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AMERICAN INDIAN QUOTATIONS

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AMERICAN INDIAN QUOTATIONS
Compiled and Edited by Howard J. hanger

Greenwood Press Westport, Connecticut • London

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data American Indian quotations / compiled and edited by Howard J. Langer. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-313-29121-7 (alk. paper) 1. Indians of North America—Quotations. 2. Indians of North America—History. I. Langer, Howard. PN6081.4.A43 1996 973'.0497—dc20 95-33151 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright © 1996 by Howard J. Langer All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 95-33151 ISBN: 0-313-29121-7 First published in 1996 Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. Printed in the United States of America The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.48-1984). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Photograph of Wilma Mankiller (p. by Ella C. 28). 54). Paintings and photographs of The Four Bears (p. 66) and the medicine man killed at Wounded Knee (p. Jr. 87). 59). renewed and reprinted in 1979 and 1983 by University of South Dakota Press. 387 (1894). SD 57069. Paintings and photographs of Cornplanter (p. courtesy of the Library of Congress. John Ross (p. Richard West. Vermillion. Reprinted with permission. 95). 139). courtesy of the National Museum of the American Indian. Excerpts from "Letter to Georgia Governor Wilson Lumpkin. Spotted Tail (p. Warren. March. 175). 6: 384-5. 156). Captain Jack (p. 180). courtesy of the National Archives. . 75). Warren. Collections. and Jim Thorpe (p. Red Cloud (p. Ouray the Arrow (p. 48). 120). 63). 80). courtesy of the New York Public Library Picture Collection. Sitting Bull (p." by David C. May 18. Washakie (p. Reprinted with permission of Minnesota Historical Society. 12). Dull Knife (p. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell (p. 42). Kicking Bird (p. Quanah Parker (p. Smithsonian Institution. Photographs of Ponca Indians skinning a buffalo (p. courtesy of Wilma Mankiller. 39).S. Excerpts from Speaking of Indians. Used by permission of the University of South Dakota Press. 1935. Excerpts from "Letter to Howard Langer. Black Hawk (p. Ely Parker (p. Copyright 1944 by Friendship Press. Reprinted with permission of David C. 73). and Ira Hayes (p." Georgia Department of Archives and History. 35). 57). 18). Photograph of W.Copyright Acknowledgments The editor and publisher gratefully acknowledge permission for use of the following material: Excerpts from "Chief Big Eagle's Story of the Sioux Outbreak of 1862/' in Minnesota Historical Society. courtesy of Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell. (p. Deloria. 1995. Osceola (p. Photograph of U.

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Alexander and Matthew .For my grandsons.

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Contents Illustrations Acknowledgments Introduction American Indian Quotations Anonymous Quotations. and Proverbs Author Index Subject and Key Word Index Tribe Index xi xiii xvii 1 199 221 225 259 . Prayers.

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Illustrations Cornplanter Black Hawk John Ross The Four Bears Osceola Washakie Dull Knife Ouray the Arrow Red Cloud Spotted Tail Ely Parker 39 42 12 18 28 35 48 54 57 59 63 66 Ponca Indians skinning a buffalo Sitting Bull Kicking Bird Captain Jack Quanah Parker 73 75 80 87 .

Jr. Richard West.xii ILLUSTRATIONS Medicine man killed at Wounded Knee Jim Thorpe Ira Hayes 120 139 156 175 180 95 Ben Nighthorse Campbell W. Wilma Mankiller .

Senator Ben Campbell. Dr. and Harold Foster. The Ramapo Catskill Library System enabled me to obtain books and documents from many sources. cheerleader. Duane King. and the Seneca Nation Library. Robert Robideau. and especially my editor. Linford of the Inter-Tribal Indian Ceremonial Association.) Public Library.Acknowledgments First of all. . as well as the Huntington Library in the Bronx." It is certainly no exaggeration in this case. but also my driver. I am most grateful to the staff of the New City (Rockland County. Hap Gilliland of the Montana Council for Indian Education. the Bureau of Indian Affairs. the West Point Library. She has been not only my chief researcher. It is a cliche to use the phrase. New York. Also. I want to thank Bob Hagelstein. critic. Ruth Ziolkowski of the Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation. Cynthia Harris.S. I am grateful to the following organizations: the National Museum of the American Indian (New York City). the Oklahoma Historical Society. Delores McAuliffe.Y. I would like to acknowledge the assistance of my wife. and best friend. N. Wil Rose of the American Indian Heritage Foundation. Harvey Arden. I worked with the Spring Valley (N. In addition. At Greenwood. Daniel Peaches. the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Florence.Y. Wilma Mankiller. Marilyn Roberts. "without whose help this book would not have been possible. Laurance D. Dr. Jim Sabin. Gaetana DeGennaro. and the National Indian Health Board. Peter Matthiessen.) Public Library. I am grateful to the following individuals: U.

Klein (Todd Publications. 1993). places. Dee Brown. Dockstader (Van Nostrand Reinhold. and Alexander Posey. and Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. 1990). by Barry T. by Duane Champagne (Gale Research.XIV ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Authors who had the greatest influence on me were Vine Deloria. dates. 1994). In addition to the usual encyclopedia sources. Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. by Frederick J. . by Carl Waldman (Facts on File. Peter Matthiessen. The Native North American Almanac. books. Finally.. 1977). I want to thank all those who sent along newspaper and magazine clippings. and tribal names were checked out with such sources as Who Was Who in Native American History. a special note of thanks to Tom Maguire. and video cassettes on Native American history. Jr.

1967. and though it is true that they are naked.They will be powerful people. Fred Last Bull (Cheyenne. by John Stands in Timber and Margot Liberty. yet their manners are decorous and praiseworthy. are these people that I swear to your Majesties there is not in the world a better nation. as well as by every other method that can serve to extirpate this execrable race. but the earth will be dead—all the old trees and grass and animals. They will fly up into the sky. General Jeffrey Amherst (Letter to a subordinate. they will drain the earth and kill it. and their discourse is ever sweet and gentle. edited by Wayne Moquin with Charles Van Doren.) So tractable. and accompanied with a smile. strong. 1732) (Great Documents in American Indian History. 1493) You will do well to try to inoculate the Indians by means of blankets in which smallpox patients have slept. tough. Praeger. Christopher Columbus (Letter to Ferdinand and Isabella. they will dig under the earth.) . 1973. All over the earth they will kill the trees and the grass. undated) (Cheyenne Memories. Yale University Press. I should be very glad if your scheme of hunting them down by dogs could take effect. they will put their own grass and their own hay. so peaceable. They love their neighbors as themselves.

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Introduction It is a common complaint that we do not know very much about "American" history. Americans learned about Indians from stereotyped images: so-called Wild West Shows. What has been missing from our newly acquired knowledge is the human element: men and women fighting for their values. the Pinta. and Western movies. television series on Indian history. In looking back at our past. ideas. their very civilization. and the opening of new national Indian museums have created a greater interest and awareness of Native American culture. the Indian was the bad guy. what can be said about our knowledge of the history of Native American Indians—millions of whom lived here many centuries before Columbus outfitted the Nina." . lurid newspaper accounts. We remember Patrick Henry choosing "liberty or death." Abraham Lincoln promising "a new birth of freedom. There is certainly a greater sensitivity to the major trends in Native American history: the massive invasion from Europe. If that criticism is valid. Invariably." Franklin Roosevelt challenging that "this generation of Americans has a rendezvous with destiny. When this is said. it usually refers to the history of Europeans in America. That image has slowly been changing. and the violated treaties. we often think of history in terms of individuals. Movies such as Dances with Wolves. their religion—indeed. and the Santa Maria? For years. and values. the stolen lands. their culture.

battle victory versus massacre. There are loads of books of American quotations: historical. giving the reader the opportunity to follow Native American history from the appearance of the white man in the New World. I have . For example. How do we know they are reasonably accurate? We know because certain themes and viewpoints emerge time and again over several centuries. The dates and places are the ones most historians seem to agree on. political. The quotations in this book represent only a tiny fraction of Indian history—only 450 of at least 10. The most serious problem is one of historical interpretation: good guy versus bad guy.000 and possibly 50. The sources do not always agree on such facts as dates. others less well-known. giving it a relevance and dignity we cannot get from names. Several hundred Native Americans are quoted." "ask not what your country can do for you. Few American Indians. their writers and doctors. The tribe most commonly identified with the individual is the one given here. dates. Because there was no written Indian language until the nineteenth century. in different regions of the country. their poets and warriors. American Indians also have their leaders and orators. There is much worth quoting. appear in a separate section." "this nation cannot endure half-slave and half-free. This volume is an attempt to fill that void. ever make it into Bartlett's. places of birth. The quotes appear in chronological sequence. An extensive index—broken down by author. with such rare exceptions as Chief Joseph and Will Rogers. many famous. cynical. their historians and satirists. and satirical. going back to the mid-sixteenth century. A few anonymous quotes do appear in the main section in their chronological sequence. They are the building blocks of popular history: "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes. rather than the secondary source. tribe. "Indians of All Tribes" was the group that occupied Alcatraz Island. This book is a compilation of some 800 quotations. the original source is given wherever possible. humorous. giving specific reasons for its action.XV111 INTRODUCTION Quotations are powerful. Anonymous quotations. the Lakota and the Apache nations have different tribes. These quotes came from organized groups of Native Americans that issued statements as organization viewpoints. For example. literary. On the matter of quotation source. most of the early quotations are based on the translations of white interpreters." The words breathe life into past history. spellings of names. sellout versus recognition of inevitability. and places. and tribal identifications.000 years in America. including prayers and proverbs. social. among different tribes. and subject/key word—will enable the reader to locate quotations by specific individuals about specific topics.

Although every effort has been made to track down factual information.v. some information was not available as this book went to press.INTRODUCTION xix attempted to play this as straight as possible. (quod vide) refer the reader to a separate entry for that individual elsewhere in the book. This entry can be found using the author index. . most often just letting the facts speak for themselves. the letters q. Please Note: Following the name of an individual. Additions and corrections are welcomed for subsequent editions.

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American Indian Quotations .

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SWEET MEDICINE (Undated) Cheyenne Sweet Medicine has been described as a cultural hero of the Cheyenne. whose flesh you will learn to eat. by John Stands in Timber and Margot Liberty. . 1983. When you do. Yale University Press. You people will c h a n g e : .. Their skins are light-colored. . and at last you will do it with them. Those people will wander this w a y . and another animal will take its place. when many things will change. It has a shaggy neck and a tail almost touching the ground. (In the Spirit of Crazy Horse. But first there will be another animal you must learn to use. Viking. The buffalo will disappear. a slick animal with a long tail and split hoofs. . . what they are going to do they will do. Its hoofs are round. Strangers called Earth Men will appear among you. and their ways are powerful. These people will not listen to what you say. .) 3. Those far hills that seem only a blue vision in the distance take many days to reach now. (Cheyenne Memories. There is a time coming . you will become crazy.) 2. . they will be looking for a certain stone. 1967.) 3 . by Peter Matthiessen. 1. and will forget all that I am teaching you. They speak no Indian tongue. at last. This animal will carry you on his back and help you in many ways. so fear him not. . . who may have been based on a real person. They will tear up the earth. but keep your own ways that I have taught you as long as you can. but with this animal you can get there in a short time. Follow nothing that these Earth Men do. (Ibid.

. I am not so simple as not to know that it is better to eat good meat.. I insist the guns and swords. in this miserable manner. 1609. above all. and sleep quietly with my women and children. Boston. to lie cold in the woods.. 1841. the cause of all our jealousy and uneasiness. and to be so hunted that I cannot rest. Virginia Powhatan was the leader of the Powhatan Confederacy at the time of the first English settlement in America at Jamestown. and willing to supply your wants. and so. . this might soon be your fate too. (Ibid. who have provided you with food? What can you get by war? We can hide our provisions. Captain Smith.) 5. exhort you to peaceable counsels. through your rashness. Clarke & Co. and then you must consequently famish by wronging your friends. Why should you take by force that from us which you can have by love? Why should you destroy us. Biography and History of the Indians of North America. eat. by George W. What is the cause of your jealousy? You see us unarmed. be removed and sent away. Virginia. feed upon acorns and roots . (Our Indian Wards. 11th ed. to have copper hatchets and whatever else I want. be well. if you will come in a friendly manner. and. or sleep. to end my miserable life. as to invade an enemy. 4. and fly into the woods. and. by Samuel G. than to fly from all.) 6. therefore. 1880. Drake.1. Manypenny. being their friend. (Address to John Smith. to laugh and be merry with the English. and not with swords and guns.) 4 . and. ca.POWHATAN (1547-1618) Powhatan.

We patiently bore many injuries from the French. and dared not resent the injuries we have so long suffered. I shall not treat with a subject. In 1675 King Philip called on other tribes in the area to join in a war against the whites. We assure you that we are resolved never to drop the axe. King Philip's War began in January 1675. In 1671 the English colonists in Massachusetts asked King Philip for a new peace treaty. who had helped the Pilgrims when they arrived in the New World.KING PHILIP (1620-1676) Wampanoag. The colonists argued that the Abenakis would ally themselves with the French. I shall treat of peace only with the King. Our patience made the governor of Canada think that we were afraid of him. Massachusetts? King Philip was the son of Massasoit.) TAHAJADORIS ( S e v e n t e e n t h century) Mohawk Tahajadoris was a Mohawk leader. Your governor is but a subject of King Charles of England. This was his response. Many towns were attacked by the Indians. 8. but now he is undeceived. one in which the Indians would have to turn over their guns. whom the Mohawks despised. spoken to a messenger sent by Governor Winslow to discuss a peace treaty. my brother. before we took u p the axe against them. 1674. I am ready. the French 5 . In 1689 he was urged by English colonists in Massachusetts and Connecticut to go to war against the Abenakis. (ca. and King Philip was killed in battle. When he comes. from one year to another. 7.

and formed their hands to our peace. at various times. either French or Indians. 1760. (Ibid. remarks were made to members of the Governor's Council in Philadelphia. He finally supported the British during the French and Indian War. vol. then we shall kill and destroy them. You tell us that they are treacherous rogues—we believe it—and that they will undoubtedly assist the French. (Report of his trip to speak to other Delaware tribes.) . Colonial Records of Pennsylvania. 10. New Jersey Teedyuscung was a Delaware chieftain who. we shall never be reconciled as long as one Frenchman is alive. As to what you told us of the Owenagungas [Abenakis] and Uragees [Mahicans]. we answer that we were never so proud and haughty. All their chiefs and all their warriors have made themselves as one man. (Red & White: Indian Views of the White Man. and every one of us cut in pieces. fought against or negotiated with Indians and whites. We shall never make peace. or shall join with any of our enemies.) TEEDYUSCUNG (17007-1763) Delaware. as to begin a war without just provocation. 8. Universe Books. If they shall do this. though our nation should be ruined by it. but to hold the peace belt fast. 1983. by Annette Rosenstiel.6 TEEDYUSCUNG shall never see our faces in peace. and promise never to break it.) 9.

(Ibid. We are convinced that you mean to do us Good by your Proposal. to show our grateful Sense of it.. who are wise must know that different Nations have different Conceptions of things and you will therefore not take it amiss.e i g h t e e n t h century) Iroquois Conassatego gave this response to a 1744 invitation from Maryland and Virginia commissioners. 11. 3d ed. Warriors. . if our ideas of this kind of Education happen not to be the same as yours. Gray & Co. Perkins and Hillard. they were totally good for nothing. (Biography and History of the Indians of North America. and that the Maintenance of our young Men. by Samuel G.. and make Men of them. Drake. would be very expensive to you.) .) 12.) 13. . But you. if the Gentlemen of Virginia will send us a dozen of their sons. We know that you highly esteem the kind of learning taught in those Colleges.CONASSATEGO (Early t o m i d . and. We have had some experience of it. nor Counsellors. tho' we decline accepting it. 1834. neither fit for Hunters. They asked him to send a dozen Indian boys to the College of William and Mary for formal education. Several of our young People were formerly brought up at the Colleges of the Northern Provinces. we will take Care of their Education. (Ibid. not the less obliged by your kind offer. instruct them in all we know. and we thank you heartily. while with you. however. when they came back they were bad Runners. We are. but. where they were instructed in all your Sciences. ignorant of every means of living in the woods .

it is very criminal in our young men if they chance to kill a cow or a hog for their sustenance when they happen to be in your lands. .) 8 . but art to hunt and kill them. Old Frontiers. We do not quarrel with you for the killing of an occasional buffalo or deer in our lands. . . while ours are wild and demand not only a larger space for range. He has given you the advantage that your animals are tame. 14. . (Ibid..) 17. The Great Spirit has given you many advantages. It is surprising that when we enter into treaties with our fathers the white people.. ours with bears. They are.) 16. yours with hogs. as much our property as other animals are yours. and ought not to be taken from us without our consent. was a Cherokee chief. .. . also known as Corn Tassel. "Why do not the Indians till the ground and live as we do?" May we not a s k . . He has stocked your lands with cows. your religions. Kingsport. ours with buffalo. "Why do not the white people hunt and live as we do?" (Ibid. yours with sheep. by John P. b u t . Much has been said of . . Brown. Many proposals have been made to us to adopt your laws.. (Ibid. Indeed it has seemed a formality with them to demand what they know we dare not refuse. your manners. their whole cry is more land. (1780s. what you term "civilization" among the Indians. nevertheless. but he has not created us to be your slaves. . and your c u s t o m s .) 15. 1938.OLD TASSEL (?-1788) Cherokee Old Tassel. Term. You say. ours with deer. .

(1763. (A meeting with British representatives at Fort Detroit. Pontiac later tried to get help from the British so his people could hunt for food. your children. I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan's cabin 9 . I request in behalf of all the nations present that you will speak to the traders now here to do the same. Tis the hunting season of your children. Pontiac led an Algonquin force against the British. as the support of our families depend upon it. and tell your traders to give your children credit for a little powder and lead. My Father. vol.) LOGAN (1725-1780) Mingo. the French. 20.PONTIAC (1720-1769) Ottawa. 18. 1851. be strong and take pity on us. I mean to destroy the English and leave not one upon our lands. Our Fathers. formerly used to credit his children for powder and lead to hunt with. once more I request you will take pity on us. In 1769 he either died in a fight or was murdered by a hired assassin.) 19. Father. as our former Father did. In 1763 France made peace with Britain. Ohio Pontiac and his people lived peacefully in the Great Lakes area when it was largely controlled by the French. 11. During the French and Indian War. by Francis Parkman. 1765. The Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War after the Conquest of Canada. Collections of the Illinois State Historical Society. Pennsylvania Logan was a Mingo leader during Lord Dunmore's War.

) 22. This called on me for revenge. "Logan is the friend of white men". Colonel [Captain Michael] Cresap. if ever he came cold or naked and I gave him not clothing. The whites have passed the mountains and settled upon Cherokee lands. 1851." by Brentz Mayer. 1947.) DRAGGING-CANOE (17307-1792) Cherokee. (Ibid. (Address to the Cherokee council. and now wish to have their usurpation sanctioned by the confirmation of a treaty. by Robert L. (Ibid. Who is there to mourn for Logan? Not one. but for the injuries of one man. The Wilderness Road. (Message to Lord Dunmore. (Ibid.) 24. and the small remnant of my people will be compelled to seek a new retreat in some far distant . 1774. During the course of the last long and bloody war Logan remained in his hut an advocate for peace. In 1775 he spoke out against a treaty to sell such lands. such was my love for the whites.10 DRAGGING-CANOE hungry and I gave him not meat. He sided with the British during the American Revolution. (Ibid.) 21. and said. I have sought it. Bobbs-Merrill. "Tah-Gah-Jute or Logan and Captain Cresap. New cessions will be required. Whole nations have melted away like balls of snow before the sun. I have fully glutted my vengeance. I have even thought to live with you. 25. in cool blood and unprovoked cut off all the relations of Logan not even sparing my women and children.) 23. but do not harbor the thought that mine is the joy of fear. Tennessee Dragging-Canoe was a Cherokee chief who fought attempts of the whites to buy tribal lands. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. nay. I have killed many. 1775. Maryland Historical Society.) 26. Logan never felt fear. that those of my own country pointed at me as they passed by. Kincaid. the last spring. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any human creature. For my country I rejoice in the beams of peace.

In former days when you were young and weak. Should we not therefore run all risks. as I and my people have a confidence in him. We will have our lands. rather than submit to further laceration of our country? Such treaties may be all right for men too old to hunt or fight. but now I call you father. He later signed a number of treaties with the white man. 16. My reasons for . vol. Dockstader.) CORNPLANTER (17367-1836) Seneca. As for me. and are satisfied that he will always exert himself to preserve peace and harmony between you and us. When the whites are unable to point out any farther retreat for the miserable Cherokees. There they will be permitted to stay only a short while. (Speech. On numerous occasions he appeared before the white man's councils to protest mistreatment of Indians. and incur all consequences. until they again behold the advancing banners of the same greedy host. will fix some person at Fort Pitt to take care of me and my people. (Colonial Records of Pennsylvania. that my present interpreter.) 28. I used to call you brother. Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. 1977. I hope that you. (Ibid. Joseph Nicholson. New York Cornplanter. the Fathers of the Quaker State. I wish. I have my young warriors about me. Van Nostrand and Reinhold.) 29. (Ibid. a Seneca chief. by Frederick J. 1775.CORNPLANTER 11 wilderness. You will find the settlement of this land dark and bloody. 30.) 27.) 31. may be the person. (Ibid. and it is the wish of my people if agreeable to you. they will proclaim the extinction of the whole race. fought on the French side during the French and Indian War and on the British side during the American Revolution.

12 CORNPLANTER "In former days when you were young and weak I used to call you brother." —CORNPLANTER. and they can obtain no redress. are that often times when my hunters and people come there. SENECA wishing an interpreter there.) . their canoes and other things are stolen. but now I call you father. not having any person there on whom they can rely to interpret for them and see justice done to them. (Ibid.

The Americans are now led by a chief who never sleeps [Anthony Wayne]. Think well of it. Chronology of Native North American History. he made peace and signed several treaties. it would be prudent to listen to his [Anthony Wayne's] offers of peace. Later. (Ibid. . 1994. kill game.LITTLE TURTLE (17477-1812) Miami. we have never been able to surprise him. . but none of these is of any use h e r e . . and the Chippewas to several major victories over the white man.) 34. and go to war. Indiana Little Turtle. (Ibid. the day and the night are alike to him. another hats. 7. Elder Brother: . and everyone lives by his labor. There is something that whispers to me. . the Indians were decisively defeated in the battle of Fallen Timbers.) 33. (Discussion with American officials on the proposed Treaty of Greenville (1795). useless to the whites. You pointed out to us the boundary line [of the proposed t r e a t y ] . When I walk through the streets I see every person in his shop employed about something. We cannot expect the same good fortune always to attend us. Ohio. And. I should be a piece of furniture. Gale. a war chief of the Miamis in the early 1790s. You have told your younger brothers [the Indians] that the British imposed falsehoods on us when they said the United States wished to take our lands from us. . 32. the Shawnees.) 36. led the Miamis. a third sells cloth. during all the time that he has been marching upon our villages. . American State Papers. Soon after. 1794. I say to myself.) 35. (To the tribal council. catch fish. and . notwithstanding the watchfulness of our young men. vol. by Duane Champagne. This line takes in the greater and best part of your brothers' hunting ground. your younger brothers are of opinion you take too much of their land away and confine the hunting of our young men within the limits too contracted. Therefore. . We have beaten the enemy twice under separate commanders. and that the United States had no such designs. One makes shoes. useless to my nation. I can make a bow or an arrow. . which of all these things can you do? Not one.

1841. Life and Times of Sa-Go-Ye-Wat-Ha. whose top reaches the clouds. (After a visit to Philadelphia. The evil spirit rides upon the [wind]. What marks our extermination? Nothing. We stand a small island in the bosom of the great waters. whilst we. Brother!. Sentinel Printing. and now you have grown to be a mighty tree. They asked for a small seat. by Calvin M. Tidings were carried back. we watered and protected you. They rise. (1797. We took pity on them. 1792. granted their request.) 38. They gave us poison in return. Yet we did not fear them. ca. by William L. Their numbers were small.14 RED JACKET useless to myself. and the waves will settle over us. We are mingled with the common elements. 1797. and . the Great Chief of the Miami Indian Nation. and they sat down amongst us. They called us brothers. 37. Young. Little Turtle. 1992. We are encircled—we are encompassed.) REDJACKET (17587-1830) Seneca. 1917. and whose branches overspread the whole land. We first knew you a feeble plant which wanted a little earth whereon to grow. The white people had now found our country. We took them to be friends. He was an outstanding orator. Stone. Who then lives to mourn us? None. and landed on this island. and more came amongst us. or Red Jacket. They told us they had fled from their own country for fear of wicked men. Your forefathers crossed the great waters.) 39. We believed them. . Children's Press. and we shall disappear forever. by Susan Avery and Linda Skinner. We gave them corn and meat. and come here to enjoy their religion. Wiley & Putnam. have become a feeble plant and need your protection. Extraordinary American Indians. they press upon us. (Statement. who were the tall pine of the forest. when we could have trod you under our feet. and the waters are disturbed. New York Red Jacket was so named because of the red coat he wore when he fought on the side of the British during the Revolutionary War. They found friends and not enemies. . We gave it to you and afterward.

They wanted more land. like the white people.) 40. by B. cannot live without bread. (1830. B. that He—the Great Spirit—and Master of Life— has provided food for us. and pork.) MINAVAVANA (Mid t o late eighteenth century) Chippewa 43. in these broad lakes. and we will part with them to none. 1841.MINAVAVANA 15 gave them a larger seat. but are not satisfied. (Response to missionary. Extraordinary American Indians. 1805. They wanted our country.) . and I am shaken by every breeze. You want to force your religion upon us. These lakes. If it was intended for us as well as for you. New York. Thatcher. (Indian Biography. My leaves are fallen. 2. B. Your nation supposes that we. were left to us by our ancestors. by B. you ought to know. vol. and beef! But. my branches are withered. these woods and mountains.) 41. (Ibid. Avery and Skinner. I am an aged tree. Brother! You have got our country. New York. you have not yet conquered us! We are not your slaves. Brother! We understand that your religion is written in a book.) 42. why has not the Great Spirit given it to us? (Ibid. Soon my aged trunk will fall. They are our inheritance. At length their numbers have greatly increased. Englishman! Although you have conquered the French. Thatcher. and can stand no longer. and upon these mountains. Indian Biography. 1845.

and we doubt them not. . O Choctaws and Chickasaws. 1921. was regarded as a friend of the white man who often defended him against other warlike tribes. He made a number of trips to Washington to confer on Indian matters. and they give us in fair exchange their cloth. (Ibid. Ibid. None of my fathers. During its darkest hours.v." They will hear the tidings like the sound of the fall of a mighty oak in the stillness of the woods. These white Americans buy our skins. our surplus game. The Great White Father has never violated that treaty and the Choctaws have never been driven to the necessity of taking up the tomahawk against him or his children. 1824. . 44. they clothed our suffering. They have always been friendly. then the Shawnee's experience with the whites has not been the same as that of the Choctaws.PUSHMATAHA (1764-1824) Choctaw. "Where is Pushmataha?" and you will say to them "He is no more. and other wares. 1824. I shall die. Chronology of Native North American History.) 45. by Duane Champagne.) 48. they fed our hungry. (Statement to friends. and other things which the Choctaws need but do not make. It is true we have befriended them. Forget not. He took part in President Andrew Jackson's inaugural parade. our cotton. 1811. (Ibid. Gale. They doctored our sick. but who will deny that these acts of friendship have been abundantly reciprocated? (Arguing against Tecumseh's efforts to have the Choctaws fight the white men. or grandfathers. these neighbors whom we are now urged to attack responded generously to our needs. our corn.) 16 . Congressional Record. but you will return to our brethren They will ask you. We do not take up the warpath without a just cause and honest purpose. a Choctaw leader. their guns. nor any Choctaw ever drew bow against the United States. their tools. implements. June 13. (Statement to the Secretary of War.) 47. .) 46.] words be true. our baskets. If Tecumseh's [q. that we are bound in peace to the Great White Father at Washington by sacred word. Mississippi Pushmataha. 1994.

49. and many gloomy hours obscure it. . . In the 1820s. but Black Hawk decided to fight. 1991. We always had plenty. Historical Society of Iowa. by Robert W. Illinois Black Hawk and his people lived in the rich lands of Illinois and Wisconsin. which began in 1831. Pathway to Glory. If a prophet had come to our village in those days and told us that the things were to take place which have since come to pass.) 51. . edited by Kent Nerburn and Louise Mengleboch. Wheeler. the Indians were supposed to move and allow the whites to move in.) 52. . Carlton Press. . nor hunting grounds better than those we had in possession. 1975. that formerly honored and respected my opinions. I have determined to give my motives and reasons for my former hostilities to the whites and to vindicate my character from misrepresentation.. ended in the defeat of the Indians. I am now an obscure member of a nation. none of our people would have believed him.) 50. . The Black Hawk War. How smooth must be the language of the whites. May the Great Spirit shed light on yours and that you may never experience the humility that the power of the American government has 17 . whites began occupying Indian lands. our children never cried from h u n g e r . The rapids of Rock River furnished us with an abundance of excellent fish. Our village was healthy and there was no place in the country possessing such advantages. . (Autobiography of Black Hawk as Dictated by Himself to Antoine LeClair. Under an old treaty. The changes of many summers have brought old age upon me and I cannot expect to survive many moons. and the land being very fertile. 1833. never failed to produce good crops. and wrong like right. when they can make right look like wrong. The path to glory is rough. New World Library. (Native American Wisdom.BLACK HAWK (1767-1838) Sac. during all of which time we were the undisputed possessors of the Mississippi Valley. (1833. . Here our village stood for more than a hundred years. Before I set out on my journey to the land of my fathers.

Drake. they shake them by the hand to gain their confidence. and no workers. We told them [the white men] to let us alone and keep away from us: but they followed like the snake. who. when they can make right look like wrong. .) 55. to deceive them. . Boston. hypocrites and liars. he would be put to death and eat up by the wolves. by Samuel G. We lived in danger.18 BLACK HAWK "How smooth must be the language of the whites. We were encouraged. and wrong like right. is the wish of him. all talkers. (Ibid. (Statement of surrender. in his native forests. and ruin our wives. Biography and History of the Indians of North America 11th ed. 1841.. August 1835. We were not safe. was once as proud and bold as yourself. (Ibid." —BLACK HAWK. We were becoming like them. they smile in the face of the poor Indian to cheat him. We went to our great father. (Ibid. SAC reduced me to. His great coun- .) 54. lazy drones.) 56. The white men are bad schoolmasters . to make them drunk. An Indian who is as bad as the white men could not live in our nation. adulterers. They poisoned us by their touch.) 53.

