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Group No. 407 ID: B1000430

November 5, 2012 Tashkent

Manufacturing Engineering Assignment


Q1: Explain the conversion of crafts and trades to industrial manufacturing in the early industrial revolution. Why did the crafts person change to an industrial worker? Early industrial revolution started from the middle of 18th century; in 1750 to be exact. It affected every most industries all over the world. It happened in very short span of time and kept growing dramatically each year as new inventions and manufacturing processes added to the efficiency of machines and increased productivity. As for trade, America was discovered, East to Western Europe was opened up and European countries started acquiring rich colonies everywhere. New trade routes were opened to different parts of the world. By the beginning of the revolution, large amount of goods were being exchanged among European nations and there was an immense demand for more goods then were being produced. The goods made in district family shops by craftsmen, though of high quality, were costly and limited in quantity. Moreover, crafts people and family businesses were strictly regulated by the guilds and by the government. Thus, cheaper items, as well as larger quantities were needed to meet the demand in growing trade. Therefore, factories were established by merchants with capital and skilled crafts people and workers who had no capital to start a business themselves were brought under one roof. They were supplied with all the necessary tools to produce. Then, it in turn led to the development of manufacturing factories and conversion of crafts person to an industrial workers. Q2. Make a complete flowchart for the Design and Manufacturing cycle for any product.

1) Market

2) Specification

3) Concept Design

4) Detail design



In the first stage of the design and manufacturing cycle, market is studied by the marketing department of the company. After analyzing the market and identifying true needs and wants of customers, engineering department transforms the information provided by the marketing department into product specifications and product concept is designed. Prototype of the product is made in the next stage and then product is manufactured. The last stage in this cycle is selling the product in the market. Q3. What are the acronyms DFM and DFA? What is the importance of incorporating these concepts into the design stage of a product? Design for Manufacturing integrates designing process with production methods, materials, process planning, assembly, testing, and quality assurance. DFM is primarily oriented to

Manufacturing Engineering Assignment


individual parts and components rather than concentrating on sub-assemblies, the whole assembly line or products. It targets to keep individual parts as simple as possible as overly complicated parts might have hidden costs that may not be apparent initially. Design for Assembly techniques aim to minimize the cost and time of assembly by simplifying the product and process. In DFA, number of product parts reduced, two or more parts combined together, assembly operations simplified, adjustments minimized or eliminated and the impact of DFA will be visible during the overall design and manufacturing process. When DFA successfully implemented, organizations benefit from reducing the assembly time, assembly space, the number of assembly operations and most importantly reducing the costs. When these two are closely linked to each other and incorporated, organizations will be able to reduce the expensive and unnecessary processes or feature in assembling or manufacturing. It will also help to reduce the hazardous materials in processes and products and reduces energy use as well. Moreover, it will lead to design and manufacture the right product at the right time and cost.

Q1. Define the following physical properties of materials: Density; Specific Heat; Thermal Expansion. Density: it is a physical property of a material and is its quantity per unit volume. Density is crucial factor that has to be taken into consideration when in selection of materials in different industries. Especially, in manufacturing field where high-speed equipment used, it is necessary to make sure the density of materials used is low as they reduce inertial forces that might lead to inaccuracies and part failures because of vibration. However, in building flywheels, ballasts on yachts and aircraft, and weights on golf clubs high density materials should be utilized. Density of a material is calculated with [ρ=m/V] formula where ρ is density, m is mass, and V is volume. For example: Aluminum has 2700 kg/m3, Titanium 4570 kg/m3, and Iron has 7870 kg/m3 densities. Specific heat: it is the quantity of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature of a material by one degree Celsius. The quantity of heat is measured in units of Joules (J). Extreme temperature in a work piece might decrease the quality of the product, thus alloying elements are used in manufacturing as they are affected relatively less by specific heat. Specific heat of material is calculated with [Q=cm∆T] where Q is heat added, c specific heat, and ∆T is change in temperature. For instance: Specific heat level for aluminum is 0.897 J, titanium 0.523 J, and for copper 0.385 J.

