The Order of Saint Lazarus and the Crusades Author(s): Malcolm Barber Source: The Catholic Historical Review

, Vol. 80, No. 3 (Jul., 1994), pp. 439-456 Published by: Catholic University of America Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25024318 Accessed: 08/09/2009 12:33
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in the University is a reader in medieval of Reading. cerned are four: the Hospitallers. 676. the Teutonic Knights. granted by of Constance. was possessed of the same kind of privileges granted.1 The orders con he said. been the occasion past. Joseph Delaville 1980) (hence no.The Catholic Review Historical VOL. 2487. *Mr. 3 THE ORDEROF SAINTLAZARUS AND THE CRUSADES BY Malcolm Barber* in the cartulary of the Hospital. Moreover. There Innocent inwhich and the Knights of Saint Lazarus. Barber xCartulaire 439 . history de l'Ordre des Hospitaliers de Saint Jean de J?rusalem 1100 g?n?ral Le Roulx (Paris. Bishop-elect the pope restrains certain religious orders from exercising their rights to celebrate Mass and bury the dead in their own ceme the diocese was under interdict. 1310. reprint Munich. p. to the Templars over a century before. The exemptions and power of the first three are well known. since it is grouped with the three great military orders of the age. no. ?d. March 1256). Such actions had in the teries while of much discord. IV. p. the Templars. it was presumably regarded by the pope as an order of the same kind as these. to Ebrard. LXXX JULY. Other references in the papal registers of the thirteenth century is a privilege IV in October. 1894. 1994 No. 1248. Vol. 812 (Alexander forth Cart). 2. conspicuous Saint Lazarus. 2806. for example. but here it can be seen that a much less of lepers known as the Order of the community order. Cf.

II. as well for the order's support. "Recherches de Normandie. Alexander IV. ^Fragment de Marsy. Arthur d'un Cartulaire de l'Ordre de Saint-Lazare. . no. Annales 33 (1983).. reprint New York. thesis. pp. sur l'ordre de Saint-Lazare en Nor de J?rusalem 4See Andr? Mutuel." 5 One possible earlier reference of a cistern by an Armenian monk called Abraham. Vol. The confirmation that they were situated on the pilgrim route between the Mount of an estate which 2See below. I. The Armenian monk.3 Normandy.440 AND THE CRUSADES THEORDEROF SAINTLAZARUS IVwere partic confirm this: Innocent IV. p. 123.D." This grant must fall within the patriarchate Iof Jerusalem between ofWilliam 1130 and 1145. they administered eight houses. Contribution ? l'histoire de l'Ordre de Saint-Lazare en France and and John Walker."6 These is quite explicitly documents suggest that a hospitaller order caring mainly or exclusively for lepers was establishing itself in the Kingdom of Jerusalem during re the 1 ISO's." en Terre Sainte. no. became a dependent. For evidence University Cart." ?d. its origins are very obscure. 2135. and Clement in their efforts to encourage contributions from the ularly assiduous as making over certain categories of papal revenues faithful. the brothers of Saint Lazarus held lands inmost of the countries of western Christendom. King Fulk. p. see in Hungary. Here the concession to "the house of the lepers of Saint Lazarus. Abraham. 1884. for the ceiving victuals and clothing during his lifetime in exchange cistern. The Patronage the (Paris. 497. was firmly established Although thirteenth century. Perhaps he had become leprous and had found it difficult to of 1142 shows remain within his own community. 2 (Paris. of their establishment 1990). although not endowed on the same scale as the other three orders. ranging from England to in In some areas they were particularly well established.4 in the mid the order. Andrews. with the approval the Kingdom of Jerusalem. mandie. 2. for example. pp.. m Archives de l'Orient latin. Vol. of St. Baldwin. 1978). de J?rusalem 3See Ren? P?tiet. conceded of Saint Lazarus and the convent of the sick who are called miselli. which the Red Cistern on the road which between the Mount of Olives and is the grant leads to the River Jordan. is gave them in alms. 1914). to "the church of Queen Melisende and their son. Hungary. of the Templars in England in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Order of St Lazarus Centuries (Ph. 121-142. 123-124. no.. therefore. Hbid.2 The popes were indeed correct to see the order in these terms for. who had held it Baldwin of Caesarea "for the use of the poor. The first clearly dated to it in the surviving fragment of its cartulary is in 1142 in reference In that year.

restored in Monumenta Germaniae Rerum Mero Hist?rica. that a leper house existed at this spot in the early thus suggesting ed. John Wilkinson 1099-1185. by Society. (London. caps. in the sixth century. This house abutted the walls of Jerusalem. Soci?t? de l0Chronique d'Ernoul de Guillaume de Tyr de 1229 l'Histoire de France (Paris. Vitry's time. 1885). Gregory of Tours. Krusch. V." no. Louis de Mas Latrie. no. Naaman which "As a type of the purification the Syrian was evident." (RHCr). Vol. Here a postern seems to have led directly from the the Bethlehem city into their hospital. See also The for a discussion 167 [London. 143 and pp. Bishop of Acre between to bathe in the Jordan. 128. 125-127. 498-499. pp. 1 (Hanover. where they would have been well placed to travel to bathe in the sup alms and from which they might gather curative waters of the River Jordan. on the northwest corner of the city. accounts of pilgrim visitors like John of W?rzburg the on how it was 1216 and 1228. et de Bernard le Tr?sorier. vingicarum. Although by John Wilkinson after 1157 it appears to have been derived from the this passage dates from sometime on Geography. Ill." regenerative was to come. since Gregory lepers traveled to the East in the hope of gaining a cure by bathing in the Jordan at the place of Christ's to know of a leper from Gaul. Vol. although not mentioned During or Theoderich. Pilgrims' The tradition was well Vol. p. 1871 ). described the Carnes of Vitry. Palestine [2 Kings 5]. 124-125. pp. 11 (London. 2 (Paris. baptism beyond child. 1130's. de Rothelin. had been ed. n"Fragment.9 It seems likely too that by this time they in the house mentioned established by the Old French contin as existing in 1187." Work . Aubrey Text Stewart. pp. and his flesh came again in the flesh of a little of the leprosy cleansed tr. A reference seems to have of Tancred and the Gate of St. 16-18. dite du manuscrit des Croisades. p. called John. an event custom of pilgrims was The consonance which had "bestowed power upon all its waters. In 1148 the family confirmed of ten carucates of land "beside (secus) the walls of Jerusalem. 130-131. Continuation in Recueil ? 1261. Liber in Gloria Martyrum.BYMALCOLM BARBER 441 and the Jordan.7 Two years later the order posedly had built a house on the site and had begun the cultivation of vines. Scriptorum Vol. p. of Tours describes how. pp. 1859). between the Tower in the anonymous Work on Geography. Indeed. des Historiens Oc cidentaux situated been to "a dwelling for lepers. 1988]). ed. he claimed Jericho." who to health as a result. History of Jerusalem. of the source. Jonathan Riley-Smith Atlas of the Crusades. in these waters. VII. pp.10 The site seems to have been granted to them the order in possession by the Ibelins.500 besants and a horse for thirteen carucates of land Olives were Plain. 500. no. Stephen. ?"Fragment.8 land else enough to purchase By 1150 the brothers were wealthy where. when Saladin conquered uation of Ernoul-Bernard the city. Bruno 9lbid. 12-15 ed. established 1896)."11 in the next forty years the order. Jerusalem Pilgrimage (Hakluyt Society. giving 1. 44-45. 200. which has been reconstructed included can be dated between in a version which 1128 and 1137. 1991). p. sanctified by the baptism of Christ.