He drank the blood of some of the whites. they are feeble and harmless. He has been taken prisoner and his plans are stopped. his children and friends. Brothers—the white people are like poisonous serpents: when chilled. but they do worse— they poison—they poison the heart. He cares for his nation and the Indians. . 59. (Ibid. The white men do not scalp the head. He dreamed of one huge area for Indians from the Great Lakes to Florida. Tecumseh fought on the side of the British. During the War of 1812. and the heart of Black Hawk welled high in his bosom when he led his warriors to battle. (Ibid. (Ibid. He is satisfied. but they will. He is near his end. Farewell. but the talks failed. the springs were drying up. They will suffer. Ohio Tecumseh united many tribes in the Ohio Valley. we called a great council.TECUMSEH 19 cil gave us fair words and big promises. The opossum and beaver fled. His [Black Hawk's] countrymen will not be scalped. it is not pure with them.) 58. He will go to the world of spirits contented. and built a large fire.) 57. Farewell to Black Hawk. our knives were ready. The spirit of our fathers arose and dug up the tomahawk. But he does not care for himself. who made him a brigadier general. and they sting their benefactors to death. He feels for his wife. and he died fighting the Americans.) TECUMSEH (1768-1813) Shawnee. He can do no more. He tried to negotiate land claims in the Northwest Territory with Governor William Henry Harrison. become like the white men. (Tecumseh to the Osage tribe . in a few years. There were no deer in the forest. Black Hawk is a true Indian and disdains to cry like a woman. so that you can't trust them. my nation: Black Hawk tried to save you and avenge your wrongs. and our squaws and papooses [were] without victuals to keep them from starving . but invigorate them with warmth. He laments their fate. . but we got no satisfaction. His sun is setting and he will rise no more.

and more than all. Let the white race perish. So live your life that the fear of death can never enter your heart. They seize your land. Brothers—who are the white people that we should fear them? They cannot run fast. they corrupt your women. nor will I give rest to my body feet until I have united all the red men. Our fathers from their tombs reproach us as slaves and cowards. our fathers have killed many of them. the Pokanoket. (Ibid. Their tears drop from the wailing skies. the graves of our dead and everything that is dear and sacred to us? I know you will cry with me. 11. and are good marks to shoot at: they are only men. he is for us. as snow before a summer sun. no. Holt. (Ibid.) 62. Rinehart & Winston.) 66. and make his red children happy. 1811. (Indian council meeting in Alabama. he will destroy our enemies.20 TECUMSEH while lining up support to fight the white man. London. "Never! Never!" (Ibid. (Ibid. and many other once powerful tribes of our people? They have vanished before the advance and the oppression of the White Man. the Mohican. give up our homes. we must smoke the same pipe. but grovel to none. vol. 1811. and we will stain the earth red with their blood. August 1929. . .) 65.) 61. (As Long as the Rivers Shall Plow. our country bequeathed to us by the Great Spirit.) 60. upon a trail of blood. by John D. Accursed be the race that has seized on our country and made women of our warriors.) . 1974. we are not squaws. Memoirs of a Captivity among the Indians of North America. they trample on the ashes of your dead! Back whence they came. Show respect to all men. Where today are the Pequot? Where are the Narragansett. the spirits of the mighty dead complain. (Statement to William Henry Harrison. I hear them now in the wailing winds . Will we let ourselves be destroyed in our turn without a struggle. War Resisters League. we must love the Great Spirit. 1971. 3. The American Indian.) 67. 1924. they must be driven. (Ibid.) 63. Brothers—we must be united. by Dee Brown. Touch not the poisonous firewater that makes wise men turn to fools and robs the spirit of its vision. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee.) 64.) 68. It is my determination. we must fight each other's battles. Hunter.

By 1821 the system was completed. "Talking Leaves.) MAJOR RIDGE (1771-1839) Cherokee. He died while on a search for a missing tribe of Cherokees who were reported to be living in Mexico.SEQUOYA (17707-1843) Cherokee. After the Cherokee removal. Originally a hunter and fur trader. it would be like catching a wild animal and taming it. 1975. 69. Tennessee Major Ridge. by David Wallechinsky and Irving Wallace." (The name given by Sequoya to his Cherokee syllabary.1 am one of the native sons of these wild woods. The giant redwood sequoya trees were named in his honor. Sequoya was also known as George Gist. a kind of alphabet. [I] thought that if [I] could make certain things fast on paper. (Reported in indirect discourse in an interview with Jeremiah Evans. have defended your truth and honesty. I have hunted the deer and turkey here. 71. he was crippled in a hunting accident. a Cherokee chief.) 70. Tennessee Sequoya developed a system of writing for the Cherokees. The People's Almanac. (Speech before . In 1809 he began to set forth a Cherokee alphabet. more than fifty years. I have fought your battles. Doubleday. and fair trading. led the group that negotiated the treaty that gave up Cherokee territory east of the Mississippi to the United States. he was assassinated.

(Ibid. is bound by the compact of 1802 to purchase this country for them. one road to future existence as a Nation. They think the Great Father. Cartersville [Ga. 1835. I know. who have gone before to the happy hunting grounds of the Great Spirit—the eternal land.) 74. December 29.) 75. but I can do them justice in my heart.) 72. December 24. but any forcible effort to keep them will cost us our lands.) BIG ELK (17727-1846) Omaha Big Elk. where the deer. (Ibid. the President. 76. Yet they are strong and we are weak. and all nations and people must obey. It is the command of the Great Spirit. We obtained the land from the living God above. 1885. I have signed my death warrant. (Native American Wis- . 1835. (Ibid.. There is but one path left. but an unbending.22 BIG ELK Cherokee group considering the treaty of cession. the turkey and the buffalo will never give out. They are many. I know the Indians have an older title than theirs. advocated peace with the whites.. Death will come. We cannot remain here in safety and comfort.] Courant. which harass our braves and make the children suffer and cry. they have extended their laws. That path is open before you. They are willing to buy these lands on which to build houses and clear fields. They got their title from the British. The Georgians have shown a grasping spirit lately. Give up these lands and go over beyond the great Father of Waters [the Mississippi]. Make a treaty of cession. I know we love the graves of our fathers. iron necessity tells us we must leave them. I would willingly die to preserve them. We can never forget these homes. and they justify their conduct by the end in view. and the lives of our children. (Upon signing the Treaty of New Echota. to which we are unaccustomed. March 20.) 73. always out of season. our lives. Ibid. an Omaha chief.. He also led attacks against the Pawnee.

The armies of the whites are without number. was by the Great Spirit originally given to his red children. we will give you land for yourselves and . welcome. 1991. his father. Ohio Shabonee refused to war against the whites. (The American Indian. 77. and ruin will follow all tribes that go to war with them. 78. we wish to live with the red man and inhabit the same country. a British army officer. we received their presents. 8. The country which you now possess. and said. like the sands of the sea. and that which we now remain on.WILLIAM McINTOSH 23 dom. he signed the peace treaty granting Creek land to the United States and was assassinated. Later. he fought on the side of the Americans in the War of 1812. Georgia William Mclntosh's mother was a Creek. despite the efforts of other Indian leaders.) SHABONEE (1775-1859) Potawatomi. edited by Kent Nerburn and Louise Menglehoch. May 1928. No. vol. 2. New World Library. As a Creek chief. Our brothers.) WILLIAM McINTOSH (17757-1825) Creek. Our forefathers smoked the pipe of peace and friendship with the forefathers of the white man. visited us when we were like the trees of the forest. and when the white man said. the white men.

) WILLIAM WEATHERFORD (1780-1822) Creek. University of Alabama Press. you have torn us up by the roots. and Tohopeka. You have promised to replant us in a better soil. (Ibid. I would yet fight. fought a bloody series of battles against the whites from 1812 to 1814. and the children of the red man grew up in the same country. 1814. Adventures among the Indians. we must bow before you. We took the white man by the hand. by W.) 79. Griffith. (Ibid. But I have done—my people are all gone—I can do no more than weep over the misfortunes of my nation. Tallaschatchee.24 WILLIAM WEATHERFORD for your children. by Charles Hamilton. and contend to the last. I am in your power: do with me what you please. University of Oklahoma Press. (Speech to the Georgia legislature. (Surrender to General Andrew Jackson. I have done the white people all the harm I could. Mclntosh and Weatherford. 1825. n. but still you are our brothers and friends. I have fought them. by Benjamin W. Emuckfaw. If I had an army. Once I could animate my warriors to battle: but I cannot animate the dead. (Ibid.. and to watch over us and nurse us. Friends and Brothers: You are like the mighty storm. Alabama William Weatherford. and the red men became like the buffalo. and fought them bravely. and the children of the white man grew up. Kingston.d. cited in Cry of the Thunderbird. ca.) 81.) 80.) .. The Creeks were defeated at the battle of Horseshoe Bend against forces under Andrew Jackson. My warriors can no longer hear my voice—their bones are at Talladega. a Creek chief.) 83. (Ibid. We became neighbors. we are like the tender and bending tree.G. The white men became numerous as the trees of the forest. Jr. I am a soldier. 1972. Creek Indian Leaders. 1988.H. 82. Chicago. and we were brothers. and held fast to it.

can rely upon. 1994. Washington Seattle was chief of the Suquamish tribe throughout what is now the state of Washington. I rely upon your generosity. and for myself.SEATTLE 25 84. But your people have destroyed my nation. When the governor of Washington told Seattle and other chiefs that they would have to move off their lands and onto a reservation. (Ibid. reluctantly agreed and lived out his life on a reservation. The son of the white chief says his father sends us greetings of friendship and goodwill. You will exact no terms of a conquered people. nor supplicated peace. sacrifice the last remnant of their country. (Statement. In 1855 he signed a treaty ceding lands to the white settlers. . but such as they should accede to. On the miseries and misfortunes brought upon my country. Those who would still hold out. They are like the .) 86. He was converted by missionaries and later took the name of Noah.. by Duane Champagne. and. Gale. (Ibid. You [Andrew Jackson] are a brave man. If they are opposed. and now I ask it for my nation. This is kind. however. for we know he has little need of our friendship in return. they must not and shall not. (Ibid. .) 88. you shall find me among the sternest enforcers of obedience. I never left my post. I would have raised my corn on one bank of the river. Seattle. Whatever they may be. Whilst there were chances of success. to this. But my people are gone. with as much certainty as . 1854. and have fought them on the other.) 85. I have not surrendered myself thoughtlessly. My words are like stars that never set. some chiefs chose to fight. because his people are many. What Seattle says. Chronology of Native North American History. 87. the return of the seasons. If I had been left to contend with the Georgian army [state militia].) SEATTLE (17867-1866) Snquamish. . it would now be madness and folly to oppose them. I look back with the deepest sorrow and wish to avert still greater calamities. can be influenced only by a mean spirit of revenge. the great chief.

) 94. The red man has ever fled the approach of the white man as morning must flee the rising sun. the dreams of our old men. (Ibid.) 95. (Ibid. The Indian's night promises to be d a r k . . . also. protect us with his brave warriors. and resemble the scattering trees of a storm-swept plain. Our religion is the traditions of our ancestors.) . We would have everything to lose and nothing to gain. But let us hope that hostilities between the red man and his paleface brothers may never return. . . (Ibid. There was a time when our people covered the whole land But that time has long since passed away with the greatness of tribes now almost forgotten. (Ibid. and the offer may be wise. their hearts. (Ibid. Our great and good Father [the President] sends us word that if we do as he desires he will buy our lands . white chief sends us word that he wants to buy our land but is willing to allow us to receive enough to live on comfortably. given them by the Great Spirit.26 SEATTLE grass that covers the vast prairies. (Ibid. for we are no longer in need of a great country. It matters little where we pass the remnant of our days. may have been somewhat to blame. and I presume also good. . When our young men grow angry at some real or imaginary wrong. 1855. There is little in common between u s . his wonderful ships of war will fill our harbors. lest you might forget it. and the visions of our sachems. when asked to sign a treaty to remove his tribe to a reservation. . This indeed appears generous.. . for the red man no longer has rights that he need respect. Your religion was written on tablets of stone by the iron finger of an angry God. and our old men are not able to restrain them. allow us to live comfortably . and then their cruelty is relentless and knows no bounds. (Ibid. The great. Then our ancient northern enemies will cease to frighten.) 91. We are two distinct races and must ever remain so. for we.) 96. are disfigured and turn black.) 89. . a few more moments . also. I will not mouth over our untimely decay. Seattle Historical Society. too. and disfigure their faces with black paint. (Statement to Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens.) 93. They will not be many. and is written in the hearts of our people. while my people are few. a few more winters. (Ibid. . But day and night cannot dwell together. . The red man could never remember nor comprehend it.) 92. nor reproach my paleface brothers for hastening it.) 90.

1855. He remained chief of the Cherokees until his death. only a change of worlds. When the last red man shall have perished. the store. and the prosperity of our people fixed upon a permanent basis. by Alvin M. Now That the Buffalo's Gone. and that a change is called for by every consideration of present convenience and future security. but later met with Abraham Lincoln and affirmed his loyalty to the Union. The treaty providing for removal was ratified by the U. Senate by a single vote. The white man will never be alone. however. Ross originally tried to keep the Cherokee Nation neutral.) 98. (Native American Wisdom. upon the highway.. We are told that the President [Andrew Jackson] looks with great anxiety and solicitation in our situation.) JOHN ROSS (1790-1866) Cherokee. 99. Ross could not prevent the removal of the Cherokee Nation from Georgia. edited by Kent Nerburn and Louise Menglehoch. Knopf. He first supported the Confederacy. (Letter to Secretary of War Lewis Cass.JOHN ROSS 27 97. and that the Government is desirous of entering into a satisfactory arrangement. (Statement to Governor Stevens. When Jackson became President. New World Library. and the memory of my tribe shall have become a myth among the white man.S. . . 1991. Tennessee John Ross was an ally of Andrew Jackson against the British during the War of 1812. and when your children's children think themselves alone in the field. . Jr. Ross led his people on the 'Trail of Tears" (1838-1839) to "Indian Territory" (Oklahoma). There is no death. the ship. or in the silence of the pathless woods. they will not be alone. 1982. that he knows our position is an embarrassing one. by which all our difficulties will be terminated. . they will throng with the returning hosts that once filled them and still love this beautiful land. At night when the streets of your cities and villages are silent and you think them deserted. During the Civil War. Josephy. these shores will swarm with the invisible dead of my tribe.

1831-1833.. CHEROKEE 1833. either in its immediate or remote consequences. Correspondence on Removal of Indians West of the Mississippi River.28 JOHN ROSS "lO]ur removal to the country west of the Mississippi.) 101." — J O H N ROSS. and by our removal to the country west of the Mississippi. Yet we are assured that you are well convinced that these objects can only be attained by a cession of our possessory rights in Georgia.) 100. (Ibid. as we do. either in its immediate or remote consequences.S. U. that you can see no cause of apprehension. will be injurious. if agitated under the influence of political . that such removal will be injurious. Senate Document 512. I have deemed it proper to send you the enclosed papers [see following quotation] from which you will see that the subjects on which they treat are well calculated.. 1833.

] You do solemnly swear that you will answer such questions as may be put to you: Are you in favor of supporting slavery in Kansas. 1855. At the beginning of the conflict [the Civil War]. the Cherokees were forced. June 17.. 1855. It would be a palpable violation of my position as a n e u t r a l . alluded to in the previous quotation. It will place in our midst organized companies not authorized by our laws who would soon become efficient instruments in stirring up domestic strife and creating internal difficulties among the Cherokee people. (Letter to Confederate official. .JOHN ROSS 29 demagogues and through the prejudices of sectarianism on religiousdoctrinal points. American Baptist Mission Union Papers.) 105. in the Cherokee Nation and in other countries? You do solemnly swear you will.. Tahlequah. Neutrality was proper and wise so long as there remained a reasonable probability that the difficulty between the two sections of the Union would be settled. . (Letter to Evan Jones. I felt that the interests of the Cherokee people would be best maintained by remaining quiet and not involving themselves in it prematurely. Papers of Chief John Ross. (Ibid. there was no cause to hesitate as to the course the Cherokee Nation should pursue. University of Oklahoma Press. for the support of Slavery. May 5. 1984.) 103. Oklahoma. to create excitement and strife among the Cherokee people. I cannot give my consent to any such organization. Our geographical position and domestic institutions allied us to the South. . In consequence of the want of protection [from the U n i o n ] .. to . 1861.) 104. Your demand that those people of the [Cherokee] nation who are in favor of joining the Confederacy be allowed to organize into military companies as home guards for the purpose of defending themselves in case of invasion from the North is most respectfully declined.) 102. as a different course would have placed all our rights in jeopardy and might have led to the sacrifice of the people. and of the overwhelming pressure brought to bear upon them. support any person that you may be instructed to by the Mother Lodge for any office in the Cherokee Nation or anywhere else. Our relations had long existed with the United States Government and bound us to observe amity and peace alike with all the States. (Speech to the Cherokee National Assembly. . . Ibid. American Baptist Historical Society.) 106. October 9. But when there was no longer any reason to believe that the Union of the States would be continued. for the preservation of their Country and their existence. and to assist any member that may get into difficulty on account of being a Brother of the Secret Society and to keep secret the names of all the Brothers of the Society and other secrets of the Society? (Oath of allegiance of a secret society. [One enclosure by Ross. 1861.

.) 109. to bend it to his will and to use it wastefully until it is all gone and then he simply moves on leaving the waste behind him and looking for new places to take.) 112. cited in After the Trail of Tears: The Cherokees' Struggle for Sovereignty. McLoughlin.. referring to the Cherokee leaders who had allied themselves to the Confederacy during the Civil War. . hastened to our once lovely home and witnessed the ruins and desolation of the premises—the only buildings standing was [sic] Johnny's chicken house. Ibid. Papers of Chief John Ross. (Ibid. but when an Indian kills a white man in a fair fight it is called murder. 110. September 16. surrounded by the power and influences that they [faced].) 107..30 CHIKSIKA negotiate a treaty with the Confederate States. 1839-1880.) . (1866. it is political power. Bantam.). It is not peace. 1993..) 111. University of North Carolina Press. by Allan W... security and fraternity these lately disloyal leaders want. Eckert. (Ibid. the carriage house. but if they lose it is called a massacre and bigger armies are raised. When a white man kills an Indian in a fair fight it is called honorable. other fruits being gone. 1865.) CHIKSIKA (Late e i g h t e e n t h to early n i n e t e e n t h century) Shawnee. I . and Peggy's cabin. As soon as the [Union Army's] Indian Expedition marched into the Country. The white man is a monster who is always hungry and what he eats is land. by William G.1862. . No other alternative was left them. I cannot express the sadness of my feelings in rambling over the place. (A Sorrow in Our Heart. The white man seeks to conquer nature. When a white army battles Indians and wins it is called a great victory. Riding through the orchard. 1992. returning to his home at war's end. [I] found a few peaches. (Letter to Abraham Lincoln.v. the great mass of the Cherokee people rallied spontaneously around the authorities of the United States.) 108. (September 18. (Ibid. Ohio? Chiksika was the older brother of Tecumseh (q.

Great Spirit: I want no blood upon my land to stain the grass. New World Library. I want it all clear and pure. and I wish it so.) KEOKUK (17937-1848) Sac. 113. He was a key spokesman not only in Washington. I was born where there were no inclosures and where everything drew a free breath. vol. edited by Kent Nerburn and Louise Mendleboch.TEN BEARS (1792-1872) Comanche Ten Bears. to build our houses and make us medicine lodges. (Native American Wisdom. 48. .) 115. National Archives. Record Group no. but also at local peace conferences called by whites. 116. You said that you wanted to put us upon a reservation. and leave peacefully when they go. I want to die there. 1. (Ibid. a Comanche chief. He was also called upon to mediate intertribal disputes. that all who go through among my people may find it peaceful when they come. Do not ask us to give up the buffalo for the sheep. (Speech at Medicine Lodge Council.) 114. Since the first time that I have met my white brethren in council. took part in peace conferences with white officials. 1991. I was born upon the prairie where the wind blew free and there was nothing to break the light of the sun. 1867. Illinois Keokuk was a Sac chief who spoke out on behalf of his tribe. I do not want them. Proceedings of the Indian Peace Commission.

deer and other wild animals. Let us exhaust our present resources before you make us toil and interrupt our h a p p i n e s s . as they are called [missionaries]. and advise you to bore our ears with sticks. (Ibid. a man purchased a piece of land. November 4. (Niles [III] Weekly Register. I have heard your words— they have entered one ear and shall not escape the other. you would drive him off. . We wish you to permit us to enjoy the chase until the game of our country is exhausted. We have also an abundance of horses. Great Father [President M o n r o e ] : . My Great Father: Some of your good chiefs.. have proposed to send some of their good people among us to change our habits. if you will keep your people off of it. (Ibid.. 118. Let the Sioux keep from our lands. It is too soon. 1837. . to send those good men [missionaries] among us. Turner. .) PETALESHARO (1797-1874?) Pawnee Loups Petalesharo. . beaver. and after I have passed to the Good or Evil Spirit from off the wilderness of my present . among the whites..) 119. a Pawnee chief. . . .32 PETALESHARO I have been told that the red skins must shake h a n d s . We have plenty of land. If. by Katharine C. (Ibid. At one time he was a guest of President James Monroe at the White House. University of Oklahoma Press. These people [the Sioux] say we are deaf to your advice. Red Men Calling on the Great White Father. . . another came upon it. We are not starving yet. .) 117. . . to make us work and live like the white people. 1951. that it will be necessary to bore them with iron.) 121. . my Great Father. I love the manner in which [my people] live. was best known for ending the practice of human sacrifice in the tribal ritual. We have plenty of buffalo. (Statement at an 1822 conference in Washington. I think their ears are so closed against the hearing of all good.. You love the manner in which they l i v e . We have everything we want. and there will be peace. Let me continue to live as I have done.) 120.

We crumble and fall. 1977. that they cannot live in the same field with the white man. The Politics of Indian Removal. We Indians are like an island in the middle of the river. Bowing to what he felt was the inevitable. University of Nebraska Press. and was driven out of his land by the Confederate Army.) OPOTHLEYOHOLO (17987-1862) Creek. (Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. . 122. by Michael D. Georgia Opothleyoholo. by Frederick J.) 123. Van Nostrand Reinhold. (Ibid.OPOTHLEYOHOLO 33 life the subsistence of my children may become so precarious as to need and embrace the assistance of those good people. Green. he moved with his tribe to Indian Territory. but circumstances have changed their opinions. . they have become convinced of their true situation. Dockstader. Then they may be planted and deeply rooted about us and our people may stand unmoved in the flood of the white man. (1835. a Creek chief. The white man comes upon us as a flood.) 124. 1982. Our people yet abhor the idea of leaving all that is dear to them . During the Civil War. first fought the United States rather than give up tribal lands. he supported the Union. (Ibid.) . Let us save our people by educating our boys and girls and young men and young women in the ways of the white man.

. Universe Books. I have never called a white man a dog. He says he loves his red children. He and his tribe had become infected with smallpox. my friends. Think of all that my friends. North Dakota The Four Bears was a chief of the Mandan tribe. You know it. that even the wolves will shrink with horror at seeing me.. 125.) 126. by Annette Rosenstiel. and rise all together and not leave one of them alive. as it will be the last time you will hear me. brothers. sisters. Brothers! We have heard the talk of our great father [President Andrew Jackson]. . children. Listen well to what I have to say. (Ibid. 1983. The Mandans are believed to have been the first inhabitants of what later became North Dakota..) SPECKLED SNAKE (Early to m i d . In 1837 The Four Bears delivered this bitter attack on the whites. with their faces all rotten.THE FOUR BEARS (1800-1837) Mandan. a disease the white man had brought to America. but today I do pronounce them to be a set of black-hearted d o g s . Think of your wives. caused by those dogs the whites. Brothers! When the white man first came to these shores.n i n e t e e n t h century) Cherokee \T7. and kindled him a fire to make him comfortable. But to die with my face rotten [from the smallpox]. . I do not fear death. . and when the palefaces 34 . (Red & White: Indian Views of the White Man. the Muscogees gave him land.

MANDAN 35 .. that even the wolves will shrink with horror at seeing me.. [b]ut to die with my face rotten." — T H E FOUR BEARS."1 do not fear death .

He was a member of a Cherokee delegation which went to Washington. Major Ridge (q. their young men drew the tomahawk.) ELIAS BOUDINOT (18037-1839) Cherokee. He said much." He also said. and his cousin. Biography and History of the Indians of North America. he became very large. there is game.36 ELIAS BOUDINOT of the south made war on him.C. "It shall be yours forever. and with the other he trampled down the graves of his fathers." Now he says. . He loved his red children but said: "You must move a little farther. 1841. (Ibid. John Ridge (q." (Ibid. there is a pleasant country. Georgia Elias Boudinot was the first editor of the Cherokee Phoenix. He [President Jackson] said.) 128. he stopped not for the mountain tops. you are too near me. "Go beyond the Oconee and the Oakmulgee.. by accident.v. there you may remain while the grass grows or the water runs. to speak to President Andrew Jackson about the proposed removal of the Cherokees west of the Mississippi. go beyond the Mississippi. but it all meant nothing but "move a little farther. by Samuel G. But our great father still loved his red children." With one foot he pushed the red man over the Oconee. Boudinot returned believing that the Cherokee cause was hopeless. Brothers! Will not our great father come here also? [And tell us that] He loves his red children and his tongue is not forked.v. "The land you live on is not yours.)." (Ibid. But when the white man had warmed himself before the Indian's fire. Then he became our great father. lest I should. 11th ed. tread on you.) 129. (1830. D.. and filled himself with the Indian's hominy. He was later assassinated on the same day as his uncle. Drake. and he soon made them another talk. and his feet covered the plains and the valleys.). His hands grasped the eastern and the western sea. Boston.) 130. and protected his head from the scalping knife.

act wisely. Chivington would wipe out nearly half of Black Kettle's band at Sand Creek. 1961. (Address to Colonel John Chivington at Camp Weld. "immediate and appalling. tell our countrymen our true.) 136. took part in discussions icine Lodge Council of 1867. If I really believe there is danger.BLACK KETTLE 37 131. and choose a course that will come nearest befitting the nation. (Ibid. (Ibid. I must act consistently.) 135. and that we have made peace. 2d Session. but have come to talk plain with you. when the vessel is already tossed to and fro. or a large part of them." and it becomes the people of this country to weigh the matter rightly. (Ibid. Serial 315. I am induced to believe there is danger. and give alarm. 134. and threatened to be shattered to pieces by an approaching tempest. I cannot ease their minds with any expectation of a calm. The Sand Creek Massacre.1 want you to give all the chiefs of the soldiers here to understand that we are for peace. situation. (Ibid. South Dakota Black Kettle was a Cheyenne leader who tried to with the white man. Now. I cannot say peace.) 133. without any apprehension. Senate Document 121. two months later. that our lands. In the case under consideration. . not rashly. 1864. We must live near the buffalo or starve. when there is no peace. (25th Congress. When we came here we came free. . or what I believe to be our true. as a friend of my people. to . University of Oklahoma Press. peace. by Stan Hoig. Colorado.) 132. He narrowly escaped death Creek massacre of 1864. that we may not be mistaken by them for enemies. September 28.) 137. and died in battle a make peace at the Sand at the Medyear later.1 have come to the unpleasant and most disagreeable conclusion . are about to be seized and taken from us. I have not come with a little wolf's bark.) BLACK KETTLE (18037-1868) Cheyenne.

During the Second Seminole War. and he died in captivity. and when I go home and tell my people that I have taken your hand and the hands of all the chiefs here in Denver. I don't know as we have been wronged.. but since they have come and cleaned out our lodges. when he was our agent and brought us presents he did not take them into forts and houses. horses. The amount of goods has diminished. This is the only treaty I will make! (Said as he struck a dagger . after we have eaten and drunk with them. I once thought that I was the only man that persevered to be the friend of the white man. Since the death of Major Fitzpatrick we have had many agents.38 OSCEOLA see you. Osceola led a highly successful guerrilla campaign against the U. Holt. it don't [sic] look right. Alabama Osceola fought the removal of the Seminoles to reservations west of the Mississippi River. and I would rather defer making any permanent treaty until the others come. they will feel well. (Ibid.) 138. . . government representatives. and so will all the different tribes of Indians on the plains.S. 1865. (Ibid. Army. negotiating a new treaty. and so many absent. These lands that you propose to give to us I know nothing about. and everything else.) 139.. but would drive his wagons into our villages and empty them there.) OSCEOLA (18037-1838) Seminole. 141. . (Council meeting between Indian leaders and U. 1971. . by Dee Brown. Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. There is but a handful here now of the Cheyenne nation. it is hard for me to believe white men any more. which began in 1835. He was arrested under a flag of truce and was imprisoned. Major [Thomas] Fitzpatrick. 1865. Rinehart & Winston. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. Every one would help themselves and feel g l a d .S.) 140. but it looks so. There are so few here it would not look right to make a treaty for the whole nation.

backed the signing of the Mendota Treaty of 1851. "This is the only treaty I will make!" —OSCEOLA. take an active part in the Sioux uprising of 1862. D. a Santee chief. he put a dagger through it. some tribesmen accused him of turning his back on his own people.C.. When he went to Washington. saying. . Attributed. Minnesota Little Crow.LITTLE CROW Presented with a treaty to sign. He did. however.) LITTLE CROW (18037-1863) Santee Sioux. SEMINOLE into a treaty document presented in 1835 by American officials. in 1858 to discuss Indian affairs with the white men.

Taoyateduta [Little Crow] is not a coward: he will die with you. . John Ridge was assassinated on the same day as his father and his cousin. (Ibid. Behold the scalp locks of your enemies hanging there on his lodgepoles! (Minnesota History. 145..v.v.) 144. ten. whatever it may be. Georgia John Ridge was the son of Major Ridge (q.v. You are like dogs in the Hot Moon when they snap at their own s h a d o w s . The treaty provided for Cherokee removal to territory west of the Mississippi. (Ibid. All three were seen as traitors by the antitreaty forces.). .. See! The white men are like the locusts when they fly so thick that the whole sky is a snowstorm. vol. . I am resigned to my fate. (After signing the Treaty of .40 JOHN RIDGE 142. Both played key roles in negotiating a treaty between the Cherokee Nation and President Andrew Jackson. You will die like the rabbits when the hungry wolves hunt them in the Hard Moon. You cannot see the face of your chief. and ten times ten will come to kill you. .. I may yet die some day by the hand of some poor.. infatuated Indian deluded by the counsels of [John] Ross and his m i n i o n s . September 1962..). Kill one.) JOHN RIDGE (1803-1839) Cherokee. Shortly after removal. . You are full of the white man's devil water. Braves!. . your ears are full of roaring waters. Taoyateduta [Little Crow] is not a coward. The pro-treaty party was vigorously opposed by a Cherokee group led by John Ross (q. . Braves!. Is Taoyateduta without scalps? . and he is not a fool! When did he run away from his enemies? When did he leave his braves behind him on the warpath and turn back to his tepee? When he ran from your enemies..).. Elias Boudinot (q. your eyes are full of smoke.) 143. . 38. he walked behind on your trail with his face to the Ojibways and he covered your backs as a she-bear covers her cubs. two.

of this unholy Indian Aristocracy is the banded outlaws who are harbored by the Ross party for the purposes of intimidation or assassination.) 149. by Morris Wardell. valley & mountain opposing the ratification of i t . in the field. May 18. . the right of self Government in it & an equal share of the funds accruing from the arrangement. (Ibid. . . Georgia Department of Archives and History. Hitherto a few leading [Cherokee] men were permitted to get all the money & avails of Indian treaties. and it is to organize a guard of thirty men . Genl. . & this party composed as it is of Halfbreed Nullifiers wish to change it and suit themselves—that they might prey upon the last avails of an oppressed race. They are. . to scour and range in their fastnesses & to search for them in their caves and to suppress their secret meetings.) 146. 1938. (Letter to Georgia Governor Wilson Lumpkin. Have you not heard of the armed outlaws harbored by the Ross p a r t y . 1835. (Ibid. but it was reserved to this President to change that most unchristian habit of cupidity! (Ibid. And to cap the climax of this league the ablest lawyers of your own state are retained to defend them if t a k e n . . Here is a band. . Jackson has demonstrated his ancient friendship & truly paternal benevolence to the Cherokees in concluding a treaty of great liberality for their acceptance. a well organized power against the lives of the friendly Indians. The last hold . University of Oklahoma Press. The Ross party disbelieve it. Five millions of dollars. . managed and disbursed by a few of the Halfbreed race & Georgia-Lawyers would be a speculation which the Rothschilds of Europe would be glad to obtain. . . the lives of the whites. A Political History of the Cherokee Nation. Richard the Third never had better instruments to promote tyranny. It gives the Indian a home. The treaty which is now published to the world is the result of our most solemn considerations—it dispenses full & equal justice to all parties in the Nation and to every individual. .) 147. . There is a remedy in your [the Governor's] power. . .) . The object is procrastination—to outlive Jackson's administration or to compel it to abandon the rights of the Indians to their own keeping and management. & their property which sets at defiance your constables & sheriffs & laughs at your Judges & Jurors. 1838-1907.JOHN RIDGE 41 New Echota in 1835. by means of falsehoods. The President has assured me that he will stand by this treaty as the Ultimatum of the Government and no other shall be offered to the Cherokee p e o p l e . . .) 148.

He led battles against the Blackfeet and Crow tribes. been fired upon by emigrants.. was friendly with the white man. buffalo. when I look for game. but taught my young men that a war with the Great Father [the President] would be .42 WASHAKIE "Before the emigrants passed through my country. he was a scout for the military and helped negotiate treaties for them. I see only wagons with white tops and men riding upon their horses.. Montana Washakie. and antelope could be seen. to fight the whites. SHOSHONE WASHAKIE (1804-1900) Shoshone. At one time. a Shoshone chief. myself. elk.. Now.. I have. It was never the intention of the Shoshone tribe. 150. but he never warred against the white man." —WASHAKIE..