Manufacturing Engineering Assignment


Thermal Expansion: it is an increase in the volume of a material as a response to increase in its temperature. Thermal expansion is described in terms of change in height, thickness, and length when the material is solid. Usually, the coefficient of thermal expansion of a material is inversely proportional to its melting point. Most of the times thermal expansion and contraction lead to warping, cracking and loosening of components during the service life. Different materials have dissimilar thermal expansion coefficients, for illustration; aluminum has the coefficient (α) of 23.1, in gold (α) =14, and in rubber (α) =77. Q2. Which are the general electrical properties of materials one should consider for different applications? Electrical conductivity refers to the power or quality of conducting or transmitting a current (electricity) and it is represented with Greek letter σ. Silver is a good example of a metal with good electrical conductivity σ =6.30×107 where hard rubber has σ = 10−14. Dielectric strength determines the ability of a material to withstand the application of high voltage through it without experiencing a failure. Dielectric strength of window glass is 9.8 13.8 (MV/m) and in distilled water it is equal to 65 - 70 (MV/m). Resistance is the ability of a material to offer resistance to the flow of a current (electricity). It is determined by R = ρ L/A where R is resistance, ρ is density, L is the length and A is the area of a material and is measured in OHMs. As electrical conductivity, dielectric strength, and resistance are the general electrical properties of materials, they should be taken into account in different manufacturing activities as: magnetic-pulse forming of sheet metals, resistance welding, electrical discharge machining and electrochemical grinding of different materials. Q3. Distinguish between Diamagnetic materials, Paramagnetic materials, and Ferromagnetic materials. Diamagnetic materials have orbital motion of electrons that create small atomic current loops which produce magnetic fields and those loops oppose the externally applied magnetic fields. Thus, diamagnetic materials are not affected by a magnetic field. Paramagnetic materials refer to materials as aluminum or platinum which are magnetized in externally applied magnetic field, but their magnetism vanishes whenever the field is removed. Ferromagnetic materials as nickel, cobalt and iron can retain magnetization and have high permeability even when the magnetic field is removed. Basically, they become permanent magnets themselves as long as they were once in contact with magnetic field. Moreover, this

Manufacturing Engineering Assignment


property of a material is important in different applications such as: electric transformers, motors, generators and microwave devices. Q4. Provide at least three (3) examples each for the following materials: Copper; Aluminum, Titanium, Stainless steel. Copper has high ductility, very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable in nature. Copper demonstrates various characteristics as: corrosion resistance, antibacterial, catalytic, non-magnetic, toughness, and has very attractive color. It is also easy to alloy; Brass, Bronze, and Cupronickel are the commonly used copper alloys. Copper is an important element in various applications as electrical wiring, roofing and plumbing, and industrial machinery. For example: copper wire allows electric current to flow without much loss of energy and thus it is used in electricity substations, power stations, telecommunications, power distribution, and power generation. Tensile strength and ductility are higher than other materials in comparison. Aluminum is a lightweight, ductile, relatively soft and non-magnetic metal. It is an excellent appearance ranging from silvery to dull grey. Aluminum is actually the second most widely used metal after iron around the world because of its valuable properties. First of all, it has high strength, superior malleability, corrosion resistance, and good electrical and thermal conductivity. It has almost one third of the stiffness and density of steel and the tensile strength ranges from 70 to 700 MPa. Moreover, it presents great casting, extruding and machining properties as milling, drilling, cutting, punching, and bending. It is used in different applications including; transportation, packaging, electrical transmission, architectural and structural (construction). Windows, doors in construction, automobiles, trucks, and aircraft in transportation, and cans, foils in packaging applications commonly use aluminum. Titanium demonstrates low density, but it has great corrosion resistance. It is a transition metal which is strong, lustrous. Titanium has strong, light alloys with iron, aluminum, molybdenum and vanadium. Furthermore, it is 60% dense, but over two times strong when compared to aluminum and it has the ultimate tensile strength around 434 MPa. Titanium’s highest strength to weight ratios and resistance to corrosion are the available essential characteristics. It is used in steel alloys to reduce the size of the grain, and to reduce the carbon content in stainless steel as an alloying element. Owing to its low density, high tensile strength, high crack resistance, and light weight; titanium is the premium option of metals used in aircrafts, missiles programs, and space vehicles. For example: approximately 130,000 pounds (58967.61 kilograms) of titanium used in Boeing 777 airplane. Stainless Steel is also called as corrosion resistant steel which is a steel alloy with chromium content between 10.5% up to 11%. It really doesn’t corrode, stain or rust with water as other common steels. Nickel, copper, aluminum, molybdenum, nitrogen, titanium, columbium, and