141-142. no. the interest of the royal house and the great cartulary which barons can be seen. no. pp. 139. but some months later his wife. . (1164). pp. and Amalric all made as did Queen Melisende. 135 (1159). p. pp.14 Hugh. 129-130 pp. pp. granted the order an annual rent of fifteen Maria. revenues IX.. VIII. and Acre. and Hugh of Ibelin contributed lands near Jerusalem. 128-129 no. 128 xlIbid. p. Kings Fulk. Rainier seen.. refers to the fact that his brother.16 and in 1170 Walter. Walter. pp. gave the brothers half of 1164. the Ibelins. pp. 127 (1148). In March. VI. Prince of Galilee.12 A particularly donations. 145-146(1174).. among other donations. XV. 140 no. (1151). x6Ibid. XXVII. "Ibid. (1155). no. Toron. XXIX. was already a does not say explicitly member of the order. Eustace. XXVII. and his family granted them a rent at Tiberias. no. no. Ermengarde. 136-137. interesting ex ample is Amalric's grant of. XXVI. '?Ibid. and Ramla to the growing no. XXIII. XXVIII. no. too. 124-125 no. This was in must have been about the time that the king became own son's infirmity. pp. Caesarea. an annual rent of fifty besants transferred 1171 which aware of his to be specifically for the support of one leper. no.17 As has been involved: between 1148 and 1169. no. no.. no. Tiberias. domina of Beirut. XXI. II..15 Between and 1183 the lords of Toron. Galilee. Walter the vintage from a vineyard cultivated by a certain Master Lambert. Baldwin III. died later that year. VII. XIV.. Toron. (1150). in fact. p. no.made grants from their various prop Humphrey erties in Hebron." order. although the document Eustace was a leper. 141. pp. 130-131 no. as well as the Count of Tripoli. XXIV. 143-144. pp. 134-135 134 (1155). pp. the money to another when the original recipient died. II Brisebarre. Jaffa. 144-145. were Viscountess of Ramla. besants on the revenues of a casal called Musecaqui.13 The great barons of the twelfth century are also well represented. 123-124 (1142). and Nablus. no. X. (1144). 133 (1151). Ill. since a donation lord of Caesarea. 146-147 pp. by chance. lord of Beirut. that 1148 II and Humphrey IV. p. no. had a similarly close connection. pp. survives. (1183). xHbid. "if. Four years later III gave a further forty besants to be taken annually on the Walter derived from his money-changing rights at Beirut. of Tiberias.442 AND THE CRUSADES THE ORDEROF SAINTLAZARUS became nevertheless important to the resident families increasingly Even from the small part of the order's of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. XXII. of 1160. no. XVI. for the lords of Beirut. that he might enter the the donation with the possibility concluding I should wish to renounce the secular life. xiIbid. p. XVIII. p. all had links with the order. no. (1150). 144-145 (1171). pp.

125-127 (1148). 1050-1310 in Jerusalem and Cyprus The Knights (London. no. pp. Regesta Regni Hiero R?hricht 1893. pp. no. XXV. but the personal links in the donations of Walter Brisebarre. 267 22See Steven 1099-1291 L'Ordre (1982). RRH. 21On this see the fundamental les autres. 150-151. Grand Master of the Hospital c. no. donated Temple. pp. vicomte I960). 154. 133-134. p.. The histories lepers. (Innsbruck. similar to those linked to the Templars. p. reprint New York. 582. no. Vol. no. of St John of the Temple 180. 13-23. century. Grand Preceptor (1277). for example. which Most of the donors give conventional are largely for the souls of departed relatives. XXX. Gilbert 24"Fragment. 367. suggesting confrater estates of some kind.20 reasons for their grants. both of whom were close ties with the native Latin aristocracy. XXXVI. the fact that the names of two thirteenth-century Walter Neuf and Rainaud of Fleury. 155. p." no. 1179-c. (1242-1258). Monarchy see Jonathan Riley-Smith. no. is described twenty besants to be taken on the funda a lay associate that he had become of the order. 132-133 (1154). no. of ." no. in a donation of as a of Tripoli. no.. This same lordship 23"Fragment. 657. together the casal of Zaythar. 1989). (RRH). no. XXXV. 20Ibid. pp. XIII. probably succeeded Walter of Chastel to have been related to the family which held the office of in Acre. pp. and Arnald.22 complicated in the order's cartulary in 1228 is a request for the Emperor appearance IV of Toron to Frederick II to confirm the grant made by Humphrey Saint Lazarus in 118323 Rainaud of Fleury. p. "Des l?preux latin de J?rusalem. suggest in a very of the lordships of Toron and Chastel Neuf are interlinked and it is surely no coincidence that Walter's manner. l9Ibid. pp.BYMALCOLM BARBER 443 of the order. in the thirteenth of the military two other orders also produced leading members Tibbie. 147-148. pp. c. who appears in two charters as master of Saint Lazarus. Hugh of Caesarea. 186. p. 1186. later Master of the ten carucates of land and with his family.18 In 1153 Philip of Nablus. he of 1234. of Acre. no. 152-153. XXXVII. WUliam. article de on the order dans Saint-Lazare by Shulamith le royaume Shahar. 153. suggested and Raymond of Tripoli open the possibility that the order acted as a for Latin settlers in the kingdom who had become respectable refuge in the light of afflicted by leprosy..21 This seems all the more probable masters of the order. pas comme Revue historique. XIV. Fleury. 1. 142 143(1169). pp. pp.19 In 1185 Raymond of Tripoli.24 This close-knit." 19-41. V. XXXIV. Reinhold solymitani 1413. ed. See. 175. 1967). sometimes xenophobic community in the region and favored Saint Lazarus because leprosy was endemic to the the Latins were therefore far more aware of their susceptibility vicomte seems l*Ibid. in the Latin Kingdom and Lordships of Jerusalem (Oxford.

