. 'the pillars of the universe. Abraham the Patriarch represents another important dweller in the world to come. "[s]eized her and held her outside the window and kissed her on the mouth and raised his voice in weeping along with the lass. and more recent martyrs and heroes. p. The concluding Psalm of David (15. 254. Chazan.. p. p. "Tabernacle. 37-38." Zion 58 (1993).' He took her and placed her in the bosom of his son Abraham. Eidelberg. 97 Gezerot. her betrothed. and Azaria."95 The Jews of Mainz are said to have promised that each martyr "will sit in the circle of the righteous. Chazan. Abraham's bosom denotes the martyrs' immediate reward in heaven.." Others are said to have joined the three biblical models Hanania.. Abraham.

her delivery of Isaac late in life (like Sarah). the rabbi assured him that through voluntary death: "You shall sit with us in our circle.25. Chazan. p. and trans. p. 5 and 443-45. "knew too well that those who died for the sake of God live with God as do Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the patriarchs. Isaac of Worms and his wife Zipporah. 1). ed. with its reference to Abraham's bosom. p. The late tractate Semahot (Mourning) has "in the bosom of the righteous" when describing the dialogue between Rabban Simeon and Rabbi Ishmael before their execution: trans. pp. p. . 1953). 283. "The Martyrs of Caesarea. 1977). . 96. See also n. Meshullam ben R. has: "while you are in the bosom of Esau. God himself "will take him as his portion and place him (ve-yoshivo) in the bosom of Abraham. Vt.8. however." in Juden und Christen zur Zeit der Kreuzziige (above. The Last Trial: The Akedah." pp. 1993)." Annuaire de l'Institut de philologie et d'histoire orientales et slaves 7 (1939-44). 103-4. the seven sons. "The Bosom of Abraham" is the topic of an article of mine in progress. 104 Variations appear in some Hebrew sources. trans. While how the phrase came to be adopted deserves its own study. "Christliche Symbolike und judische Martyrologie zur Zeit der Kreuzziige. Pesiqta Rabbati. Abraham's bosom serves as the final heavenly resting place of their sacrificed son. In Pesikta Rabbati 43 the mother says to her young son: "O my son. while M. in contrast. with no connection to Jews. 8. 103 Gezerot. In the story of R. D. according to the author. dicentes . Judah Goldin (New York. and Jacob will receive us and all the patriarchs will praise us": The Third and Fourth Books of Maccabees. the Warsaw 1893 edition and the Friedmann edition are inadequate.. . Isaac. p. Chazan. 59. since the Gesta Treverorum attributes the phrase to Jewish martyrs' declarations ("Iudaei qui ibi habitabant . 105 Gezerot. and the father who "took in his hand the knife with which to slaughter his son" (Gen. Eidelberg. 230. Abraham's imagery is not just a convenient play on words. Moses Hadas (New York. 58. Abraham's role in the Hebrew texts is not surprising. the binding of their only son. Abraham. 1880). Given the importance of the Akedah in Judaism." In general."). For the role of the Akedah in Jewish martyrology see Shalom Spiegel's classic work.. Moreover." Immediately upon hearing this answer. presents the phrase as part of his speech and hope.105 phrase "Abraham's bosom" in the Gesta Treverorum. Zlotnick (New Haven. 8. and see the discussion by Saul Lieberman. xxxvii.104 Abraham represents also a more specific heavenly locality for the aforesaid Rabbi Moses the Cohen.19. 1966). for Abraham's bosom as the martyrs' resting place in heaven over other Jewish variations illustrates how the phrase from Luke 16. 22)." The martyrs themselves are said to have uttered similar statements: "When we have died in such fashion. she writes: "Friedmannfrequently emended the text based upon his own conjecture. 1967. Eidelberg.17."103 The phrase "in the bosom of Abraham" appears to blend in almost naturally with biblical motifs such as Zipporah's old age. Conn. n. 72 above. 417 n. 88 n. based on the editio princeps.. the exact wording combined with the same martyrological function of the phrase in both sets of sources exhibits a high level of acculturation. MGH SS 8:190. do you wish that in the time-to-come all your brothers be in the bosom of Abraham?" The phrase "the time-to-come" is missing in the Nushat Ha-Garaz edition. for you shall be a true convert and you shall sit with the rest of the saintly true converts in their circle. as Rivka Ulmer notes in her synoptic edition. p. and 16. 1 (Atlanta. See also idem. 13. In Fourth Maccabees 7. Replying to the inquiry of an anonymous convert to Judaism.Martyrs' Heaven 329 To be sure. 20-21. Rainald's story. Rainald's story. The crusaders' belief in everlasting life was reinforced by reports of Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy's posthumous visitations." See also Shepkaru.22 played a similar role in the Latin crusade narratives and in contemporary Hebrew narratives. p. p. Woodstock.. repr. the convert slaughtered himself. The Jewish preference. "From After Death to Afterlife. Friedmann's edition (Vienna. You shall be with Abraham our father who was the first of the converts. Isaac. 50. is more relevant to the phenomenon of parallel symbolism.