(Ibid. In October 1838. My people are very poor and have fallen back into the valleys of the mountains to dig roots and get meat for their little ones. U. In 1865 he laid out the famous 800-mile cattle trail that bears his name. The Chisholm Trail. the tribe was removed from . and trader. Now.v.) WILLIAM SHOREY COODEY (1806-1849) Cherokee?. . elk. It extended from San Antonio. William Shorey Coodey was the nephew of the Cherokee chief John Ross (q. (Named for Jesse Chisholm.S. I see only wagons with white tops and men riding upon their horses. House Executive Document 108. superintendent of a road being built through Shoshone country. 2d Session. buffalo. and antelope could be s e e n . notwithstanding the building of this road which will destroy many of our root grounds and drive off our game. 1008. . Texas. .) 152.) 151. when I look for game. no. . (July 1858. (Ibid.). . to Abilene. Tennessee Jesse Chisholm was a guide. . We will be much injured by the passage of the new road by emigrants.) JESSE CHISHOLM (1805-1868) Cherokee.WILLIAM SHOREY COODEY 43 disastrous. Cited in a report to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 35th Congress. 153. Kansas. Before the emigrants passed through my country. quoted in indirect discourse by Captain Frederick Lander. I do not propose to fight. interpreter.

Chicago. (At the battle of Big Hole River. Shields. he was trapped with Chief Joseph (q. 1889. but a gloomy thoughtfulness was depicted in the lineaments of every face. (Letter to John Howard Payne.44 WHITE BIRD Georgia to be taken to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). At the end of the Nez Perce War. August 13. 155.). 154. 1877.) . by G. The temporary camp covered with boards and some of bark that for three summer months had been their only shelter and home. D. At noon all was in readiness of moving. others shaking the hand of some sick friend or relative who would be left behind. the day was bright and beautiful.v. Battle of the Big Hole. Fight! Shoot them down! We can shoot as well as any of these soldiers. 1840. were crackling and falling under a blazing flame. groups of persons formed about each wagon. the teams were stretched out in a line along the road through a heavy forest.) WHITE BIRD (18077-1882?) Nez Perce White Bird was a chief of the Nez Perce. In all the bustle of preparation there was a silence and stillness of the voice that betrayed the sadness of the heart. He refused to surrender and escaped to Canada with a small group. Here Coodey describes the beginning of what became known as the Trail of Tears.

and when the government payments came the traders were on hand with their books.v. but had to pay them. Though I took part in the war. ("Chief Big Eagle's Story of the Sioux Outbreak of 1862/' in Minnesota Historical Society. The Indians bought goods of them on credit. (Ibid. When the outbreak came Little Crow [q. (Ibid. and I had been to Washington and knew the power of the whites and that they would finally conquer us.) . .] told some of my band that if I refused to lead them to shoot me as a traitor who would not stand up for his nation. Minnesota Big Eagle was one of the Sioux chiefs who took part in the 1862 uprising in Minnesota. hunt game wherever they could find it. The whites were always trying to make the Indians give up their life and live like white men—go to farming. . . 1894). . [T]he Indians did not think the traders had done right. (Ibid.) 160.) 158. "I am much better than y o u / ' and the Indians did not like this. sell their furs to the traders and live as they could. (Ibid.BIG EAGLE (1807-1906) Santee Sioux. . I was against it. Then many of the white men often abused the Indians and treated them u n k i n d l y . which showed that the Indians owed so much and so much. It began to be whispered about that now would be a good time to go to war with the whites and get back the l a n d s . he recalled what happened. Many of the whites always seemed to say by their manner when they saw an Indian. 157. Collections. and did not want to a n y w a y . 387. The Indians wanted to live as they did before the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux—go where they pleased and when they pleased. and then select another leader in my place. and as the Indians kept no books they could not deny their accounts. 6: 384-5. . I knew there was no good cause for it. . work hard and do as they did—and the Indians did not know how to do that.) 159. . and sometimes the traders got all their money. Years later. It was also thought that a war with the whites would cause the Sioux to forget the troubles among themselves and enable many of them to pay off some old scores. 156. .

LION BEAR (Early to m i d . Shortly afterward. Worthington & Co.] in a pen like a wolf. Tonight the blood of the white man shall run like water in the rain. when the moon goes down behind the hills. Dakotas. the big men are here. they have got Red Iron [q. Dakotas. 1862. Red Iron was released. Cited in My Life and Experiences among Our Hostile Indians.) WILD CAT (1810?-1857) Seminole. unsuccessfully staved off white forces during the Seminole wars. Howard. a Seminole chief. which postponed a confrontation. 1907.v. Florida Wild Cat. (Speech before Dakota braves. Dakotas.) 162. Their spirits come up into your arms and make them strong. the blood of your fathers talks to you from the graves where we stand.n i n e t e e n t h century) Dakota Lion Bear was a Dakota chieftain. He finally surrendered and was moved to Indian Territory with his tribe. and Red Iron shall be with his people. be ready. (Ibid. . They mean to kill him for saying the big men cheat us out of our lands and the money the great Father has sent us. by Oliver O.) 163. and I will lead you against the long knives and the big men who have come to cheat us and take away our lands and put us in a pen for not helping to rob our women and children. must we starve like buffaloes in the snow? Shall we let our blood freeze like the little stream? Or shall we make the snow red with the blood of the white braves? (Ibid. 161.. Dakotas.

167. November 30. I saw the white man afar off. You no doubt are tired of the much talk of our people. I loved it. participated in council sessions with white officials to bring about peace. 1867. (Speech at a Medicine Lodge Council meeting with white officials. The whites make so many they are liable to forget them. he lied and stung me. I am about to leave Florida forever and have done nothing to disgrace it. he had a snake in the other. I was in hopes I should be killed in battle. yet he came upon me. and now I say take care of me! (Ibid. but a bullet never reached me. (Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. He gave me his hand in friendship. and them we remember well. enough to plant and live on far to the south—a spot where I could place the ashes of my kindred—a place where my wife and child could live. It was my home. I could not shoot him as I would a wolf or a bear. he was shot while trying to escape. (Upon his surrender. South Dakota Satank. We do not break treaties. by Irwin M.) 166. Dockstader.) 165.SATANK 47 164. a Kiowa chief and medicine man. his tongue was forked. Broken Peace Pipes. 1977. which resulted in the deaths of three men.) SATANK (18107-1871) Kiowa. and was told that he was my enemy. He said he was my friend. Thomas. When I was a boy. by Frederick J. (Ibid. I took it. New York Daily Tribune. Charles C. Many of them have put themselves forward and filled you with their sayings. Convicted and sentenced to prison. I have thrown away my rifle and have taken the hand of the white man. I asked for but a small piece of this land. We make but few contracts.) 168. 1964. 1867.) . Van Nostrand Reinhold. This was not granted me. and to leave it is like burying my wife and child. In 1871 he led a raid in Texas. My horse in fields he took from me. Peithman.

"I seek no war with anyone." —DULL KNIFE. their camp was attacked and . Montana Dull Knife and his tribe participated in the battle of the Little Big Horn. An old man. CHEYENNE DULL KNIFE (18107-1883) Cheyenne. Several months later. my fighting days are done.

Sickness came among us that made mourning in every lodge. I will not go to another reservation. (Statement to Red Cloud [q. Dull Knife and other members of his tribe fled the reservation. my fighting days are done. .) 172. We hope the Great Father will let us come to you. . Then the treaty promises were broken. but will stay here until the . There we found a Cheyenne cannot live. They were sent to another reservation in the north. I seek no war with anyone. if he lets us stay here.].v. To stay there meant that all of us would die. All we ask is to be allowed to live. heading back to their homeland in the north. An old man. Tell him if he tries to send us back we will butcher each other with our own knives. Cited in Reminiscences of a Ranchman.) SPOKANE GARRY (1811-1892) Spokane. McClure. by Edgar Bronson. but they were not allowed to stay there. Tell the Great Father . 169.) 173. Those not worn by diseases were wasted by hunger. 174.) 171. Army. Our petitions to the Great Father were unheeded. We thank you for asking us to share your lands. (Ibid. Army Captain Wessells. (Ibid. Survivors were sent to an Oklahoma reservation. We thought it better to die fighting to regain our old homes than to perish of sickness. If the Great Father [the President] will not give me land at this place. explaining why he had been hoping to take his people to Red Cloud's reservation. and to live in peace. and our rations were short. Washington Spokane Garry was chief of the Lower Spokane tribe.S.SPOKANE GARRY 49 destroyed by the U. (Ibid. Ibid. 1908. Dull Knife and a tiny group reached the Red Cloud agency.) 170. Dull Knife's people will hurt no one. We bowed to the will of the Great Father and went far into the south where he told us to go. (Statement to U.S. December 1878.

until there is no more out. New York Maris Bryant Pierce was an activist.50 POLATKIN whites push me out. Annual Report. 1970.v. though their skin is white. 176. The Spokane Indians: Children of the Sun. 1879-80.) POLATKIN ( N i n e t e e n t h century) Spokane. Ruby and John A. 1970. 1856.) MARIS BRYANT PIERCE (1811-1874) Seneca.) 175. Brown. I love everybody now that I have grey hair. (The Spokane Indians: Children of the Sun. and out. (Response to an appeal by another chieftain for an uprising against the whites. Washington Polatkin was one of the chiefs of Spokane Garry (q. Brown. Secretary of War. and out. University of Oklahoma Press. 1878. University of Oklahoma Press. If we cut ourselves the blood will be red. In 1838 Pierce attacked the arguments of the land speculators who wanted to grab Indian lands at bargain prices. (Speech at council meeting. Ruby and John A. 177.). in the next place it is said that the offer for it is liberal. 46th Congress. 2d Session. In the first place the white man wants our land. in the next place that we shall be better off to remove from the vicinity of the whites and settle in the . and so with the whites it is the same. by Robert H. by Robert H.

The Apaches were once a great nation. we were born like the animals.) COCHISE (1812-1874) Chiricahua Apache Cochise was an Apache chief.. and because of this they want to die and so carry their lives on their fingernails. Kansas State Historical Collections. 1866.) 179. 1983. Afterward. We neither know nor feel any debt of gratitude which we owe to them. that should cause us to make a sacrifice of our property or our interest. unless it leads them to offer a price equal in value to us. . (Council meeting with General Gordon Granger. I would not do as I do.) 180. in consequence of their "loving kindness or tender mercies" toward us. where the woods flock with game.. 1913-1914. which . This is why we do as the animals. for then I would not need to do so.) . and the streams abound with fishes. is never sated. and saw no other people than the Apaches. by Annette Rosenstiel. . not on beds like you. go about of a night and rob and steal. Universe Books. The fact that the whites want our land imposes no obligation on us to sell it. in the dry grass. Cochise surrendered in 1871 and lived on a reservation until his death three years later. 178. Cochise led a guerrilla campaign against the whites in Arizona for more than ten years. to their wonted avarice . When I was young I walked all over this country east and west..S. Why is it that the Apaches want to die—that they carry their lives on their fingernails? They roam over the hills and plains and want the heavens to fall on them. (Ibid. (Ibid.COCHISE 51 neighborhood of our fellow red man. If I had such things as you have. . nor does it hold forth an inducement to do so.. they are now but few. In 1861 he was taken by the U. (Red & White: Indian Views of the White Man. God made us not as you. After many summers I walked again and found another race of people had come to take it. Army under a flag of truce and was mistreated by the soldiers.

(Now That the Buffalo's Gone: A Study of Today's American Indians.) 182. if the Virgin Mary has walked throughout all the land. Morrow. Shall I take a knife and tear my mother's breast? Then when I die she will not take me to her bosom to rest.) 185. You ask me to cut grass and make hay and sell it. 1972. You must speak straight so that your words may go as sunlight to our hearts. Men who work cannot dream.) SMOHALLA (1815-1907) Wanapum.52 SMOHALIA 181. why has she never entered the wigwam of the Apache? Why have we never seen or heard her? (Ibid.) 186. 183. 1982. Josephy. (Ibid. Knopf. (Ibid. by Alvin M.) 184. Washington Smohalla was a holy man who preached for a return of the Indian religion.) . and wisdom comes in dreams. Tell me. Smohalla tried to explain to the white men why the work they suggested for Indians was contrary to Indian values. You ask me to plow the ground. My young men shall never work. and be rich like white men! But how dare I cut off my mother's hair? (Ibid. You ask me to dig for stone! Shall I dig under her skin for her bones? Then when I die I cannot enter her body to be born again. edited by Jay David. (From a late nineteenth-century speech. The American Indian: The First Victim.

(Reply to a proposal for the cession of Ute land. The whites think we don't know about the mines. but we do. 189. All he can do is lie down and give in.BLACKFOOT (?-1877) Crow Blackfoot. 1873.) . You call the Great Spirit Jesus in your language.) 190.) 188. 187. Now tell us what you are going to give for our mountains. we call him in the Crow language E-so-we-wat-se. 1873.) OURAY THE ARROW (18207-1881) Ute/Apache. September 1873. by Marshall Sprague. took part in treaty discussions and council meetings with white officials. (Council meeting with white officials. (Ibid. New Mexico Ouray the Arrow was a Ute chief. a Crow chief.S. We will sell you a big country. Little. I do not like the interest part of the agreement. Report. He walked a fine line between cooperating with the whites and defending Indian interests. all the mountains. (Massacre: The Tragedy of White River. We want plenty for them. The agreement an Indian makes to a United States treaty is like the agreement the buffalo makes with his hunters when pierced with arrows. in which the Utes would receive interest on the purchase price. Those mountains are full of mines. Brown. Secretary of the Interior. U. I would rather have the money in the bank. Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 1957. 1873.

We work as hard as you do. he led his tribe to a peaceful resolution. Van Nostrand Reinhold. UTE/APACHE 191." — O U R A Y THE ARROW. by Frederick J. Despite many unfulfilled promises made by the white men.) LITTLE RAVEN (1820?-1889) Arapaho. . 1977.54 LITTLE RAVEN "The agreement an Indian makes to a United States treaty is like the agreement the buffalo makes with his hunters when pierced with arrows. cited in Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. Dockstader. Did you ever try skinning a buffalo? (Reply to a white dignitary who had called Indians lazy. Nebraska Little Raven was an Arapaho chief.

) 196. because I have been to see the white man in the big house [the President]. and his ball to hunt with.) . . 197. too. (Ibid. Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs.) 195.CROWFOOT 55 192. We want to travel the same road as the white man. . What is life? It is the flashes of a firefly in the night. and both have driven us from our lands. Long ago the Arapahoes had a fine country of their own. 1871.) 194. My young p e o p l e . his powder. The white man came to see them.) CROWFOOT (1821-1890) Blackfeet Crowfoot was a chief of the Blackfeet Confederacy. They took the gold and pushed the Indian from his home. New York City. It is the breath of a buffalo in the winter time. think I will look like a white man when I come back. 1871. (As Long as the Rivers Shall Flow. (Ibid. and they told him the country was big enough for the white man and the Arapahoes. We do not want to fight [but] the white man has taken away everything. War Resisters League. (Ibid. and the Indians gave him buffalo meat and a horse to ride on. After a while the white men found gold in our country. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset. The government sent agents and soldiers out there to us. I have been wanting many years for Washington to give us our rights. 1974. (Speech at Cooper Union. (Ibid. We want to have his rifle.) 193.

a way for his iron road to the mountains and the western sea. You have heard the sound of the white soldier's axe upon the Little Piney. (Indian Chiefs. 1987. 1866. the Great Father is building his forts among us. then I will come down and talk. June 10. Indian Heroes and Great Chieftains. not to tarry among us. His presence here is an insult and a threat. but to seek for gold in the far west. The Great Spirit made us poor and ignorant. When we see the soldiers moving away and the forts abandoned. Fort Laramie.) 200. Wyoming. He went on the warpath after the whites violated solemn treaty obligations. I am for war! (Ibid. He made you [whites] rich and wise and skillful in things which we know nothing about. 1918. (New York Times.) 201. Our old chiefs thought to show their friendship and good will. Our nation is melting away like the snow on the sides of the hills where the sun is warm. (Omaha Weekly World. when they allowed this dangerous snake in our midst. June 17. He won a favorable peace treaty in 1868. while your people [whites] are like blades of grass in the spring when summer is coming. the most well known of which were the Fetterman Massacre of 1866 and the Wagon Box Fight of 1867. Hear ye. we were told that they wished merely to pass through our country. Yet before the ashes of the council fire are cold. 198. Are we then to give up their sacred graves to be plowed for corn? Dakotas. by Russell Freedman. 1870. Holiday House.) 202.RED CLOUD (1822-1909) Oglala Sioux. Nebraska Red Cloud was a medicine man who became an important warrior chief. He led many battles against the whites. Brown.) 199. by Charles A. Eastman.) . (Council meeting. 1868. Little. It is an insult to the spirits of our ancestors. Dakotas! When the Great Father at Washington [the President] sent us his chief soldier to ask for a path through our hunting grounds. but this was later violated by the United States.

and leave us alone here with the agent of the interior department. We do not want riches. we want peace and love. Our Indian Wards.) . Clarke. (Statement to protest the presence of large numbers of cavalry and infantry troops near the site where peace talks were being held." — R E D CLOUD. We know that the duty of these soldiers is to follow people that are bad throughout the western country. 1880.) 204. I want you to have pity on us. We do not like to see them here.RED CLOUD 57 "When the white man comes to my country he leaves a trail of blood behind him. OGLALA SIOUX 203. (Ibid. and have them all taken away. by George W. We see a great many soldiers here in our country. 1876. Manypenny.

I was born Lakota and I have lived as a Lakota and I shall die a Lakota. in which he stepped aside as chief in favor of his son. They [the whites] made us many promises.) SPOTTED TAIL (1823-1881) Bride Sioux. and the deer for food and clothing. 211. When the white man comes to my country he leaves a trail of blood behind him.) 207. Rinehart & Winston. by Edward Lazarus. Holt. . That is the . I shall soon lie down to rise no more. and they took it! (American Indians: Answers to Today's Questions.) 206. We were free as the winds and eagle. My day is done. The country which we live in is cut up by the white men. No one put bounds on us. South Dakota Spotted Tail. 1903. . who drive away all the game. the antelope.) 210. cited in Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation Versus the United States. the Indians. While my spirit is with my body the smoke of my breath shall be towards the Sun for he knows all things and knows that I am still true to him. They never kept but one. and gave us this land we live in. We object to the Powder River road. My sun is set. (Ibid. National Woodlands. Opponents accused him of selling out his tribe for personal gain. a Sioux chief. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. 1775 to the Present. more than I can remember. by Dee Brown. by Jack Utter. Darkness is stealing over me. . (Ibid. HarperCollins. (Ibid. 1991. took part in many negotiating sessions with the white man. The Great Spirit made us. and he was assassinated. (Statement to his people. He gave us the buffalo.58 SPOTTED TAIL 205. 1993. Shadows are long and dark before me. They promised to take our land. We moved on our hunting grounds from the Minnesota to the Platte and from the Mississippi to the great mountains.) 209.) 208. 1971.

and there is no Great Father between me and the Great Spirit. 1775 to the Present. Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. this war was brought upon us by the children of the Great Father who came to take our land from us without price. 1991. Morrow. by Edward Lazarus. and who. HarperCollins. (1876. Neihardt. as told to John G. Rinehart and Winston. the President. 1971. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee." —SPOTTED TAIL. (Response to a request by other chiefs to accompany them to Washington to see the Great Father. This [Black Hills] war did not spring up here in our land. 1932. 1867. in our land.) . BRULE SIOUX cause of our troubles. and there is no Great Father between me and the Great Spirit.) 213. (Statement to Peace Commission. Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation Versus the United States. Holt. by Dee Brown. do a great many evil things This has come from robbery—from the stealing of our land. Spotted Tail later did visit Washington.) 212. My father is with me.SPOTTED TAIL 59 "My father is with me.

He talked me out of my old faith. 1940). . I joined his church and became a Methodist. by Annette Rosenstiel. and I became a Baptist. McGregor. Battlefield and Classroom. . then another came and talked and I became a Presbyterian. 1964. . thinking that he must know more of these matters than an ignorant Indian. (Ibid. The white man is very smart. 215. He knew there was gold in the Black Hills and he made us agree to give up all that country and now a great many white people are there getting out the g o l d . another man came and talked. that were green and vigorous but a few moons before! We are a part of that life and it seems that our time has come. We do not want our children to learn such things. and after a while. . edited by James H. Universe Books.. I have always believed in the Great Spirit. Yale University Press. After a while. (The Wounded Knee Massacre from the Viewpoint of the Survivors. Think for a moment how many multitudes of the animal tribes we ourselves have destroyed. he went away. . or that they don't know any more about it than I did at the first.) 216. There is a time appointed to all things. came to us. (Commenting on educating Indians at the Carlisle Indian School. I have about made up my mind that either they all lie. . . look upon the snow that appears today—tomorrow it is water! Listen to the dirge of the dry leaves.) LEWIS DOWNING (1823-1872) Cherokee Lewis Downing was elected Cherokee chief after the Civil War. These people don't seem to want to change my belief in the Great Spirit. and wants me to be an Episcopalian. . (Red & White: Indian Views of the White Man. by Richard Henry Pratt. and worshipped him in my own way. All these people tell different stories. The white people are all thieves and liars. and each wants me to believe that his special way is the only way to be good and save my soul. We are not going to give any children to learn such ways.) 217. a good m a n .60 LEWIS DOWNING 214. Some years ago. Now another one has come. . Wirth Bros. 1983. but to change my way of talking to him.

All this prosperity under God and His gospel.) . they live in a beautiful country interspersed with clear lakes and streams. His father. forests and abounding in fruit and game . by William G. had declared the Cherokees a "domestic. facing the west. . a white man. [and] advanced in civilization. 1993. During his brief lifetime.. Creek. singing and dancing.WILLIAM WARREN 61 218. . axe. After the Trail of Tears: The Cherokee Struggle for Sovereignty. . a newspaper writer. Warren was an interpreter. Amid the decay of Indian Nations . where he finds his relatives accumulated since mankind was first created. With the articles needed in life for a journey.. . Dependence does not destroy sovereignty.. (History of the Ojibways. . portage collar.. was descended from a Mayflower pilgrim. Chickasaw. (1870. the soul arrives in the land of spirits. we owe to our separate national existence and the protection and security afforded by our treaties. her moccasins. and traveling each day through a prairie country." Cherokee Advocate. January 30. accumulated property. 1885.) WILLIAM WARREN (1825-1853) Ojibway. .) 219. if a woman. After camping out four nights. blanket. and an author. Choctaw. all is rejoicing. blanket and kettle. his gun. (University of North Carolina Press. If a man. Wisconsin William Warren wrote about Ojibway legends and traditions. have not only survived but increased in numbers. 1839-1880. 220. . his body is placed in a grave. Based upon Traditions and Oral Statements. When an Ojibway dies. flint and moccasins. a Minnesota state representative. all that the red man most covets in this life. years before. kettle. (The Supreme Court. and Seminole]. generally in a sitting posture. the five nations [Cherokee. fire steel. McLoughlin. 1871. dependent nation. .

. and his nephew. During the Civil War. John Ridge [q. Parker was cleared of any wrongdoing. followed the path of this aged pioneer [Major Ridge] of Cherokee civilization. May 28. he was not a citizen. Georgia John Rollin Ridge was the grandson of Major Ridge (q. between the United States and various Indian t r i b e s . In compliance with your request. I have the honor to submit the following proposed plan for the establishment of a permanent and perpetual peace .]. . Elias Boudinot [q.). He became a civil engineer. and their names are upon record as the foremost among those who labored to redeem their people from the savage state.v. 222. . His [Major Ridge's] son. as president. Grant appointed Parker the first Indian to become commissioner of Indian affairs.v. In 1864 General Grant asked Parker for a memorandum on how the Indian problem might be handled. .v.JOHN ROLLIN RIDGE (1827-1867) Cherokee.]. as an Indian. . and he drafted the surrender document signed by Robert E. he joined the staff of General Ulysses Grant. (New York Tribune. They organized the party of civilization. 1866. Lee. Although he was accused of corruption by Grant's political enemies. Nine years later. 221.) ELY PARKER (1828-1895) Seneca. New York Ely Parker studied to be a lawyer but was denied certification because. He wrote articles to defend those accused of treachery for supporting the Cherokee removal treaty. .

. 40th Congress. not only for the press. Senate Executive Document No. and bloody Indian wars have been the consequence. (Memorandum to General U.ELY PARKER 63 "It has of late years become somewhat common. January 24. (Ibid. SENECA First. and when too late the military have been called in to protect the whites and punish the Indians. Agents appointed from civil life have generally been provided to protect their [Indian] rights.) 223. members of the tribe were inhumanly shot down and the whole treated as mere dogs. and to attend to the prompt and faithful observance of treaty stipulations. The faith of treaties solemnly entered into were totally disregarded. but in the speeches of men of intelligence. the transfer of the Indian bureau from the Interior Department back to the War Department. and Indian territory wantonly violated. Grant. they found no rights possessed by the Indians that they were bound to respect." —ELY PARKER. and some occupying high and responsible positions. Retaliation generally followed. 1864. If any tribe remonstrated against the violation of their natural and treaty rights. 1st Session. But as the hardy pioneer and adventurous miner advanced into the inhospitable regions occupied by the Indians in search of the precious metals. to advocate the policy of their [Indians'] immediate and absolute extermination. In all troubles arising in this manner the civil agents have been totally powerless to avert the consequences.) 224. lives and property. costing lives and much treasure. 13.S.

so revolting to every sense of humanity and Christianity. and some occupying high and responsible positions. while civil agents have none of those incentives. the ruling passion with them being generally to avoid all trouble and responsibility. their rights would not have been improperly molested. Indian trading licenses are very much sought after. less than 400. and. . (Ibid. The expense of agencies would be saved.000.) 225. the lucky possessor is considered as having already made his fortune. although it may be for a limited period. (Ibid. and to make as much money as possible out of their offices. which. and precious metals are discovered or found to exist upon it. It has of late years become somewhat common. it seems to me could not for one moment be entertained by any enlightened nation. however unenlightened they may be. or both. An officer's honor and interest is at stake. Such a proposition. Most of Indian treaties contain stipulations for the payment annually to Indians of annuities. the military had had the supervision of the Indians. numbering. which impels him to discharge his duty honestly and faithfully. a prompt and summary check to any further aggressions could have been given. the Indians would be more honestly dealt by. to advocate the policy of their [Indians'] immediate and absolute extermination.) 226. besides exposing herself to the abhorrence and censure of the entire civilized world. I think. and when obtained.) 227. (Ibid. the military alone can give the Indians the needed protection and keep the adventurous miner from encroaching upon the Indians until the government has come to some understanding with them. I would provide for the complete abolishment of the system of Indian traders.. I know of no reason why officers of the army could not make all these payments as well as civilians. In cases where the government promises the Indians the quiet and peaceable possession of a reservation. either in money or goods. perhaps. the honor of the national character and the dictates of a sound policy guided by the principles of religion and philanthropy. (Ibid. in the beginning. in my opinion. (Ibid. or if disturbed in their quietude by any lawless whites. and agents are appointed to make these payments whenever government furnishes them the means. The American government can never adopt the policy of a total extermination of the Indian race within her limits. . not only for the press.) 228. would urge the adoption of a system to avert the extinction of a people. is a great evil to Indian communities. without a cost of untold treasure and lives of her people.) 229. Then was the cry raised by all those who believed themselves . but in the speeches of men of intelligence.64 ELY PARKER when if. On the contrary.

by Dee Brown." (From a letter describing the political attacks on him as commissioner of Indian affairs. When people want to slaughter cattle they drive them along until . Government officials. refused to move his people to an Oklahoma reservation.S. "Nay. this Parker is an Indian genius. but it was no longer a pleasure to discharge patriotic duties in the face of foul slander and abuse. 1971. he doth injure our business and take the bread from the mouths of our families and the money from our pockets. by force if necessary. Parker. Nebraska Standing Bear. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. Through the press and sympathetic attorneys who took his case without fee. vol. and not to other Indians. he is grown so great and powerful. Last Grand Sachem of the Iroquois and General Grant's Military Secretary. 231. The Life of General Ely S. In 1879 he was taken into custody. Rinehart & Winston.STANDING BEAR 65 injured or unprovided for.) 230. however. 23. Army was ordered to take him and his people.) 232. interpreted the ruling as applying to Standing Bear and his small group only. I gave up a thankless position to enjoy my declining days in peace and quiet. I wish to die in this land. a Ponca chief.1 have not wished to give even a part of it [the land] to the Great Father. so that we may feast as heretofore. to the new reservation. (Ibid. 1919. therefore. (Ibid. I wish to be an old man here. If you took me away from this land it would be very hard for me. Though he were to give me a million dollars I would not give him this land. Standing Bear won a decision declaring that he was a person and could not be taken and transported without his consent.) 233. Holt. let us write and put him out of power. The U. They were defeated. Buffalo Historical Society.) STANDING BEAR (18297-1908) Ponca. They made their onslaught on my poor innocent head and made the air foul with their malicious accusations.

The animal was regarded by many tribes as sacred.Ponca Indians skinning a buffalo. providing virtually all the necessities of life. .

(Ibid. If any citizen or citizens of this [Cherokee] nation should treat and dispose of any lands belonging to this nation without special permission from the national authorities. Look on me. 1879. and someone should swindle him. My brothers. October 29. Oh. a power. and knows what I am.) 234. Sheldon. the unwritten law among the Cherokees forbade the sale of Cherokee land without permission.NATIONAL COUNCIL 67 they get them to a corral. 1931. Lewis. . or if I stood on the bank of an overflowing river. I would take my people and fly to higher ground. and help me to save the lives of the women and children. My brothers. As pressure was put on the Cherokees to sell their lands and relocate west of the Mississippi. 239. May the Almighty send a good spirit to brood over you. he or they shall suffer death. the National Council of the Cherokee Nation decided to put that law into writing.) . .) 238. take pity on me. If a white man had land. by Addison E. . which I cannot resist. that man would try to get it back. and you would not blame him.) 236. the Land and the People. (Cherokee Phoenix. and then they slaughter them. and hears my words.) NATIONAL COUNCIL (1829) Cherokee For many years. my brothers. Nebraska. to move you to help me.) 235. Vol. . I am now with the soldiers and officers. (Ibid. it seems to me as if I stood in front of a great prairie fire. (Ibid. I want to save myself and my t r i b e . (Ibid. 1829. the Almighty looks down on me.) 237. So it was with us. I would take up my children and run to save their lives. I want to go back to my old place n o r t h . (Ibid. . (Statement made to Federal District Court Judge Elmer Dundy. My children have been exterminated. 1. . crowds me down to the ground. my brothers.

I and these others are too old now to follow your Jesus road. would increase in numbers. Any person or persons who shall violate the provisions of this act. They should know about the white man's God. President Theodore Roosevelt invited him to ride in his inaugural parade. may kill him or them so offending. . If this could be I might die in peace. The Truth about Geronimo. 1877. by Britton Davis. and be buried among those mountains. and shall not be accountable for the same. following an early capture. When a man tries to do right. within the limits of this nation. rather than diminish as at present. by resistance. I don't want that any more. It [Arizona] is my land.) GERONIMO (1829-1909) Chiricahua Apache. Arizona Geronimo was a medicine man. 241. in any manner most convenient. such stories ought not to be put in the newspapers. I have several times asked for peace.) 242.) 243. (Ibid. But our children are young. placed in their native homes. but trouble has come from the agents and interpreters. and warrior chief of the Chiricahua Apache. (Conference with General George Crook. (Letter to President Grant. feeling that my people. Very often there are stories put in the newspapers that I am to be hanged. Geronimo was in custody several times and escaped. He made personal appearances at expositions. he finally surrendered for the last time in 1887. prophet. I want to spend my last days there. are hereby declared to be outlaws.) 244. and shall refuse. and any person or persons of this nation. to appear at the place designated for trial. or abscond. He finished his life as a farmer on an Oklahoma reservation. (Ibid. and that our name would not become extinct. my father's land to which I now ask to be allowed to return. my home. 1886.68 GERONIMO 240. 1929. He led raids against white settlers in Arizona and New Mexico from 1871 to 1886. Yale University Press.

they sue us in your State courts for what we know nothing of the Laws that.n i n e t e e n t h century) Creek Tuskeneah was a Creek chief. are in words that we have no possible means to understanding. Your soldiers have refused to prevent it.) 246. he led forays against settlers. Contrary to the consent of the Nation. 1832. 245. where he committed suicide.) TUSKENEAH (Early t o m i d ... by Michael D. . University of Oklahoma Press. by Ruth McDonald Boyer and Narcissus Duffy Gayton. and are spoiling my lands and taking possession of the Red peoples improvements that they have made with their own labor. . A fighter as well as a talker. Green.SATANTA 69 (Apache Mothers and Daughters: Four Generations of a Family. 1982. was known as the orator of the plains. chief of the Kiowas. they make false accounts against us.) SATANTA (1830-1878) Kiowa Satanta. Your white sons and daughters are moving into my country in a band. (Letter to President Andrew Jackson. University of Nebraska Press. (Ibid. These are the kind of [white] characters that settle among us. They steal our property. The Politics of Indian Removal. 1992. He was captured and sent to prison. they swear to lies.

