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A motorcycle (also called a motorbike, bike, moto or cycle) is a two or three wheeled motor vehicle.

Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task they are designed for, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic, cruising, sportand racing, or off-road conditions. Motorcycles are one of the most affordable forms of motorised transport in many parts of the world and, for most of the world's population, they are also the most common type of motor [3][4][5] vehicle. There are around 200 million motorcycles (including mopeds, motor scooters, motorised [6] bicycles, and other powered two and three-wheelers) in use worldwide, or about 33 motorcycles per 1000 people. This compares to around 590 million cars, or about 91 per 1000 people. Most of the motorcycles, 58%, are in the developing countries of Asia – Southern and Eastern Asia, and the Asia Pacific countries, excluding Japan – while 33% of the cars (195 million) are concentrated in the United States and Japan. In 2006, China had 54 million motorcycles in use and an annual [7][8] production of 22 million units. As of 2002, India, with an estimated 37 million motorcycles/mopeds, was home to the largest number of motorised two wheelers in the world. China came a close second [9][10] with 34 million motorcycles/mopeds. The first internal combustion, petroleum fueled motorcycle was the Petroleum Reitwagen. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, [11] Germany in 1885. This vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, and thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamicsdeveloped nearly 70 years earlier. Instead, it relied on [12] two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention theReitwagen ("riding car"). It was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than [13][14] a true prototype vehicle. Many authorities who exclude steam powered, electric or diesel twowheelers from the definition of a motorcycle, credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first [15][16][17] motorcycle. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle, then the first was the [13][14] French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede of 1868. This was followed by the American Roper [13][14] steam velocipede of 1869, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Roper [11] demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U.S. in 1867, and built a total of 10 [17] examples. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, and the first to be [13][14][17][18] called a motorcycle (German:Motorrad). In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine. As the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles often moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. Until World War I, the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world was Indian, producing over [21] [citation needed] 20,000 bikes per year. By 1920, this honour went to Harley-Davidson, with their [22][23] motorcycles being sold by dealers in 67 countries. By the late 1920s or early 1930s, DKW took [24][25][26] over as the largest manufacturer. After World War II, the BSA Group became the largest producer of motorcycles in the world, [citation needed] producing up to 75,000 bikes per year in the 1950s. The German company NSU held the [citation needed] position of largest manufacturer from 1955 until the 1970s.



Triumphand Ducati. which went on to become the biggest selling vehicle of all time. this area is dominated by mostly Indian companies with Hero MotoCorp emerging as the world's largest manufacturer of two wheelers. Moto Guzzi produced competitive race machines. streamlining began to play an increasing part in the development of racing motorcycles and the "dustbin fairing" held out the possibility of radical changes to motorcycle design. but after the deaths of four NSU riders in the 1954–1956 seasons. Other major manufacturers include Piaggio group of Italy. In addition to the large capacity motorcycles. its Splendor model has sold more than [32] 8. Population in red. Today. with its 60 [30] millionth unit produced in April 2008. 1958.5 million to date. small two-stroke motorcycles were popular worldwide. 250 cc class winner of the 1955 Grand Prix season In the 1950s. mostly concentrated in Asian and African countries. partly as a [29] result of East German Walter Kaaden's engine work in the 1950s. [edit]Demographics Number of motorcycles vs number of cars by country. NSU and Moto Guzzi were in the vanguard of this development. they abandoned further development and quit Grand Prix [28] motorcycle racing. 2002 estimates. Other [31] major producers are Bajaj and TVS Motors. Size of pie indicates population. From the 1960s through the 1990s. Suzuki. and by 1957 nearly all the [citation needed] Grand Prix races were being won by streamlined machines. The following year. full enclosure fairings were banned from racing by the FIM in the light of the safety concerns.[9][10] . there is a large market in smaller capacity (less than 300 cc) motorcycles. and Yamaha. Today. An example is the 1958 Honda Super Cub.NSU Sportmax streamlined motorcycle. Kawasaki. although Harley-Davidson and BMW continue to be popular and supply considerable markets. NSU produced the most advanced design. 2002 estimates. KTM. the motorcycle industry is mainly dominated by Japanese companies such as Honda. [9][10] Millions of cars (light blue) and motorcycles (dark blue) in the top 20 countries with the most motorcycles. For example. both producing very radical designs well [27] ahead of their time.