the Xanten community turns into the morning burnt offering. Eidelberg.."108 Finally. 286. The congregation has assembled for their last Sabbath meal. martyrs come into the king's chambers. The sitting on golden thrones in circles or sections points to a coordinated setting. p. 52. Moreover."seeing God. "shall be of that section (kat). 30.' Read not 'bounteous' (sova) but 'seven' (sheva). Bet ha-Midrash 3. p. N. the imagery of heaven in relation to voluntary death is well exemplified by the story of an anonymous leader and his followers in Xanten. is 106 In Jewish sources the image of seven heavens appears in the tenth-century legends about R. standing on his right.J. whose faces are comparable to the sun and the moon. 1987). By employing biblical verses. the following passage makes heavenly hierarchy evident. 156 n. 1994). Normally. 107 See Midrash Leviticus Rabba. Through a Speculum That Shines: Vision and Imagination in Medieval Jewish Mysticism (Princeton. where seats are reserved for them: Gezerot.2).11). Berakhot 51a). now understood literally. Zadikkim (righteous) are divided into seven sections in heaven and are seated on God's right. 97.' These saintly ones desired to sanctify the revered and awesome Name with joy and cheer. preferable to him more than the other. 33. 16. Christian and Jewish symbols are at work. They are destined to stand and sit in the shadow of the Holy One. Enjoying the divine vision constitutes the optimal fulfillment in this imagery. p. this world and the world to come" (B. assisted in establishing this notion of a direct divine vision based on merit. Wolfson. as is said: 'From his right [hand] a fiery law (Deut. . Levi's journey to heaven. A similar legend is found in B. Eidelberg.. martyrs are completely out of the picture. the table is transformed into an imaginary altar. designed to enable martyrs to achieve their highest individual reward. The difference between Xanten's narrative and B. p. into the seven sections.' Regarding them that verse states: 'In your presence is bounteous (sova) joy. See also E. Joshua b. delights are ever in your right [hand] (Ps. guarded by angels. Seven concealed palaces in heaven.106 Martyrs who stood the test like Abraham the Patriarch.94. Rabbi Moses the Cohen's answer suggests that more than one circle of saints existed in heaven. Chazan.. it is this goal that serves as the martyrs' third and most significant motivation for self-sacrifice. the grace after meals into their sacrificial benediction.107 These are the seven sections of the saintly ones. it was done with the talmudic tractate Berakhot 5b in mind. pp. Divine hierarchy surfaces in abundant references to heavenly circles and divisions. Kabbalah (New York. however. 88. Metaphorical biblical verses. blessed be he. 1967). . establishing a certain heavenly hierarchy. But "whoever says the benediction [in the grace after meals] over a full cup of wine will be granted a boundless inheritance and will be worthy to inherit two worlds. 16-17. ed." As in the Latin narratives. 61. In Eliezar bar Nathan's poem. The meal becomes the would-be martyrs' last supper. It reveals that "not everyone has the merit of two tables.. the employment of these symbols was not accidental. each [section] ranks above the other. radiance for the upright (Ps. it also enables them to participate in the supreme bliss-the divine vision. Not only does this hierarchy place the martyrs above all others in heaven." symbolizing this world (Olam ha-Zeh) and the world to come (Olam ha-Ba). .330 Martyrs' Heaven As shown below.11). Whether expressed by the anonymous leader or added by the narrator to embellish an actual event.marked by locations. Berakhot. are mentioned in Heikhalot Rabbati. . p. where no such similar divisions are mentioned. 189. Ketubot 77b. To be sure. Adolf Jellinek (Jerusalem. 108 Gezerot. 'Light is sown for the righteous. no humans are allowed in these palaces: Gershom Scholem. chap.

7. 1. and we shall see him eye to eye (ve nire'hu 'a 'yin be a 'yin). i. The association of voluntary death with the burnt offering points to the heavenly direction the martyrs of Xanten are about to take: The pious and loyal one. Let us cheer and gladden in his salvation' [Isa. so be it and so is his will. and each one of us shall point at him with his finger and say: 'Behold this is our God whom we hoped for.Martyrs' Heaven 331 critical. J.."p. .. God wills it'" ("tunc alta voce omnes simul Franci exclamaverunt: 'Deus hoc vult. 56-57.."109 The audience's reaction to the ardent speech of the anonymous leader who is transformed into "the priest higher than his brothers" is reminiscent in concept and language of the well-known reaction to the sermon of a more famous Christian priest higher than his brothers. Let each man slaughter on the Sabbath his son. s. and brother and give upon us this day a blessing . In some cases the requirement to give up life passively is applicable only when one is forced to transgress in public. ve-akh. I. for the enemy has come upon us today. When coerced by the oppressor to choose between life and death. in the shining speculum. Now let us rise up and ascend to the house of God and do the will of our Creator swiftly. 110 The Gesta Francorum mentions the arrival of the pontiff with his delegation. in this world of darkness. Gesta Francorum. "'Deus uult. to our Father in heaven. but not in private. (See also the articles cited in n. We shall exist in a world that is entirely light. the passage below refers to the heavenly Gan Eden. Eidelberg. "God wills it" was the crusaders' battle cry. with one mouth and one heart: 'Amen.17.6]. pp.' "110 Thereafter. pp. They all came happy and rejoicing before the exalted and sublime God.e. 281-82. p.. Da 'at Zekanim me-Ba'alei ha-Tosafot. For example. 9. Nufiez-Vaes (Livorno. in Gan Eden. 2 above. Deus uult. said to the congregation seated around his table: "Let us recite the grace to the living God. In reaction to Urban's speech and "the great reward" he had offered them for their suffering. 25. Ta'anit 31a]. under the Tree of Life. ed. "They [the Jews at Xanten] all replied loudly. Deus hoc vult' ": Fulcher of Chartres. for instance. daughter. B. As in the reports of Urban's address at Clermont.) These acts of ritualistic homicides during the crusades were usually performed to escape forced baptism.v. Although the exact numbers are unknown. At the battle of Antioch. the legalistic (halakhic) requirements of qiddush haShem. in his actual glory and greatness. Akiva and associates. 2. strongly condemned such acts to the point of calling them murder. as many rabbis and scholars have argued. we cannot rest and observe it properly. p. 7.. the halakhah describes qiddush haShem as a passive act. in the presence of ten Jews. like a hero eager to run his course' [Ps..9] to the Most High One.. on the altar of the Lord. These ritualistic homicides went beyond and even against. Chazan. 19."Theyall with one accordsaid they would follow in the footstepsof Christ. they represent an extreme and highly controversial form of martyrdom. Deus uult!'una uoce conclamant"). We shall be in the company of R. the priest higher than his brothers. including the priests ("presbiteris"). 48-49.5. Jews are required to let the oppressor destroy them rather than transgress.. Generally speaking.9. "They themselves became like the daily offering of the morning. as the 'whole burnt offering' [1 Sam. for here. While the Talmud alludes to a world to come lived on earth. to Gen. "The Franks altogether shouted in a loud voice: 'God wills it. We shall be seated there among 'the pillars of the universe' and shall dine in the company of the saintly in Gan Eden.. .5. 1783). With regard to such as them it is said: 'Like a groom coming forth from the chamber. We shall sit on a golden throne. There we shall observe our Sabbaths. So did they rejoice to run and enter into the innermost 109 Gezerot. pp. We ourselves shall offer the sacrifice of God. 1. continues the account. for the table is set before us instead of the altar.