He died in battle. and shield. gets nothing. but when we settle down. he that listens to the white man. (Addressed to General Winfield Scott Hancock. October 26. .) 251. but I don't know how it is with the commissioners. 253. 1971. and yet I feel safe in your presence. I don't want to settle. by Dee Brown. Rinehart & Winston. U. These soldiers cut down my timber. The independent Indian is the only one rewarded. Has the white man become a child that he should recklessly kill and not eat? When the red men slay game. they do so that they may live and not starve. by Dee Brown. 1971. but when I go up to the river I see camps of soldiers on its banks. Cheyenne warriors are not afraid.) 250. 1867. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee.) . 1895-1896. 1867. I have no little lies hid about me.) 248. I have told you the truth. . I have heard that you intend to settle us on a reservation near the mountains. The good Indian. (Ibid. 17th Annual Report. (Ibid. . we grow pale and die. I love to roam over the prairies. Holt.S. they kill my buffalo. but have you never heard of Sand Creek? Your soldiers look just like those who butchered the women and children there. I have laid aside my lance.1 love the land and the buffalo and will not part with i t . cited in Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. bow. and when I see that. A long time ago this land belonged to our fathers. (New York Times. (Ibid.) 249. fought attempts by the Union Pacific railroad to go through Indian hunting grounds. my heart feels like bursting. Bureau of American Ethnology.70 ROMAN NOSE 247. (Speech at the Medicine Lodge Council before white officials. Rinehart & Winston. a war leader of the Cheyenne. There I feel free and happy.) 252. Holt.) ROMAN NOSE (1830-1868) Southern Cheyenne Roman Nose.

. 1899. . She traveled from place to place. . renowned as a temperance worker. childlike they would feel of the little beauties with the tips of their fingers. Palmer regarding the Union Pacific railroad.. . They all began to inquire what kind of eggs they were. (Queen of the Woods. about to hatch. According to one account. . 255. . cited in Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. the frail egg shells would crumble away. "Would you like to take some of them?" She would then carefully put into each extended hand some of the charming colored little eggs. Then she would add. by Frederick J. (Statement to General Innis N. (Ibid. Pokagon's father sold the site of what was to become Chicago to the whites. After the children were assembled. by Simon Pokagon. he wrote it first in his native Indian language and then translated it himself into English. she . . "These are ish-kot-e-waw-bo wan-an-og" (whisky eggs).) . (and) she would make reply. Dockstader. Michigan Simon Pokagon. chief of the Pottawattamis. She stained them a beautiful red color. On receiving them. .) 256. she called the children together to hold a little "pow-wow. was a well-known writer on Indian life and culture. When he wrote his autobiography.. opened the boxes one by one. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Ash-taw was . 1977. . when to their great surprise. If the palefaces come farther into our land. Then with a shriek of horror they would let the young reptiles drop. and wherever she found a few families . white birch-bark boxes) so as to have them appear to the children as charming as possible. there will be scalps of your brethren in the wigwams of the Cheyenne.) SIMON POKAGON (1830-1899) Pottawattami." . . and scatter like leaves in a whirlwind. . and from each come forth a little snake squirming and wiggling in their hands. placing them on green moss in "wigwas-si ma-kak-ogons" (small.SIMON POKAGON 71 254. She always managed to keep on hand a stock of snakes' eggs .

This shrewd woman would then make an application of the strong object-lesson. The cruel joke impressed their youthful minds with such a loathsome hate against ish-kot-e-waw-bo (whisky) that their very souls ever after would revolt at the sight. We cannot sell the lives of men and animals. Army soldiers or Indian police tried to arrest him.). It was his forces. too. Our land is more valuable than your money. Sitting Bull was against the idea of Indians living on reservations.v. 1987. he made appearances in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. As long as the sun shines and the waters flow. It will last forever. Indian Chiefs. by Russell Freedman. . smell. therefore. and he fled with his people to Canada. The soldiers who were killed were brave men. All my warriors were brave and knew no fear. he returned to the United States and was put on a reservation. Some of his supporters came to protect him.S. (Statement after the battle of the Little Big Horn.72 SITTING BULL 257.) SITTING BULL (1834-1890) Hunkpapa Lakota. and that they who drank. we cannot sell . (Ibid. It will not even perish by flames or fire. or even thought of the deceptive curse. or even let go of. and Sitting Bull either was deliberately murdered or died in the shootout that followed. either U. Later.) 260. Holiday House. convincing the children that what they had witnessed was but a slight foretaste of the awful reality. 1876. We did not go out of our own country to kill them. after a while would be tormented with "mi-chi-gin-e-big" (great big snakes). There are conflicting accounts of his death.) 258. They came to kill us and got killed themselves. For a brief time. which they could not escape. (Ibid. South Dakota Sitting Bull never signed a peace treaty with the white man. under Crazy Horse (q. . 259. this land will be here to give life to men and animals. but they had no chance to fight or run a w a y . During the time of the Ghost Dance. . who defeated Custer at the Little Big Horn.

) 261.) 262. because I was born where my father died. Where are the warriors today? Who slew them? Where are our lands? Who owns them? . You are thieves and liars. When I was a boy the Sioux owned the world. You have . because I would die for my people and my country? (Life of Sitting Bull and History of the Indian War of 1890-91. I hate all the white people.SITTING BULL 73 "I hate all the white people. (Ibid. What law have I broken? Is it wrong for me to love my own? Is it wicked for me because my skin is red? Because I am Lakota." —SITTING BULL. You have taken away our land and made us outcasts. HUNKPAPA LAKOTA this land. they sent 10.) 260a. 1891. Indian Heritage Council. . but only the Great Spirit can count the grains of sand and the blades of grass of these plains. by W. Johnson. (The Great American Indian Bible. You can count your money and burn it within the nod of a buffalo's head. the sun rose and set on their land. You are thieves and liars. F. Edgewood Publishing. It was put here for us by the Great Spirit and we cannot sell it because it does not belong to us. 1991. edited by Louis Hooban. .000 men to battle. What treaty that the white man ever made with us have they kept? Not one.

All they have to do is to get the signatures of the Indians. in Contemporary Native American Address. and ever since he has had it in for m e .) . That which is bad leave it alone. (After receiving word that he was about to be arrested. . Why does he keep trying to humble me? Can I be any lower than I am? (Ibid.) 263.) 266. .. but what the commissioners want. . Sometimes the commissioners say they compromise. They have been proven for thousands of years.) 264. Holt. (Ibid. edited by John R. (Indian Affairs. Rinehart & Winston. We are all Sioux. 1976. Take the best of the white man's road. 268. I would not go. 1934. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. It is not what the Indians want. so he could make a lot of money.) 265.. Whitemen. 1883. Why should the Indian police come against me? We are of the same blood. . by Vestal.. cast it away. cited by Grasping Eagle in New Sources. (New Sources of Indian History 1850-91. December 1890.74 SITTING BULL taken away our land and made us outcasts. by Stanley Vestal. Take the best of the old Indian ways—always keep them. they ought not to put up the Indians to kill me. If the white men want me to die.. . Fall 1994. (Statement to a white audience. University of Oklahoma Press. I am not afraid to die. The commissioners bring a paper [the treaty] containing what they wish already written out. Let the soldiers come and take me away and kill me. . but they never change the document. Do not let them die. Brigham Young University Press. in charge of Sitting Bull's confinement] wanted me to travel all around [with Buffalo Bill] . Let us [Indians] put our minds together and see what life we can make for our children. by Dee Brown. Association on Indian Affairs.) 267." by Henrietta V. pick it up and take it with you. White Hair [Major James McLaughlin. . wherever they like. Once was enough. Then I would not join his church. ("Spiritual Roots of Indian Success. 1971. Maestas.

and one part thrown that way. I am as a stone. Gale. first fought the white man and later made peace with him. but that is not what grieves me—I am grieved at the ruin of my people. a Kiowa warrior. by Duane Champagne. Chronology of Native North American History. 269. KIOWA KICKING BIRD (1835-1875) Kiowa Kicking Bird. but that is not what grieves me—I am grieved at the ruin of my people. (Statement at Medicine Lodge Creek meeting.KICKING BIRD 75 "I am a chief no more." —KICKING BIRD. broken and thrown away—one part thrown this way. I am a chief no more.) . 1994. 1867.

and I want to buy them. only a third of whom were warriors. 270. I like your horses.DELSHAY (1835-1874) Tonto Apache Delshay was a chief during the early years of the Apache wars. I want to make a big t r e a t y . In 1877.) CHIEF JOSEPH (1840-1904) Nez Perce. he decided to lead his people to freedom in Canada. I will not sell them. I will keep my word until the stones melt. 272. I want to make a treaty that will last. Rinehart & Winston. . "No. Oregon Chief Joseph was the leader of the Nez Perce tribe. Wyoming." Then he goes to my neighbor. . Suppose a white man should come to me and say.1 don't want to run over the mountains anymore. so that both can travel over the country and have no trouble. and Montana ended at the Bear Paw Mountains of Montana—only thirty miles from the Canadian border.) 271. "Joseph. and says to him: . The flight of more than a thousand miles through Idaho. (Ibid. He died on a reservation in the state of Washington. God made the white man and God made the Apache. 1971. my horses suit me. and heavily outnumbered. ." I say to him. and the Apache has just as much right to the country as the white man. Trapped. to avoid being forced onto a reservation. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. There were about 500 people in the party. Chief Joseph surrendered. starving. Holt. by Dee Brown.

) . but he refuses to sell. vol.) 276. free to choose my own teachers. My people. They do not pay for my country. free to follow the religion of my fathers. I want to have time to look for my children and see how many of them I can find. "Joseph.. (Our Indian Heritage: Profiles of 12 Great Leaders. but while their mouths all talk right I do not understand why nothing is done for my people. p. Words do not pay for my dead people. Good words do not last long unless they amount to something. Good words will not get my people a home where they can live in peace and take care of themselves.S. . I believed General Miles or I never would have surrendered.) 274.) 277. my heart is sick and sad. Hear me. It makes my heart sick. Good words will not give my people good health and stop them from dying. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. or submit to the penalty.. They [government officials] all say they are my friends and that I shall have justice. I have bought your horses and you must let me have them.) 275. Chilton. It is cold and we have no blankets. 128. I have asked some of the great white chiefs where they get their authority to say to the Indian that he shall stay in one place while he sees white men going where they please. Fayne Porter. 1877. have run away to the hills.) 273. and says. Secretary of War Report 1877.CHIEF JOSEPH 11 "Joseph has some good horses. now overrun by white men. I am tired of talk that comes to nothing.. .. 1964. (North American Review. free to work. and have no blankets. free to think and talk and act for myself—and I will obey every law. They cannot tell me. It is the young men who say yes or no. 1879. (Statement of surrender to General Nelson Miles. by C. You might as well expect the rivers to run backward as that any man who was born a free man should be contented when penned up and denied liberty to go where he pleases. (Ibid. He who led on the young men is dead. (Ibid." My neighbor answers. my chiefs! I am tired. General Miles promised that we might return to our own country. The little children are freezing to death. I want to buy them. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever. free to trade where I choose. "Pay me the money and I will sell you Joseph's horses. U. October. Our chiefs are killed The old men are all dead. some of them. no food. I have heard talk and talk but nothing is done. Let me be a free man—free to stop. (Ibid. 630." The white man returns to me." If we sold our lands to the government. I am tired of fighting. no one knows where they are— perhaps freezing to death. this is the way they were bought.

281. white Father has plenty. but if we do we will leave our bones on the ground where our great Father may see where his Dakota children died. 1907.) 279. we may die. His fires are warm. (Statement .RED IRON (Mid t o late n i n e t e e n t h century) Dakota Red Iron was a tribal chief of the Dakota. and some of them cut off the heads of the dead and carried them away. We have sold our hunting grounds and the graves of our fathers. his tepees keep out the cold. We have nothing to eat Our hunting season is past. and if they had good teeth they pulled. but the soldiers cut down the scaffolds and cut off the hair of the head. My Life and Experiences among Our Hostile Indians. Red Iron was briefly imprisoned by the army. (Ibid. A great many of our people are sick for being hungry. We are poor. We have sold our own graves. 278. We may die because you will not pay us.) 280. We have a way in the winter of putting our dead up on scaffolds up from the ground. (Ibid. and you will not pay us the money for our lands. Worthington & Co. The snow is on the ground. (After making this speech at an 1862 council meeting. by Oliver O. We have no place to bury our dead. and we have been waiting a long time to get our money.1 think the way the white men treated us is worse than the wolves..) PALANEAPOPE (Mid to late nineteenth century) Yankton Sioux Palaneapope was a Yankton Sioux chieftain. Howard.

R.. 39th Congress. 1865. Cooke. 1966. Dodd. and did do it. by C.) 283. 1964. Mead. Army E. I have always lived on what I could kill and shoot with my gun and catch in my trap. and the squaws being hungry will sleep with them in order to get something to eat. and will get a bad disease. because the trader's store is under the floor where my goods are stored. Canby.) 282. and I have always tried to do it. Senate Report no. and then turn to their husbands and give them the bad disease. . . I think if you will come up to our agency you will laugh in the first place. so that it won't be so handy to our g o o d s .) CAPTAIN JACK (18407-1873) Modoc.. to let them be tried by your law. until this war started. 156. Shortly after their capture.S. August. Chilton. Canby. . If I give up my men that killed the settlers. Our Indian Heritage: Profiles of 12 Great Leaders. . . and then be mad to see our storehouse in the same building with the trader's store. Before the soldiers came along we had good health. [I was told] to live like a white man. I .. . Fighting Indians of America.) . (Ibid. . Captain Jack warrior chiefs were put on trial and hanged. honestly.CAPTAIN JACK 79 to a commissioner of Indian affairs in South Dakota. 284.) 285. (Ibid. have never gone b e g g i n g . . by David C. California Captain War. will you give up your men that killed our women to let them be tried by our law? (Parley with General E.R. 1873. Fayne Porter.S.S. . . 2d Session. he killed U. In General and his Jack was chief of the Modoc tribe during the Modoc the midst of peace negotiations. (Statement at his trial. but once the soldiers come along they go to my squaws and want to sleep with them. What I have got I have got with my own hands. I want the store moved away a mile.

) GALL (18407-1895) Hunkpapa Lakota. Whatever their hearts are. I will not fall on the rocks.1 am the voice of my people. . (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee.) 287. will you give up your men that killed our women to let them be tried by our law?" —CAPTAIN JACK. that I talk. he became a judge on the Court of Indian Affairs and a representative for tribal interests in Washington. South Dakota Gall was one of the chiefs at the battle of the Little Big Horn.1 am not afraid to die. When I die. Later. Rinehart & Winston.80 GALL "If I give up my men that killed the settlers. by Dee Brown. Holt. PONCA 286. 1971. (Ibid. to let them be tried by your law. my enemies will be under me.

. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. University of Oklahoma Press. 1891. The women as they were fleeing with their babes were killed together. 1868. If we make peace.C. and that especially was a very sad sight. the military posts on this Missouri River must be removed and the steamboats stopped from coming up here. Hotchkiss guns. the commissioner of Indian Affairs questioned witnesses in Washington. shot right through. So that there were three general directions in which they took flight. When the firing b e g a n . and they were surrounded by the soldiers. upon the women who were in the lodge. 1932. One of the witnesses was American Horse.) 290. Six weeks after the Wounded Knee massacre of 1890. .. the child not knowing that his mother was dead was still nursing.) 291. South Dakota American Horse tried to keep peace with the white man. 1896. (Ibid. The whites run our country. part 2. the men fleeing in one direction and the women running in two different directions. and the women and children . . were strewn all along the circular village until they were dispatched.. and of course as soon as they were fired upon they fled. from the women. New Sources of Indian History 18501891. standing there under a flag of truce. and then they [the soldiers] turned their guns. The men were separated. the people who were standing immediately around the young [Indian] man who fired the first shot were killed right together.) . and the women who were very heavy with child were also killed. Then came next the village of the Indians that was entirely surrounded by the soldiers also.. . D. (Ibid.. Right near the flag of truce a mother was shot down with her infant. (Statement of February 11. by Stanley Vestal.) AMERICAN HORSE (1840-1908) Sioux. (Statement at a conference with white officials. 289. There is one thing I do not like. There was a woman with an infant in her arms who was killed as she almost touched the flag of truce. etc. .AMERICAN HORSE 81 288.

but he would have done the same to us had we not defended ourselves and fought to the last. At times. but we were so hemmed in that we had to fight. Little boys who were not wounded came out of their places of refuge. Twenty Years among Our Savage Indians. we did not get enough to eat. We would live as our fathers did. 1974. where we were driven against our will. "Why do you not become civilized?" We do not want your civilization. 1877. and we were not allowed to leave the reservation to hunt. Hartford Publishing. We were no expense to the government. (In the Spirit of Crazy Horse. South Dakota Crazy Horse. and their fathers before them. (Voices from Wounded Knee 1973. a chief of the Oglala Sioux. Leo Humfreville.82 CRAZY HORSE 292. 293. (Ibid. 1983. We preferred our own way of living. Our first impulse was to escape with our squaws and papooses. After most all of them [the Indians] had been killed a cry was made that all those who were not killed or wounded should come forth and they would be safe. All we wanted was peace and to be left alone. (Ibid. Viking. One does not sell the earth upon which the people walk. who destroyed our villages.) 295.) 294. You [white men] say. by J. (Ibid.) 296. They say we massacred him.) CRAZY HORSE (18427-1877) Oglala Sioux. and as soon as they came in sight a number of soldiers surrounded them and butchered them there. (Deathbed statement at Fort Robinson. 1897. was part of Sitting Bull's band which attacked and destroyed the forces of General Custer at the battle of the Little Big Horn. Soldiers were sent out in the winter. We preferred hunting to a life of idleness on the reservations. Later he surrendered and lived on a reservation. by Peter Matthiessen.) 294a.) . Akwesasne Notes. Nebraska. Then "Long Hair" [Custer] came in the same way. When soldiers came to arrest him. he fled and was mortally wounded.

seeing that it was useless to stay longer. Everyone was crying. George Bent.GEORGE BENT (1843-1918) Cheyenne. As we rode into the camp there was a terrible scene. University of Oklahoma Press. It was a terrible march [to safety after Sand Creek]. calling out to White Antelope to follow him. by George Grinnell. 297. (Ibid. Then suddenly the troops opened fire. Her whole scalp had been taken and the skin of her forehead fell down over her eyes. that after the fight he saw soldiers scalping the dead and saw an old woman who had been scalped by the soldiers walk about.). singing his death song: Nothing lives long. All the time Black Kettle kept calling out not to be frightened. Bent turned his back on the white world after Sand Creek and regarded himself as a Cheyenne for the rest of his life. Half-Cheyenne and half-white.) 300. but White Antelope refused and stood there ready to die. lay among the dead all day and escaped in the darkness. most of us being on foot. Part of the people were rushing about the camp in great fear. Black Kettle had a large American flag up on a long lodgepole [at Sand Creek] as a signal to the troop that the camp was friendly.. with arms folded. but unable to see where to go.1864. The killings were carried out by militia under the command of Colonel John Chivington. led by Black Kettle (q.. Except the earth and the mountains until he was shot down by the soldiers. (Ibid. Little Bear told me .) 298.v. and the women and children . (The Fighting Cheyennes. started to run... were massacred at Sand Creek. 1956. ill-clad and encumbered with the women and children. even the warriors. wounded in the battle. .) 299. hundreds of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians. On November 29. Black Kettle. without food. Colorado. Missouri? George Bent was a Cheyenne warrior. Most of the casualties were women and children. that the camp was under protection and there was no danger.

and you own nothing. by Dorothy Natus Morrison. A few years ago you owned this great country. Do you know what did it? Ed- . ("Forty Years with the Cheyennes. never while I live upon this cruel world. and many of them in their grief were gashing themselves with their knives until the blood flowed in streams. 4. and set the camp on fire and threw them into the flames to see them burn alive. Nevada." by George Bent. (Incident at the Muddy Lake reservation.84 SARAH WINNEMUCCA screaming and wailing. An active lobbyist for Indian rights. Atheneum. Nevada. have left their houses and wandered we know not where . (Statement to officers at Fort McDermitt. She was called the "Indian Joan of Arc. Ibid. the soldiers took them also. After the soldiers had killed all but some little children and babies still tied up in their baskets. lecturer. . and educator. and then the officers talked very sweetly to me. Nearly everyone present had lost some relatives or friends. .) 302. What I say for my people is so written on my heart that it will never be washed out. 6.) 303.) SARAH WINNEMUCCA (18447-1891) Paiute. I well remember the time when the hills surrounding this very camp were swarming with hostile Indians. being on the borders of starvation. Hayes. The Frontier. Ibid." 301. Today the white man owns it all. we would all much rather be slain and put out of our misery than to be lingering here—each day bringing new sorrows—and finally to die of hunger and starvation. she met with the major political figures of her day. Nevada Sarah Winnemucca was an author. 1865.) 305. including President Rutherford B. Many. no. after requesting food and clothing for her tribe. (Letter to military authorities on the lack of rations for the reservation. December 1905. Chief Sarah: Sarah Winnemucca's Fight for Indian Rights. (Ibid. vol. 1980. I am quite willing to throw off the garments of civilization I now wear and mount my pony.) 304.

. (Ibid. 1964. your children have brains.DOUBLEHEAD 85 ucation. (Ibid.) 306. . 307. Your parents have done something that is wonderful to send you here [Carlisle Indian School] to be educated. (Battlefield and Classroom. and when they grow up to manhood and womanhood they will bless you. I entreat you to get hold of this [Indian-run] school.) DOUBLEHEAD (Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century) Creek Doublehead was a Creek chief.) 308. There is only one tribe that knows much. Now we look back. (Letter to the Indians of Inyo. our old parents did not know anything. Ibid. You have brains same as the whites. 309. addressed the students. We are afraid if we part with any more of our lands the white people will not let us keep as much as will be sufficient to bury our . We other Indians belonging to the different tribes are blind. asking for support of her Indian school. .) KUSHIWAY (Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century) Sac/Fox Kushiway. that are like the white people—that is the Cherokee. California. to it. a visitor to the Carlisle school. and give your support by sending your children. by Richard Henry Pratt. They have men today equal to the Great Father: they are educated. old and young. Yale University Press. they are wise. that time is all passed away.

(Ibid. the Indians must always be remembered in this land. (Ploughed Under. New World Library. by William J.) QUANAH PARKER (1845-1911) Comanche.) 311. Harsha. a Comanche war chief.C. Mississippi will murmur our woes. My brothers. D. 310. Texas Quanah Parker. the Story of an Indian Chief Told by Himself. Seneca will shine in our image. The broad Iowa and the rolling Dakota and the fertile Michigan will whisper our names to the sun that kisses them. (Native American Wisdom. Later.86 EAGLE WING dead. fought to prevent the slaughter of the buffalo. edited by Kent Nerburn and Louise Mengleboch. Minnehaha will laugh of us. Out of our languages we have given names to many beautiful things which will always speak of us.) EAGLE WING (Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century) Sioux Eagle Wing was a Sioux chief. 1991. . 1881. he became the chief spokesman for the Comanches in Washington. We have been guilty of only one sin—we have had possessions that the white man coveted.

and cattlemen. Holiday House. by Russell Freedman. COMANCHE 312. and cattlemen. but you see how dry it is now. 1987.) . We love the white man but we fear your success. but you see how dry it is now. (Indian Chiefs." — Q U A N A H PARKER. coyotes. It is only good for red ants. coyotes. This was a pretty country you took away from us.QUANAH PARKER 87 "This was a pretty country you took away from us. It is only good for red ants.

All along the bugler kept blowing his commands. quick. I thought he was going to escape. One man all alone ran far down toward the river. September 1898. At last about a hundred men and five horsemen stood on the hill all bunched together. (McClure's Magazine. Then a bugle sounded. riding very fast. and had long black hair and mustache. and everywhere the Sioux went the dust rose like smoke. Two Moon described the battle to Hamlin Garland. Soldiers drop. Indians keep swirling round and round.) 314. some standing. and some soldiers led the horses back over the hill. a Cheyenne chief.. We circled all round him—swirling like water round a stone. I don't know. but one man rides up and down the line—all the time shouting. Pop— pop—pop very fast.. Then a chief was killed. The man on the sorrel horse led them. shouting all the time. I don't know who he was. The smoke was like a great cloud.TWO MOON (1847-1917) Cheyenne Two Moon. Then the soldiers rose all at once. At last all horses killed but five. all on horses. His men were all covered with white dust. then round up over the hill.. He was a brave man. Then the shooting was quick. we shoot again. and they all got off horses. started toward the river.) 315. The Cheyennes went up the left way. may be so forty. 313. We shoot. Soldiers in line drop. and horses fall on them. More than twenty years later. and the soldiers killed only a few. He was very brave too. Then the Sioux rode up the ridge on all sides. we ride fast. I couldn't tell whether they were officers or not. like this [he put his fingers behind each other to indicate that Custer appeared marching in columns of fours] with a little ways between. (Ibid. but he would fall. While I was sitting on my horse I saw flags come up over the hill to the east like that [he raised his finger-tips]. Once in a while some man would break out and run toward the river. and then five horsemen and the bunch of men. He wore a buckskin shirt. led his forces against General Custer at the battle of the Little Big Horn. I hear it was Long Hair [Custer]. Many soldiers fell. He fought hard with a big knife. but a Sioux fired and hit . Some of the soldiers were down on their knees. Officers all in front.

1962. but we soon learned that although they expected us to keep them.) 321. Despite his cynicism about whites and their values. When we came to dead men. We were sorrowful. They told us not to drink whisky. (Ibid. One man carried a little bundle for sticks. but when we tried to understand it we found that there were too many kinds of religion among white men for us to understand. and that scarcely any two white men agreed which was the right one to learn. Most of them were left just where they fell. he willed his property to the American people for a public park. Their Wise Ones said we might have their religion. This bothered us a good deal until we saw that the white man did not take his religion . (Ibid. so we counted the dead. We had no dance that night. yet they made it themselves and traded it to us for furs and robes.) 316. (Ibid. They [the whites] spoke very loudly when they said their laws were made for everybody. (Ibid. All the soldiers were now killed.) 317.PLENTY-COUPS 89 him in the head. Two Moon. University of Nebraska Press.) 318. After that no one could tell which were officers. went upon the battlefield to count the dead.) PLENTY-COUPS (1848-1932) Crow.) 319. and the bodies were stripped. He was the last man. they thought nothing of breaking them themselves. Next day four Sioux chiefs and two Cheyennes and I. There were 388. Linderman. Some white soldiers were cut with knives. He wore braid on his arms [sergeant]. to make sure they were dead. There were 39 Sioux and seven Cheyennes killed. Chief of the Crows. and the war women had mangled some. by Frank B. we took a little stick and gave it to another man. Montana Plenty-Coups was a Crow chief. (Ibid. and about a hundred wounded. 320. (Plenty-Coups.

S. She was the oldest sister of Susan LaFlesche Picotte (q. spoke out on behalf of the rights of Indians. (Firewater and Forked Tongues. (Native American Doctor: The Story of Susan LaFlesche Picotte. . I. 322. the first Indian woman to become a medical doctor. Trail's End Publishing Company. a Sioux Chief Interprets U.) . 1947. 323. by Jeri Ferris.90 ELYING HAWK any more seriously than he did his laws. He also battled General Custer at the battle of the Little Big Horn. 1991. to use when they might do him good in his dealings with strangers. I often wonder if there is anything in your [white] civilization which will make good to us what we have lost. by M. . and that he kept both of them just behind him. . The tipi is much better to live in: always clean. and lecturer. If the Great Spirit wanted men to stay in one place he would make the world stand still. warm in winter. like Helpers.). History. a writer.v. cool in summer. easy to m o v e .) FLYING HAWK (1852-1931) Oglala Sioux. South Dakota Flying Hawk.) SUSETTE LaFLESCHE (1854-1903) Ponca/Omaha. a Sioux chief. McCreight. Carolrhoda Books. (Ibid. editor. Nebraska Susette LaFlesche. fought in several Indian wars.

of the blue water lake. From the mountain forests. arrows. It is at such time the guard Spirit enters into the warrior's head.) 329. 324. Ibid. a sure scout. spears. 1940. escaping bullets. (Yellow Wolf: His Own Story. by Frederick J. Only his own best deeds. Army attack on an Indian encampment at the Big Hole River.S. Only when approaching the enemy ready to fight life for life can you hear and learn from fellow warriors. I felt as dreaming. (Ibid. The Wolf-Power I was given made me a great hunter. Some soldiers acted with crazy minds. wide meadows with horse and cattle herds. cited in Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. Told much that is not true.) . Only then are these things told—what Power has been given the warrior. 1877. Thoughts come of the Wallowa where I grew up. they returned to the United States and were sent to a reservation in Indian Territory. no clear running rivers.) 328. The air was heavy with sorrow.) 325. you will die! This story will be for the people who come after us. of my own country when only the Indians were there. The whites told only one side. (Ibid. No mountains. To escape with life through the battle. no springs. Later.) 326. only the worst deeds of the Indians. Dockstader. Not my living self. clubs. For them to see and know what was done here. Enters that he may defend himself. by Lucullus McWhorter. (Ibid. Caxton. has the white man told. Yellow Wolf and a small group fled to Canada when Chief Joseph surrendered.v. voices seemed calling. (Describing a U. Van Nostrand Reinhold.) 327. Told it to please themselves. 1977. what Power he must use.YELLOW WOLF (1856-1935) Nez Perce Yellow Wolf was one of the warriors of Chief Joseph (q.). (Contrasting the sparse environment of Indian Territory with his boyhood home. I am telling you true! I will die. of tepees along the bending river. or knives.

). and their native dignity obscured.v. Nebraska Francis LaFlesche. We were also forbidden to pass in front of persons sitting in the tent without first asking permission.v. Maynard. an author and anthropologist. was a staff member of the Smithsonian Bureau of American Ethnology. The Middle Five: Indian Boys at School.) 333. (Ibid. that their thoughts have frequently been travestied. he was a half-brother of Susette LaFlesche (q. 1900. Among my earliest recollections are the instructions wherein we were taught respect and courtesy toward our elders. to say "thank you" when receiving a gift or returning a borrowed article.) 331. and we were strictly enjoined never to stare at visitors. Small. particularly at strangers. (Ibid.FRANCIS LaFLESCHE (1857-1932) Omaha. (Describing experiences at a Presbyterian missionary school for Indians. (Ibid. No native American can cease to regret that the utterances of his fathers have been continually belittled when put into English.) 92 . to use the proper and conventional term of relationship when speaking to another. Son of an Omaha chief. To us there seemed no end to the things we were obliged to do and to the things we were to refrain from doing. 330. and never to address anyone by his personal name.) and Susan LaFlesche Picotte (q.) 332.

and have plenty of horses and robes.STANDING BUFFALO (Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century) Sisseton Standing Buffalo was a Sisseton chief. 1988. 336. When the sun died [was eclipsed] I went up to Heaven and saw God and all the people who had died a long time ago. but rich. Bureau of Indian Affairs. and not fight or steal. and that the dead would rise. (1871. He said that God had told him that Indian lands would be restored. He gave me this dance to give my people. God told me to come back and tell my people they must be good and love one another.) WOVOKA (1858-1932) Paiute.) 335. (Ibid. We are chiefs of the plains. Wovoka said Indians should prepare for these miracles by performing the Ghost Dance. leading to the Wounded Knee massacre of 1890. or lie. Coyote Books.) 93 . a Collection of Short Biographies. The dance spread across the plains. 334. The Odyssey of Chief Standing Buffalo. we are not poor. by Mark Diedrich. a medicine man. Many Indians came to believe that the dance would protect them from the white man's bullets. This may have contributed to major misunderstandings on both sides. 1975. Our country is wherever the buffalo range. had a vision in 1888. Nevada Wovoka. the buffalo and other game would come back. (Famous Indians.