and the number of motorcycles is about 5.000– [39] 19. In the USA. A Consumer Reports subscribers' survey of mainly United States motorcycle and scooter owners reported that they rode an average of only 1. Americans put 10. The four largest motorcycle markets in the world are all in Asia: China. 82% for recreation and 38% for commuting. In numerous cultures.000. motorcycles are the primary means of motorised transport. India. and [3][34] [5] Vietnam. [edit]Use [40] A couple ride on a motorcycle in Udaipur.000 miles (1. . [36] registrations increased by 51% between 2000 and 2005. This is mainly attributed to increasing fuel [37] prices and urban congestion. Indonesia. Amid the global economic [35] downturn of 2008. As motorcyclists age." In places such as Vietnam. According to the Taiwanese government. the motorcycle market grew by 6.000 miles (16.5%.000 km) per year on their cars and light trucks. Annual sales of motorcycles in India are expected to exceed 10 million by 2010. for example. India.Motorbikes are the primary form of transportation in Vietnam. "the number of automobiles per ten thousand population is [33] around 2. Recent years have seen an increase in the popularity of motorcycles elsewhere.000–12. [4] motorised traffic consist of mostly motorbikes due to a lack of public transport and low income levels [3] that put automobiles out of reach for many.500.600 km) per [38] year. there is a tendency for riders to choose touring bikes over sports bikes. The motorcycle is also popular in Brazil's frontier towns.

the arm does not occupy the entire width of the lane. With some exceptions. allows [42] motorcycles to use the space between vehicles to move through stationary or slow traffic. 35 mpg-imp) reported by a Honda VTR1000F rider. Some other body parts. and aesthetics desired by the designer. [edit]Construction See also: Motorcycle construction and Motorcycle design Motorcycle construction is the engineering. Some cities. those reasons are increasingly practical. allow motorcycles to use bus lanes and provide dedicated free parking. motorcycles are exempt from the £10 per day London congestion charge other vehicles must pay to enter the city during the day. In the United States. and assembly of components and systems for a motorcycle which results in the performance. In many cities that have serious parking challenges for cars. and Melbourne. Australia. those states that have high-occupancy vehicle lanes also allow for motorcycle travel in them. and disc brakes. up to eight cylinders) coupled to amanual five. Motorcycles are also exempt from toll charges at some river crossings. driveshaft or belt. In places where it is permitted.While people choose to ride motorcycles for various reasons. Many car parks controlled in this way supply special areas for motorcycles to park. so as not to unnecessarily consume spaces. motorcycles are generally permitted to park on the sidewalk. A petrol powered engine typically consisting of between one and four cylinders (and less commonly. and the motorcyclist simply rides around [44] it. or as a means of avoiding or reducing the effects of urban [41] congestion. designed for either aesthetic or performance reasons may be added. with riders opting for a powered two-wheeler as a cost-efficient alternative to infrequent and expensive public transport systems. California. In New Zealand motorcycle riders are not required to pay for parking that is controlled by a barrier [43] arm. [edit]Technical aspects A Suzuki GS500 with a clearly visible frame (painted silver). such as the Severn Bridge. In the UK. cost. lane splitting. to 107 mpg- . [edit]Fuel economy [45] Motorcycle fuel economy varies greatly with engine displacement and riding style ranging from a [46] low of 29 mpg-US (8. also known as filtering. such as Bristol. Other countries have similar policies.1 L/100 km.or six-speed sequential transmission drives the swingarmmounted rear wheel by a chain. Dartford Crossing. manufacturing. telescopic forks holding the front wheel. construction of modern mass-produced motorcycles has standardised on asteel or aluminium frame. and Mersey Tunnels. such as San Francisco. rather than [citation needed] occupy a space on the street which might otherwise be used by a car.