Rabbi Moses added in the spirit of the period: "May the Merciful One avenge. and seeing God face to face are themes that had also marked the Latin narratives of the period. B.3 is used to stress the point that martyrs' ultimate reward is their direct vision of the Divine. 151. It could be thus another description of the end of days. 57.. pp. one of the talmudic opinions. both terrestrial and celestial hierarchies. Pertaining to them the prophet prophesied: 'No eye has seen [0] God except you who acts for him who waits for him' [Isa. Berakhot 10a: "As the Holy One. Eidelberg. are taken from the world of the twelfth century. except you . pp. 283. the martyrs. Chazan. 64. sees the works of his hands but they cannot see him. Other themes in the exchange between the Jews of Xanten and their leader further echo Pope Urban's speech. Finally. Chazan. The language is the language of the Bible and the Talmud. Eidelberg. "we shall see him eye to eye" is another addition of the twelfth-century Jewish author. 11 Gezerot. . the passage here ascribes heavenly reward to martyrs in return for their altruism. the function of Isa. . 64. The verse also distinguishes between the unknown Eden and what may appear to be a terrestrial garden."4 a "pontiff's" motivation speech. p. n. blessed be he. 32. This confirmation is reminiscent of Pope Urban's promise (in Robert the Monk's version) that martyrs who spill their blood in imitating their Lord will bring both salvation and damnation. p. 64. Staying close to the medieval text." It is the priest who confirms the dual benefit of martyrdom: salvation for the martyrs and damnation for their enemies. blessed be he. 112 Regarding B.3 unchanged and unpunctuated. 68). the author reveals only later the name of this "priest higher than his brothers. Although a priest (Cohen) often leads the grace after meals. pp. Raphael's comment is worth mentioning." This is. This passage does not make "reference to the dead in any way": Jewish Views (above. thy servant's blood that is spilt and that will yet be spilt. In the medieval syntax this verse could easily be read." His name was Rabbi Moses. where the verse stresses that the world to come is a conundrum known only to God." See also the midrash to Ps."111 Although drawing on obscure talmudic descriptions of the messianic era. in the lifetime of those who will survive us and before their very eyes."15 To be sure.332 Martyrs' Heaven chamber of Gan Eden. 56-57. 11 Gezerot. Eidelberg. of course. The images. the rabbi's call for sacrifices "on the altar of the Lord" also echoes the story of the anonymous Christian priest whom the Muslims killed "upon the altar" at the moment of celebrating Mass. n. other Latin literary narratives inspired the story of Xanten. Berakhot 34b. The salvation of the martyr and the triumph of the messiah that follow the last supper motif. For Robert the Monk. And finally the association of martyrdom with the last supper. 50. Berakhot 34b]. "No eye has seen God. 64. 49. J13 In contrast. First. p. p. see above. Second. B. Departing from the grace after meals. sees but cannot be seen. 48-49. 114 For messianic expectation and revenge as the conclusion of the story. . p. Chazan. see specially Gezerot. 282. 103.'13 Isa. Ta'anit 31a. 58. Although the Hebrew depiction recalls the priest's sacrificial duties in the Temple. I have deliberately left Isa. however. 281-82.'12the ending of this medieval version reveals an essential departure from the Talmud. p. "a priest of the Most High God. p. it is likely that in the interest of creating a Jewish version of the pope's speech.1 (217a): "The Holy One." that is.3 is completely antithetical to that in B.3.