Manufacturing Engineering Assignment


manganese are the content elements of stainless steel. Even though, stainless steel is not a good conductor of electricity, it has high oxidation resistance, ductility, and high strength. Stainless steel is classified as: austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitationhardening martensitic according to its crystalline structure. Petroleum and food processing industries, health care, and household hardware are the common applications of stainless steel. Moreover, it is used in automotive and aerospace as structural alloys and in large buildings as construction materials. For example: one of the highest skyscrapers of New York City, the Chrysler building is constructed of Type 302L stainless steel. Also, 190 meters high Gateway Arc which is the skyline of St. Louis, Missouri is entirely cladded with stainless steel Type 304. Q5. What do the following properties refer to: Hardness; Fatigue; Creep; Tensile Strength? Hardness: this property is the indicator of the strength of a material and its resistance to scratch and wear. Materials with higher hardness have the capability of wearing out the softer materials. Fatigue: the tendency of a material to break under repeated stress or structural damage from frequent loading. Even though, there are many materials as steel with certain durability limit, other materials, such as aluminum alloys don’t possess one. Creep: permanent change in the shape of the material from prolonged stress or exposure to high temperatures. Creep is very common among materials as gas turbine blades, high pressure stream lines, and furnace components that are subjected to heat for long time and it always increases with temperature. Tensile Strength: it is the greatest longwise stress (force per unit area) that a material can bear without tearing apart while being stretched or pulled.

Q1. Name three (3) alloys for Copper, Aluminum and Iron each. Usually, copper alloys have a great resistance against corrosion. Red Brass 85% (Copper 85.0% and Zinc 15.0%), Phosphor Bronze (Cu 95% and Sn 5%), and Nickel Silver 65-10 (Copper 65%, Nickel 10% and Zinc 25%) Aluminum alloys are commonly used in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. Duralumin (Al 93.5%, Cu 4.4%, Mn 0.6% and Mg 1.5%), Y Alloy (Al 92.5%, Cu 4%, Ni 2%, and Mg 1.5%), and Hiduminium or R.R. Alloys (Al 93.7%, Cu 2%, Fe 1.4%, Ni 1.3%, Mg 0.8%, Si 0.7%, Ti 0.1%)

Manufacturing Engineering Assignment


There are different types of Iron alloys are used in manufacturing. Grey Cast Iron (C 3.4%, Si 1.8%, Mn 0.5%, and Fe remainder), Stainless Steel (Fe, Cr, and Ni), Ferromanganese (Fe, Mn, and C), and Elinvar (Fe 59%, Ni 36%, and Cr 5%) Q2. What is the reason to create alloys of base metals? Give an example from the Aviation industry to make a point. Alloys of base metals are mixture or metallic solid solution consisting of two or more different elements. The reason to create alloys is to merge all the necessary properties of different materials in one. Like any other industry, Aviation industry has need for optimum material with necessary properties to use. Metal alloys such as: lighter in weight, higher in strength, better corrosion resistance, higher temperature resistance and with higher specific heat strength are used in the industry. Properties of alloys usually differ from those of the component elements. For example: strength, hardness, toughness, ductility, resistance to wear and corrosion are the necessary properties of materials and could be merged together by alloying. Even though, some physical properties as electrical and thermal conductivity, density, and reactivity, of an alloy may be similar to those of its constituted elements, but engineering properties will usually differ. Therefore, different metal alloys are created as they are crucial not only in aviation industry, but also any other industries as well. Q3. Describe the Steel making process using a simple diagram

Raw materials as scrap metal, direct reduced iron or pig iron converted into molten iron by using electric arc furnace. In secondary metallurgy process, molten iron from EAF then fed with limestone and other fluxes to remove acidic impurities; known as slag or gas, from the molten iron. In casting ingots stage, molten metals shaped into solid forms (ingots) for further processing. During the continuous casting process inefficiencies and different problems in steel making are relieved then continuous casts are cut at desired length by shearing or torching

Manufacturing Engineering Assignment


techniques and sent towards rolling mills. From rolling stage finished steel products are produced for further usage. Q4. Draw a simple Iron Carbon diagram, and mention the different microstructures we can observe in the alloys.