in which the rider momentarily steers the handlebars in the direction opposite of the desired turn.20 L/100 km. Such accessories are selected by the owner to enhance the motorcycle's appearance. Operating range and top speed suffer [citation needed] because of limitations of battery technology. 129 mpg-imp) reported for the Verucci Nitro 50 cc Scooter. Electric motorcycles are nearly silent. [edit]Dynamics Racing motorcycles leaning in a turn. if performed on purpose.(2. zero-emission electric motor-driven vehicles. Motorcycle tyres have a large influence over handling. and enough stopping force at the front wheel. one with a longer wheelbase provides the feeling of more [49] stability by responding less to disturbances. A specially designed Matzu Matsuzawa Honda XL125 achieved 470 mpg-US (0. [edit]Accessories Main article: Motorcycle accessories Various features and accessories may be attached to a motorcycle either as OEM (factory-fitted) or after-market. [edit]Safety . and may include anything from mobile electronics to sidecars andtrailers. For example. or comfort. performance. to lift the opposite wheel off the road. 560 mpg-imp) "on real [48] highways – in real conditions. These actions. safety. Under conditions of fuel scarcity like 1950s Britain and modern developing nations. motorcycles offer good fuel economy. Because it is counter-intuitive this practice is often very confusing to novices – and [50] even to many experienced motorcyclists. If carried past the point of recovery the resulting upset is known as an "endo" (short for "end-over-end"). US [47] [edit]Electric motorcycles Main article: Electric motorcycle Very high fuel economy equivalents are often derived by electric motorcycles. or "looping" the vehicle. are known as wheelies and stoppies respectively. such as sport bikes.50 L/100 km. Fuel cells and petroleum-electric hybrids are also under development to extend the range and improve performance of the electric motors. and high powerto-mass ratios. Short wheelbase motorcycles." Due to low engine displacements (100 cc–200 cc). Motorcycles must be leaned in order to make turns. Main article: Bicycle and motorcycle dynamics Different types of motorcycles have different dynamics and these play a role in how a motorcycle performs in given conditions. can generate enough torque at the rear wheel. This lean is induced by the method known as countersteering. motorcycles claim large shares of the vehicle market.

000 registered vehicles. 18. The United Kingdom has several organisations which are dedicated to improving motorcycle safety by providing advanced rider training over and above what is necessary to pass the basic motorcycle test. the Think Bike campaign is dedicated to increasing both motorcycle safety and the awareness of motorcycles on the country's roads. I didn't see you". . The latter is more commonly caused by [54] operating a motorcycle while intoxicated. whereas for motorcycles the figure is 43. riders with these advanced qualifications often benefit from reduced insurance costs. For motorcycles this figure [51] is higher at 75. All of the training programs include a Basic Rider Course. The same data shows that 1. Motorcycle Safety Education is offered throughout the United States by organisations ranging from state agencies to non-profit organisations to corporations. In South Africa.000 registered vehicles – four times higher than for cars. while strongest in the Gauteng province. The campaign. has representation in Western Cape.62 fatal crashes occur per 100.Main articles: Motorcycle safety and Motorcycle safety clothing Motorcycles have a higher rate of fatal accidents than automobiles or trucks and buses. while Oregon and Idaho developed their own.19 per 100. Motorcyclists can anticipate and avoid some of these crashes with proper training. Most states use the courses designed by the Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF). United States Department of Transportation data for 2005 from the Fatality Analysis Reporting Systemshow that for passenger cars. an Intermediate Rider Course and an Advanced Rider Course. while the rates have dropped for passenger cars. and motorcyclists running wide through turns. increasing their conspicuousness to other traffic.56 fatalities occur per 100 million vehicle miles travelled for passenger cars. Along with increased personal safety. It has dozens of trained marshals available for various events such as cycle races and is deeply involved in numerous [56] other projects such as the annual Motorcycle Toy Run. Wearing a motorcycle helmet reduces the risks of death or injury in a motorcycle crash The two major causes of motorcycle accidents in the United States are: motorists pulling out or turning in front of motorcyclists and violating their rights-of-way. and not consuming [55] alcohol or drugs before riding.47–28 times higher than for cars (37 times more deaths per mile travelled [52] in 2007). The former is sometimes called a SMIDSY. an acronym formed from the motorists' [53] common response of "Sorry mate. Furthermore for motorcycles the accident rates have increased significantly since the end of the 1990s. These include the Institute of Advanced Motorists (IAM) and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA). KwaZulu Natal and the Free State.