Bet ha-Midrash (above. Philadelphia. 1967-69). Courts. Otsar Midrashim. 1954). Shabbat 152a relates. 183. Martyrs dominate also the heaven of Immanuel ben Solomon of Rome (c. 2.67a). both mystical and historical Latin writings of the 116 117 Above. the adaptation of the idea from Sifre Deuteronomy is not surprising. 119Immanuel Ha-Romi. integral part of heaven in both Jewish and Christian commentaries by the thirteenth century. Tabernacle. 59. As these nonmartyrological texts demonstrate. is made to a celestial location: B. CONCLUSION The sources presented here exhibit several important parallels." Interesting to note. The Legends of the Jews (1909-38. 2:511-54. and that is followed in the midrash to Ps. "In their midst sits the Holy One.116 onstrates how old and new. Holy Hill. These sections.n.118In the center the text places "the realm of the ten martyred by the Romans.7 (51a). Hagigah 14a. the first-century R. 1:19-20. who are believed to be the forerunners of rabbinic Judaism. repr. n. 118 . Given the historical background. The mystical work Masekhet (also known as Seder) Gan Eden117divides heaven into realms around God. 11. ed. also mentioned in the Hebrew accounts of the First Crusade as a source of inspiration for their drowned heroes. (New York. p. Another version in the thirteenth-century anthology Yalkut Shimoni also divides paradise into sections. They are Presence. medieval Jewish martyrs could outclass even famous rabbinic figures. alluding to the four hundred youths who drowned themselves rather than let the Romans use them for immoral purposes (B. in Mahbarot Immanuel Ha-Romi (Jerusalem. First Crusade martyrological imagery had become a coherent. and Holy Place (10. More generally. Christian and Jewish. blessed be he. Judah David Eisenstein. 2 vols. 1:83-84. House.Martyrs' Heaven 333 which is continued in heaven. Louis Ginzberg. A century later. Daniel shows Immanuel ten unique sections.119In heaven. 106). Gershom Scholem. No reference. The place appears to be the world to come. but its nature is unknown." This realm displays all the special qualities of the ten rabbinic martyrs executed by the Romans. Ha-Tophet V'Ha-Eden. n. Akiva and his companions. 1954). Hagigah 14b. R. 12651330) in his work Hell and Heaven. however.52-53. Like the martyred crusaders who were placed above the apostles. the second division belongs to those drowned in the sea. This is according to the statement that the mysteries of the Torah will be revealed to scholars in the world to come: B. Yohannan ben Zakkai and his disciples. which is reminiscent of Dante's Divine Comedy. Sections were added to this midrash as late as the thirteenth century. are the sections of the Ten Royal Martyrs (haruge malchut). Jellinek. 70) alludes to seven divisions for the righteous in Gan Eden. The first section is inhabited by the ten rabbis martyred by the Romans (haruge malchut). Hill of the Lord. is the central theme in the voluntary self-sacrifice The heavenly world in the story of Xanten well demof the anonymous knight. 1915). B. who stand directly before God and give him no rest until he hastens the final redemption of Israel. "Each righteous person will be assigned a dwelling in accordance with the honor due to him. Daniel explains to Immanuel." Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai found himself in his dream on Mount Sinai and heard a divine voice inviting him and his disciples into the third class. occupy only the third realm. such parallel notions constituted an integral part of the Jewish literature of heaven. Sifre Deuteronomy (above. the righteous themselves are not classified. came to play an identical role in the world of twelfth-century Ashkenazic Jews in Christendom. Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (New York. Dov Yardin. Following upon the style of early hagiography. Gittin 57b). But note again.

personal sacrifices. "Medieval Abraham: Between Fleshly Patriarch and Divine Father.36-38) allegedly caused the anonymous Jew to convert. While Christian martyrs were expected to join the main circle of the apostles. "Biblical History and Medieval Historiography: Rationalizing Strategies in Crusader Art. A number of factors contributed to the adoption and adaptation of these images by the Jewish narrators. In fact." Modern Language Notes 108 (1993). all Jewish martyrs were destined to adjoin the upper section of R. European art and iconography made these images visible and tangible. too [like idolaters]. Not. it is worth mentioning. it still demonstrates the important role polemic played in transmitting ideas such as martyrs seeing God eye to eye (recall Anselm's Monologion). not only of Christians. both sets of authors turned gruesome realities into glorious opportunities. For biblical motifs in medieval art see Daniel H. the twelfth-century Hebrew sources relating the events of 1096 place their martyrs in circles or divisions in order to enable each martyr to focus on God and to receive the ultimate reward individually. Whether Jewish or Christian. divine recompense is strikingly correlated in Jewish and Christian depictions. As is central to Christian depictions. heroic responses to the attempts to convert them by force. not according to "honor" stemming from rabbinic erudition (B." Modern Language Notes 108 (1993).334 Martyrs' Heaven crusading era place a great deal of emphasis on voluntary suffering. adore images and rejoice in 120 The imagery of Abraham's bosom in medieval art is discussed in Jero6meBaschet. Both sources consider the apex of the heavenly reward sitting with past heroes and martyrs on God's right hand in order to behold him. cathedrals. The increasing need to rationalize calamities accelerated the use of heavenly imagery in Hebrew and Latin sources. 710-37. these physical portrayals abundantly affected the psyche and mentality. As in the Latin descriptions. and recompense. 3. Heaven compensated martyrs with basic necessities as well as material objects dear to medieval aristocracy. The Jews of 1096.120Being hard to miss. By so presenting their histories. 73858. Although twelfth-century Jews and Christians turned to martyrdom for different reasons. According to the Jewish and Christian graphic reports. in the polemic between Gilbert Crispin and a Jewish merchant from Mainz. and martyrs' shrines. Gilbert's successful persuasion of his challenger that the verse "God was seen [already] on earth and conversed with men" is supported by Hebrew texts (Bar. just three years prior to the First Crusade. The early Christian images of martyrdom and recompense in heaven decorated Europe's churches. Akiva and his martyred colleagues. but rather according to the merit that attached to them as a result of their voluntary. Shabbat 152a). however. specific privileges in ethereal realms motivated "voluntary death" en masse. earned their bliss. Another possible method of transmission was provided by "peaceful polemics. for example. even when in reality it was not elective. for they. before he argued that "from that very quotation of yours it can be established that the Christians should be confounded." as. Celestial reward circulated around the Divine. the Jewish martyrs join relatives and friends in the upper levels of heaven. but of Jews as well. Weiss. Even if Crispin's report of this dispute to Anselm of Canterbury is a fiction of his imagination. heaven accommodates multidimensional dwelling places. where they all form a society of saints. . The higher levels denote the loci martyrii.