Different microstructures can be observed depending on the carbon content, volume of plastic deformation and heat treatment method. When cooling employed in heat treatment eutectoid reaction can be determined and this steel structure is known as Pearlite. Spheroidite can be observed when pearlite is heated just under eutectoid (700 0C) temperature and then maintained in that same temperature for a period of time like a day. Bainite is a microstructure that consists of ferrite and cementite, but it is only visible through electron microscopes. It can be produced by cooling the steel with alloying elements at higher temperate than that is required for perlite transformation. Bainite has better strength and ductility compared to pearlitic steels. Martensite is produced by cooling austenite at a high rate where crystal structure is transformed from FCC structure to a Body Centered Tetragonal.

Manufacturing Engineering Assignment


Q5. Draw a BCC and an FCC structure and mention which phase of Iron-Carbon alloys display these structures.

Body Centered Cubic

Face Centered Cubic

Ferrite has FCC crystal structure which permits the maximum solid solubility of carbon up to 0.022% at 7270C. Austenite phase displays the Body Centered Cubic crystal structure in Iron-Carbon alloys with a solid solubility of up to 2.11% of Carbon at 11480C.

Q1. What is casting process? Casting is a manufacturing process that liquid material is usually poured into a mold which has the hollow cavity of the potential shape and it is left to solidify. It has the following steps in manufacturing:


Forcing or Pouring

Cooling and Solidifying Removing Finishing

Melting is the first stage of casting where metals are melted using different melting furnaces then the molten metal forced or poured into the mold. In the third stage the part in molds are cooled and solidified during certain period of time and then ready solid part is removed from the mold. The last stage is finishing the casting process by cleaning up the mold.

Manufacturing Engineering Assignment


Q2. Draw a diagram indicating various components of the casting mold.

Q3. What is the vacuum casting process? What variations can be observed in the process? Usually, vacuum casting is seen as an alternative casting method to shell-mold, green sand and investment casting and used to manufacture thin walled products with complex shapes. By using the robot arms the mold is dipped down into molten metal in induction furnace where the vacuum decreases the air pressure in the mold down to two thirds of atmosphere pressure. Then molten metal goes into the mold from its bottom gate and it becomes solid within a short time period. This allows the gating mechanisms to be less complex than in other types of casting, which may reduce overall costs. Q4. When does one use the lost foam and the investment casting processes respectively? Investment and lost foam casting are used to create solid metal parts from molten metal. Mold patterns are temporary and made from wax or foam. These patterns can be produced manually by using traditional carving tools, but it is costly and limited in terms of casting size, however; it gives the highest casting quality. Investment casting and lost foam casting are used respectively when producing sophisticated geometrics that are difficult or impossible to produce by machining. In addition, lost foam casting has high dimensional accuracy with various operation and environmental advantages over traditional sand casting. Basically, these casting methods became two of the imperative casting methods for ferrous and nonferrous metals, and especially, for automotive industry. Break components, cylinder heads, engine blocks, machine bases, and crankshafts are some of the common applications of these casting processes. One disadvantage of these casting methods is that the weights of parts to be produced limited with maximum of 35 kilograms, however. Q5. Intricate parts can be made in the Pressure Die casting process. Why? Pressure die casting is a manufacturing process that produces geometrically intricate metal parts by using reusable molds (dies). It has great design flexibility and it allows products to be manufactured from a single casting with good accuracy, consistency, good surface finish, and

Manufacturing Engineering Assignment


high metal yields. Usually, intricate parts can be made by pressure die casting as it is capable of producing high detailed and high accuracy parts in high volumes and at affordable costs. When compared to other manufacturing processes such as extrusion, the die casting does not limit the shape of parts and in most cases will be the net shape of the parts. Besides, due to high pressure during the injection process, die casting method is capable of producing parts with thinner walls. During the casting process a molten metal is enforced into the die cavity at a pressure between 0.7 and 700 MPa and weight of parts to be produced varies from 25 to 90 kilograms maximum. Furthermore, several complex automobile parts such as: pistons, cylinder heads, and engine blocks are also produced by using pressure die casting method in great quality.