who. (London. leprosy in the Kingdom there being no known provision for leprous women. In 1159 Queen Meli disease than their contemporaries sende granted the order a gastina called Betana specifically to sustain an additional a donation the existing complement. XVI. p. no. 19 in c. pp. The Feudal Nobility and the Kingdom 1174-1277 1973). regarding to the knight's entry into the Temple." "where it is established His wife should enter a convent and their property should devolve upon their heirs. 43-44. The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jeru A Corpus. for contemporaries she enter a convent may have had added importance In the twelfth as a male seems to have been regarded of Jerusalem century. for instance. a monastery was expected to lead a chaste whose had entered life thereafter. 239-240. ed. It is reasonable no. pp. leaving her in the care of a local monastic house at Dijon.444 THEORDEROF SAINTLAZARUS AND THE CRUSADES in the West. which provided that a knight or sergeant who became leprous should join the Order of Saint Lazarus. Soci?t? de l'Histoire de France (Paris. 1993). (Paris. in an appropriate house. Hugh of Caesarea and the Templars were prepared Outremer and his family. Marquis d'Albon 1119F-1150. p. Lois." in RHCr. 1130. and his daughters l'ordre This de Temple since his about contemporary confusion charter says much leprosy. of Jerusalem.27 Itwas a refuge for which both the families of compelled to pay.25 leper beyond that the support of lepers in the kingdom was a growing which suggests and visible problem. to transfer to Saint Lazarus Those refused 1886)." the land. . On the ambiguity exact nature of the gastina is not clear. upon their lord. just to colonized by the Franks. although they were not to be to do so. The a piece of uncultivated probably humeria and Parva Mahumeria. A woman 26"Le Livre au Roi. p. gave an orchard and two houses. one of which was formerly owned by his brother who was now a member to pay for the upkeep of the order.. 1913). 636-637. However. wife's ailment was no barrier 21 La R?gle du Temple. or failing heirs. in these cases. It seems that ""Fragment. Vol.26 For the Templars their Rule shows that leprous there was an equally explicit provision: brothers could transfer to Saint Lazarus. leprous brothers who were to live apart from the other Templars. Cartulaire g?n?ral de ed. Henri de Curzon. Vol. were to be held free of service while and were they were adjacent that the aim was to establish Denys Pringle suggests occupied by the brothers. 28As the houses actually a house salem. This idea is supported by the late twelfth-century law code known as the Livre au Roi. pp. the order would continue although required to maintain them. 1841). since there was a prevalent belief usually religious that women the disease the provision that could transmit through sexual intercourse. XXVII. that people with such an illness should be.28 while the Templars continued to suppose that of sick brothers sent to Saint Lazarus. which were settlements the order was was to develop or redevelop expected see Jonathan Riley-Smith. The difference disease. 135. in the treatment of men and women is underlined by the case of the Burgundian knight entered the Temple after his wife had contracted leprosy. 1 (Paris. of Saint Lazarus in Caesarea. husband of the term. but it land dependent upon the villages of Magna Ma the north of Jerusalem. 180. 1 (Cambridge.

Count of Nevers. the striking difference being that. p. which was to choose a master who was a miles leprosus. ficum no. XI. give only a glimpse of the extent lord of the problem." no." The existence of healthy vowed to charitable service. 1857). vol. 153. Elie Berger ("Biblioth?que ser. unconnected with the Order of Saint to these two houses in the will of Odo. and King Baldwin IV. 131. at the request of the brothers. no. the pope's concession gave them the right to elect as master "any healthy knight from among the brothers of the house. Innocent IV released them from the custom hitherto observed. of the needs de Nevers. where he is called simply Bartholomew. "saving the rule of your house. referred to in bulls of IV in 1247 and Alexander IV eight years later. p. Vol. first referred to in 1153. *Reg. laid down the necessity of to the archbishop in matters regarding and his successors obedience the property concerned. for among the witnesses to a grant of 1148 29Further evidence of houses the legacies in August. 3. X. "which you [the brothers of Saint and followed up to this time. and H. 602. it needs to be defined Peter of Limoges. 2 [Paris. the master was himself a leper. and that for the Latin population Saint Lazarus. like those of Robert the Leper. IV. de la Soci?t? Nationale des Antiquaires 199."31 At Lazarus] assert to have professed the head of the Order was a master. died See at Acre at Bethlehem la succession de France. pp. et Privilegiorum Diplomatum . there at least a partial solution. comte ^"Fragment. the existence Lazarus. houses contemporary until 1253."33 Membership had probably been open to the healthy throughout the Order's existence. des Ecoles fran 1. S. is similar to the organization of brothers. 32"Fragment.BYMALCOLM BARBER 445 cases of leprosy in the East. can be seen in of the leper community and Beirut. in the West. offered Since the order seems to have performed such an important function more closely. 6204. ?d. Fory. Taurinensis Editio. d'Eudes. Alexander Innocent IV's bull in fact confirmed this Rule. XXXVII. 3." M?moires no. Vol. Archbishop of Caesarea. who et comptes "Inventaire de 1266. He was able to do this since the members were not exclusively lepers. 1884]).32 Until 1253 the masters were them selves lepers." 51LesRegistres ?aises d'Ath?nes Bullarium 476?477. [henceforth BEFAR]. Sanctorum Romanorum Ponti H. for Humphrey of Toron's grant of 1183 refers to "all serving God in this house."30 This appears to have been the adaptable Augustinian Rule. Franco." while the lepers and "others serving God there. 154. Inn rv. 3156. Dalmazzo (Turin. well-known of Zerdana. for at that time. d'Innocent et de Rome" p. There may too have been a class of brother priests. ?d. both sick and in 1234 Archbishop to Peter had made his donation healthy. In 1234 a grant of in Outremer.29 fore. Alphonse-Martial Chazaud. p. 32(1871). no.