Southern. Lasker. 1963). Eng. The Jewish-Christian Debate in the High Middle Ages. and Daniel J. Augustine 121 Anselm. and a lion. in order to refute the crusaders' polemical arguments."l12 Often medieval art depicts righteous souls in heaven as children. By the use of heavenly rewards. "Gilbert Crispin. This anonymous Jew was allegedly won over after the promising meaning of these symbols was revealed to him. pp. and round the cross you figure a sun having half the form of a boy and frightened.. salvation and damnation constituted the core of these violent and direct polemics between crusaders and Jews. Saint Anselm and His Biographer: A Study of Monastic Life and Thought. and only those on that side could acquire paradise.1130 (Cambridge. As the sources demonstrate time and again. the anonymous Jew failed to comprehend the meaning of a suffering boy and a sad girl in the shape of a moon and a sun around Jesus. the Hebrew narratives described how their martyrs' "faces are comparable to the sun and the moon" in paradise. . Judaica. Expressions such as "in one voice" they showed their readiness to accept "God's will" since he was "testing the generation" demonstrate a monopolistic nature. According to Gibert. This dispute suggests that Jewish-Christian polemics provided yet another direct vehicle of transmission for these symbols and their interpretation. Texts and Translations. 8891. violent tragedies were made to seem worthy and rational. Yet voluntary death and its celestial reward were not meant to be a universal investment. sad. 11. As the literary parallels demonstrate. 1744 ed. For you figure God Himself as a wretch hanging on the beam of the cross transfixed with nails-a horrible sight. 1059-c. however. pp. Alan of Lille. Not only do martyrological accounts praise their protagonists. 5. 2 and 91 n. and yet you adore it. and Jacob ben Reuben: A Study in the Transmission of Medieval Polemic. 122 For more on debates and polemics see David Berger. 34-47.Martyrs' Heaven 335 their idols. 1977). "Mission to the Jews and Jewish-Christian Cultural Contacts in the Polemical Literature of the High Middle Ages. but they are also designed to keep others of "false" convictions from becoming heroes. both Jewish and Christian. The Divine chose only one side in the conflict.255. the intensive verbal exchanges between the Jews and crusaders (who destroyed them by the sword) or Jews and their Christian neighbors (who attempted to save them by baptismal water) provided the main route of transmission for these images in 1096. 2.. Paradoxically. See also R. idem. and a moon flying with half the shape of a girl. I know not why. 89 n. translation in Joseph Jacobs. Descriptions of martyrdom thus reveal their offensive side. The theological reasoning behind the polemics predominates in a variety of sources.2. Jews and Christians viewed the act of dying for God as the ultimate proof of absolute religious commitment. during the crusades. 1893). the anonymous Jew first adapted the very same Christian themes they were disputing. 576-91. esp. and showing only the half of her disc. in addition to the role of art imagery. Jewish Philosophical Polemics against Christianity in the Middle Ages (New York. A few decades later." American Historical Review 91 (1986).122 Unlike this amicable dispute." Speculum 49 (1974). W. but sometimes you paint God sitting on a lofty throne and making signs with an outstretched hand. 1979). This view finds explicit expressions in a number of works. and around him as if for greater dignity an eagle and a man. In his attempt to discourage the Donatists' fascination with death. 4 (Philadelphia. idem. Opera. p. The Jews of Angevin England: Documents and Records (London. a calf.