and many other types. and may offer advantages for beginners. Tasmania and the Northern Territory. such as Victoria.  Sport – the rider leans forwards into the wind and the weight of the upper torso is supported by the rider's arms at low speed and air pressure at high speed (e. [57] Types There are three major types of motorcycle: street. The feet are below the rider. and each design creates a different riding posture. above 50 mph (80 km/h)). Standard – the rider sits upright or leans forwards slightly. In Canada. while compromising cornering ability because of low ground clearance and the greater likelihood of scraping foot pegs. seat and handlebars. The Canada Safety Council.g. a non-profit safety organisation. Factors in a rider's physical geometry that contribute to seating posture include torso. The reduced frontal area cuts wind resistance and allows higher speeds. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go offroad but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well. it is compulsory to undertake a rider training course before being issued a Learners Licence. sportbikes. off-road. motorcycle rider training is compulsory in Quebec and Manitoba only. Legs are extended forwards. Handlebars tend to be [66] high and wide. Training course graduates may qualify for reduced insurance premiums. Eligibility for a full motorcycle licence or endorsement for completing a Motorcycle Safety course varies by province. angle and location of footpegs. The emphasis is on comfort. Cruiser – the rider sits at a lower seat height with the upper torso upright or leaning slightly rearwards. Each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability. Within these types. These are motorcycles that are not specialised to one task. and this can be tiring to the rider's wrists. Harley-Davidsons are exemplars of this style. or other parts if turns are taken at the speeds other types of [67][68] motorcycles can do. sometimes out of reach of the regular controls on cruiser pegs.   Factors of a motorcycle's ergonomic geometry that determine the seating posture include the height. and overall rider height. thigh and leg length. New South Wales. arm. but all provinces and territories have Graduated Licensing programs which place restrictions on new drivers until they have gained experience. so they do not excel in any particular [63][64] area. there are many different sub-types of motorcycles for many different purposes. Street bikes include cruisers.In the UK and some Australian jurisdictions. floor boards. At low-speed this position throws the weight of the rider onto the arms. and dual purpose. [edit]Legal definitions and restrictions . These factors create a set of three basic postures. offers the Gearing Up program across Canada and is endorsed by the Motorcycle and [61] Moped Industry Council. The footpegs are below the rider or to the rear. scooters and mopeds. The low seat heights can be a consideration for new or short riders. the Australian [58] [59] [60] Capital Territory. The standard posture is used with touring and commuting as well as dirt and dual-sport [65] bikes. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. [edit]Motorcycle rider postures The motorcyclist's riding position depends on rider body-geometry (anthropometry) combined with the [62] geometry of the motorcycle itself..