horrible to say. a confirmation of by King Amalric on royal expeditions. 153. pp.35 The interest taken in the order by the families archbishop of the Kingdom of Jerusalem ensured that this structure rested upon a modest economic base during the twelfth century. however. shows that the brothers were drawing revenues father. of Nazareth. although there. Benjamin Z.. confirmed of Humphrey II of 1151. and indeed its occupants were therefore. "the water mixed with the blood and discharge moved him to nausea. Raymond-Roupen IV of Toron. of a grant by his grand 1216 by Ramond-Roupen." servorum ed. 154-155. By 1187 it had agricultural estates and vineyards.36 Prince of Antioch. Ralph. mar in or near most of the important centers of kets. Kedar. Nevertheless..446 THEORDEROF SAINTLAZARUS AND THE CRUSADES of the church of Saint Lazarus."38 It was probably devotion of some importance. De conversatione Dei. ports. a Frankish nobleman in the mid-twelfth century. the donation once more no. from 34"Fragment. *Ibid. was that of Alberic."34 but is one "Frederick. 140. was the son of Princess Alice of i7Ibid. Twelfth-Century the lepers.37 the order was itself established During the twelfth century the house of Saint Lazarus at Jerusalem. The most spectacular originally pilgrims votion to the lepers. since in the thirteenth garded in century they held a church of their own. who "ate those the lepers had left. XXII. who became a Templar. VI. XXXVIII. 149-150. that of Saint Lawrence the village of Painperdu. became intent on per of pious men sometimes the object of the devotions service to the lepers. took away not the least such as this which attracted the part. it remains likely. Alice successfully claimed Armenia. p. capellanus is both isolated and ambiguous it cannot be re since this reference as certain. made their beds. and carried the weak washed on top of his shoulders. who was a niece of Humphrey lordship over Toron in 1229 and. kissed each one daily after Mass. north of Caesarea. *Ibid. and coinage. XXXVI. pp. things which and wiped their feet. Gerard of Nazareth." After he had washed their feet. a familiar sight. described Bishop of Latakia between two of whom. Bohemond there is no evidence that from Antioch from at least 1201. no. p. p. Writer in the Latin East. granted to them by the in 1235. In 1164 itwas even granted a tithe of slaves captured the kingdom. XXXII. no. showing the links between this family and "Fragment. were case of de the West. 127. but he at once immersed his face and. In addition. in 1234. and incomes from tithes. III. rents. no. through forming penance three such cases 1139 and 1161. and Bartholomew." no." Dumbarton A Neglected "Gerard of Nazareth. Gerard in ..

16-17. Virginia G. no.. XXXV. Master of Saint Lazarus. Papers. he now exchanged for an estate on the royal demesne at Boigny." 42Ibid. which is attested by "the Templar of Tyre. which "at the request and prayer" of the brothers. p. pp. 152-153. ten Hospitallers to stay for up to a year was It is likely that the same privilege to tend extended the sick. 1948). . no. ?d. text is derived from fragments quoted by the Cen visit to the leper colony 39"Fragment. 245. Orientem. Cart. 527. 150-151. 4iGestes des Chiprois. perhaps with the idea plan to plant houses of creating a network of support for the eastern establishment. pp. Berry (New York. no. which suggests a conscious in the West. forces Oaks 72. p. Vol. Bernard Dichter." no. De Profectione ed. and by early fourteenth-century maps.39 This house became the center of the order's structure in France. XXXVI. An Historical Geography no. at Acre. originally conceived his expedition Back in France.40 and ultimately the order re-established itself at Acre. and tr." who knew the late thir teenth-century city well.BYMALCOLMBARBER 447 attention of King Louis VII during the Second Crusade. Paladin allowed 1. no. 17-18. XII.. the last of which was and Humphrey of Toron made to Rainaud of Fleury. p.41 nevertheless. in 1187 confronted the loss of the city of Jerusalem the However. pp. Gaston Raynaud (Geneva. ^"Fragment. 155-157. pp. XXXIX. pp. 1226 and 1234 they received between confirmations the properties of granted to them by Walter Brisebarre in the twelfth century. 150. of Acre. to the Order of no. Although there is no clear evidence of Saint Lazarus at Acre until 1240.42 The existence of a Gate of Saint Lazarus inMontmusard. Saint Lazarus. Saladin probably gave them a year to organize their evacuation. p. See also the maps of Marino Sa?udo (probably and Paolino V?neto. Therefore. David Jacoby has shown that sometime between 1198 and 1212 the defenses of Acre had been greatly strengthened by the building of a new outer wall around the city's landward side. 132. Odo of Deuil. XXXIII. The 37 (1983). he recalled that he had granted the house ten livres of rent while he had been on crusade. turiators of Magdeburg in 1569.43 rein the case for believing that the order established itself there quite soon after 1187. by Pietro Vesconte) The Maps 22-30. for he had in terms of a penitential pilgrimage. Louis had made a conspicuous at Paris before Ludovici VII in setting out on crusade. when the in the northern suburb of Montmusard boundaries of their property were defined. XXXIV. as the other Latin institutions based the same problems order with there. it seems certain that they had set up a house of some kind there well before 1240. 1887). (Acre. 1973). near Orl?ans. in an act dated 1154. 153. p. 847.