) 339. whereas I now live the artificial. [The Indian] sees no need for setting apart one day in seven as a holy day. When we reached the spot where the Indian camp had stood [at Wounded Knee]. He became a popular writer and advocate for Indian causes. (Ibid.D. Fully three miles from the scene of the [Wounded Knee] massacre we found the body of a woman completely covered with a blanket of snow. Just a month after he received his M. I lived the natural life. (Native American Wisdom. (The Soul of an Indian.CHARLES A. New World Library. he found himself treating the survivors of Wounded Knee.) 341. We studied the habits of animals just as you study your books.) 338. I counted eighty bodies of men who had been in council and 94 . every growing tree an object of reverence. among the fragments of burned tents and other belongings we saw the frozen bodies lying close together or piled one on another. What boy would not be an Indian for a while when he thinks of the freest life in the world? We were close students of nature. Houghton Mifflin. 1911.) 340. EASTMAN (1858-1939) Santee Sioux. Now I worship with the white man before a painted landscape whose value is estimated in dollars! Thus the Indian is reconstructed as the natural rocks are ground to powder and made into artificial blocks which may be built into the walls of modern society. 337. Little. (From the Deep Woods to Civilization. 1916. since to him all days are God's. Brown. Eastman helped set up dozens of YMCA units for Indians throughout the country. Minnesota Charles Eastman was one of the first Indians to graduate as a medical doctor. I have forgotten this grace since I became civilized. His books on Sioux life were extremely popular. from Boston University. and from this point on we found them scattered along as they had been relentlessly hunted down and slaughtered while fleeing for their lives. 1991. Any pretty pebble was valuable to me then. As a child I understood how to give. edited by Kent Neirburn and Louise Mendleboch.

"[W]e found the body of a woman completely covered with a blanket of snow." — C H A R L E S A.Medicine man killed at Wounded Knee. EASTMAN. and from this point on we found them scattered along as they had been relentlessly hunted down and slaughtered while fleeing for their lives. SANTEE SIOUX .

was far away and every channel of communication cut off. This war has been disastrous in its effect on the welfare of our people. by William G. (Statement. 1863. After the Trail of Tears: The Cherokees' Struggle for Sovereignty. 342. 1993. A reckless and desperate young Indian had fired the first shot when the search for weapons was well under way. .) 343. (Ibid. Our wisest men knew not what to do. (Ibid. 1839-1880. and children. University of North Carolina Press. but their own comrades who stood opposite them.) . The Cherokee Nation was pressured by both the Union and the Confederacy to join their respective sides. killing not only unarmed men. . the government of the United States. every military post in our vicinity abandoned. McLoughlin. women. for nearly all their guns had been taken from them. Our legitimate protection.96 THOMAS PEGG who were almost as helpless as the women and babes when the deadly fire began.. and immediately the troops opened fire from all sides.) THOMAS PEGG (Mid-nineteenth century) Cherokee Thomas Pegg was a Cherokee tribal leader during the Civil War. for the camp was entirely surrounded. The operations of our government have been paralyzed by the incursions of an overwhelming force.

. November 13. While we lived in Minnesota we used to live in good houses. 344.. . the Commissioner [of Indian Affairs]. . after the expiration of 92 years from date of that contract or treaty and without the consent of [the other] party It is a dangerous doctrine to which I can never agree. and .. From which we are to infer that the Government of the United States have adopted the rule to not observe any Treaty that clashed with the individual opinion of the Secretary of Interior or his subordinate. This took place following the Sioux uprising of 1862.. Oklahoma City. [This means] a new doctrine construing treaty or contracts in writing. . Cherokee Records. Oklahoma Historical Society. . suspended the law of the United States and the operation of Treaties in relation to i n t r u d e r s .. 346. .) LITTLE HILL (Mid-nineteenth century) Winnebago. I have received a communication from the Superintendent of Indian Affairs which staggered my belief. and more peremptorily required to abandon our right to selfgovernment guaranteed to us by treaty and ours by nature. (Ibid.) 345. 1877. His d e p a r t m e n t . Minnesota Little Hill was one of the Winnebago chiefs when the tribe was removed from Minnesota. We are then berated as unfit for self-government ... (Report to Cherokee council regarding the issue of the right to define Cherokee citizenship. .OOCHALATA (Mid-nineteenth century) Cherokee Oochalata became chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1875. to add to it a new clause.

) 347. and did whatever he told us to do. 1991. by Edward Lazarus. Whenever we cooked anything it would be full of dust. It [the new Winnebago area] was not a good country. 1775 to the Present. but you have always made away with them—broken them. not many could sell their ponies and things they h a d . .98 IRON SHELL always took our Great Father's [the President's] advice. Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States.) 348. I will always sign any treaty you will ask me to do. Our Indian Wards. and then we were compelled to leave Minnesota We were compelled to leave so suddenly that we were not prepared. Manypenny. after a while. 349. . While we lived in Minnesota another tribe of Indians committed depredations against the whites. We used to farm and raise a crop of all we wanted every year. 1880. 1865. it was all dust. (Ibid. by George W. .) IRON SHELL (Mid-nineteenth century) Brule Sioux Iron Shell was a Sioux chief. Nebraska.) . that we could not live there. Clarke. (Statement to a member of Congress at Dakota City. (Upon signing the Treaty of 1868. with their stoves and household things in them. (Ibid. HarperCollins. We found. We had but four days notice. Some left their houses just as they were.

(Speech to an Indian council meeting. .1 bring you word from your fathers the ghosts.S.v. it is pleasant to be situated [on the reservation] where I can sleep soundly at night without fear . After the movement ended. He was an Indian scout for the U. but later he moved to Montana. Army and was named to the Indian Court. . . Kicking Bear toured with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. a Warrior Who Fought Custer. I wish I could live again through .). but was cast out and killed by them. Houghton Mifflin. that they are now marching to join you. I learned to drink whiskey at Fort Keogh .KICKING BEAR (1853?-1904) Sioux Kicking Bear was a leader in the Ghost Dance movement. . led by the Messiah who came once to live on earth with the white men. University of Nebraska Press. For a long time we did not do much except to drill and work at getting out logs from the timber. 350. Wooden Leg was sent to Oklahoma following the battle.) 352. 351. 1890. 1910. I spent my scout pay for whiskey. which had been started by Wovoka (q. My Friend the Indian. Yes. 1957. (Wooden Leg. South Dakota Wooden Leg was encamped at the Little Big Horn where General Custer was to make his last stand. by James McLaughlin. Marquis.) WOODEN LEG (1858-1940) Cheyenne. by Thomas B.

When the result was announced I gladly bowed to the will of the majority and was ready to begin work for the success of the nominee. Kansas Charles Curtis. trained as a lawyer. 1928. 1977.) 355. My friends made a gallant fight for me and remained loyal until the last and I cannot find words sufficient to express my gratitude to them. Seitz. (Acceptance speech after his nomination as vice president in 1928.) 354. but I saw what liquor dealers had done and were doing to all sorts of men. how liquor broke them down physically.100 CHARLES CURTIS some of the past days of real freedom. I came to Kansas City hoping to receive the nomination for the Presidency. There were no high moral principles involved. Secretary Hoover.) CHARLES CURTIS (1860-1936) Raw. From Kaw Tepee to Capitol: The Story of Charles Curtis. to become loafers and beggars. (Explaining his role as prosecuting attorney in Shawnee County. entered politics and served as a member of the House of Representatives. Dockstader. I was not a candidate for Vice President and did not seek the nomination. 353.) . (Ibid.S. by Frederick J. (Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. Ibid. where he closed down the speakeasies under state prohibition laws. U. finally. Senate. and. as vice president under Herbert Hoover. and I am thankful to the delegates for their expression of confidence in me. but it is gratifying indeed to have been nominated by this great convention. took away their pride and made them hang around racing stables. Frederick A. Kansas. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Stokes. by Don C.

He was at Wounded Knee shortly after the 1890 massacre. He was called the "Wild Man" and had apparently been in hiding for years. where he could be studied. Fayne Porter. Black Elk appeared in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. They were later forced back onto reservations. Black Elk fled into Canada with his people. [On the reservation] we made these little gray houses of logs . . Siwini! Siwini! [Yellow pine! Yellow pine!] (Our Indian Heritage: Profiles of 12 Great Leaders. Wyoming Black Elk was a medicine man and mystic. Many years later.ISHI (18627-1916) Yahi. by C." 356. . a California tribe believed to have been extinct at the time of his emergence. 1964. Berkeley. in August 1911. . Waterman. and they are square. Everything an Indian does is in a circle and that is because . University of California anthropologists Thomas Waterman and Alfred Kroeber arranged for him to stay at the Museum of Anthropology. for there is no power in a s q u a r e . read a list of Yahi words—and below is the one to which Ishi first responded. California. Ishi is the Yahi word for "man. California Ishi was the last survivor of the Yahi. he dictated his memoirs.) BLACK ELK (1863-1950) Oglala Sioux. 357. theorizing that Ishi might be a survivor of the Yahi. He staggered into the town of Oroville. Chilton. It is a bad way to live. . . After General Custer was defeated at the Little Big Horn.

University of New Mexico Press.) 358. (Ibid. (1886.) 360. Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. Morrow. and the circle of the four quarters nourished it. In the old days when we were a strong and happy people.1 hope to go into their homes and help the women in their housekeeping. It was a beautiful dream The nation's hoop is broken and scattered. 1932. Moses and Raymond Wilson. (Black Elk Speaks. G. cited in "Dr.102 SUSAN LaFLESCHE PICOTTE the Power of the World always works in circles. and so long as the hoop was unbroken. the people flourished. 1985. (Ibid. and especially about cleanliness.) SUSAN LaFLESCHE PICOTTE (1865-1915) Omaha. 361.) 359. The flowering tree was the living center of the hoop. as told to John G. teach them a few practical points about cooking and nursing. and was buried in the blizzard. The east gave peace and light. Susan LaFlesche Picotte: The Reformed and the Reformer. I did not know then [at the time of Wounded Knee] how much was ended. I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud [of Wounded Knee]. Neihardt. all our power came to us from the sacred hoop of the nation. edited by L. the west gave rain.) . Nebraska Susan LaFlesche Picotte was the first Indian woman to become a doctor of medicine. and the north with its cold and mighty wind gave strength and endurance. and everything tries to be round. the south gave warmth. There is no center any longer and the sacred tree is dead. I can still see the butchered women and children lying heaped and scattered all along the crooked gulch as plain as when I saw them with eyes still young. in Indian Lives: Essays on 19th and 20th Century Native American Leaders. (Ibid." by Valerie Sherer Mathes. A people's dream died there. When I look back now from this high hill of my old age. She devoted herself to the welfare of her people.

He took part in the Red River War of 1874-1875. by James L. unsuccessfully. and my work I hope will be chiefly in the homes of my people. It is our only resource with which to buy what we need and do not receive from the government.) RED DOG (Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century) Oglala Sioux Red Dog fought. Doubleday. (Ibid.) 364. for the home is the foundation of all things for the Indians. The buffalo is our money. which are our cattle given to us by the Great Father above to provide us meat to eat and means to get things to wear. so it makes us feel to see others killing and stealing our buffaloes. 365. We are all poor because we are all honest. Haley. I feel that as a physician I can do a great deal more than as a mere teacher. but eventually he ended his days on a reservation.RED DOG 103 362. We love them [the buffalo] just as the white man does his money. (The Buffalo War: The History of the Red River Indian Uprising of 1874. 1976. to keep whites out of the sacred Black Hills. (Native American Wis- . Just as it makes a white man feel to have his money carried away. (Ibid.) BULL BEAR (Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century) Cheyenne Bull Bear was one of a group of military chiefs known as the Dog Soldiers. 363.

) WILLIAM P. (Ibid. was elected chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1872. Oklahoma Historical Society. 1991. its mob at Lacygne. ROSS (Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century) Cherokee William P. edited by Kent Nerburn and Louise Mendleboch. on our borders. (Statement to House Committee on Territories. There are murders and outrages committed in the Cherokee Nation. Ross. . . Oklahoma City. . shoot down the officers of the law in order to hang men who have been consigned to imprisonment. . Alas. 366. .). it is stated in the issue of a single paper. plunder or murder their passengers. mobs stop railway trains. 1874. . ROSS dom. Litton Transcripts. in broad daylight cause the gate keepers in city fairs to stand and deliver. There is no undue proportion of unpunished crime in the Cherokee N a t i o n . had its Benders [gang]. New World Library.v. and individual acts of violence which occur in the swamps and mountains of that state. nephew of John Ross (q. there a r e . and its shootings along the line of its railroads and border towns. In Missouri. Arkansas offers rewards for wanted [criminals]. (Ibid. (Ibid.) . February 8. white and colored. to say nothing of the proceedings of mobs.) 369.) 370. This was in response to proposed legislation aimed at the Cherokee Nation by neighboring states complaining about crime.104 WILLIAM P. Kansas.) 367. (Ibid.) 368. the Knights of the Hood. Life and property are as secure as anywhere else in the surrounding states. for fourteen murders. And yet those who most loudly wail over such things in the Indian Country are most familiar with them at home.

) . Arthur H. Whatever we do.) DICK WASHAKIE (Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century) Shoshone Dick Washakie was the son of Washakie (q. Your words are like a man knocking me in the head with a stick. HarperCollins.v. we are expected to say. the Shoshone chief. 1991. by Grace Raymond Hebard. Clark.STANDING ELK (Mid t o l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century) Sioux Standing Elk was a Sioux chief.S.). "Yes! Yes! Yes!"—and when we don't agree at once to what you ask of us in council you always say. to enlighten the world and as the sun appears over the horizon they offer up a prayer in acceptance of our Father's gift. wherever we go. "You won't get anything to eat! You won't get anything to eat!" (1876. (Washakie. our Father above. The reason the Indian seems to worship the sun to some people is because the Indian believes the sun is a gift from God. commissioners who threatened to cut off rations if a proposed Black Hills treaty was not signed. 371. What you have spoken has put great fear upon us. 1775 to the Present. spoken to U. 372. Cited in Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. 1930. by Edward Lazarus.

I felt that I was leaving all that I had but I did not cry. . in 1891 to present Indian grievances. the Government and the army see that we obey. well women and little children killed and buried. But we would be f r e e . You do not care if you die.WETATONMI (Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century) Nez Perce Wetatonmi was the widow of Ollokot.C. With us it was worse. D. (Hear Me My Chiefs!. after her husband had been killed and Chief Joseph had surrendered. . 373. the leaving. When the red man speaks. They had not done wrong to be so killed.v. we walked silently on into the wintry night. Caldwell. was a friend of Crazy Horse (q. Strong men. Idaho. Husband dead. When the white man speaks.) and was part of a delegation that visited Washington. We had asked to be left in our own homes. 1952. Black Hills White . broken spirits. a Sioux chief. It was lonesome. it goes in one ear and out the other. friends buried or held prisoners. You know how you feel when you lose kindred and friends through sickness—death.). 374.) YOUNG-MAN-AFRAID (Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century) Sioux Young-Man-Afraid. McWhorter. This was her recollection of how she felt in October 1877. Our going with heavy hearts. . by Lucullus V.. All lost.v. brother of Chief Joseph (q. (Statement to Secretary of the Interior John Noble. the homes of our ancestors.

HarperCollins. The chief of all thieves [General Custer] made a road into the Black Hills last summer.) 375. by Dee Brown.) BAPTISTE GOOD (Mid t o l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century) Sioux Baptiste Good was a Sioux chief. I will kill the first chief who speaks for selling the Black Hills.) LITTLE BIG MAN (Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century) Sioux Little Big Man was a Sioux chief. 377. and I want you to get them out just as quick as you can.] (Ibid. Holt. and I want the Great Father to pay the damages for what Custer has done. Why were our rations cut down a million pounds? Why have not our winter annuities come? (Ibid. HarperCollins.) 376. 1775 to the Present.LITTLE BIG MAN 107 Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux versus the United States. by Edward Lazarus. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. 1775 to the Present. Rinehart & Winston.) . 1991. by Edward Lazarus. The white man is in the Black Hills just like maggots. 1971. 378. Why was the Sioux nation called to account for dancing a religious dance? [The Ghost Dance. 1991.

if he will..) 381. black. April 1973. . ("Dr. (Ibid. Arizona Carlos Montezuma. and the only reform is to let my people g o . By doing away with the Indian Bureau you stop making paupers and useless beings and start the making of producers and workers. Any man.. yellow. (Ibid. The feeling was general that if he were allowed to look out for himself. Apache: Warrior in Two Worlds/' by Neil M. no. But he must do it himself. I defy you to do that for anyone and expect him to achieve things that are worthwhile. You will find them there. Clark. . The only way to adjust wrong is abolish it. (Congressional Record. he would be cheated out of his property and would starve.) 108 . And what has it done for them? Go to the reservations. that hinders our people's freedom. 23. He does not have to do things for himself. It is perhaps easy to let someone else take care of you. brown—or white—can do it [achieve] against obstacles. The Indian Bureau [Bureau of Indian Affairs] is the only obstacle that stands in the way.. put himself through college and became a doctor. 1st Session.. Why? Because the Indian is taken care of. He turned down an offer made by President Theodore Roosevelt to head the Bureau of Indian Affairs. (Ibid. The Indian Bureau system is wrong. Thousands of my people have been forced to do it.) 383.. 1916. 64th Congress. vicious. despite an orphaned childhood of want and neglect. Montana: The Magazine of Western History.CARLOS MONTEZUMA (18677-1923) Yavapai Apache. This rule is not abridged for the Indian because his skin is brown or red. idlers. red.) 380. . I could have done it. Montezuma. committing crimes worse than I could tell you. It cannot be done for him. 379. which he despised. vol. The guiding policy seemed to be that the Indian must be cared for like a little child. 2. gamblers. May 12. It is the same with Indians as with all other people. There is only one way to achieve: do things for yourself.) 382..

.LUTHER STANDING BEAR (1868-1939) Oglala Sioux. 1933. and unprogressive people suffering the fate of all oppressed. Houghton Mifflin. silent. Today you see but a shattered specimen. . He was one of the first to attend the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. true. He wrote. Close observation revealed the fact that a stream of smoke was following the supposed snake. . . but he must meet the severest tests of character. undoubted truthfulness. The great brave was a man of strict honor. by Chief Standing Bear. . It was the first railroad train of the Union Pacific Railroad. . performed in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. genuinely superior social order work such havoc? (Ibid. In the natural course of events. Earth was bountiful and we were surrounded with the blessings of the Great Mystery. one of our scouts came into camp one day. wrote several books about Indian life and government policy. 384. a chief of his people. South Dakota Luther Standing Bear. To us it was tame. 1928. the Sioux. Not until the hairy man from the east came and with brutal frenzy heaped injustices upon us and the families that we loved was it "wild" for us. and unbounded generosity. every Lakota boy became a hunter.) 386. Only to the white man was nature a "wilderness" and only to him was the land "infested" with "wild" animals and "savage" people. then it was that for us the "Wild West" began. scout. Not only must he have great physical bravery and fighting prowess. the highest aspiration [of a young m a n ] . To become a great brave was .) 388. helpful and benevolent conqueror bring this situation about? Can a real. . and very excitedly stated that a big snake was crawling across the prairie. or w a r r i o r . . by Chief Standing Bear. . The Lakotas are now a sad. (My People. Did a kind. lectured. Boston.) 387. . (Land of the Spotted Eagle. wise.) 385. When I reached young manhood. of the man that once was. (Ibid. a caricature . and acted in motion pictures. When the very animals of the forest began fleeing from his approach. Soon after I was born. the warpath for 109 . This caused much excitement.

.) 392. Wilson. We did believe that certain gods were more powerful than others. Indeed. and our faith in these spirits and our worship of them made our religion. and the warrior had taken his shield to the mountain-top and given it back to the elements. The victory songs were sung only in the memory of the braves and even they soon went unsung under a cruel and senseless ban of our overseers. The old people came literally to love the soil and they sat or reclined on the ground with a feeling of being close to a mothering power. who first taught my people to till their fields. His Story. the clouds have spirits. trees.) 389. stones.) EDWARD GOODBIRD (1869-?) Hidatsa. 1914. as white men seem to think all Indians do. The hunter had disappeared with the buffalo. water. receiving answer usually in a dream. especially those that came by fasting and suffering. Old-Woman-Who-Never-Dies.) 391. These spirits are our gods. 390. that they may help us in our need. "All things in this world. Wyoming Edward Goodbird became a successful farmer after game became scarce in his area. the war scout had lost his calling. and . Of these was . . the sun and moon have spirits. We Indians did not believe in one Great Spirit. We Hidatsas believed that this world and everything in it was alive and had spirits. everything. (Ibid. all dreams were thought to be from the spirits. (Ibid. so have animals.110 EDWARD GOODBIRD the Lakota was a thing of the past. It was good for the skin to touch the earth and the old people liked to remove their moccasins and walk with bare feet on the sacred earth. our elder creator. or spirits." he said." (Goodbird the Indian. . the spirit of the prairie wolf. and for this reason they were always heeded. Sometimes a man fasted and tortured himself until . edited by Gilbert L. grass. and we pray to them and give them offerings. The sky has a spirit. "have souls. My father explained this to me. Anyone could pray to the spirits. . (Ibid.

In ancient times it was prophesied by our forefathers that this land would be occupied by the Indian people and then from somewhere a White Man would come.) . Believing as he did that the world was full of spirits. or medicine. or he will come after he has abandoned that great Life Plan and fall into a faith of his own personal ideas which he invented before coming here. When a lad became about 17 years of age. 1955. a man who knows how to influence people because of his sweet way of talking and that he will use many of these things upon us when he comes. 396. 1957. especially in war. It was known that the White Man is an intelligent person. he kept as his sacred object. we called this a vision.) 393. an inventor of many words. He will come either with a strong faith and righteous religion which the Great Spirit has also given to him.) 395. The Great Resistance: A Hopi Anthology. or a part of it. for in this sacred object dwelt his god.n i n e t e e n t h t o m i d . He set out to kill an animal like that seen in his vision. (Congressional testimony. (Ibid.DAN KATCHONGVA 111 he fell into a kind of dream while yet awake. privately printed. every Indian hoped that one of them would come to him and be his protector. come to pledge him protection.) DAN KATCHONGVA ( M i d . (Ibid. Whatever he saw in his vision was his god. but a spirit. edited by George Yamada. Usually this god was a bird or beast or it might be the spirit of someone dead. (Ibid. the bird or beast was not a flesh-and-blood animal.t w e n t i e t h century) Hopi Dan Katchongva was in his eighties when he testified before a Congressional committee. his parents would say. (Ibid.) 394.) 397. "You are now old enough to go to war but you should first go out and find your god!" They meant by this that he should not risk his life in battle until he had a protecting spirit. (Ibid. and its dried skin.

We knew that this land beneath us was composed of many things that we might want to use later such as mineral resources. Christians see themselves as set apart from the rest of the animal and plant world by superiority. G. 1969). Civilized people depend too much on man-made printed pages.) TATANGA MANI (1871-1967) Stoney Tatanga Mani was a member of the Stoney Nation. the mountains. (Tatanga Mani. (Akwesasne Notes. These things we were warned to watch. 399. the rivers. that he will use many good ideas in order to obtain his heart's desire. You can read a big part of that book if you study nature. Hurtig. But the Great Spirit has provided you and me with an opportunity for study in nature's university. Walking Buffalo of the Stoneys. if you take all your books. You know. Nobody tries to make coyotes act like beavers or the eagles behave like robins. and we today know that those prophecies were true because we can see how many new and selfish ideas and plans are being put before us.112 TATANGA MANI 398. and let the snow and rain and insects work on them for a while. and the animals which include us. 400. We knew that the White Man will search for the things that look good to him. Mohawk Nation. Perhaps the principles of brotherhood which the world needs so urgently come more easily to the Indian.) . I turn to the Great Spirit's book which is the whole of his creation. there will be nothing left. M. because it is here the Great Spirit lives. by John Walter Grant MacEwan. We knew that this is the wealthiest part of this continent. and we knew that if he had strayed from the Great Spirit he would use any means to get what he wants. We know that if we accept these things we will lose our land and give up our very lives. even as a special creation. lay them out under the sun. the forests. (Ibid.

Big Man he was say this time the Injun was had to change his name just like if the marshal was had a writ for him. if the Injun's name is Wolf Warrior. far more formal in style. so nobody else could get his mail out of the post office. Tookpafka Micco he say he was druther had a deed to his land than a big name in the newspaper. Hogan he say the Big Man's rule was heap worse than [land] allotment. focusing on the foibles of the white man and his relationship with the Indian. April 24.) 405. he wrote satirical articles about serious issues. (Ibid. Guess so thata was alright 'cause they was nothing to a name nohow if you can't borrow some money on it at the bank. In his newspaper column. November 1900.ALEXANDER POSEY (1873-1908) Creek. wrote both humorous and serious pieces about Indian life. (Philadelphia Press. 401. If [the literary works of Indians] could be translated into English without losing their characteristic flavor and beauty. Oklahoma Alexander Posey. Some of them are masterpieces.) 404. and journalist. (Ibid. They [Indian literary works] have splendid dignity. Well. So. (Indian Journal. 1903. many of the Indian songs and poems would rank among the greatest poetic productions of all time. Big Man say Injun name like Sitting Bull or Tecumseh was too hard to remember and don't sound civilized like General Cussed Her or old Grand Pa Harry's Son. These columns were written in the dialect of the time. and Crazy Snake he say he hear white man say all time you could take everything away from a him but you couldn't steal his good name. His serious essays.) 403. so. a poet. or maybe so Bill Jones. he was had to call himself John Smith.) 402. essayist. were just as effective in their own way. Big Man at Washington was made another rule like that one about making the Injun cut his hair off short like a prize fighter or saloon keeper. gorgeous . Posey took on the Washington bureaucracy for trying to "Americanize" Indians.

my teeth chattering from the chilly ride. keeping very close to the bare wall. "Impressions of an Indian Childhood. 407. March 1900. the poetry of the fields. he does it instinctively.) 408." The Atlantic Monthly. the sky. I was as frightened and bewildered as the captured young of a wild creature. In the process of my education I had lost all consciousness of the nature world about me." The Atlantic Monthly. the whirring of the insects. She pushed for reforms during the Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt administrations. ("An Indian Teacher among Indians. In his own tongue it is not difficult for the Indian to compose. January 1900.114 GERTRUDE SIMMONS BONNIN word pictures.) GERTRUDE SIMMONS BONNIN (1876-1938) Yankton Dakota. the river. form mechanical. and it is to these things that I attribute the failure of the civilized Indian to win fame in poetry. when a hidden rage took me to the small white-walled prison which I then called my room. After teaching initially. at a missionary school for Indians. she began writing for major national magazines. but the free and untrammeled poetry of nature. and reproduce with magic effect every phase of life in the forests—the glint of the fading sunshine falling on the leaves. age eight. supporting studies of social and economic conditions of American Indians. poetry is his vernacular. No detail is too small to escape observation and the most fleeting and evanescent of impressions are caught and recorded in the most exquisite language. but in attempting to write in English he is handicapped. South Dakota Gertrude Simmons Bonnin was a writer and Indian activist. (Ibid. The Indian talks in poetry. Trembling with fear and distrust of the palefaces. the faint stirring of the wind. not necessarily the stilted poetry of books.) 406. She founded the National Council of American Indians. I unknowingly turned away from my one salvation. the sun and the stars. Thus. (Arriving.) . I crept noiselessly in my soft moccasins along the narrow hall. Words seem hard. (Ibid.

Winter 1988. 12.) 416. 1876-1938: 'Americanize the First American. J. referring to W. He also wrote a popular newspaper column.) WILL ROGERS (1879-1935) Cherokee.) 411. and over radio. by Donald Day. Revoke the tyrannical powers of Government superintendents over a voiceless people and extend American opportunities to the first American—the Red Man. . I like that picture.) 414. I saw like the petrified Indian woman of whom my mother used to tell me. His career was cut short by a tragic plane crash. I was destitute! (Ibid. David McKay. vol. Ancestors don't mean a thing in the human tribe. American Indian Quarterly. (Ibid. . in my tomb. in which he commented mostly on politics. 1962. I wished my heart's burdens would turn me to unfeeling stone. He performed on the stage. (Ibid. (Remark. would have showed better judgment if they had not let yours land. (Will Rogers. no. Johnson and Raymond Wilson. . 1.' " by David L. Wallach's painting of Custer's Last Stand. Oklahoma Will Rogers was the foremost humorist of his day.) 413. ("Gertrude Simmons Bonnin. My ancestors .WILL ROGERS 115 409. The time is here w h e n . A Biography. It is a tragedy to the American Indian and the fair name of America that the good intentions of a benevolent government are turned into channels of inefficiency and criminal neglect.) 415. 412. What's wrong with this world? There ain't but one word will tell . the American Indian is our fellow man. Alone in my room. .) 410. (Ibid. we must acknowledge him. It's the only time my people got the best of it. They're as unreliable as a political promise. Nevertheless. My ancestors did not come over on the Mayflower—they met the boat. But alive. in the movies.

February 5. and that's selfishness. She nourishes us. They had a treaty that said.) 417." It was not only a good rhyme but looked like a good treaty. by Hap Gilliland. 1928. They said the treaty only refers to "water and grass. 420. and it was till they struck oil. that which we put into the ground she returns to us. Kendall-Hunt. and I never go through a day that I am not sorry for the idea I had of how to go to school and not learn anything.) FOUR GUNS (Late n i n e t e e n t h century) Oglala Sioux Four Guns was an orator. Then the government took us again. (Teaching the Native American. it don't say anything about oil. and healing plants she gives us likewise. 1907. The Indian needs no writing. (Ibid." (Syndicated column. Words that are true sink deep into . by Natalie Curtis. (The Indian's Book. Harper and Brother.116 BIG THUNDER you what's wrong.) 418. to be healed.) BIG THUNDER (Late n i n e t e e n t h century) Wabanakis Big Thunder was a Wabanakis chief. I have regretted all my life that I did not take a chance on the fifth grade. but the earth is our mother. They sent the Indians to Oklahoma. The Great Spirit is our father. It would certainly come in handy right now. "You shall have this land as long as grass grows and water flows. we go to our mother and seek to lay the wounded part against her. 1992. If we are wounded. 419.

. Until I was about ten years old I did not know that people died except by violence. I once heard one of their preachers say that no white man was admitted to heaven. (Ibid.) 423. with the remnants of his tribe.JAMES KAYWAYKLA 117 his heart where they remain. Native American Reader: Stories. Speeches and Poems. unless there were writings about him in a great book. our concept of Him is much like the ancient Hebrews' Jehovah. New Mexico James Kaywaykla was only a child in 1886 when. and sacred to Him. It is a symbol of the Sun. The White Eyes returned in hordes [following the Civil War] to take our land from u s . (Ibid. he was forcibly removed from New Mexico and transported to Florida. .) 421.) 424. edited by Jerry D. As nearly as I can judge. of Ussen Himself. Blanche. (Ibid. We had been hunted through the forests and plains of our own land as though we were wild animals.) JAMES KAYWAYKLA (?-1963) Warm Springs Apache. Most Apaches believe that the body will go through eternity in the condition in which it leaves the earth. (Ibid. He never forgets them.) 425. My people wanted very much to return to the Southwest.) 427. The Governor of Arizona said that if a train carrying them reached the border .) 426. Denali Press. the metal forbidden to man. 422. and for that reason they abhor mutilation. On the other hand. by Eve Ball. Literally the meaning of Ussen is Creator of Life. (Ibid. 1990. (Speech. (From the Days of Victorio: Recollections of a Warm Springs Apache. 1891. for they grovelled in the earth and invoked the wrath of the Mountain Gods by seeking gold. if the white man loses his paper. he is helpless. . 1970. It was the prospectors and miners whom we considered the most objectionable. University of Arizona Press.

