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GSM GSM networks operate in a number of different carrier frequency ranges (separated into GSM frequency ranges for

2G and UMTS frequency bands for 3G), with most 2G GSM networks operating in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Where these bands were already allocated, the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands were used instead (for example in Canada and the United States). In rare cases the 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries because they were previously used for first-generation systems. Most 3G networks in Europe operate in the 2100 MHz frequency band ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------

GSM CHANNELs 1 traffic channel 2 broadcast channel 3 common control channel 4 dedicated channel
1) Traffic ChannelIt carries speech and data types: > TCH/F (traffic channel full rate) > TCH/H (traffic channel half rate) > TCH/EFR (traffic channel enhanced full rate) 2) Broadcast Channel:It helps the mobile station to orient themselves in the Mobile radio network. Types: > BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel) > FCCH (Frequency Control Channel) > SCH (Synchronization Channels) > CBCH (Cell Broadcast Channel) 3) Common Control Channel:It operates in one direction of transmission, either in Uplink or downlink. Types: > PCH (Paging Channel) > AGCH (Access Grant Channel) > RACH (Random Access Channel)

4) Dedicated Control Channel:It is used for signaling between the BTS and a certain Mobile Station. types: > SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel) > FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel) > SDCCH (Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------There are in all 12 types of logical channels in GSM, of which two are used for traffic; nine used for “control signalling” and one used for message distribution (CBCH). These 9 control channels are subdivided into 3 groups Broadcast Channel (BCH, Downlink Only): FCCH, SCH and BCCH. Common Control Channel (CCCH): PCH, RACH and AGCH. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH): SDCCH, SACCH and FACCH. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------