but in 1155 the ample. p. no." 44David Jacoby. and Raymond ed." no. IX. Vol. Kedar. There is. in 1264." while an act of 1164 speaks only of their "clois the walls of Jerusalem. . 3. 1982). Benjamin C. included them in a list of religious houses bequeathed All various items of clothing." during 47"Fragment. Acre: The First Stage of its De Suburb of Crusader in the History of the Crusading ofjerusalem Kingdom Z.46 Templar documents. in the Latin Kingdom pp. IXmade a general appeal for aid for the order to clear 1234.47 The compilers ter" contiguous with of the au Roi.45 so far suggests a hospitaller discussed order of a both in the early date of its specialization unconventional kind. BEFAR. for ex show the order's fighting role from the outset. p. 48"Livre au Roi. 1896). 3105. situated just in front of the area delineated by the donation of 1240. no. ser. 636. slightly and in the choice of a master who was a leper. Lucien p. of active (stre have velopment. evidently believed that Livre 1198 leprous entrants to the order were no longer able to fight." p.48 However. in to which he had 1266. Despite their lack of military success. The last known gifts which the brothers received at Acre can be found in two wills: those of Saliba. Mayer. the First Period of the Frankish Conquest. ed. inOutremer.. 134. and Hospital ^See Jean Richard. 205-217. 942. Chazaud. ^Cart. Auvray. no. and of Odo. 91. Gregory conventual debts in the in the "defense of the Holy Land. defenses. since they were required to provide substitutes in for this purpose. Studies to foshua Prawer."49 while contracted 1240's and 1250's narrative sources show that the brothers made a series of spectacular?perhaps disastrous would be a better word? in military affairs.448 This involved AND THE CRUSADES THEORDEROF SAINTLAZARUS line around the growing suburb of erecting a double had previously been too insignificant which for such Montmusard. who. as "serving God in a brothers of Saint Lazarus are simply described manner. presented Smail (Jerusalem. interventions in 1255 Pope Alexander IV still described them in what appears to been their own terms as "a convent of nobles. p. dated between and 1205. left them six besants. Congregations "Hospitals in Outremer. "Montmusard. 1 (Paris. 2. 198. who.44 The Gate of Saint Lazarus was the most northerly of the three gates in the Montmusard section. 89-100. Count of Nevers. and in this sense markedly different from the evidence founded to shelter the sick and pilgrims the many small establishments in the twelfth-century Latin kingdom. XV. Vol. pp. a Syrian merchant from Acre and confrater of the Hospitallers. to suggest that it was in in the twelfth-century documents nothing fact a military order as well. however. 49LesRegistres de Gr?goire 1708. op. p. cit. XXII. 140. Hans E.

p. C. 57 (Lon 54Matthew Paris. ChHstianorum. 51See The New Encyclopaedia 15th ed. p. Steven Runciman. Chronique. Vol. of the kingdom. 149. at La Forbie.21-2 (22-3). and Auguste Coulon. 7 (1986). 1880).52 While these may have in the early stages of the disease been exceptional individuals. p. where types of leprosy are described. shows its full effects only disease which. 621-622. Vol. Rolls Series. pp. Vol. no. Matthew Paris claims that they took part in Louis IX's Egyptian campaign between 1248 and 1250 (a seems to be confirmed by Louis IX's grant to them of a claim which in Damietta in 1249). Hitti (Princeton. Manpower military the order contained the fit as well as the sick. of the Crusades. 21. . "La fondation d'une don. Vol. when. Corpus LXIIIA (Turnhout. Con See also 419 420. in a brief but graphic passage. p. then it can or even improve. 2. leprosy is a in some cases. Or."50 The adoption of this role seems to have been a response to the deteriorating had always been short. Giuseppe Scalia (Bari. par saint Louis: Damietta. Gentleman and Warrior in Ibn-Munqidh. see Usamah 52For Robert. 990-992. 196. indeed. BEFAR. ed. Chronica. 417. 1966).. An Arab-Syrian tr. Henry R. 255. progressive after many years. in Damietta. "Extraits de la Chronique d'Alep. Moreover. Vol. and indeed those from the would knightly classes might combat could bring.BYMALCOLM BARBER 449 nuorum) knights and others both healthy and leprous. Joseph de Loye. 3 (Paris."53 Nevertheless. 1. Roben de Tyr. 5. while King Baldwin IV led the Frankish army on several occasions. ser. reprint London.54 and. 1986). CXX(1962). Luard. Huygens. 1884). Charles Bourel. (1177). pp. 1987). Chronica Majora. men still have been capable of fighting. 1. "all the leper knights of the house of Saint Lazarus were killed. A History Vol. house how in 1252 the Master of Saint Lazarus and his Joinville describes men attempted a chevauch?e near Ramla in the hope of collecting Les Registres d'Alexandre IV. 122. ed. 432. if it is of the tuberculoid type. Britannica. still have desired the dignity and prestige which A need for all available manpower arose in 1244. 2 (Cambridge. for their house ?glise latine en Orient 41. 53. "Salimbene de Adam. 404. B. Guillaume tinuatioMedievalis. Micropaedia. ed. of the Crusades. The crushing defeat sustained there devastated the fighting to a letter of Robert of Nantes. 441. for example. see Jean Richard." Biblioth?que de l'?cole des Chartes.51 In 1119 Robert of Zerdana was remain quiescent still leading his troops in battle despite the fact that he was well known to be a leper even by his Muslim opponents. according strength Patriarch of Jerusalem. Pierre de Cenival. p. the two main 287. in RHCr. ed. Philip K. [existing] for the purpose of driving out the enemies of the Christian name. and situation in the East. the Period 1929. 1952)." For Baldwin the battle of Montgiscard see. and Kemal ed-Din. the crusaders met the Egyptian forces in the greatest battle since Hattin. pp.