4 lb/mile (113 g/km) less than the average car.g. a 65% reduction. as well as most BMWs which have included catalytic converters since the 1990s) now have factory fitted catalytic converters.327 vehicles tested was 0. the average certified emissions level for 12. Bebas macet. claim that while motorcycles produce much less pollution in terms of greenhouse gases. for new Class III motorcycles (280 cc or larger [74] displacement) sold in the United States.734. United States Environmental Protection Agency 2007 certification result reports for all vehicles versus [73] on highway motorcycles (which also includes scooters). taxation and rider licensing as a powered two-wheel motor vehicle. were equipped with a catalytic converter.092. motorcycles and scooters. dibangdingkan dengan mobil atau naik angkutan umum yang harus turun naik untuk pindah rute. [edit]United States emissions limits The following table shows maximum acceptable legal emissions of the combination of hydrocarbon and nitrous oxides. Peningkatan jumlah kebutuhan sepeda motor membuat para pabrikan sepeda motor membuat banyak varian pilihan. for a difference of about 16%. Many jurisdictions include some forms of three-wheeled cars as motorcycles. citing lower per-mile carbon emissions of 0. not the claimed 10X factor. Piaggio Group Americas supported this interest with the launch of a "Vespanomics" website and platform. The average "Nox+Co End-Of-Useful-Life-Emissions" for 3. attracted interest in the [69][70] United States from environmentalists and those affected by increased fuel prices. Mulai dari Sepeda Motor Bebek Injeksi Kencang dan Irit Jupiter Z1 . Likewise. masyarakat kini banyak mengandalkan sepeda motor sebagai sarana transportasinya. due to good fuel efficiency. . catalytic converters are becoming increasingly commonplace. itu salah satu alasan masyarakat perkotaan menggunakan sepeda motor untuk menghindari macet dan lebih efisiensi dalam hal waktu. Most countries distinguish between mopeds of 49 cc and the more powerful.863 motorcycles tested was 0.Main article: Legal definition of motorcycle A motorcycle is broadly defined by law in most countries for the purposes of registration. Along with other technologies that have taken longer to appear [citation needed] in motorcycles (e. [edit]Environmental impact In 2007 and 2008. mulai untuk bekerja sampai aktivitas yang membutuhkan alat transportasi lainnya. Alasan lainnya menggunakan motor adalah hemat. and while catalytic converters have been used in cars long enough that they are now commonplace. however. anti-lock brake systems). as well as carbon monoxide.8531. Other sources. they are a relatively new technology in [69] motorcycles. This is because many motorcycles lack a catalytic converter to reduce NOx emissions. [71] and better fuel economy. larger vehicles (scooters do not count as a separate category). if one looks at how many of the 2007 motorcycles tested were also catalytic equipped. a motorcycle can in some cases emit 10–20 times the quantity of nitrogen oxides [69][72] (NOx) when compared to the NOx emissions of a car. 54% of them. fuel injection. 2. Many newer motorcycles (such as later models of the Yamaha R1 andSuzuki GSXR1000.

Lebih hemat bukan ? bahkan kita dapat membantu mengurangi kemacetan yang ada dengan tanpa menambah jumlah motor yang beredar dijalan. Keadaan kota-kota besar seperti Jakarta yang terkenal macet. Perawatan berkala dan tepat menjadi motor lama kita dalam performa terbaiknya dan tidak perlu mengganti motor baru. Tapi Anda harus tetep memperhatikan rambu-rambu jalan dan tetap safety riding untuk menjaga keselamatan anda dan orang lain. Apapun pilihan sepeda motor yang anda pilih. . Banyak orang merasa motor yang mereka miliki mulai tidak nyaman dan kondisinya sudah tidak prima lagi setelah pemakaian cukup lama dan ingin menggantinya dengan yang baru. Perkembangan motor matic di Indonesia sangatlah cepat mulai model desain sampai teknologi injeksi yang terbaru. Hal ini menjadikan Motor matic mulai menjadi favorit pilihan sampai motor matic. hal terpenting adalah perawatannya. Dengan perawatan yang tepat menjadi motor tetap dalam kondisi yang prima dan nyaman digunakan. Motor Matic Injeksi Irit Harga Murah menjadi pilihan banyak masyarakat karena mudah digunakan dan irit. menjadikan sepeda motor sebagai alat transportasi yang sangat membantu. Kondisi motor yang kecil dan lincah membuat motor dapat melewati kemacetan sehingga lebih menghemat waktu diperjalanan.