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of Arizona Territory it would be dynamited, that Apaches were as dangerous as the rattlesnakes upon which they fed. Of course no Apache ever ate the flesh of any snake. (Ibid.)

JOHN STANDS IN TIMBER
(1884-1967) Cheyenne

John Stands in Timber was born eight years after his grandfather was killed fighting General Custer at the battle of the Little Big Horn. Early in his youth, he became determined to keep track of the oral literature of his people. The book Cheyenne Memories, coauthored with Margot Liberty, was published just after his death. 428. An old storyteller would smooth the ground in front of him with his hand and make two marks in it with his right thumb, two marks with his left, and a double mark with both thumbs together. . . . Then he touched the marks on the ground with both hands and rubbed them together and passed them over his head and all over his body. That meant the Creator had made human beings' bodies and their limbs as he had made the earth, and that the Creator was witness to what was to be told. (Cheyenne Memories, by John Stands in Timber and Margot Liberty, Yale University Press, 1967.)

RED FOX
(1870-1976) Sioux
Red Fox, at the age of six, heard the sounds of gunfire at the battle of the Little Big Horn. His uncle, Crazy Horse (q.v.),

JIM THORPE

119

was in the process of destroying General Custer's command. During a crowded lifetime, Chief Red Fox met presidents and kings, and he performed at Wild West shows and in the movies. 429. Among the American Indians there was a single concept of religion regardless of tribe or geographic location. They believed that the finite and infinite were expressions of one universal, absolute being that furnished guidelines for their morals and conduct, and motivated every living thing. They called this the Great Spirit. (The Memoirs of Chief Red Fox, McGraw-Hill, 1971.) 430. American history, as taught in school textbooks, pictures the development of a nation from the arrival of Columbus to the present in star-spangled language. Censorship has eliminated all malevolent and mischievous behavior from the pages of our past. The Indian is depicted as a savage and the White man as a good Samaritan. (Ibid.) 431. It is true Indians of some tribes painted for war. Many tribes did not. The paint was used for many different things. It was used to show happiness, sorrow, peace, what tribe you belonged to, where you lived, marriage. (Ibid.)

JIM THORPE
(1888-1953) Sac/Fox, Oklahoma

Jim Thorpe was probably one of the greatest all-around athletes of all time. He was a star athlete while attending Carlisle. During the 1912 Olympics held in Stockholm, Sweden, he won a number of medals in pentathlon and decathlon events. He was stripped of his medals, however, when it was reported that he had been paid for playing professional baseball during the summer, causing him to lose his amateur status. Thorpe went on to play professional baseball and football. In 1982, nearly thirty years after his death, the International Olympic Committee reversed its original ruling, and Jim Thorpe was officially recognized as the winner of the events he had won in 1912.

"[King Gustav] said to me: 'Sir, you are the greatest athlete in the world.' That was the proudest moment of my life."
—JIM THORPE, S A C / F O X

ELLA DELORIA

121

432. Someone started a story that when King Gustav sent for me [during the Olympics], I replied I couldn't be bothered to meet a mere King. .. . The story was not true. I have pictures showing King Gustav crowning me with the laurel wreath and presenting me with the trophies and it is no fabrication that he said to me: "Sir, you are the greatest athlete in the world." That was the proudest moment of my life. (Pathway to Glory, by Robert W. Wheeler, Carlton Press, 1975.) 433. Sure! I played baseball in 1909 and 1910 in the Carolina League but I had no idea I was a pro. I got $60 a month for expenses and that's all. I wouldn't even have tried for the Olympic team had I thought I was a pro. (New York Telegram, July 21, 1948.)

ELLA DELORIA
(1889-1971) Sioux, South Dakota

Ella Deloria, an anthropologist, studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict. She wrote about the Dakota language and culture. In her 1944 book Speaking of Indians, she dealt with the future of Indians who, during World War II, had gone off to fight or to work in defense plants. 434. Their [American Indian] life has been separated by a wide gulf from that of all other Americans. To quote John Stuart Mill, "a state which dwarfs its men that they may be more docile instruments in its hands even for beneficial purposes will find that with small men no great thing can really be accomplished." The italics are mine. (Speaking of Indians, by Ella Deloria, Friendship Press, 1994. Reprinted by University of South Dakota Press.) 435. In a way, I believe that this is what has happened to the Indian people. They have always been so supervised and so taken care of that it has been hard to "try their wings" without self-consciousness. And they have been so remote from general American life that they don't always know what to try. (Ibid.) 436. Paternalism and protection and gratuity have left their mark. That is not so strange, nor is such a result peculiar to Indians. Have we not

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in our own time seen how spoiled and weakened people may become with a little of that sort of thing? (Ibid.) 437. They [Indians] have something to bestir themselves about at last— what a pity it had to be a war! And it has called forth all those dormant qualities that had been thought killed long ago—initiative, industry, alertness. And they had generally retained their innate patience, sympathy, gentleness, religious devotion, tolerance, showing an amazing lack of bitterness—amazing, because they have had plenty to be bitter about. (Ibid.)

MENINOCK
(Late n i n e t e e n t h to early t w e n t i e t h century)

Yakima
Chief Meninock was tried in 1915 by the state of Washington for violating the state's code on salmon fishing. He was found guilty. Below are excerpts from his testimony. 438. God created this Indian country and it was like He spread out a big blanket. He put the Indians on it. They were created here in this country, truly and honestly, and that was the time this river started to run. Then God created fish in this river and put deer in these mountains . . . and made laws through which has come the increase of fish and game. (The Washington Historical Quarterly, July 1928.) 439. Then the Creator gave us Indians life; we awakened and as soon as we saw the game and fish we knew that they were made for us. (Ibid.) 440. For the women God made roots and berries to gather, and the Indians grew and multiplied as a people. (Ibid.) 441. When we were created, we were given our ground to live on, and from that time these were our rights.. .. We had the fish before the missionaries came, before the white man came. (Ibid.) 442. I was not brought from a foreign country and did not come here. I was put here by the Creator. We had no cattle, no hogs, no grain, only berries and roots and game and fish. We never thought we would be

by migration of Indians away from reservations into the . Talayesva was a Hopi chief. .. A plan [should be evolved] which leads the American Indians down the road to independence and complete absorption into general citizenship. 444. Sun Chief: The Autobiography of a Hopi Indian.. 1900. deceitful people.NAPOLEON B. I grew up believing that Whites are wicked.) NAPOLEON B. or missionaries.S.JOHNSON (1891-1974) Cherokee.. Johnson was the first president of the National Congress of American Indians. Simmons. 1942. government agents. Oklahoma Napoleon B. New Haven. it is not wrong for us to get this food. This is being accomplished through intermarriage. Conn. edited by Leo W. . TALAYESVA (Late n i n e t e e n t h t o early t w e n t i e t h century) Hopi Don C. (Ibid. and that quite a few were Two-Hearts. Indian Service. (ca. It seemed that most of them were soldiers.) DON C. when he was impeached for bribery. 443. founded in 1944. I advocate the assimilation of Indians into the general citizenship wherever and whenever such course is feasible. JOHNSON 123 troubled about these things. The time is here for the establishment of a planned program for the progressive liquidation of the U. and I tell my people .. He served as Vice Chief Justice of the Oklahoma Supreme Court from 1955 until 1965.

. Harper & Row. We need thousands of young lawyers. From 1946 to 1954 he was chairman of the Navajo Tribal Council. by Jack Dempsey with Barbara Piattelli Dempsey. 447. and other industries.) SAM AHKCAH (1896Navajo ) Sam Ahkcah attended a government Indian school.124 JACK DEMPSEY non-Indian communities. . At least that's what we thought when we were children. I wouldn't bleed. Celia [Dempsey's mother] had a strain of Cherokee Indian on her mother's side. Colorado Jack Dempsey was the world heavyweight boxing champion from 1919 to 1926. If I ever got cut. (Ibid. doctors. which enabled her to see and hear things the rest of us couldn't. He worked as a mine foreman and rancher before entering Navajo politics.) JACK DEMPSEY (1895-1983) Cherokee.) 446. dentists. August 1954. . 1977. and by association with non-Indians in the armed forces. my face got as tough as a saddle. . (The Rotarian. . . (Dempsey. war plants. 445. Later we realized she was just smart. Eventually. . We must encourage our young people to go on in education. They are our future. I bathed my face in beef brine to toughen the s k i n .

and there are many of them. . ("Sam Ahkcah. Alaska is full of possibilities of Federal chicanery yet to be perpetrated on Indians. . January 23. They are despised and unwanted by those Alaskans. .) . One educated Tlingit told me that the "natives of Alaska" occupy a position in many respects no better than that of the Negro in the States. Oklahoma Ruth Muskrat Bronson. (Speech to the Indian Rights Association.RUTH MUSKRAT BRONSON 125 accountants. . .) RUTH MUSKRAT BRONSON (1897-1982) Cherokee. nurses and secretaries. Indian Truth. They are despised and unwanted because they own property which this element in Alaska wants and intends to get at any cost. an educator. 449. We need them here! (Ibid." by Broderick Johnson and Virginia Hoffman. Rough Rock Demonstration School. who are dominated by the "get rich and get out" psychology that is a relic of the gold-rush days. (Ibid. January-April.. The natives of Alaska are today in much the same predicament the Indians of the United States faced a century and a half ago. helped Indian youth to appreciate and understand their own culture and heritage.) 450. 1970. 1947. We need young men and women who have majored in business administration. The danger of another Teapot Dome did not pass away with the apprehension of Albert F a l l . 1947.) 448. They often have to endure the same kind of exclusions and discriminations. in Navajo Biographies.) 451. We don't want them to get an education and take jobs off the reservation. (Ibid.

she taught kindergarten classes on Pima language and culture. (Quoting a relative training a young warrior-to-be. Once father must have sensed my curiosity regarding the ancient traditions.) 453. you must always remember that the white pahl (preacher) has said that tribal dances and festivals. He called my brother and me to him and said. She was a founder of the reservation's museum... 1974. are not for Christians to attend. under the influence of the missionaries. He campaigned for better conditions for . Ibid. 452. and Circle and Name-Calling dances were almost things of the past. the old dances were dying out. I would have no puberty ceremonial. by Anna Moore Shaw.ANNA MOORE SHAW (1898. Arizona Anna Moore Shaw has written two books on the Pimas. Even as a little child I learned to love Jesus and tried to practice the Golden Rule. A warrior must be brave and die with a silent throat. (A Pima Past.) Pima. But sometimes I envied the old way of life. when Pima children didn't have to go to school and could look forward to colorful tribal dances and festivals. Those who go to these events are sinners. She served on the Mutual Self-Help Housing Commission." (Ibid. The devil will get them. As a resident of the Salt River Reservation. Now.) BEN REIFEL (1900-1990) Brule Sioux. "Willie and Annie. South Dakota Ben Reifel was a Congressman who represented South Dakota from 1961 to 1971. University of Arizona Press.) 454.

Ho. We want a modern standard of living the same as whites. you [Lakota] and all people will die like dogs. 455. will beg you. 1991.) BEN CALF ROBE ( T w e n t i e t h century) Blackfeet Ben Calf Robe is an elder of the Blackfeet tribe. A day will come in your lifetime when the earth. In 1929 he took part in a sun dance ceremony and made the following prophecy.) HOLLOW HORN (Early t o m i d . 1775 to the Present. to save her.) . 1992. We cannot go back to the buffalo economy.BEN CALF ROBE 127 American Indians. 1983. and we are slowly coming to be that way. 457.t w e n t i e t h century) Sioux Hollow Horn was a Sioux medicine man. if you fail to help her. It will be here when we all have the same color of skin. Morrow. When will Indians and whites have respect for each other? I think the time is coming. Children's Press. (Shadows of the Buffalo. with tears running. he had worked in the Bureau of Indian Affairs. your mother. HarperCollins. People ask me if we will ever get along. by Edward Lazarus. (Extraordinary American Indians. by Adolf Hungry Wolf and Beverly Hungry Wolf. (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. Remember this. 456. Earlier. by Susan Avery and Linda Skinner.

. 461. raping the land and raping the sea. University of Minnesota Press. In exchange for all he's taken from us.) JOHN ROGERS (Twentieth century) Chippewa.) 460.) 459. by Steve Wall and Harvey Arden. the carcinogen-creators. Harriett Gumbs is an elder of the Shinnecock tribe. He later wrote of his experiences in the book. Red World and White: Memories of a Chippewa Boyhood. Generations to come will look back and see how 20th-century Americans were the garbage-makers. (Ibid.) 462. by Gerald Vizenor. many generations influenced and shaped the existence of my ancestors. That's rape—raping someone's way of life. 1990. He had been taken from the White Earth reservation as a young boy and sent to a boarding school in South Dakota to unlearn Indian ways. 458. I had learned to love the primitive life which had for so many. (Wisdomkeepers: Meetings with Native American Spiritual Elders. (Ibid. was a Chippewa chief.HARRIETT STARLEAF GUMBS ( T w e n t i e t h century) Shinnecock . Her eyes sparkled as the sun on laughing waters. What kind of legacy is that? We reject it. Minnesota John Rogers." and even for that little bit he forces our men to leave their homes so their children can get food to eat. Beyond Words. We want no part of it. all White Man gives us back is "welfare. raping someone's culture and heritage. 1984. the poison-producers. now deceased. (The People Named the Chippewa.

(Wisdomkeepers: Meetings with Native American Spiritual Elders.) 464. Beyond Words. New York Louis R. 1990.. not wisdom. to its mighty blasts. BRUCE 129 .) 465. Knowledge is of the past. (Ibid. (Ibid.) 463. Bruce served as commissioner of Indian affairs. the lakes and the river.) Mohawk/Sioux. as it did the trees. I could read more in the swaying of the trees and the way they spread their branches and leaned to the wind than I could read in any books that they had at school. rippling waters and from the moss and flowers than from anything the teachers could tell me about such matters. 466.) VERNON COOPER (1905-?) Lumbee Vernon Cooper was an elder of the Lumbee tribe. I could gain knowledge from my daily walks under the trees where the shadows mixed with the shifting sunlight and the wind fanned my cheek with its gentle caress or made me bend. He wanted the Bureau of Indian Affairs to become a service or- . These days people seek knowledge.) LOUIS R. I could learn much more from the smiling. wisdom is of the future.LOUIS R. by Steve Wall and Harvey Arden. BRUCE (1906. (Ibid. formerly known as the Croatoan. (Ibid. Nothing the white man could teach me would take the place of what I was learning from the forest. .

Having grown up in the Navajo country. which are rapidly vanishing. Arizona Carl Gorman. by Marion E. a constant battle with nature. (Ibid. The life of the Navajo is harsh and cruel. and living in an Indian-managed economy.M. 1984.) 470. talking on Indian-owned telephone systems. 1972. I am keenly aware of this and try to bring out some of this feeling as well as the desire to portray the culture of my people.) 472. and buying food in Indian-owned stores.) CARL GORMAN (1907) Na\ajo. a Navajo artist. driving on Indian-planned and Indian-built roads. rather than a management organization to tell them what to do. by Henry Greenberg and Georgia Greenberg. They need training and help. I want to see Indians buying cars from Indians on reservations. Our young Navajo people do not realize the valuable heritage they have. I have always felt that the traditional [Indian] school of painting is traditional to the Plains Indians. University of New Mexico Press.130 CARL GORMAN ganization to help Indians.) Independent. uses tribal motifs in his work. and that I can better express my cultural heritage and myself by using whatever means and technique will best bring out whatever I want to say. Dodd Mead. 467. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders. but not to the Navajos. 468. (Ibid. (Carl Gorman's World. Ibid. Indian art is dying out and we Navajo people must do something to prevent this great loss. Gridley.1 want to help my Navajo people preserve their beautiful arts and crafts. Art offers them an opportunity to do creative work. (Interview in the Gallup (N. and at the same time their earnings can be enough to support them if they have the initiative and the industry. (Ibid.) .) 469.) 471.

he headed the National Association of Manufacturers. she was a leader in the unsuccessful fight to prevent the Army Corps of Engineers from moving an Indian cemetery in Pennsylvania.) . Keeler was president of the Phillips Petroleum Company. a member of the Seneca Bear Clan. Dodd Mead. He was elected to the Oklahoma Hall of Fame.). 474. At one time. Josephy. Jr. Gridley.) HARRIETT PIERCE (1910. a reverence for it that whites don't share and can hardly understand. He was later elected to the post by the tribe. Even the strongest person cannot carry such a burden for long. by Alvin M. 473. 1982. Forgive the past and remove resentment from your hearts. (Now That the Buffalo's Gone: A Study of Today's American Indians. We Indians have a spiritual tie with the earth. Pennsylvania Harriet Pierce.) Seneca. The white man views land for its money value.. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders. is a descendant of Cornplanter (q. KEELER (1908-1987) Cherokee. In the mid-1960s.v. 1972. Texas William W. President Harry Truman appointed him principal chief of the Cherokee Nation. Knopf. by Marion E.WILLIAM W.

) Navajo Dr. an advocate for political and social causes. Annie Dodge Wauneka. Indian women must become more active in politics and become aware of the educational opportunities open to Native American women. Annie Dodge Wauneka." by Shirley Hill Witt. is regarded as one of the finest beadworkers in Alaska. in Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. 475. She was the daughter of the last tribal chief and first tribal chairman of the Navajo. To offset the second-class role. (Ibid.) Tlingit. there has been a sudden perspective of women—and the roles of women—as second-class citizens. Ever since the development of political machinery and bureaucratic organizations among Indians. She has been honored for her work by the Alaska State Council on the Arts and the Alaska Governor's Award in the Arts.ANNIE DODGE WAUNEKA (1910. 6. no. 477. among others. vol. Alaska Emma Marks. My grandfather . (Speech at the first Southwest Indian Women's Conference. was the first Native American to win the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The basic reason for discrimination against Indian women stems from the Federal government's intervention in Indian affairs. University of Colorado. 3.) 476.) EMMA MARKS (1913. "Interview with Dr. a deeply religious member of the Pentecostal Church. Fall 1981.

Phoenix. this goodness that is in man.. edited by Nora Marks Dauenhauer and Richard Dauenhauer. I feel that way towards all people. In 1949 he received the first of two Guggenheim Fellowships. University of Washington Press.V. Oklahoma Allan Houser was a sculptor. When he was going to tell stories none of us could get up and run. 1990. All my life I've worked to emphasize the values that Indians have held for centuries. (Houser and Haozous: A Sculptural Retrospective. 478. when I try talking with my children they watch T. not just I n d i a n s . . The Heard Museum. Human dignity is very important to me. we smaller children would sit in a row.) 479. this is what I strive for— this dignity. Haa Tuwunaagu Yis. he was being acclaimed as the patriarch of American Indian sculpture. 1983. still very small.) ALLAN HOUSER (1914-1994) Chiricahua Apache. Yes. . .ALLAN HOUSER 133 when I was a child. then I am doing what I have always wanted. and muralist. . (1982. painter. If I am. I hope I am getting it across. In my work. By the 1990s. for Healing Our Spirit: Tlingit Oratory. His early works appeared at San Francisco's Golden Gate Exposition and the New York World's Fair in 1939. Especially ideas or concepts of living in harmony with . But now.

.) 481. 482. Robert Haozous (q. in Modern Maturity. In the 1850s.) LILLIAN VALENZUELA ROBLES (1916.v. the State of California offered bounties for dead I n d i a n s . Each night at 6:30 I walk the perimeter and bless the land with tobacco and sage.) Akagchemem." by Ken Wibecan. California Lillian Valenzuela Robles is an elder activist." by Barbara Perlman. Winter 1995. Our ancestors must know we haven't forgotten them. (Ibid. In order to survive. they would kill the Indians and take their land.). another way is to take off on your own and then try to master whoever you are.) . and what we can contribute. .) 483. many of my people had to call themselves Mexicans. She has been a community worker with the Long Beach (California) Unified School District. quoted in "Voices of My People. This country is recognizing Indians at last. where faculty housing is planned. Ibid. One way of learning art is to choose a master and then try to copy that master. in Native Peoples. (Ceremony at presentation of a sculpture for the forthcoming National Museum of the American Indian. 1993. When whites coming from the East Coast wanted Indian land. (Remark to son. cited in "Allan Houser.) 480. (Ibid. December 1993-January 1994. . (Referring to the sacred Indian site on the California State University campus at Long beach.134 LILLIAN VALENZUELA ROBLES nature. I do this to erase the negativity and to let the land know it's not forgotten.

fertile.) Apache/Sioux. Despite loss and disillusion. Mead. I do not regret being an Indian. 1972. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders. by Marion Gridley. because I am unique. I belong to a minority with seniority. has been an advocate on behalf of Native American causes. Dodd. I was here yesterday. Colorado Joseph C. I am an Indian and I am also an American.) Koyukon Athabascan. VASQUEZ (1917. First. 484.) MARY TALLMOUNTAIN (1918. my strength.) . Vasquez.JOSEPH C. Alaska is my talisman. my spirit's home. University of Nebraska Press. I count myself rich. I will be here tomorrow. 485. edited by Brian Swarm and Arnold Krupat. a former executive with Hughes Aircraft. and magical. I am here today. 1987. Alaska Mary TallMountain is an author and poet. (I Tell You Now. for being one gives me an advantage that others do not have. a good American.

express them through his art work in a manner which will be acceptable to the Western World. not sacrifice the very quality of Indianness that gives him expression and identity. In those instances where it has been expressed. 486. (Indian Art of the Americas. (Ibid. (Ibid.FREDERICK DOCKSTADER (1919.) 487.) 488. and in so doing. Heye Foundation. The greatest problem the younger Indian artist has today is that of being able to select from his Indian background those qualities which are important to him.) CLYDE WARRIOR (?-1968) Ponca Clyde Warrior was president of the National Indian Youth Council. 1973. (Ibid. the treatment is largely sentimental or romantic.) Oneida/Navajo. and artist. Even in those specialized institutions devoted to Indian materials or interested in the American West. As long as the Indian is relegated to the production of knickknacks and tourist souvenirs. it is largely as souvenir or exotic curiosity products rather than a truly developed appreciation of the esthetic quality. . frequently reflecting the advance of the frontier in terms of the so-called "conquest" of the Western area. author. his art will never be other than a curiosity occupying a minimum role in the art world. California Frederick Dockstader is an anthropologist. Only recently has there been any genuine interest in the esthetic product of the Native American.) 489. Museum of the American Indian.

people who feel themselves to be unworthy and feel they cannot escape this unworthiness turn to drink and crime and self-destructive acts. Even by some stroke of good fortune. 1974. I believe that what is at the heart of this Indian revolution is bureaucracy out of control.) 492. For the sake of our psychic stability as well as our physical wellbeing. . It cannot be packaged programs wheeled into Indian communities by outsiders which Indians can "buy" or once again brand themselves as unprogressive if they do not "cooperate. Our children are learning that their people are not worthy and thus that they individually are not worthy. Community Development.) .) 491. And American Indians are fed up with this.) 495. over-institutionalization. Too much of what passes for grassroots democracy on the American scene is really a slick job of salesmanship. As Long as the Rivers Shall Flow. alienation of individuals. February 2. Community development must be just what the word implies.) 493. If America is so good. (Ibid. not of our own making or choice. We must make decisions about our own destinies." (Ibid. 1967. (Statement to President Lyndon Johnson's National Advisory Commission on Rural Poverty. (Ibid. We must be able to learn and profit by our own mistakes." that still would not soften the negative judgment our youngsters have of their people and themselves. (1967. if America is so great. Only then can we become competent and prosperous communities. which they do not understand and which cannot but ultimately fail and contribute to already strong feelings of inadequacy. War Resisters League. if America is so charitable. exploitation of p e o p l e . . then why are we forcing people to where the only thing they can do is come out with volcanic eruptions of violence? (Ibid. We must be free in the most literal sense of the word—not sold or coerced into accepting programs for our own good.CLYDE WARRIOR 137 490. Unless there is some way that we as Indian individuals and communities can prove ourselves competent and worthy in the eyes of our youngsters there will be a generation of Indians grow to adulthood whose reaction to their situation will make previous social ills seem like a Sunday School picnic. we must be free men and exercise free choices. As you know. prosperity was handed to us "on a platter.) 494. It is not hard for sophisticated administrators to sell tinsel and glitter programs to simple people—programs which are not theirs. .

(Ibid. a new commissioner of Indian Affairs and a new director for the Department of Interior are appointed and we have absolutely no continuity. Most of our Indian people are torn between the two cultures.S. was the daughter of Olympic champion Jim Thorpe (q. After drifting from job to job.v. Arizona Ira Hayes was a U.) IRA HAYES (1922-1955) Pima. an Indian activist. the Indian people look at me as a white. and indeed. . In my case. which continued in civilian life. Wheeler. Oklahoma Grace Thorpe.) 497.). Marine who achieved fame during World War II as one of the men photographed by Joe Rosenthai raising the flag over Iwo Jima. language. What has happened to our people all along is that when a change occurs in the Federal Administration.1 believe a lot of the frustration of our people. is based on removing them from their Indian world and putting them into the other [white world] without adequate preparation. 496.GRACE THORPE (1921. This leads me to believe that more of our Indian people need to retain their culture. while the white people say I'm an Indian. (Personal interview with Robert W.) 498. by Robert W. Carleton Press.) Sac/Fox. the suicide rate and the alcoholism problem. Wheeler. he died of alcoholism and exposure. Hayes never got used to being a celebrity. Pathway to Glory. 1975. their Indianness. (Ibid.

fought together.1965. I have a reason for coming back I have not been over here twice for nothing.) . and I like it better this way. I wish that guy had never taken that picture.) 500. and were scared most of the time together. (Attributed. which isn't a very good thing to remember. We accomplished our missions. 499.1 am back again [overseas with his outfit instead of stateside promoting war bonds] . (Letter to family.IRA HAYES 139 Ira Hayes. and getting all the publicity and glory. We saw a lot of action. February 22. 1962. That I could not see. . a Pima. The Arizona Republic. There were a few guys who went all through the battle of Iwo with me.) 502. (Ibid. I've known them for a year. February 16. We lost some of our dear buddies. (Letter to family. by William Bradford Huie. New American Library. but they did not die in vain. just for raising a flag. June 1945. Surprising how much a picture can do. pointing to himself taking part in the flag-raising at Iwo Jima. The Hero of Iwo Jima and Other Stories.) 501. . And they were back here while I was in the States.1944.

NonIndians are beginning to respect Passamaquoddy money. Maine." we did have Passamaquoddy Homes Incorporated. Henry Holt. 1974. I'd fought for this country and [after the war] I couldn't even vote. White. Soon they will respect us as a people. In 1987 he helped inaugurate the opening of Passamaquoddy Homes Incorporated. (Tribal Assets: The Rebirth of Native America. We shall keep it our way. by Robert H. so we were stuck with our cold homes which were sub-standard. let it be for me. When the Indian prays he prays for other people. A World War II veteran. for himself. (Ibid. 503.) ANDY ABIETA ( T w e n t i e t h century) Isleta Puehlo Andy Abieta was governor of the Isleta Pueblo in New Mexico. a joint venture of the Passamaquoddy tribe of northern Maine and a Finnish company. After years of seeing other people's business signs around here saying "Passamaquoddy This" and "Passamaquoddy That.I. (As Long as the Rivers Shall Flow. Maine Joseph Nicholas is director of the Waponahki Museum and Resource Center in Pleasant Point.JOSEPH NICHOLAS (1925.) Passamaquoddy. 1990. The last words of the Indian prayer are these: "If there is anything left." You do not hear the Anglos pray that way. 505. and it belongs to us. When the white man prays. he prays for what he wants. And we didn't receive any G.) 504. War Resisters League. benefits.) 140 . he represents his tribe in the Maine legislature. It is our way.

They don't know how to be Indi'n.) 141 . but I also feel an unbelievable link to something larger—call it God or whatever— a universal spiritual connectedness. So many of these nationists get militant and go away and say they talk for their people. (Ibid.LUTHER CLEARWATER ( T w e n t i e t h century) Sioux Luther Clearwater is a Rosebud leader. 507. by Edward Lazarus. 506. 1775 to the Present. I may be stressed or scared. 1991.) 508. February 17. away from home. so busy actin' Indi'n. weighed and harmonious. there is an emphasis on how you relate to everything around you. What an amazing and rare thing it is to actually work inside another human being. (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. 1994. HarperCollins. I know my actions directly alter the course of people's lives. We're gettin' pushed back enough without help! Get ever'body killed or dyin' off. At the time. runnin' around crazy and shootin'—that's white man. (New York Times.) LORI CUPP (Mid t o late t w e n t i e t h century) Navajo Lori Cupp is the first Navajo woman to become a surgeon. In the Navajo religion and culture. They stay out too long. The Indi'n militants keep wantin' to put things way back a hundred years ago. We call it nizhoni—walking in beauty—and I believe what I do as a surgeon fits into this philosophy. Everything has to be measured.

ROBERT BURNETTE (1926. as usual. 509. 1971. He served as executive director of the National Congress of American Indians from 1960 to 1963. (The Tortured Americans.. is still being fiercely waged. Thus his struggle to retain his heritage and to survive as an individual may seem foolhardy.) 511. hunting.) 142 . oil. lived and died impoverished. I became aware that not very much had changed for the Indian in several centuries. He directed American Indians and Friends.) 510. the Indians were fair game for bloodthirsty missionaries and clergymen. . North Dakota Robert Burnette has long been active in the fight for Indian rights. (Ibid. with the Indians as one of the antagonists and the white man as the other. drifted demoralized into alcoholism. have gone over to the paleface's side. (Ibid. powerless. surrounded by greedy real estate. Since he laid down his guns. his capacity to fight effectively is weak indeed. and grubbed w h a t . literally and figuratively. A warlike struggle. (Ibid. cattle. Faced with corrupt leadership. in positions of influence. the Indian is losing. an indifferent or malicious Bureau of Indian Affairs. now he wasted away from tuberculosis. and. is at even less of an advantage than he was a century ago. an organization dealing with the civil rights of Native Americans. . mean subsistence he could. The Indian. surrounded by thieves. General Sherman's definition of a reservation as a place where Indians live. such as Cotton Mather. women. ignored. .) Standing Rock Sioux. Considered to be heathens. He no longer had to die on the battlefield. is tragically true.) 512.. by Robert Burnette. Prentice-Hall. (Ibid. and the absence of any legal remedy for wrongs committed against him. As I grew up on the reservation . the Indian has no weapons. and children.) 513. A number of his own. who extolled the burning alive of a townful of Indian men. He was also president of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and director of the Sioux Tribe's Economic Development Administration.. fishing. though. . timber. and other interests.

White. The tribal government is thus the only source of venture and investment capital. Mississippi Phillip Martin is chief of the Mississippi band of Choctaws.) 516. National Woodlands. you would now find the vast majority of those jobs gone to Mexico or Taiwan. He later drew on that experience to push for Choctaw business enterprises. by Jack Utter.) 515.PHILLIP MARTIN (1926) Choctaw. by Robert H. To us. 514. (Tribal Assets: The Rebirth of Native America. Economic development in Indian Country is more than just capitalization of businesses. Henry Holt. it makes little sense to Indian people. As a member of the Air Force in postwar Europe." (American Indians: Answers to Today's Questions. the situation with the Bureau [of Indian Affairs] is that "we can't live with it and we can't live without it. he had been impressed by the will of the Europeans to rebuild. Ibid.) 517. Schools run by federal bureaucrats produce little bureaucrats. 1990. There has never been a private sector on most reservations because they have no precedent for accumulating personal wealth for investment. (Statement to Congress. Although the American philosophy of separation of business from government is sacred (whether the separation is actual or not).) 143 . I can tell you with some certainty that if we had not developed those manufacturing jobs in our tribal enterprise. (Ibid. 1993.