125-127. 7. it is possible that become this is the same Bartholomew recorded as master of Saint Lazarus in water are much with the Hospital 1153. Histoire de Saint Louis. there is no explicit reference utes. connections Saint Lazarus may have taken in leprous Hos less evident. to the lepers rather than fighting lowed to spend his time ministering to bring for the faith. of Historical no. no. and the Templars the Hospitallers were accustomed in the form of confraternities. 2nd ed."59 Although in all necessities whom he maintained abandoned this life to Gerard of Nazareth says that he eventually a monk on the Black Mountain at Antioch. was accustomed from the ponds with great labor to the lepers at Jerusalem. but were so strongly attacked by the Muslims a contingent them escaped. ^"Fragment. ed. Presumably the Hospital could provide facilities lacking in the "Jean de Joinville. 57Both crusading evolution Note societies pp. Vol.58 Moreover. (Paris. p. largely composed not have seemed all that unusual. p. on Confraternities Bulletin see Riley-Smith. 301-308. his brother-in-law. 294-297.56 It is probable to take on that they had originally been encouraged functions by their close association with the Templars. Innocent IV issued the bull allowing a non-leper to become master. one of the three devotees of the lepers described Bartholomew. as far as he could. client so the of Jerusalem. pp. Natalis de Wailly. by was himself a Templar. one of whom is again Andrew of Montbard.57 Tem military in two of the few surviving twelfth-century chart plars are prominent ers: the confirmation of Barisan of Ibelin in 1148 of the donation made was sealed by the Templars by Rainier of Ramla. "That man. 1874). V." Louis house have been miserably in the same year. request to be free of taxes and restrictions allowed to send a vessel to Aigues-Mortes almost certainly arose from the same circumstances. 129-130.On the other hand. 540-542. paras. 1045. who was apparently al Gerard of Nazareth." in the Latin Kingdom 44 (1971). "A of the Institute . shortly after the Ramla incident.450 THEORDEROF SAINTLAZARUS AND THE CRUSADES that only four of booty." 59Gerard of Nazareth. Joinville personally of Hospi gathered in order to gain revenge. "since all the leper knights of the said killed by the enemies of the faith. the hand of Peter. pp. in 1253. imitating Alberic. ^Gallia Christiana. Research. while Humphrey of Toron's grant of 1151 has three Templar Templars. and five other and witnessed by Andrew of Montbard. Although to this in the Hospitaller stat pitallers.55 The fighting strength tallers and Templars of the order had by this time been thoroughly undermined and. 72." "through the seneschal. IX. of Saint Lazarus would to maintaining of burgesses. witnesses. brother and chaplain of their knighthood. with the brothers' IX's compliance.

229 (statutes of Hugh Revel. no. indeed. . and the lane which to the sea near the house of Nicholas the Englishman on If in the future the brothers intended to sell any buildings. tallers.63 It is not surprising. 3396. pp. the Templars still provided support for their former brother." cl. which does not as in the appear to have been true in the twelfth century. For their part the Templars guaranteed descended the south. 26 (ii) (1889). situated immediately behind the section of the walls of Montmusard labeled Custodia Tem plariorum on the northwest corner. together with the Gate of Saint Lazarus. for he went with all his clothes. 745.BYMALCOLM BARBER 451 Temple. p. 90-91. it is noticeable but kept separate from other brothers. Master of the Temple. cit. a donkey. 3 (Paris. 5. Here. strife known and 1258. pp.65 become obligatory for in the twelfth century he had retained his right to refuse. the house of Saint Thomas Martyr on the north. 1899). However. pp. An 197? 63Dichter." no. 6. for an annual rent of fifteen besants they received an area bounded by the public road on the east. the site on behalf of the master all persons of the world. 1270). One concession included was that they should have free access to a Templar water cistern situated on the other side of the public road next to the Templars' to defend and maintain house. In them to establish themselves 1240 it was the Templars who helped at Montmusard. was obliged to take shelter from the Pisan war engines in the house of Saint Laz so close that it had ties had become arus. "Un nouveau manuscrit de la R?gle la Soci?t? de l'Histoire de France. several of the other smaller hospitaller foundations within thatwhereas of Jerusalem were absorbed by the Hospi the Kingdom eventually of them. a slave. Paris.60 Moreover. Gestes des Chiprois. pp. Le Roulx. whereas This change might well reflect a perception that Saint Lazarus was an similar in kind to the Templars by this time. 98-99. p. ^Matthew 65Joseph Delaville de nuaire-Bulletin 198. Vol. 153. then the Templars would have first refusal. "Hospitals. XXXIX. and fifty besants. du Temple. order to find the Order of Saint Lazarus as the War of Saint Sabas between involved in the civil ^Cart.64 By the late 1260's the a leprous Templar to transfer to Saint Lazarus.Richard."62 The and brothers early of Saint Lazarus "against maps show fourteenth-century this area. the sea on the west. thus leprous Hospitallers were fed and clothed by their Order. Vol. 155-157 loc. in 1258 1256 during this conflict Thomas B?rard. para. therefore. 17. past.61 the Order of Saint Lazarus remained independent The Templar links are equally evident in the thirteenth century. XIV." 62"Fragment.