. Riley-Smith. he offers three reasons for "the cost of suffering" and the many martyrdoms on the expedition: the destruction of "the pagans" and the salvation of the Christians and of those who willingly join them." 123 124 . RHC Oc. RHC Oc. RHC Oc. 114. whose celestial rewards were to be Peter the Hermit already had received this message and reserved to Christians. 4:273. and trans. 4:288-291. but also the rejection of others' service. 1. Riley-Smith. Both Jewish and Christian authors elevated their martyred heroes to heaven. those who perished as "unbelievers. 4:12-16. the same axiom seems to have guided the medieval witnesses and reporters of violent events. without dimming his admiration of the Turks. 4:124 and 179. Anselm quotes John 6. "met death in soul and body. PL 28:310. But those of the Turks preIn destined to salvation it pleased God to have baptized by our priests. (Toronto. only a person who pays satisfaction for sins "will be elevated to the Heavenly City": Cur Deus homo? in Anselm of Canterbury.125 viewed the crusade as a form of martyrdom. "In truth. offered solely to Christians." Peter Tudebode emphasizes. 3:54-86.4-5: ". these ideologies could be summarized in a word: martyrium.. medieval self-destruction reflected a matter of self-definition.. RHC Oc."130 According to Robert the Monk. the crusade offered sinners "a new way of gaining salvation" and an effective way of expiating all offenses by "shedding their blood.124 Not only veneration of martyred coreligionists was at issue. 127 According to Albert.336 Martyrs' Heaven had already established that "it is not the penalty that makes true martyrs. 4 vols. To emphasize Jesus' free will. the opportunity was now theirs to offer themselves to him as "a living sacrifice.16. p. As in our day."123Although not dependent on Augustine directly."'12In his opinion it was without precedent that secular princes exposed their bodies to suffering merely for spiritual reward. To begin with. Turcos autem ad animarum suarum detrimentum. while overwhelming hell with the martyrs' assailants. 4:272 and 291-95. .ed. Crusades constituted a martyrium. and 399. p." Thus. RHC Oc." Then. 128 Guibert of Nogent. n. Epistolae 89. Christianos quidem ab ipsis Turcis permittit occidi ad salvationis augmentum. focusing on the war against the Muslims.129 Similarly. since such unique courage to overcome the instinct to live was attributed to divine inspiration. 1975-76). 20). p.2. 130 Historia Hierosolimitana. 131 Historia Hierosolimitana. 129 Guibert of Nogent. The First Crusade.. Albert of Aix. who mentioned the voluntary deaths of the Rhineland Jews." implying "Martyres veros non facit poena sed causa": Augustine. he argued. 4:225. quorum quosdam iam saluti praedestinatos placuit Deo tunc a sacerdotibus baptizari. Pope Urban argued. but the cause. 3:734. "restricting its use to Christians": "Martyrdom and the First Crusade" (above.127For Guibert of Nogent. 132 Fulcher of Chartres. Cowdrey observes that "violent death" indicates martyrdom in Albert's account..131 Fulcher of Chartres echoed the same view in a more elaborate fashion. 61.126 envisioned the opening of paradise's gates for the would-be sufferers during his pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1094. he "believed that the elect were tried by the Lord and by such torment were purified of their sins."132 contrast. Jasper Hopkins and Herbert Richardson.44: "no one comes to me unless the Father draws him. The First Crusade." he writes. 50. RHC Oc. 126 Defeat is like martyrdom: RHC Oc.. "he has permitted the Christians to be slain for the augmentation of their souls. . 125 Albert of Aix. 373-76.. that since Jesus shed his blood for Christians. according to Baldric of Dol.

140 "Quam beati moriuntur martyres in proelio! Gaude.." p. Bernardrhetorically asked: or "Can he not send more than twelve legions of angels137 just say the word and so free his land? Of course he can if he wishes so.. "he who dies (i." Opera. .. 137 Obviously relying on Matt. "are joined to the Lord... Salvation could be achieved only through readiness to embrace martyrdom. how much more blessed are those who die for the Lord?" Martyrs who die in battle. Peter Tudebode. "which has come upon that appropriate year of the Lord.... and clever warriors than those Turks [who] claim to be of Frankish descent. p. and he will at once send me more than twelve legions of angels?" 138 Echoing Paul. God offered Christians the Second Crusade as their last chance for repentance.Martyrs' Heaven 337 that they have no hope even in death. That only Christians are rewarded by voluntary death is made clear in Raymond of Aguilers. that is.135but voluntary death could not bestow on them a place in Abraham's bosom. 26. Nam si Beati QUI IN DOMINO MORIUNTUR. A martyr's death for God becomes superior even to victory and successful life. 3:215. In his view.140And again in his Letter 363. In his opinion. . it is undoubtedly worth no less than the kingdom of God (regnum Dei)." He calls his generation a well-off generation. a very jubilee (et vere iubileus).133Only because of their belief in Christ's reigning in heaven does he view the Franks alone as the true knights.138 . while the bodies of Christians die without the soul. fortis athleta. A cause in which to win is glorious and for which to die is but gain (ET MORI LUCRUM). Bernard emphasizes. 133 134 141 Letter363. 135 Peter Tudebode." Thus no other nation may enter the realms of heaven and enjoy its benefits. The material itself is a buy of little value. non multo magis qui pro Domino moriuntur?" "De laude novae militiae Templi liber. Evocative of the Hebrew sources' association of tragedy with a divine test. si moreris et iungeris Domino. Letter 363. 1. "For if those are blessed who die in the Lord. 1957-77). even though no one could have found "more skilled. but if it is placed [i. the cross] on a devout shoulder.8:316.."136 More elaboration is found in Bernard of Clairvaux.e. Contemplate now with what mastery he plans your salvation.139 The benefits of martyrdom are more explicit in Bernard's letter to the Templars. 8 vols. the nonbeliever's soul dies as well."134Muslims' preference for death over conversion to Christianity earned them respect in Peter's eyes. 8:313-15. si vivis et vincis in Domino. Jean Leclercq et al. Capital letters appear in the edition (see next note).52-53: "Do you think I cannot appeal to my Father. Christian martyrs. He summarized this view in a sentence attributed to the dead crusader Engelrand: "Those who die in the service of Christ never die.e.Thomas Aquinas made a more explicit statement. 55. (Rome. 109. . p... p. 136 "Equidem non moriuntur illi.. ."141 Adopting the same theological line a hundred years later. Opera. but I tell you the Lord your God is testing you (TENTAT VOS DOMINUS DEUS VESTER). courageous. 92. ed.21. 37.." Conversely. without sacrificing his life to God) remains in death (MANET IN MORTE). qui in Christi servicio vitam finiunt. Phil. 139 Sancti Bernardi Opera. sed magis exsulta et gloriare. only "the Jews and Turks . and certain heretics known as the Chiliasts" could ridiculously fancy the attainment of a cor- Peter Tudebode.