Whitecrow.S. JR.1 truly believe that some day. Arizona Peter MacDonald was one of the Navajo code talkers who served in the U. but also an unprecedented third term. WHITECROW. 518. and it has not expanded with our population.. and Black brothers. Jr. Most of this population lives in a traditional pastoral economy. He worked for several years with Hughes Aircraft. our White brothers. 519.S. We utilize for grazing a land base that was originally too small. our Yellow brothers and our Brown brothers will recognize their charge that we must live in harmony within the Universe. National Indian Health Board. was an administrator with the National Indian Health Board. Army where he rose to the rank of major.) PETER MacDONALD (1928) Navajo.JAKE L.000 in the last 30 years. Previously. (Address to the Colorado .000 to 130. And to do so. we need our share of the water. we must make a rapid transition to a modern agricultural and industrial economy. Thus if we are to retain our culture and remain as a tribal entity on our traditional lands. one with another and that all rights be recognized and we treat our fellow man the same way we want to be treated. Oklahoma Jake L. he had served twenty-seven years in the U. (1928-1989) Quapaw/Seneca. He was first elected head of the Navajo Tribal Council in 1970. Our population has increased from 60. winning not only reelection. Marines during World War II. December 1993. (NIHB Health Reporter.

. 523. CRAWFORD (Mid to late t w e n t i e t h century) Navajo.) 521. by Peter Iverson. He served on Guadalcanal. was one of the Marine code talkers of World War II.) WILSON KEEDAH. 145 River Water Users Association. (Ibid. December 1972. 1990. now deceased. come together and unite. (Ibid. New Mexico Eugene R.) EUGENE R. By using the Navajo language. and Okinawa. by Kenji Kawano. He served in the Solomons.S. The time for division and dissension is over. Iwo Jima. was a Marine code talker during World War II. 1981. SR. We must claim what is ours—actively and aggressively. Crawford. (Third inaugural address. . Northland. At one p o i n t .. Army soldiers who thought I was Japanese. . (Mid to late twentieth century) Navajo Wilson Keedah. We must dare to dream great dreams—and then we must dare to put them into action. The Navajo Nation. Greenwood Press. they made it impossible for the enemy to break the code. Okinawa. January 1979. We must reach out to each other. Sr.) 520. Ibid. I was captured by U.WILSON KEEDAH. SR. We must assert our rights and continue to press for what is due us. and Iwo Jima.) 522. (Warriors: Navajo Code Talkers. We must seek unity within.

) .. 1990. Prentice Hall. SR. Arizona Teddy Draper. (The Path of Power. Northland. (Warriors: Navajo Code Talkers. (Mid to l a t e t w e n t i e t h century) Navajo. and founder of the Bear Tribe Medicine Society. Sr. but that's not true. 1983. he served in the Pacific.1 went to war because there were no jobs on the reservation. 526. I think the Great Spirit distributed an equal amount of good people among the races. by Kenji Kawano.) Chippewa. Northland. by Kenji Kawano.146 TEDDY DRAPER.1 participated in the bloody battle of Iwo Jima They told us to secure communications and telephone wire under combat conditions on the island within three days. Minnesota Sun Bear is an author. (Warriors: Navajo Code Talkers. 525. 1990. and Barry Weinstock. lecturer. by Sun Bear. He has also been a movie actor and a consultant on several television series about the old West. SR. 524. was one of the Marine code talkers of World War II. It is why you are here. (Ibid.) 527. The path of power is different for every individual.) TEDDY DRAPER. and an equal amount of ding-a-lings. A lot of folks have the idea that all Indians are noble savages.) SUN BEAR (1929. it represents the course one should follow through life in order to fulfill his or her purpose on the Earth Mother. but it took about a month. Wabun.

Jr. by Alvin M.) JIM EARTHBOY (?-1988) Cree/Assiniboine Jim Earthboy. Henry [a friend] and I heard people talking and crying. in The New Yorker. a veteran of World War II. (Ibid. The history books are wrong when they talk about "the last Indian wars. August 8.v.) JANET McCLOUD (Mid-twentieth century) Tulalip Janet McCloud took part in the fishing rights demonstrations held in Washington State in the mid-1960s. it is their textbook for living.JANET McCLOUD 147 528. 1974. "Annals of the West: Chief Joseph's Revenge.) .. (Spoken to his wife. 529.) surrendered. Josephy. as long as the battlefield's been there nobody has ever done anything. 1971. 1994. Red Power: The American Indians' Fight for Freedom. It later became a national historical site. You know. American Heritage. became interested in the battlefield where Chief Joseph (q. Native people have always watched nature." They have never stopped! (Statement following the "fish-in" confrontations in Washington State." by Mark Stevens. Something happened up there at the battlefield. 530. She was one of the early members of the Survival of American Indians Association.

) 148 . 1944. just or unjust. fail. but for the rights of this continent. Some misinformed whites call the real Hopis. Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. The council spoke out on behalf of Sioux claims to the Black Hills. those who are sincerely religious and determined to keep the good things given them by the Supreme Being. August 1954.) PETER DILLON (Mid-twentieth century) Sioux Peter Dillon served as chairman of the Black Hills Sioux Nation Council during World War II. by Edward Lazarus." The real "hostiles" are the whites who are trying to destroy us. (The Rotarian. not only for our rights. 1991. 532.DAISY ALBERT (Mid-twentieth century) Hopi Daisy Albert was an Arizona housewife when she was asked by a national magazine for her thoughts on Indian problems. 1775 to the Present. but the present will be worse if the boys who are now at the front. 531. who are fighting for what is just and right. (Letter. HarperCollins. All past history shows that a conquered people has to take what the conqueror gives. "hostiles.

At one point. representatives of some fifty-six different tribes from all over the United States came to the state to demonstrate their support for those fighting for Indian fishing rights.WILBUR RIEGERT (Mid t o late t w e n t i e t h century) Sioux Wilbur Riegert was a Sioux leader during the War on Poverty of the late 1960s. to have and to hold all they could possess. (As Long as the Rivers Shall Flow. Indians fished in those areas from which they had been barred by state law. He headed the group during the fish-ins held in the state of Washington. 149 ." American Indian family life on reservations is an example of "progressive" poverty brought about by the powers of force. It is inexcusable in a land. War Resisters League.) HERBERT BLATCHFORD (Mid t o l a t e t w e n t i e t h century) Navajo Herbert Blatchford. They have it now.) 535. founder of the National Indian Youth Council. became its executive director. Poverty is a noose that strangles humility and breeds disrespect for God and man. (Ibid. which have left generations to brood over their inability to stem the overwhelming tide of greedy fortune hunters. America the beautiful and the bountiful. A pointing finger of shame on those who govern and regulate "progress. (Ibid. 1974. having more than plenty. 533. especially in this glorious land of ours.) 534. and of a people. Poverty is a stigma of disgrace.

) 538. . And we must continue to understand where we are. Blanche. the national Indian news magazine. We forget and we consider ourselves superior. It is our responsibility. Beyond Words Pub. It is only we. There's no mystery. edited by Jerry D. It was the first full-scale intertribal action since the Indians defeated General Custer on the Little Big Horn. since we have been given the minds to take care of these things. There's only common sense. they can do no wrong. (Remarks to two non-Indian journalists who were interviewing Native American elders.. LYONS 536. And we stand between the mountain and the ant. . (The New Indians.) Onondaga. Buffalo. LYONS (1930. of the world. 1968. 1990.) OREN R. Denali Press. by Steve Wall and Harvey Arden. I can tell you right now there are no secrets. A distinguished artist. The elements and the animals. speaking the truth on behalf of people. of the winged. We come here . I do not see a delegation for the four-footed. Someone must speak for them. New York Oren R. the two-leggeds. of the fish that swim. I see no seat for the eagles. by Stan Steiner. So what is it you guys want from the Elders? Secrets? Mystery? . Lyons is an associate professor of American studies at the State University of New York.) 539. they live in a state of grace. They are absolute. Speeches and Poems. He has also represented Indian interests at the United Nations. Native American Reader: Stories.) . that can do this. somewhere and only there. (Ibid. . Wisdomkeepers: Meetings with Native American Spiritual Elders. as part and parcel of the Creation. Lyons is publisher of Daybreak.150 OREN R.) 540. Harper & Row. . Switzerland. he is a chief of the Turtle Clan of the Onondaga Nation. and the birds. of the four-footed. but we are after all a mere part of the Creation. 1990. (Ibid. 537. (Speech at United Nations conference in Geneva. 1977.

edited by Oren R. This 500-year occupation by Western man contrasts with the conservative estimate of 12." (Ibid.. (Ibid. (Commencement address at Syracuse University. and they're still there looking at you. The aboriginal peoples' time is below the surface and invisible. and the law that destroys in exact ratio to transgressions that challenge it. New York. It's also common sense.. "You have our land.) 547. but they're not going anywhere. That's Natural law.) 544. The history of humankind in North and South America can be divided into two parts: the history of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere prior to the landfall of Western man. You break Man's law and you pay a fine or go to jail—maybe. Clear Light Publishers.) 542. There's . which means putting up your towns by water so you can watch your garbage float away. you can't buy a judge or beg your way out of it. you have broken the great cycles of regeneration. These histories can be likened to an iceberg.) 548. your own included. and the history of North and South America after the voyages of Columbus. Inherent in this is the idea that a chosen people have a divine right—nay mission—to dominate the world. . We can see Western occupation above the surface and visible.P.) 546. (Ibid." and we're just saying.) 549.I. Their feet are always moving. We call it Natural l a w . (Ibid. It is my observation that we are suffering from the attitudes that come from the Christian doctrine of manifest destiny—that one people will rule the world. We haven't disappeared. The law that is absolute and merciless. [B]y killing the salmon in their spawning grounds. in Esquire. Lyons and John C. ("The American Indian in the Past. The law that provides life endlessly if we abide. the fundamental law of natural life. you kill the life that depends on it. you get hit. "We'll do this and that with this program. (Ibid. Tonto.." in Exiled in the Land of the Free. . the Creator's law. LYONS 151 541. There's no judge and jury. If you kill the water. The West didn't get wild until the white people got there. by polluting fresh water that all life needs for survival.) 545. . . 1992.) 543. and they're saying. The white man's religion talks about mastering the earth.OREN R. there's no lawyers or courts. . by clear cutting the forests without reseeding.. We have been seasoned in suffering and no one can refute the history of holocaust visited upon the indigenous peoples of the hemisphere. There's another law. it's got to be hard. Mohawk. February 1994. [S]even-eighths lie beneath the surface of the water. The land is here and we're still here. .000 years of aboriginal occupation.. ("R." by Robert Lipsyte.. 1993. If you violate it. When you've taken something from somebody.

Mead.) LaDONNA HARRIS (1931. (Ibid. 1972. Dodd. for two centuries. She is the wife of former U. Indians have been the victims of fine rhetoric. Senator Fred Harris of Oklahoma.) . The closest we can get to it is the word free. 550. by Marion E. Before he gets there he has already practiced being in prison. And even on the reservation. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders. A reservation Indian is already well-prepared to go to the penitentiary. followed by inaction or worse. Oklahoma LaDonna Harris is the founder of Americans for Indian Opportunity.S.) LEONARD CROW DOG (Mid t o l a t e t w e n t i e t h century) Lakota Leonard Crow Dog was the medicine man for the American Indian Movement during the occupation of Wounded Knee in 1973.152 LEONARD CROW DOG no such word as wild in the Indian languages. 551. Viking. Gridley. Swift action is what is needed. many Indians are still having a barbedwire attitude—I try to teach my children and my people to get rid of the barbed-wire mind. (In the Spirit of Crazy Horse. 1983. by Peter Matthiessen.) Comanche. We were free people. an organization dedicated to improving Indian education and economic opportunity.

such as Wounded Knee. 1990. etc. White ideas about Indians are completely phony and I am seeking ways to correct them. His work reflects Indian culture. He has been responsible for music education at all federal Indian schools. Ballard is a composer whose works have dealt with many aspects of Indian history. (Ibid. from lullabies and love songs to tribal ceremonial songs. to both the national community and to global society. edited by Jerry D.LOUIS W. BALLARD (1931." but as a Comanche. not just as mere individuals or as amorphous "Indians. a Hopi. BALLARD 153 552. We [Indians] are not a homogeneous group. and tribal ideas of progress may be radically different from Euro-American ideas. our particular understanding. rather than the development of their coal resources. Blanche. my creative ex- . (Ibid. We want to maintain ourselves as communities. (Ibid. not as individuals. the Northern Cheyenne count as "progress" their ability to maintain environmental quality. according to our group identity. Because I identify with my Indian background. not as "an Indian.) Quapaw/Cherokee. At the moment there is a veritable renaissance going on in tribal America as we come to terms with who we are as tribal people in contemporary society. Speeches and Poems.) 555. We are bringing tradition along with us into the future rather than "going back to tradition" and maintaining ourselves like rigid museum pieces. 557. One can be self-determining." (Statement. Denali Press.) 556. an Oneida. 1988. Native American Reader: Stories. We want to maintain ourselves as we are so we can contribute our differences.) 553." One is a Comanche. Oklahoma Louis W.) LOUIS W. We don't sit around doing beadwork and making baskets all the time. an Oneida.) 554. For example. (Ibid. One cannot be "an Indian. We progress as communities.

." by N. After living in New York City for thirty-five years. 558.) 559. New York Lorraine Canoe teaches a course on conquered peoples in America at Hunter College. but the reservation is my home. It is a white man's religion. In no borough are regular Mohawk ceremonies held for each of the year's 13 moons. but the supermarkets do not stock deer meat or boiled corn bread. 1972. Dodd. Mead. They brought it here to conquer us and civilize us. she described to a reporter what life was like for a Mohawk in the city. (Ibid. You can find all kinds of things. ("Yearning to Breathe Free.1 was five years old the last time I heard the mountain lion scream. New York is very exciting. founded the Chariton Review Press.) 560. New York Times. Gridley. a professor of comparative literature at Northeast Missouri State University.) JIM BARNES (1933) Choctaw. January 3. (Ibid. The church is a crutch.154 LORRAINE CANOE pression has been enhanced and extended to others. R. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders. by Marion E. New York. 561.) LORRAINE CANOE (1932) Mohawk. 1995. And it's not easy trying to find someone I can talk Mohawk with. Oklahoma Jim Barnes. Kleinfield.

and the village cities of the Anasazi reflect industrious and prosperous societies that lived in harmony with Mother Nature.) 564.BEN NIGHTHORSE CAMPBELL 155 That was in Oklahoma. 1987. when times were hard and life was good— and sacred. 1992. was not only inhabited when Columbus arrived. but also shared and cultivated by ethnically diverse peoples who had prospered in every region of these vast "new" lands for many thousands of years. The great cities of Machu Picchu. and his discovery of what was to him an unknown hemisphere. possessing an understanding that humans exist together with. California Ben Campbell was elected to the U. or accidental—perpetrated on Indian people by the conquering culture. [1492] will be a year to celebrate the accomplishments of a man who was a product of an emerging industrial society.S. A man could eat again. the natural world that ensures survival. not separate from. while all about him the land suffered. For many people around the world. inhabited North America when Columbus arrived. . he had served in the House of Representatives and the Colorado State Legislature. 7: 517. In 1995 he switched from the Democratic to the Republican party. neglectful. . Previously. small concrete dams were blocking nearly every stream. Kahokia. (I Tell You Now.) BEN NIGHTHORSE CAMPBELL (1933) Northern Cheyenne. Tenoshtitlan. It is estimated that more than ten million people. But a year later. 562. and later by the very government that assumed . (Ibid. Spring 1992. the ancestors of present-day Indian tribes. It is difficult to comprehend the magnitude of the atrocities—intentional. edited by Brian Swann and Arnold Krupat. The Government was caring for its p e o p l e . vol. however. ("Reflections on the Quincentenary. burial mounds were dug. 1938. University of Nebraska Press. This land. . the WPA had done its work: roads were cut. Senate in 1992.) 563." in Journal of Legal Commentary. representing the state of Colorado.

NORTHERN CHEYENNE responsibility for their protection. about two million people are enrolled members of recognized tribes and another ten million Americans claim some Indian ancestry. Today. March 4. I can no longer represent the agenda that is put forth by the [Democratic] party. 1993.000." — U . and my standing in the polls began to climb. SENATOR BEN NIGHTHORSE CAMPBELL. money started to pour in. or accidental—perpetrated on Indian people by the conquering culture. Just like that. I imagine my continued modderacy [sic] will be now to the consternation of the right wing of the Republican Party. (News conference. and outright genocide.) 568. (Ibid. forced relocation. Newsweek. S . (Describing what happened at the end of his 1992 campaign. after members of his Cheyenne tribe persuaded him to carry the tuft of an eagle feather and paint parts of his body. neglectful. 1995. "Democrats Lose Senate Seat with Switch by Coloradan. slavery. to the consternation of the left wing of the Democratic Party. although I certainly agree with many of the things that Democrats stand for. (Ibid.156 BEN NIGHTHORSE CAMPBELL "It is difficult to comprehend the magnitude of the atrocities—intentional. I began feeling better. I've always been considered a moderate.) 565.) 566. to an estimated 100." by Katharine Q. Seelye. New York Times. By 1900.) 567. It [not having a family] made me very self-reliant and indepen- . the Indian population had dwindled because of imported disease. announcing his switch in political parties. September 13.

religious studies. We simply want the power.) 570." (Custer Died for Your Sins.) Standing Rock Sioux. If you have nobody to rely on. Jr.) 571.. Boulder.. Jr. predicaments. then you have got to do it yourself. and history at the University of Colorado. The former executive director of the National Congress of American Indians.. Ibid. One of the finest things about being an Indian is that people are always interested in you and your "plight. .) VINE DELORIA. Harper & Row. he is the author of many books on Indian rights. South Dakota Vine Deloria. . 569. Traditionally we Indians have had a "plight. JR. (Statement to biographer.. problems. the political and economic power. Macmillan. (Book title. 1969. by Stan Steiner. is a professor of law. to run our own lives in our own way. . Custer Died for Your Sins.VINE DELORIA. (1933. by Vine Deloria. 157 dent. 1969. 1968. (The New Indians. (Ibid. One day at a conference we were singing "My Country 'Tis of Thee" and we came across the part that goes: Land where our fathers died Land of the Pilgrims' pride. Some of us broke out laughing when we realized that our fathers undoubtedly died trying to keep those Pilgrims from stealing our land. JR.) 572. quandaries. or troubles. Red Power means we want power over our own l i v e s .) 573. political science." Other groups have difficulties. It has been said of missionaries that when they arrived they had .

1970. He was a little slower. had much less vocabulary. You Listen. "what did you do to the land when you had it?" I didn't understand him until later when I discovered that the Cuyahoga River running through Cleveland is inflammable.) 576.. It just seems to a lot of Indians that this continent was a lot better off when we were running it. American Indians seem an enigma to most other Americans. With the distribution of funds [if allocated to individual Indians rather than to the tribe as a whole]. March 8.. Tonto represented a silent. Tonto [the "faithful Indian companion" of the Lone Ranger] was everything that the white man had always wanted the Indian to be. Jr. bootleggers.) 580. Like the Negro butler and the Oriental gardener. uranium mines. JR. (Ibid. and appliance salesmen who would normally cross the street to avoid saying hello to an Indian. Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. He [a non-Indian] said that he was really sorry about what had happened to Indians. used car dealers. (Ibid. Newspaper stories dealing with oil wells. by Vine Deloria. and the occupation of public buildings and reservation hamlets almost seem to speak of another group altogether and it is difficult to connect the two perceptions of Indians in any single and comprehensible reality.) 578. (New York Times Magazine. will return to normal lives.) 574. (Ibid.) 577. now we have the Book and they have the land.. will come the drug dealers. (Comment on the possible outcome of a 1980 Supreme Court decision to compensate the Sioux for the Black Hills. land claims.158 VINE DELORIA. HarperCollins. The images portrayed in the movies. 1991. whether of noble red man or bloodthirsty savage. (Amer- .) 575. but that there was good reason for it. How many Indians could have thought of creating an inflammable river? (We Talk. "After all. One great spasm of spending will occur and then the people. recall the stereotypes of western history. Macmillan.. Somehow Tonto was always there.1970. subservient subspecies of Anglo-Saxon whose duty was to do the bidding of the all-wise white hero. (Ibid. The continent had to be developed and he felt that Indians had stood in the way and thus had had to be removed. and rode a darker horse." he remarked. 1775 to the Present. The typical white attitude is that Indians can have land as long as whites have no use for it. by Edward Lazarus. only the Book and we had the land. a little dumber.) 579. as poor as they ever were.

) 583. have not been available for American Indians. Literature on Indians provides no clues to understanding the present or remembering the past. 584. . but Congress and the executive branch have frequently acted as if there were no limitation whatsoever in their power to deal with Indians. To be a traditional person is to believe in our own culture. HarperCollins. by Vine Deloria. 1983. (Ibid.SEVERT YOUNG BEAR 159 lean Indians. . (Exiled in the Land of the Free. by Edward Lazarus. Jr. (Ibid. Austin. American Justice.) 582. Clear Light Publishers. available to all other Americans. [The whites] are trying to change our value system. edited by Oren R. and the courts have deferred to this assertion of naked authority. 1991. In 1968. . was passed. 1991. and Clifford M. . The protections of the Bill of Rights. the American Indian Civil Rights A c t . then you cannot sell the land. he spoke out against the ruling. is to believe in yourself as a Lakota person. I cannot accept money for the Black Hills because land is sacred to m e . University of Texas Press. Nothing was authorized that would protect American Indian nations or individuals against the arbitrary actions of the Federal government. Following the 1980 Supreme Court decision to compensate the Sioux for the Black Hills.) 581. (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States: 1775 to the Present.. but this act only served to extend some Bill of Rights protection to tribal members in their relationship with Indian governments. Lyons and John Mohawk. .) . Lytle. protection that both states and individuals enjoy. Not only have the federal courts studiously avoided considering the application of these protections. Much contemporary literature is a thinly disguised romanticism that looks at Indians as the last and best spiritual hope for a society disheartened and disorganized.) SEVERT YOUNG BEAR (Mid t o late t w e n t i e t h century) Sioux Severt Young Bear is a Sioux activist.

The police look at us and see six square miles and a bunch of crazies talking shit. Las Vegas in your hometown. comments on casino gambling. They don't understand that we are a lost nation trying to restore the dignity of our past. a Mohawk reservation resident. They think we are just a bunch of funny colored men with long hair who talk about weird dances and hunting or fishing when we drink too much. or hunting bear and moose. even buffalo in the woods that stretch across New York and into Canada.) DARREN BONAPARTE (Mid to l a t e t w e n t i e t h century) Mohawk Darren Bonaparte.) . (On casino gambling on a Mohawk reservation in upstate New York. 1991. Pantheon. "Incident at Akwesasne. all of a sudden.) 586. Gentlemen's Quarterly. The police don't understand how serious we are about history and our claims to the land. 587." by Daniel D'Ambrosio. Fishing on the coast of Labrador and Newfoundland or running the rapids of the St. Lawrence. (One Nation under the Gun. It was like. November 1993.MARK MARACLE (Mid t o late t w e n t i e t h century) Mohawk Mark Maracle is a militant who backs sovereignty for the Mohawk Nation. 585. by Rick Hornung. (Ibid. This is our history and we were raised with it as you were raised with the Pilgrims and the Mayflower. We look at all of the northeast and see our people.

Outside governments have screwed us left and right every chance they got. cocaine. basically. drugs. suddenly. you aim to do that. born on the Pine Ridge reservation. guns. because of the white man's greed for gambling. We're living on a pillowcase. (Ibid. Giago writes the weekly column.TIM GIAGO 161 588. 589. TIM GIAGO (1934. . you keep saying that you aim to do this. Why don't you call it AIM. CIA. They couldn't use that! So a couple of older. Minnesota Vernon Bellecourt.) Oglala Sioux. Penthouse Magazine. lived on the reservation until he was fifteen.) VERNON BELLECOURT (Mid to late t w e n t i e t h century) Chippewa. cigarettes. his addictions. (Interview by Richard Ballad. whatever. He is the editor and publisher of the Lakota Times. Stole our land. July 1973). "Well. whittled it down to nothing. the American Indian Movement?" That's how we got our name. we're able to make a profit on their misery. He operated some small businesses for a time. including a beauty salon and an import firm. which he established. who came from a family of twelve children. They were going to call the organization the Concerned Indian Americans. respected women said. and finally. In 1968 he helped form the American Indian Movement (AIM). is a veteran of the Korean War. a militant organization fighting for Indian rights. South Dakota Tim Giago.

(Ibid. It takes a lifetime of education to even begin to understand them." (Ibid. you end up with 'termination. SCOTT MOMADAY "Notes from Indian Country. is informed by a certain attitude of reverence and respect. ) Oklahoma N. He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1969 for his novel House Made of Dawn. The native vision. In . Our past.) 593. Scott Momaday is a novelist. and poet. the gift of seeing truly.' " This is a genuine concern among many reservation Indians. 1984." "Custer wore Arrow shirts. It is something the traditional reservation Indian has always known.) 591. present and future is embedded in the lands of our ancestors.) N. 590. the land base that bespeaks what lies ahead. essayist. Other honors include the Academy of American Poets Prize and the Native American Literature Prize. SCOTT MOMADAY (1934Kiowa/Cherokee. Without the reservations. "If you remove 'self and 'de' from the beginning of the word. 1. there will be no more Indians." A number of these columns have been compiled in book form. vol. with wonder and delight into the natural world.162 N. How can a Sacred Land ever be called a concentration camp? (Notes from Indian Country. You can still see the bumper stickers on the highway." "Hands off my natural resources. (Ibid. They read: "Red Power. Is self-determination a prelude to termination? Many Indians look at the very word "self-determination" and they say among themselves. The issues and the problems that confront Indian people on a day-to-day basis are extremely complex.) 592. Keith Cochran. which told the story of a World War II veteran who tried to recover his spirit in the white world. Reservations have become the Mecca for urban Indians." or "Remember Wounded Knee. 594. It is a matter of extrasensory as well as sensory perception.

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addition to the eye, it involves the intelligence, the instinct, and the imagination. It is the perception not only of objects and forms but also of essences and ideals. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders, by Marion Gridley, Dodd Mead, 1972.) 595.1 have done three large paintings . . . of what I call the Columbian triad. Each of these is a portrait of Columbus. One is a skeletal, skulllike portrait with a mermaid above it, titled "Admiral of the Ocean," and then there is one of a dark full-face portrait called "Palos," which is the port from which Columbus set sail. The third one is "San Salvador," a depiction of Columbus in a full figure adjacent to an Indian child. Columbus is an emaciated, death-like figure, and the child is pure, innocent, small and naked. It's a confrontation of the old world and the new world. ("Confronting Columbus Again," from "View from the Shore: American Indian Perspectives on the Quincentenary," Northeast Indian Quarterly, edited by Jose Barreiro, vol. 7, no. 3, Fall 1990.) 596. Once in his life a man ought to concentrate his mind upon the remembered earth, I believe. He ought to give himself up to a particular landscape in his experience, to look at it from as many angles as he can, to wonder about it, to dwell upon it. He ought to imagine that he touches it with his hands at every season and listens to the sounds that are made upon it. He ought to imagine the creatures there and all the faintest motions of the wind. He ought to recollect the glare of noon and all the colors of the dawn and dusk. (The Way to Rainy Mountain, University of New Mexico Press, 1976). 597. We are what we imagine. Our very existence consists in our imagination of ourselves.... The greatest tragedy that can befall us is to go unimagined. (First Convocation of American Indian Scholars; Indian Voices, edited by J.H. Casto, Indian Historian Press, 1974.)

GERALD VIZENOR
(1934- ) Chippewa, Minnesota
Gerald Vizenor is a novelist with a background in journalism. He has taught literature and American studies in Minnesota and California.

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598. Anthropologists have invented culture; it doesn't have anything to do with I n d i a n s . . . . I think they're interesting in their collection of data and the way they sort it and scramble it and reinvent it, but it doesn't have anything to do with tribal people. It never will. (Interview in Winged Words: American Indian Writers Speak, by Laura Coltelli, University of Nebraska Press, 1990.) 599. The methodologies of the social sciences separate people from the human spirit. (Ibid.)

DENNIS BANKS
(1937- ) Chippewa, Minnesota
Dennis Banks spent fourteen years attending Indian boarding schools. He served several years in the U.S. Air Force. In 1968 he helped found the American Indian Movement (AIM). One of AIM's militant actions was the occupation of Wounded Knee, the site of the 1890 Indian massacre. 600. We have a completely different value system than that of the larger society.... We will introduce evidence of how we've had to go underground in order to maintain our traditional religion, our traditional philosophy. (Testimony relating to charges arising out of the Wounded Knee occupation by AIM, February 12, 1974.) 601. We believe that all living things come from our sacred mother earth, all living things, the green things, the winged things of the air, the four-leggeds, the things that crawl and the two-leggeds.... But the important thing in our philosophy is that we believe we're the weakest things on earth, that the two-legged is the weakest thing on earth because we have no direction.... Now, because we are the weakest things on earth, we do not have license to exploit or manipulate our brothers and sisters and we also know, because of our role in life, that the buffalo and all other relatives of ours teach us, and so we built our civilization. (Ibid.) 602. There is another way [to express our manhood]. That is to grab the bottle, drink it, go down to the other bar and fight your brothers and

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sisters just to say, "Look, I'm a man," or take the bottle again and go home and mistreat your wife and tell her, "Look, I'm a man." (Ibid.) 603. And there is another way, the way that we will prove that the United States of America in its genocidal policies against Indian people, forced us to be red-white people. That is the other way. It is to cut our hair, put on the ties and become facsimiles of the white man. (Ibid.) 604. There has been . . . a new way to express our manhood, and that's been the American Indian Movement to express our Indianness.... I was an accountant by trade in Cleveland, Ohio, and in the Dakota way, if you cut your hair, that means you're in mourning. And it is our contention that a lot of Dakotas now who are misguided cut their hair because they're mourning, because they lost their Indianness. (Ibid.) 605. When I had my hair cut, I was mistaken for a Chicano, for an Arab, a Hawaiian, a Pakistanian, everything but an American Indian. I'm very proud to be Dakota, and when I walk down the street, I want people to know I'm Indian. (Ibid.) 606. They call us the New Indians. Hell, we are the Old Indians, the landlords of this continent, coming to collect the rent. (Lakota Woman, by Mary Crow Dog and Richard Erdoes, Grove Weidenfeld, 1990.)

BILLY MILLS
(1938) Sioux, South Dakota

Billy Mills won the gold medal for the 10,000-meter race at the 1964 Olympics held in Tokyo, Japan. Later, he set other track records. In 1970 he became an information officer for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 607. My Indianness kept me striving to take first and not settle for less in the last yards of the Olympic race. I thought of how our great chiefs kept on fighting when all of the odds were against them as they were against me. I couldn't let my people down. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders, by Marion E. Gridley, Dodd, Mead, 1972.)

ROXANNE DUNBAR ORTIZ
(1938- ) Cheyenne, Oklahoma
Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz is a professor of Native American studies at California State University, Hayward. Her book, The Great Sioux Nation: Sitting in Judgment on America, published in 1977, deals with the case of the Wounded Knee occupation of 1973. The defendants argued before the Federal District Court in Lincoln, Nebraska, that under the terms of the Treaty of 1868, the federal government had no jurisdiction over them. The court ruled against them. 608. The Sioux, like other Indian peoples, are now going beyond bare survival and are asserting sovereignty which is leading to drastic changes in United States-Indian relations. The People see two roads available: Nationhood or genocide. The people are choosing nationhood. (The Great Sioux Nation: Sitting in Judgment on America, by Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz, American Indian Treaty Council Information Center/Moon Books, 1977.) 609. In asserting sovereignty, the Sioux join other colonies and former colonies all over the world who have been subjected to European and United States colonialism, in declaring integrity as a separate Nation. (Ibid.) 610. No historian would accept accounts of Nazi officials as to what happened in Nazi Germany because those accounts were written to justify that regime. Yet American historians are still subjective about their own history with a few exceptions. They try to justify and rationalize what happened, give excuses or lay blame on a few exceptionally cruel generals or wild frontiersmen. There were too many massacres for them to be accidental. There were too many buffalo for them to become extinct in a period of five years. Genocide is colonial policy, not accident. (Testimony before U.S. District Court, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1974.)