2341. ed. order the help of the Holy quite impossible for the order to recover without a hundred-day See. 404. 476-477. pp. of the pagans by it was forcing them into a state of extreme poverty. Vol. PV. Vol. and indeed. 1. pp. Vol. IV. . Innocent the thirteenth century. nevertheless. redemptions).69 Such help was readily forthcoming: indulgence to the order (a fivefold increase on to those who would contribute from usurers in cases where the 1234 offer). 2340. no. 67Reg. PV. The efforts of Innocent for the crusade are described of crusade vows in 1262. p. 122. IV. seems to have been defined as lay absolution. grant of the right of advowson no. Greg.67 In 1247 Innocent IV gave the give master the further privilege of absolving brothers who had incurred excommunication for violent acts. p. no. BEFAR. 89-106. of income 114-115. 1901 ). to lift canonical restrictions and the Crusader III and Honorius Powell. 3156. Essays by Henry James 69Reg Alex. Medieval Law Canon 1969). III to find new sources for the pope's efforts notable III. Consequently. Vol.71 supervision. had fallen into the hands of war. 1942).66 Gregory possible to those who would included grants of a twenty-day indulgence to the order or its collectors. and income from redemption up to the value of 200 marks of silver. no. the papacy paid 1248. IV placed them under the sole jurisdiction of the removed them from diocesan patriarch of Jerusalem. of course. throughout particular attention to the needs of the brothers. pp. proceeds of confiscations the original owners could not be found. One of his bulls. 61. In this case papal help took the form of the over the church of Galby in Lincolnshire. 2. "The Absolution Writings Charles Lea. 1. Urban by 1213-1221 1986). compare with Saint Lazarus' contingent the three leading military orders for the defense by IV had regarded them as a group in of Acre.452 The AND THE CRUSADES THEORDEROF SAINTLAZARUS could not. p. fiscations. 2 (Paris. a policy in keeping resources with for the crusade on the the papal desire to mobilize the forces mustered widest 1234 IX's appeal for aid for the order in scale. in Minor Historical and Other Formula of the Templars. 722-723 (con 70Reg Alex. d'Urbain 71LesRegistres 157. ^Reg Inn. 1708. 97-112. of a Crusade. 1. Howland (London." Lea. ed. 722 (indulgence). a decree which in particular the bishop of Acre. p. made clear the reason for papal concern: following the reversals 1255. no. ^The key pontificate is that of Innocent on crusading. an interesting concession in view leaders during the trial of the confusion exhibited by the Templar over what. IX. the greater part of their possessions or had been occupied the enemies of the Church. pp. ser. Wisconsin. in March. Arthur C. Anatomy (Philadelphia. at that time. (Madison. particularly see James Brundage.68 Alexander Apparently in encouraging IVwas particularly the faithful to see the assiduous as a worthy object of their charity. the Templars did not possess such a privilege. no.70 Moreover. 2. 942. Jean Guiraud. pp. Vol. see Henry Charles For the Templars.

Josef Fleckenstein Ritterorden and Europas. and that the brothers had been forced to have recourse to the papacy in an attempt to gain redress." ed.72 seems to have been intended as a summary of the his pontificate. seem to have been less than assiduous The brothers of Saint Lazarus had. the right to enter churches once a year to collect alms by Pope In nocent (it is not clear whether Innocent III or Innocent IV ismeant). Moreover. right at the beginning of general. 1265. Clement been granted says. to be opened once annually and the divine in the Second Half of and Crusader 72See Joshua Prawer. Politics "Military Orders inDie geistlichen the XIHth century. many of whom. The bull was addressed to all clergy from the level of archpriest upwards. The pope. 217-229. The order had been oppressed ways too: potential recruits had been impeded from joining. . the Saint Lazarus brothers were able to do this only once a it seems too that the order's houses had been pillaged year. (Sigmaringen. Manfred Hellmann 1980)." par as they (the clergy) had daily access to their communities. Clement evidently did not consider that the order had received sufficient support in these circumstances. which the Order of Saint Lazarus had received in the course privileges the pope desired to see reconfirmed of the thirteenth century. One of the reasons for papal intervention order's behalf at this time may have been the need to counter a growth in clerical and public hostility. but "certain of you. and the brothers favor their own communities had been left with little or nothing. rights. Perhaps most controversially the pope insisted upon in areas under interdict. if the pope's perception was cor in defending the order's rect. demanded ticularly whereas that the clergy "receive them kindly and treat them honorably. and they had on the one hand made little effort to apprehend apostates from the order while at the same time impeding priests who wished to join for short-term service of one or two years. papacy were inmany ways the most interesting initiatives taken by the IV during his short pontificate between those of Clement on the 1265 and 1268.BYMALCOLM BARBER 453 However. inflamed with the heat of avarice. pp. therefore. clerics had refused to dedicate oratories of the order. allowing the special rights of the brothers them to bury their dead arrival the churches were on whose and to send in their collectors. tithes on all crops and animals had been demanded despite papal exemption produced by the brothers or at their expense. and were to ensure that the brothers' the clergy were ordered rights in other defended and maintained. which and reinforced.'' had chosen to on the appointed day. the broth ers had been charged for burials contrary to conciliar decrees. itself possibly a side effect of increased discontent western in of the military orders with the effectiveness Clement's bull of April 27.

454 office celebrated.75 to from the episcopacy which especially whom the guard and inspection of leper houses usually appertained. Filangieri (Naples. to the death of Pope Gregory VII in 1085. it is easy to forget that the order was in essence an association of lepers. itwas in fact consistent castra). 2. This was justified in that it in the law of Moses accorded with God's command that expressed extra "all lepers should be expelled the walls" beyond (eiiciantur as this seems at first sight. In one place. vol. 65-66. no. to enforce the decree sAn attempt by Charles of Anjou 1268 and 1272 met with determined opposition. so that individual houses were grouped under specialized that either the papacy or orders. 234. no. 'Ibid. no. as well. both because the order was ever able to turn this decree of the extreme practical difficulties and because of the opposition it must have provoked. between the mid-twelfth THEORDEROF SAINTLAZARUS AND THE CRUSADES friction two privileges which had been a constant source of the secular clergy and the Hospital and Temple since century. in the Kingdom of Sicily See I registri della canceller?a no. 29. pp. IV.. but lepers who considerable degree ran their own affairs. VII. vol. 727-729 Diplomatum. pp. They were. p. raise one final consideration. 105. . or the the donations of the Jerusalem nobility stream of papal privileges in the thirteenth. not simply the recipients of the charity of outsiders nor a means of salvation for the healthy brothers and sisters who might take care of to a them. no. When looking at in the twelfth century. 7. Surprising with the contemporary trend of rationalizing piecemeal for provision the sick. clesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis illustrate this point. moreover. but it does suggest continuing papal support for crusading the Mamluk advance looked during a period when ominous. 1951). pp. he describes how.74 There is no evidence hospitaller into reality. that of the status of the order in Christian society as a whole. Yet many texts could be cited to show that leprosy was regarded with horror and that the word Two such examples from the Ec itself was a means of opprobrium. 274-275. pp. as in the typical leper house in the West. 8. 3. Ricardo angioina. referring in which his body had been washed. "Lepers begged for the water ' Bullarium Vol. 110. institutions increasingly The papal bulls do. between Vol. ed. 742-743.73 This striking reaffirmation of the order's rights was evidently de to Clement's bull of the following August. by signed as a preliminary which he apparently intended that all the lepers of western Christen dom should be gathered under the protection and gover together nance of the Order of Saint Lazarus.