part 3. the Mainz Anonymous states that belief in paradise motivated European princes to take up the cross. vols. Islam.e." In repeating the views found in early crusading propaganda. for every man who sets forth on this journey . (Londonand New York. 2 The p. p. q.and and part 1 of part2.1912-27)."142 To Aquinas's contemporary Humbert of Romans. 4 (20:194). Moreover. 56. "the saintly are destined to greatness in the world to come more than any other nation. pp.338 Martyrs' Heaven poreal heaven."146 Both Guibert and the Mainz Anonymous stress that the theo142 Thomas trans. p. ThomasAquinas. Riley-Smith. he reveals not only a Christian attempt to monopolize heaven but also the urge to colonize it instead of the earthly Jerusalem. in as Reflected the Earliest HebrewNarrative. thus.See also McDannell Lang. the popular bands]. Although he wrote toward the end of the crusading era.in Fasciculus rerumexpetendarum ed. 94. 281. 382-92. 145Gezerot.The "Summa of theologica" St. at their fellowship. too. q.Fathers theEnglish of Aquinas. 30. It took place in order "to announce to all and in the retinue of high [heaven] their love [for him]. Chazan.Opus tripartitum. Chazan. the crusaders' violent acts and polemical declarations during the events of 1096 demonstrated to Jews what their role was to be.1999). et fugiendarum. RobertChazan p. 2:193. 144 Gezerot. From the Jewish viewpoint."145 To be sure. in makesthesameobservation "TheFirstCrusade p. the authors of the Hebrew sources were fully aware of the Christian attempt to monopolize heaven. it is worthwhile quoting him.. The authors of the Hebrew sources could not let Christian polemics monopolize heaven and exclude the Jews killed by those who believed that they alone would reach it. will be absolved and assured paradise. 287. Why should one worry if the number of Christians is lessened in the world by death endured for God? By this kind of death people make their way to heaven who perhaps would never reach it by another road. 81. .Christianity. 143 Humbertof Romans. the Hebrew sources on 1096 reserved celestial compensation to their "elected people. Eidelberg. at least the verbal theological assaults could be repelled by assigning similar theological importance and function to celestial rewards. but to fill heaven. the crusades offered "salvation to mankind on the cross. Levine(New York. "143 Although such works did not always mention Jews explicitly. Chazan.Heaven. 4. Eidelberg.ed. 146 Gezerot.. In parallel to Guibert's opinion of the secular princes' motivation. and in "Jerusalem Christian as and Response.1690).. although he saw no contradiction in trusting his corporeal saints in heaven to "see one another and rejoice in God. 22 DominicanProvince. The Christian attempt to ban others from their martyrs' heaven in order to confirm their rivals' theological defeat propelled the Hebrew narratives to include the very same celestial rewards Jews and non-Christians in general were not supposed to reach according to Christian dogma."in Jerusalem: Sanctityand Its Symbolduringthe FirstCrusade: JewishAwareness to and Centrality Judaism."144Through martyrdom. because of the monopolistic view that the crusaders advanced. 226. the crusade drew them into a divine test. pp. 8 (6:68). p. 52. vols. esp. His theological rationalization well summarizes the mentalite of the First Crusade: "The aim of Christianity is not to fill the earth. 382-83 and 387.p. The source attributes the following to the crusaders' leaders: "Why do we sit thus? Let us also go with them [i. p. art.p. Crusaders. 45. 92 with notes. 61." Viator29 (1998)." From the Jewish viewpoint. p. art. LeeI. (London. EdwardBrown. 257.

23). and Jeremy Cohen. 44. 132. etc. 9."147 The Spaniard Yudah ha-Levi (c. p. Judah ha-Levi." perhaps referring to Jer." 151 David Berger. other nations stumble upon their death..2. drove Ephraim to make the analogy of the dove. 89-108. 1." including Edom and Ishmael (i.' (Ps. each of them serving his God with pure intention . achieved through casualties and defeat. According to Bernard's Letter 363. 122. with the insignia of the cross].Martyrs' Heaven 339 logical concept of reward in heaven influenced even well-to-do secular aristocrats. only to perish in humiliation without cause or reward. 150 R. Israel will be rewarded in the future world because it willingly and honorably undertakes death for the Divine.150 We may further pinpoint the source that triggered Ephraim's analogy. "Witnesses of Our Redemption: The Jews in the Crusading Theology of Bernard of Clairvaux. Although he acknowledged that "God suffers distress for the [shed] blood of the wicked. Moses ben Eleazar makes a similar analogy. Regarding the Second Crusade. Bernard of Clairvaux toward the Jews. "as a handful of cut grain (amir) after the harvestman. his analogy of the dove reserved martyrdom to Jewish victims: "For Israel has been compared to the dove as it is written: 'Thine eyes are as the dove' (Song of Songs 1. but rather stretches out its neck.e.151 Bernard'swarnings immediately follow his above-mentioned description of martyrdom as a distinctive Christian virtue with distinctive Christian benefits.p. What is [special about] this dove? Whereas all other birds quiver when being slaughtered. as it is written: 'For Thy sake are we killed all the day. Jewish martyrs are like the dove. 1955).15).. his theological view of Jews follows the admonition that failure to seize the divine opportunity and imitate Christ even in death results in everlasting death. More specifically. Eleazar bar Yudah wrote that "more than ten thousand [Christians] marked themselves with symbols of defilement [i. Christians and Muslims). p. Hartwig Hirschfeld (New York. Ephraim mentions with gratitude the warnings that Bernard of Clairvaux issued against the killing of Jews. "The Attitude of St."148 No wonder that ha-Levi's Ashkenazic contemporary and eyewitness of crusading activity Ephraim of Bonn (1133-c. Eidelberg." in Medieval Studies in Honour of Avrom Saltman (Ramat-Gan. only to kill themselves and gather plunder."149 The news from the East about Christian heroism. 1964). 163. committing murders. 67-81. so none offers his soul for the Blessed Holy One except Israel. 1196) was conscious of the widespread sharing of martyrological ideas.21. and Bernard-who claimed martyrdom as a Christian enterprise-as well as to Peter Tudebode's comparison between Frankish and Turkish casualties. Ephraim's view is close in concept to the views expressed by Albert. They fight with the belief that Paradise and eternal bliss will be their reward. 39. 1075-1141) provided a wider perspective from afar.. "Christians and Muslims fight with one another. The Kuzari.. pp. crusaders should not attack and force Jews to convert because "we are told by the Apostle that 147 148 Gezerot. believing that this is a most pious work which brings them nearer to God. . Guibert.e. the dove does not. In his polemical Kuzari (The Book of the Khazar) he writes." Proceedings of See the American Academy of Jewish Research 40 (1972). p. The "dove's throat is like a heap of cut grain (amir). 149 Gezerot. non-Jews were arbitrary casualties.Jewish victims should always be seen as martyrs. For Ephraim. trans.