can be made with in contemporary attitudes toward Islam. 166-167. describing it as a punishment of Ralph of Vermandois. Shulamith Shahar argues that the eastern and attitudes toward parts of Christendom displayed contrasting leprosy. bk. "The Leper in Medieval Islamic Society. (Ithaca. The Disease done For the context. writ father. and tr. 132-146. p. p. Baldwin IV. Hermann Damiatina. 1956). however. loc cit. said that. 61-65. 286-287. Ecclesiastical Vol." a monk of the abbey of Gloucester. Micropaedia. having been his tutor when he was a Moreover. Historian boy. a century later. when he describes the apostasy ing as "a leprosy in his soul. 22. which was what the Christian to himself. special East ^ee (Cambridge. Leprosy in Medieval Literature esp. Britannica. be seen as a symbol of sin. 1973). Marjorie Chibnall 77John of Salisbury. X. 76Orderic Vitalis. "Her [England's] whole body is spotted with the leprosy of villany."79 The fact was that leprosy was amuch more in the society of Latin settlers in the East than itwas central problem houses. cap. fashion for founding leper despite the thirteenth-century tends to run in families. The New 1988)." Speculum. bk. reflect a certain a suitable IV was since he was that Baldwin trying to show king. and tr. and Robert Encyclopaedia Islamic practice. ismore mystical.. 1974). Leprosy could (T?bingen. Marjorie Chibnall History. Brody. Historia ed. he quotes from a sermon by Fulchred. pleading. Vol. 4.76 John of Salisbury. of Tyre. Die Schriften Hoogweg. see Comparison leprosy Michael W. pp. see Saul N. New York. pp. William . (London. See Peter W. in Bibliothek des Litterarischen (Oxford. 58 ( 1983). 78OHver of Paderborn. speaking of conditions under William Rufus. Dois. 14. Rowe. Vereins Vol. for the sins of the presents the chronicler of the Fifth Crusade.BYMALCOLM BARBER 455 in itwith faith. 916. vol. sin cut a man off from the Church. he felt a personal affection for him. 5. The archbishop to refrain from tears while said that he found it "impossible speaking of this great misfortune." making a strong association with decay and son the leprosy of the illegitimate sin.. pp. 202 1894). in Stuttgart. p. Edbury and John G. instantly cleansed. 891 seems more practical the approach It would than moralistic.. des K?lner Domscholasters. She calls the brothers of Saint Lazarus. and by God's grace were itwashed and on obtaining In another. who. and London. William of the Latin ^Shahar. "lepers like no others. since it is often contracted Leprosy over a long period of time. 1975. VIII. 200.78 western As a consequence.80 and the by close physical proximity in the West. Historia Pontificalis. In Muslim society to know whether in the East had been the Western be interesting settlers influenced by amount of of Tyre's view does. 287.77 Oliver of Paderborn. and in Egypt had apostate of the Soul." an idea which is of a certain Christian characteristic of ecclesiastical interpretation during this period. ed." to the sympathy shown by William of Tyre toward the and points affliction of the young King of Jerusalem. pp. 7. ed.

" which led to the disastrous foray near Ramla in 1252. xxvi?xxvii. of leprosy were common: favorable interpretations the researches of L?on Le Grand on the statutes of hospitals and leper at the beginning of this century.83 There about is. Power The and Deviance Plot to Overthrow in Western Christen Barber. Equally. since "he went without by the Templars speaking to the king. in the West. Joinville described a situation held no rank in the host. 66 (1981). show the houses in France. Recueil 83See Statuts pp. 950-1250 8ISee Malcolm dom of a Persecuting 1987). therefore. The alleged lepers' plot of 1321 would not have been possible even in people's imaginations had not the leper on the roads a common of France been the papal rec despite sight. ognition of the equality of Saint Lazarus with the three leading military the master of Saint Lazarus as "aman who orders. 28-29. 2 (Oxford. 82Joinville. 73. but who could do as he wished.81 Therefore. d'H?tels-Dieu (Paris. "Lepers. pp. runs through the whole of their history attitudes toward lepers which in the Middle Ages: sympathy for the lepers' plight was not exclusive to the East. 1969). Moore. taking part in everyday activities and moving the countryside. The Formation (Oxford. . Society. while leper Orderic Vitalis could also interpret it as a means provided by God for an ambiguity the purging of past sins. Europe." History. 540. Vol. 1-17. However. ed. 1901). In both areas they might be segregated into special houses or into a particular order.456 THEORDEROF SAINTLAZARUS AND THE CRUSADES families of Outremer them. nor segregation stemming from biblical precept and phys ical repulsion found only in the West. published as "chosen of God" rather than as a Levitical outcast. para."82 Similar independence at about the same time provoked the king into imposing a dramatic and humiliating display of public penitence upon the master. pp. I. the knew very well contrast between that this could happen the East and West can to any of be made too sharp. 296-297. but equally they do appear independent of about any institution. Jews and Moslems: in 1321. p. et de L?proseries. L?on Le Grand Orderic de textes du XIIe au XIVe si?cle. Vitalis.

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