" one genuine creed. Charles Christopher Mierow. But those who die before [converting to Christianity] will remain in death. Though Ephraim welcomed Bernard's protection in "his later epistles" (363 and 365). incorporating it into their own martyrological tradition through biblical. p. Ephraim's analogy. Worms. however. Whose behavior would prove to be more heroic and astonishing? Whose martyrdom is more dignifying and deserving? Simply put. A Hebrew document on events at Blois paraphrases an "epistle from the chiefs of Paris" and the king's written edict of protection: Gezerot. midrashic. Records of Civilization. 172 n." Ephraim did not speak directly against Bernard. 153 Otto of Freising also refers to the circulation of Bernard's letters in Cologne. 145. he mentions Bernard's letters to the people of Gaul and Germany in which he reminds them not to kill the Jews so "the enormity of their crimes" would be known throughout the world: The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa. The Hebrew accounts of the First Crusade. and Guibert's identical observations regarding the secular magnates' motivation for taking up the cross demonstrate that Latin writings provided another vehicle for these images. Sources and Studies. Since there was only one true "living God. In addition to letters. then. 1953). In reaction to the Christian monopolistic view of heaven. Speyer. method. one elected nation. and talmudic language. Such a stylistic combination served Jews as a means of rationalization and as a reaction to the crusading propaganda and violent discourse advanced by crusaders. 152 Gezerot. rewards that Bernard and his contemporaries claimed were reserved to them. But through the analogy of the dove. Against this background. Eidelberg. 49 (New York. Mainz.153 is clear. More generally. each side proclaimed: our devotion outshines yours. p. Ephraim includes hearsay: "we heard" the crusaders' propaganda and "our hearts melted. 122. these Jewish accounts consciously adopted this system of martyrs' rewards from their Christian environment. While in historical perspective this modern psychological evaluation is correct. pp. trans." or Bernard "then preached as it is their wont. while flooding hell with the martyrs' adversaries. it is not only possible. 11. the Jewish desire to verbally refute the crusaders' theological arguments that preceded and accompanied their deadly assaults constituted the main reason for absorbing the new images of heaven." . all of the writers mentioned made room in paradise only for their own martyrs. the Mainz Anonymous. p.152 he could not accept his theology of martyrdom and his argument that all others "remain in death. 74-75. but also plausible. and symbolism found in the Hebrew narratives of the First Crusade. Ephraim did so by following the style. the actors in the numerous bloody dramas had their own immediate outlook. Modern historians often view the acts of qiddush haShem and martyrium during the crusades as a contest between members of the two faiths.340 Martyrs' Heaven when the time is ripe all Israel shall be saved. p. and Strasbourg. Which of these writings and sermons were read by Jews-as Ephraim's familiarity with Bernard's "later epistles" suggests-or heard by them in public readings of sermons or letters It and reports from the East is not always discernible. 116." The rewards of sacrifice in the name of Christ and eternal damnation for Israel appear tightly connected. he rejected Bernard's view of heavenly rewards for Christian martyrs. paved their martyrs' way into heaven. As we see here. Eidelberg also suggests Letter 363 as the possible source for Ephraim's analogy. that although written documents may be seen as another important source of influence on Jewish celestial imagery.

OK 73019 (e-mail: Shmuel. Through these "trials and errors.edu)." a complex Jewish paradise emerged in the Middle Ages. at best. only one group could produce martyrs worthy of celestial recompense. The Divine elected one side only to stand the privileged "trial of the generation. or more accurately because of these efforts. their martyrs' heavenly worlds never looked so much alike. Despite their efforts. Shmuel Shepkaru is Assistant Professor of History at the University of Oklahoma. and one ethnic paradise. were viewed as casualties. but not martyrs. Norman." while the "enemy" continued living in its error.Shepkaru-l @ou. By the twelfth century the Christian images of martyrs' heaven that were adopted and adapted by the Hebrew narratives of the First Crusade became commonplace in the emotional experiences and expressions of both communities. Jews and Christians intensely accentuated the merit of their own protagonists in a unique heavenly postmortem existence. In their efforts to claim heaven exclusively for their martyrs. All "others" were destined to damnation or.Martyrs' Heaven 341 one lawful trial. .