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MELVIN THOM
(1939) Paiute, Nevada

Melvin Thorn, who founded the National Indian Youth Council, served as its president during the "fish-ins" held in Washington State. In the mid-1960s, Indians demanded their treaty rights to fish in designated areas, and did so despite state laws against it. 611. The Indian never fought back before. He just folded his arms and went away angry. In the past he was defeated before the fight began. That's changed. We changed that. Little tribes you hardly ever heard of are still fighting by themselves. They just stay in there and keep fighting. (The New Indians, by Stan Steiner, Harper & Row, 1968.)

PAULA GUNN ALLEN
(1939) Laguna/Sioux, New Mexico
Paula Gunn Allen, poet and author, has lectured at universities in California and New Mexico. Since 1990 she has been a professor of literature at the University of California, Los Angeles. 612. There is no America without the death of an Indian. And there can be no America without acknowledgment of one of its major sources. (Interview with Franchot Ballinger and Brian Swann, MELLUS, Summer 1983.) 613. Every time you flush the toilet, some Navajo goes without water. You understand that. Staying in this hotel in L.A. means that those folks out on the reservation] are in trouble because we have all these goodies. And that's true across the board, for every aspect of American life. (Ibid.)

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JERRY FLUTE

614. There is no American that is not deeply wedded to the Indian. So, you know, exploitation, what does that mean? We've been exploited right out of house and home. (Ibid.)

JERRY FLUTE
(1939- ) Sisseton-Wahpeton Dakota, South Dakota

Jerry Flute is the executive director of the Association on American Indian Affairs. 615. During Operation Desert Storm, U.S. troops were ordered not to destroy sacred sites of the Iraqi. Yet the same U.S. government continues to destroy sacred sites of Native Americans. (Testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, Portland, Oregon, February 1993.)

GAIL SMALL
(Mid to l a t e t w e n t i e t h century)

Northern Cheyenne
Gail Small is a Native American rights activist. 616. Only a dime of every dollar appropriated by Congress for Indians ever reaches the reservations. Most of the moneys are eaten by the massive bureaucracy of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ("War Stories: Environmental Justice in Indian Country," Daybreak, vol. 4, no. 2, 1994.) 617. Promises of overnight wealth to impoverished tribes serve to divide and conquer the people, as federal agencies, energy corporations, and private speculators seek to dump nuclear waste or get rich off Indian land. By necessity, then, Indian tribes are major players in the environmental justice movement. (Ibid.)

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618. There are no coal mines on my reservation yet, and no coal leases have been signed. But every year, the tribe debates again whether we can afford to continue refusing the offers of the coal companies. (Ibid.)

DANIEL PEACHES
(1940- ) Navajo, Arizona
Daniel Peaches, a former Arizona state representative, is a Navajo tribal administrator. 619. The policy of the Interior Department regarding the Indians for the 80's should be one of (1) protecting federal trust responsibilities to the Indian people (federal treaties), (2) protect tribal resources, and (3) promote economic development on Indian reservations. (Letter, February 2, 1982; The Bureau of Indian Affairs, by Theodore W. Taylor, Westview, 1984.) 620. All federal agencies should allocate funds directly to the Indian tribes, bypassing state governments. (Ibid.) 621. The President's [Reagan's] policy of returning most of the federal responsibilities back to the states would be a disaster for the Indian people. There is simply no mechanism by which states and Indian tribes can have a mutual relationship. (Ibid.)

RUSSELL MEANS
(1940- ) Oglala Sioux, South Dakota

Russell Means, actor and activist, is chairman of the American Indian Anti-Defamation Council. In 1968 Means joined Dennis

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RUSSELL MEANS

Banks (q.v.) and others in the American Indian Movement (AIM). AIM's purposes are to regain land from the United States and to reestablish an Indian nation. Some of its more radical activities included a sit-in at the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the occupation of Wounded Knee, site of the massacre of Indians in 1890. 622. [Columbus] makes Hitler look like a juvenile delinquent. (Mankiller: A Chief and Her People, by Wilma Mankiller and Michael Wallis, St. Martin's Press, 1993.) 623. Right now, today, we who live on the Pine Ridge Reservation are living in what white society has designated a "National Sacrifice Area." What this means is that we have a lot of uranium deposits here, and white culture (not us) needs this uranium as energy production material. (In the Spirit of Crazy Horse, by Peter Matthiessen, Viking, 1983.) 624. The cheapest, most efficient way for industry to extract and deal with the processing of this uranium is to dump the waste by-products right here at the digging sites. Right here where we live. (Ibid.) 625. It is genocide to dig uranium here and drain the water—no more, no less. (Ibid.) 626. I understand that every living thing comes from one mother, and that is our Mother Earth. It has been said by the old people that only the white man rapes his mother. (Testimony before U.S. District Court, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1974.) 627. We are all brothers and sisters. That includes every living thing, the green things, the winged of the earth, the four-legged, the things that crawl and swim, the mountains, the streams, the rain, the clouds. (Ibid.) 628. They [the U.S. Government] brought in the law enforcement agencies to protect buildings rather than protect people's rights out here. And the end result—Wounded Knee. (Voices from Wounded Knee, Akwesasne Notes, 1974.) 629. The President of the United States [Jimmy Carter], to show you what a racist he is, can talk about human rights when my people are suffering genocide not only in the United States but in the entire [Western] hemisphere. (Speech before a United Nations conference in Geneva, Switzerland, 1977; cited in Native American Reader: Stories, Speeches and Poems, edited by Jerry D. Blanche, Denali Press, 1990.) 630. There is only one color of mankind that is not allowed to participate in the international community. And that color is the red. The black, the white, the brown, the yellow all participate in one form or another. (Ibid.)

n. thank you. Racism in America against Indian people is so institutionalized and pervasive as to be almost unrecognizable—especially the vicious kind attached to sports teams with names like Indians. decency.d. 632. Warriors.) JAMES WELCH (1940) Blackfeet/Gros Ventre. dedicated to the homeless street Indian. What harm is it?" The harm is." by John Edgar Wideman. the law of humankind. 631. (Walk in Peace. the law of the universe. okay. ("MM Interview: Russell Means. Wells. and the universe is our relative. But what if we don't feel honored? They say. the gift of healing. this land is our church. and health. September-October 1995). in Modern Maturity. okay? We're lumped in with the lions and tigers. published his first collection of poetry in 1971. we're lumped in by the Eurocentric male mind with animals that he puts in zoos and that he kills and hunts for sport.JAMES WELCH 171 630a. the gift of the Great Spirit. WELLS (1940) Mescalero Apache. "We're honoring you. ELIZABETH A. wisdom. "C'mon. Montana James Welch. Wells is the founder and director of the Orre Drumrite Walking Heritage. Remember. poet and novelist." Well. by Elizabeth A. our traditional values are based on order. Braves. endow us with the knowledge that our life is our religion. I have seen poems about Indians written by whites and they are . People say. New Mexico Elizabeth A. Other programs and ceremonies are held on behalf of young adults and children.

no. . these things the Indians had.) 634. vol. Indians are very good at puns. 1990. That's a lot of Indian humor—teasing . 3. and practicing t h e m . University of Nebraska Press.. Summer 1971. Generosity. When I came to college. . giving. . . There are exceptions.) 635.) 633. but for the most part only an Indian knows who he is . 2. . . by Laura Coltelli. Never Give a Bum an Even Break. (South Dakota Review.. these things the Indians practiced. 636. plays on words. (Ibid.. . . every person [was] for himself or herself.. .) SHIRLEY BLACK STONE WESTON (Mid to late t w e n t i e t h century) Oglala Sioux Shirley Black Stone Weston.172 SHIRLEY BLACK STONE WESTON either sentimental or outraged over the condition of the Indian. Fall 1981. experiencing them. and sharing. I grew up learning these values. ("I Remember When We Used to Eat Wild Grapes . vol. an Oglala Sioux. no. " Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. 9. University of Colorado.. recalls old values systems. (Interview in Winged Words: American Indian Writers Speak. . (Title of poem. and hopefully he will have the toughness and fairness to present his material in a way that is not manufactured by conventional stance. 6.) .

Naturally. after all. their poems. I learned [in school] there were no Indians. speaking of a responsibility for all the universe—is unwieldy according to the precepts of the American system which is conveniently exclusive and finds useful only those parts which gain precedence and dominance over others. A system which is based upon relationships with all things is not efficient within the workings of the American social system.) Acoma Pueblo. and that is a political stand when it is against what will take away life.) 640. personally. by Andrew Wiget. . (Ibid. Nothing is separate from me in that . 1986. Poetry is a way of engendering life. American Indian Treaty Council Information Center/ Moon Books.. (The Great Sioux Nation: Sitting in Judgment on America. Boise State University. Native American poets who speak from a tradition of resistance against oppression are speaking for land and life. (Always the Stories. A value system that is all inclusive—in the Indian sense.) 639.) 638.. . in Simon Ortiz. personal and social. (Cited in Creative Process. 1977. 637.) 642.SIMON ORTIZ (1941. by Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz. I've tried to consider most importantly my life as a Native American who is absolutely related to the land and all that means culturally.1 read [in school] whatever was available as I loved reading which was. politically. an extension of my love of language. New Mexico Simon Ortiz is an author and poet whose writings reflect the culture and behavior of Native Americans. As a writer. Indian oral history has not been acceptable to American society not because it has been unwritten but because the Indian system of moral value has not been accepted. they were visages of the historical past who rode painted ponies and attacked wagon trains . we were expected to identify with white American images of Dick and Jane and Spot and Puff and homes with white picket fences. are political.) 641.. this inspiration has been labelled dangerous in many cases—and unliterary and unpoetic as well—because it challenges the established oppressive ruling powers that be. (Ibid.

Previously. It seems to me that the guiding set of esthetics in Indian art is inextricably tied to a shared concept of nature and a belief that life exists in things others might see as inanimate. (Ibid. September 13. New York L. is the director of the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian. and I am included with the earth and all its aspects and details. David Jacobs served in the U.) Mohawk. as an attorney in an Indian-owned law firm in Albuquerque. (Native North American Literature. To accomplish that. RICHARD WEST. he represented Indian interests in court cases and before Congress. Oklahoma W.. Gale. at least 300 remain. New Mexico. Jr.) 645.) Cheyenne/Arapaho.) 644. you can't just have the predictable glass case of 500 viewing options. It's estimated that of the 500 or 600 distinct cultures that dwelled within the borders of what is now the United States before 1492. (New York Times. Navy and then received his formal education at the State University of New York and .) L.) W. We want [museum] visitors to come away with a better appreciation of what they've seen. 643.DAVID JACOBS (1943. JR.174 W. RICHARD WEST. by Jane Hoehner. You need direction. but also with a more informed and sophisticated sense of Indian cultures in general. 1992. 1994. (Ibid.S. sense. (1943. Richard West. JR.

ARAPAHO . JR.." — W . RICHARD WEST.• "It seems to me that the guiding set of esthetics in Indian art is inextricably tied to a shared concept of nature and a belief that life exists in things others might see as inanimate.

An educator and psychologist. took on the original spelling of the family name (Ha-o-zous).) 649. The gamblers brought money here. but it can work if we do it right. The Heard Museum. the son of artist Allan Houser (q. by Rick Hornug. My art is contemporary because I live in the present—but also adhere to the belief that one should be inner-directed and that art should reflect its pure source—the soul of its creator. Poverty is our biggest problem. Phoenix.) . A major sculptor in his own right.) ROBERT HAOZOUS (1943) Apache/Navajo. with the rights that we have as American citizens.). And I'm choosing to stay with the Americans.v.) 650. 1983. Washington and Albany want us to go on our own. and we have to figure out a way to enrich ourselves in accordance with the law. The Americans and the Canadians have two separate approaches to our problems. California Robert Haozous. (Houser and Haozous: A Sculptural Retrospective. he has his own studio outside Santa Fe. Regis Mohawk Tribe. (Ibid. A chief of the St. he turned to tribal politics in the late 1980s. the government won't allow gambling. (Ibid. (One Nation under the Gun. In Canada. That's their problem. 646.) 647.176 ROBERT HAOZOUS the University of Utah. I try to deal honestly and directly with reality in my art and that reality encompasses both ugliness and beauty. he favors casino gambling run by the reservation. Let Ottawa or Quebec keep dishing out grants and subsidies. Pantheon. I love the land and I love people and I hope that my work symbolizes this in my own individual way. 1991. the law gives us a chance to start our bingo and gambling businesses and we should. On this [American] side of the border. They've brought jobs here. (Ibid. And it's hard. 648.

C. Most recently. What could be more clear than that to treat us as criminals is a farce? (In the Spirit of Crazy Horse. by Peter Matthiessen. 651. and led the Indian delegation to Hanoi during the Vietnam war. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders. D. an Indian rights activist. he was found guilty of murdering two FBI agents during a shootout. in 1968. When white society's efforts to colonize people are met with resistance. But when the colonized Indians of North America meet to stand and resist we are called criminals. Gridley. North Dakota Leonard Peltier was a leader in the American Indian Movement. . . almost meaningless except . The state [of Washington] has only one a i m . It intends to destroy our fishing equipment. has fought for Indian fishing rights. 1972. . When white society succeeds it's called colonialism. In 1977..) 653. and save the fish for the white men. It is not a new development for white society to steal from nonwhite peoples.) HENRY ADAMS (1944. 652. he has been an executive of the Survival of American Indians Association.) Assinibonne/Sioux. Treaties are abstract for the most part. chase us off the rivers. He was an organizer of Indian participation in the Poor People's March on Washington. by Marion E. it's called war. Montana Henry Adams. Viking.LEONARD PELTIER (1944. Dodd. 1983.) OjibwaJSioux. following a highly controversial trial. Mead.

then learn the details as a part of the whole. I will continue to p r o t e s t . (Teaching the Native American. South Dakota Sandra J. 1992.178 SANDRA J. Kendall-Hunt. by Hap Gilliland.) 654. She has written extensively on this subject. FOX (1944. no matter what the "Uncle Tomahawks" and "red apples" say. . Fox has 25 years of experience in Indian education with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian Education Resource Centers. (Ibid.) Pawnee. They learn more easily if they see the whole picture first. .) Oglala Sioux. 655. The selfgovernment part of treaties is the most basic of a l l . . The majority of Indian students are "holistic" learners. FOX for a few essential elements. the fishing right gives the Indian people that type of tribal community which is necessary. (Ibid. New Mexico John Echohawk is a lawyer who works on behalf of Indian rights.) JOHN ECHOHAWK (1945. .") SANDRA J. until matters are righted. One of these is our sovereignty. .) (Editor's note: These derogatory terms are equivalent to the AfricanAmerican terms "Uncle Tom" and "Oreo cookie. He became executive director of the Native American Rights Fund in 1977.

. Martin's Press. our language and culture.S. troops did in the 1890s. government policy to assimilate the tribes into "mainstream" American society. government to stamp out the ancient Native religious practices of reservation Indians. the revitalization of tribal communities—it is also important that we never forget what happened to our people on the Trail of Tears.) 662. forest service bulldozers [clearing away Native American religious sites] accomplish today what U. it was the policy of the U. (Ibid.S.) 657. One hundred years ago. It was indeed our holocaust.) 660. Although it is so crucial for us to focus on the good things— our tenacity. 659. as part of U. but as essential parts of their personalities.) WILMA MANKILLER (1945. (Ibid. ." (Ibid. Native Americans regard their names not as mere labels.WILMA MANKILLER 179 656. She first succeeded to the post when her predecessor resigned. The Alcatraz experience [when Indians occupied the island] nur- . (Mankiller: A Chief and Her People. (Ibid. The lack of legal protection for Native American religious practices has plagued Indian tribes since Columbus brought European religious intolerance to the New World. by Wilma Mankiller and Michael Wallis. ("Native Americans Then and Now." Earth Journal.) 661. U. .S. [Sequoya] was always fascinated with the white people's ability to communicate with one another by making distinctive marks on paper—what some native people referred to as "talking leaves. January/February 1994. Oklahoma Wilma Mankiller was the first woman to be elected chief of the Cherokee Nation. 1993.) 658. Recent Supreme Court decisions have denied protection for Native religious practices.) Cherokee. St.S. A native person's name is as vital to his or her identify as the eyes or teeth. She later won reelection on her own.

Ph..) 663. is an assistant professor in the American Studies Department at the State University of New York. (Ibid." —WILMA MANKILLER. Buf- . New York John Mohawk.) Seneca. justice for native people.D. The book which became our Indian manifesto [was] Custer Died for Your Sins. perhaps.) JOHN MOHAWK (1945.JOHN MOHAWK "The Alcatraz experience [when Indians occupied the island] nurtured a sense among us that anything was possible—even. (Ibid. CHEROKEE tured a sense among us that anything was possible—even. perhaps. justice for native people.

but in helping us become so proud of our Indian heritage. She was a grand. a formula leading to oblivion. WARREN 181 falo. The very identify of the Indian in European and Euro-American eyes was. She was instrumental in not only instilling family values. sells computer software.) DAVID C WARREN (1945. Clear Light Publishers. but I do remember sadness. March 1995. Although Granny seldom mentioned her ancestry. (Personal letter. I am one-quarter Choctaw. a businessman." in Exiled in the Land of the Free. Her name was Marie Pierce Dallas. 664. Granny lived to the ripe old age of 90. He is the editor of Daybreak. ("Indians and Democracy: No One Ever Told Us. and to a considerable degree remains. 665.DAVID C. proud woman. The identity offered to the Indian was and remains a Catch-22 because there has never been an offer of unequivocal legitimacy. who bore nine children.) Choctaw. and her high cheekbones were a constant reminder. a national American Indian news publication. I don't recall much.) . Mississippi David C. By the same token genocide could not have taken place because the peoples and populations who were killed or allowed to expire under oppression were never legitimate peoples. Legitimate Indian governments could not have been destroyed because legitimate Indian governments never existed. (Ibid. her dark eyes.) 666. edited by Oren Lyons and John Mohawk. I remember visiting the reservation in Philadelphia. noticing the poor conditions the proud Choctaws were living in. Mississippi. Warren. He is a member of the Seventh Generation Fund and chairperson of the board of the Indian Law Resource Center. as a child. Mother was the seventh. I was constantly aware of it—her straight jet-black hair. 1991. My mother's mother was a fullblooded Choctaw.

short stories.1 think what [Louise Erdrich] and I do is either within the tradition of a particular tribe or reservation or it is within the context of American literature. We all . 670.) JANET CAMPBELL HALE (1946. The government's intention all along was to get us to assimilate into the mainstream of America and to a large extent we have. where he met Louise Erdrich (q. 667.v. They married and have coauthored many literary works.) Modoc. by any extension of the imagination. and nonfiction.) 669. poetry. except (North Dakota Quarterly.) Coeur dAlene. He became a professor of anthropology and Native American studies at Dartmouth. Native American literature Native American literature. (Ibid. Winter 1987.) 668. is about as descriptive a term as nondefinition non-Native American literare not Native Americans.MICHAEL DORRIS (1945. was brought up on the Coeur d'Alene and Yakima reservations.). Washington Michael Dorris writes novels. essays. could presume or even dare to speak for or write about themes that were important for Navajos or for Iroquois or for people from other regions or other tribal backgrounds. If by ature is about and by people who that doesn't tell you a great deal.1 don't think that either of us. fine. California Janet Campbell Hale. (Ibid. an author.

. They will still exist in Italy and Ireland. speak to the individual—draw attention to suppressed needs. Bloodlines: Odyssey of a Native Daughter. Approximately one-third . poetry. from introduction. articles. 675. Fiction speaks in symbolic language.LINDA HOGAN 183 speak English today and we go to school and we work and pay taxes. Indian children are removed from homes and communities more often than children of any other background.) 672. (Ibid. symbols both personal and universal. Indian women are aware of the difficult position of being female and minority. though. from essay "Autobiography in Fiction. short stories. The government would like nothing better. If Irish or Italian culture dies in America it really isn't that big a deal. There is nothing but what was and is and we're all stuck with that and have to struggle to do our best with the hand we've been dealt. . Only the reservation is our landbase. She teaches American Indian studies and creative writing in Colorado. Colorado Linda Hogan writes novels. Not so with us. . and reviews. Dreams. (Ibid.) 671. There is no other place. and often because of that poverty. are removed from homes and placed in foster care or adoptive placement.) 674. . In the practice of fiction. artists speak not only to the self but to others as well. and we don't want to let go of it. at this point. North America is our old country. answer troublesome questions. (Ibid. than to abolish the reservations and get all our tribes to disband.") LINDA HOGAN (1947) Chickasaw. 1992. to get rid of us. make clear to the dreamer that which was clouded.. (Ibid. Tribal women have the lowest wages in the country. Random House. What if does not exist. 1993. (During a talk to pupils at the Coeur d'Alene Tribal School. our home. Fiction and dreams spring from a common well.) 673. ("Native American Women: Our Voice.

people who are in very difficult situations and in pain. including the slaughter of the Pequots in 1637. vol. have to develop humor or die of despair. will stand for future generations of Americans as a symbol of understanding." Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. HAYWARD (1947. HAYWARD the Air. Ours is a small tribe. University of Nebraska Press. 1990. In 1994 Hayward announced a donation of $10 million to the National Museum of the American Indian.) .) 676. 3. (Ibid. we believe that it is critical to make a commitment back to Native Americans through this donation. But we have survived. (Announcing a $10 million donation to the National Museum of the American Indian. the largest single cash donation made in the history of the Smithsonian. 1994. education and tolerance. no. Fall 1981. and we now flourish. (Ibid.) Mashantucket Pequot. Hayward is the chairman of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Council. People who are in poverty.) 679. There have been many historic injustices perpetrated on indigenous people of North America. . but we have a keen sense of our own history and that of Native America generally. Connecticut Richard A. 6. (Interview in Winged Words: American Indian Writers Speak. I'd say there's more racism toward Indian people than toward blacks. 678. University of Colorado.184 RICHARD A. but this m u s e u m . There is obviously no way to turn back the pages of history. The tribe owns and manages the Foxwoods Casino and Resort in Mashantucket.) RICHARD A. Smithsonian Runner. October 24. . Connecticut. JanuaryFebruary 1995. In the great tradition of Native Americans everywhere.) 677. by Laura Coltelli.

. 1982. I have always felt misunderstood and isolated—whether with Indians or with non-Indians. all . (The Third Woman. She is an English professor at the University of Arizona.) 682. Houghton Mifflin. . It is my greatest but probably futile hope that some day those of us who are ethnic minorities will not be segregated in the literature of America. edited by Dexter Fisher. She was the former editor of the American Indian Quarterly. All those languages. New Mexico Leslie Silko is a poet. 683. short story writer. . What Happened When the Hopi Hit New York. . but what I know is Laguna. by Kenneth Rosen. (Songs from This Earth on Turtle's Back. and novelist.) 681. 1975. edited by Joseph Bruchac. Mexican.) 684. I am of mixed-breed ancestry. Random House.WENDY ROSE (1948. white—but the way we live is like M a r m o n s . My family are the Marmons at Old Laguna on the Laguna Pueblo reservation where I grew up.) Laguna. 1983. (Book title.) Hopi/Miwok. 680. a poet. 1980. like the centaur.) LESLIE SILKO (1948. teaches American Indian studies in California. (The Man to Send Rain Clouds. Greenfield Review Press. California Wendy Rose. . We are mixed bloods—Laguna. [The centaur reflects] my hybrid status .

In 1994. Politics can't alter sound biology. August 7. Knopf.. (Ibid. My poetry. He was first a member of the state's House of Representatives.) Pawnee. (Statement to the National Marine Fisheries Service. Jr.) 689. [that] injustice continues to be inflicted upon Indian people because Americans assume that the sympathy or tolerance they feel toward Indians is somehow "felt" or transferred to the government policy that deals with Indians.. Wyoming Larry Echohawk is a political figure in Idaho. by Kenneth Rosen. 1991. (Now That the Buffalo's Gone: A Study of Today's American Indians. when he was elected attorney general. and we live somewhere on the fringes of all three.186 LARRY ECHOHAWK those ways of living are combined. Josephy.) 686. (Ibid. and have slowed the fish's critical journey by a factor of more than seven..) . Before long the runs will disappear and you will have accomplished nothing. Viking.) 685. the bureau was placing the Chinook salmon on the endangered species list. 1975. (Voices of the Rainbow. 1982. If you attempt to depend on Idaho water to increase flows without addressing the real killer—the mainstem dams—you will have done what a false prosecution does: put an innocent man in jail and let the real killer go free. In 1990. by Alvin M.) LARRY ECHOHAWK (1948. This is not the case. however. The mainstem dams have transformed that mighty [Snake] river into a series of slackwater pools. Our origin is unlike any other. 687. (Ibid. Their biological window cannot afford to travel the lower river. he became the first Native American to be elected to a statewide executive office. my storytelling rise out of this source. but there was disagreement on the major cause of the chinook decline.) 688. he was defeated in his race for governor. The American public has difficulty believing. and they die by the millions—victims not of low flow but of poor river velocity.

) 696.) 695.) 691. My political credo is very simple: to return something for what you have received. I asked the tribes to forego exercise of their treaty fishing rights. So long as we defile our sacred mother earth. We can be proud of those before us and those among us who have made the world better—for people of color. and for all people. the Seventh Generation of Democrats. but he was also known as a modest and quiet man. We are. we always keep in mind the Seventh Generation to come. (Ibid. the hawk is a symbol of a silent warrior.) 692. (Ibid. . but word of his courage "echoed" throughout the village.) 694. "Echo Hawk. I know how much that ceremonial fishery means to them. I care very deeply about their issues. arguing—rightly—that they didn't cause the problem and shouldn't have to suffer while downstream neighbors continued to fish. (Com- . 1994. Y e t . . (Ibid. if you are an American. in our government. by the reckoning of the years since our party began. (Ibid. (The New York Times. almost all of Nebraska. the pain goes on. 1992. That's what we have to look at. . as long as the elderly go without health care. . as long as men and women labor for bare subsistence.. No matter which continent your ancestors came from. New York City. but with the sure knowledge that it was right. "In our way of life." (Ibid. Then they were marched to a small reservation in Oklahoma. you are part Indian in your roots. My name "Echo Hawk" is the English translation of the name given my great-grandfather in the mid-1880s. My great-grandfather was known for his bravery.) 693. To the Pawnee.) 697. September 5. .LARRY ECHOHAWK 187 690. but I can imagine what it must have been like to be removed to Oklahoma. with every decision we make. As the former Chief Counsel to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes. I believe in the promise of America. making the family strong. Without pleasure. I urged the state to impose a conservation closure—just as it had earlier closed the sport fishery. (Address to the Democratic National Convention. I never knew [my great-grandfather] Echo Hawk. I was raised with Indian values and the strongest of those is family. He did not speak of his own deeds. and the promise is unfulfilled. And so he was. When we walk upon the earth we always plant our feet carefully. I told the tribes when I ran for attorney general that I could not be the tribal attorney in the Statehouse. The Iroquois have a saying ." . The Pawnee used to have 23 million acres of land. because we know the faces of our further generations are looking up at us from beneath the ground. They refused.

It hasn't been done. (Ibid. is to create a film with a truly tribal vision. . angles. 1990.188 JOY HARJO menting on why he opposed casino gambling in the state. and screenwriter. Screenwriting is definitely related to poetry. A lot of people like to romanticize. by Laura Coltelli. television scriptwriter. One goal I h a v e . despite the fact that it could result in economic gains among the Indian tribes. You're dealing again with the translation of emotions into images.) GEORGE BALDWIN (1952) Osage/Kaw. viewpoint.) 699. hold Indians to that image of . not on the scale I would like to do it. In 1992 he helped found American Indian Telecommunications to make available modern communications technology to Native Americans.) JOY HARJO (1951. artist.) Creek. Ibid. in terms of story. camera viewpoints. 698. Oklahoma Joy Harjo is a poet. . He was formerly chairman of the Sociology Department at Henderson State University in Arkansas. (Winged Words: American Indian Writers Speak. Oklahoma George Baldwin is on the Plan Faculty of California University at Monterey Bay. University of Nebraska Press. 700. everything.

(Winged Words: American Indian Writers Speak. but it's gone beyond blankets to information. My first audience that I would write for. how many Indians can afford to buy Love Medicine right now? It's pretty expensive and it's the way publishing unfortunately goes on.) LOUISE ERDRICH (1954. and poet. as a couple. hoping that they will read." by A. Ancient Cultures.) Chippewa. cry. and with these technologies. whom she married in a tribal ceremony. Her first husband. traditions. Michael Dorris (q. Love Medicine. August 1993. 1984. Minnesota Louise Erdrich is an author. really take in the work.S.) 704. 702. (Ibid. The Information Age is here. 1990. (Title of novel. For instance. laugh. ("New Technologies.J. South Dakota Mary Brave Bird was born on the Rosebud reservation. by Laura Coltelli. One of the problems is the distribution of literature.). cheap edition everywhere. (Ibid. editor. was .) Sioux.MARY BRAVE BIRD 189 weaving blankets for sale by the side of the road. One of our hopes was to have it available in a nice. and knowledge live. Rayl.) 701. and we're weaving all right. that [Michael Dorris and I] write for. is American Indians. Omni.) 703. She has also coauthored many literary works with her husband. our languages.v. University of Nebraska Press.) MARY BRAVE BIRD (1956.

female friends. There is Indian time and white man's time.) 711. It is not the big.) 708. The sun. . 705. Jobs were almost nonexistent on the reservation. Racism breeds racism in reverse. Grove Weidenfeld. and feeling of helplessness on the women.) 712. but just being Indian. and values while being surrounded by an alien. . (Ibid. by Mary Crow Dog and Richard Erdoes. (After describing a life of violence and abuse upon herself.v." (Ibid.). more powerful culture. HarperCollins. The white man oppresses the half-blood.. mountain lions. bobcats. Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. Drunk. nature was our clock.. An old medicine man once told me: "Us Lakotas are not like dogs who can be trained. wildcats. Lakota Woman. by Mary Brave Bird with Richard Erdoes. licking the hand that whipped them. the moon. It means doing what you want when you want it.) 713. and the seasons were our timekeepers and that way of looking at time . .) 706. the half-blood oppresses the fullblood. Her first child was born during the Wounded Knee occupation. despair. but cats who can't be tamed.190 MARY BRAVE BIRD Leonard Crow Dog (q. and they are drunk a good part of the time. by Edward Lazarus. 1991. 1993. It doesn't matter what kind. they are angels. language.) 714. and everybody takes out their anger. The little settlements we lived i n . . (Ibid. who scratch if you step on their tails. telling us that every star in this flag represented a state stolen from Indians. Indian time means never looking at the clock. 1990. who can be beaten and keep on wagging their tails. (Describing life on the Rosebud reservation of her childhood. trying to hang on to our way of life. (Ohitika Woman. their evil side comes out. were places without hope where the bodies and souls were being destroyed bit by bit. Grove.) 709. and outside the res whites did not hire Indians if they could help it. little cats. If you plan to be born. make sure you are born white and male. The men [on the reservation] have a good and an evil side. 1775 to the Present. We are like cats.) 707. (Ibid. In the old days . and relatives.. dramatic things so much that get us down. Sober. big cats.) 710. (Ibid. Woman beating is part of everyday life on the reservation. He [a speaker from the American Indian Movement] had himself wrapped up in an upside-down American flag. (Ibid.

Ancient Cultures. There used to be a saying in the 1800s: "Forget the blanket and learn the white man's ways. .) 715. Frequently we traveled south across the Mexican border to gather our sacred medicine. California John Castillo is the executive director of the Southern California Indian Center. It is a celebration of life. p e y o t e .) Apache. Omni. Now our elders are saying. There is not even a word for time in our language. ." ("New Techniques. the eagle. It is a self-sacrifice. the most solemn." by A. (Ibid. the most sacred of all our rituals.. to take his or her pain upon yourself. 717. That was a misrepresentation. . . It is not an initiation rite or a way to prove one's courage as was shown in the movie A Man Called Horse.J.INTER-TRIBAL MEETING 191 is still in our subconscious. of the sun. "Go and learn in the white man's world. the buffalo.) JOHN CASTILLO (1956. provided we have a license and can prove that we are tribally enrolled Indians and members of the Native American Church.) 716.S.. but do not forget your Indian ways. August 1993.) INTER-TRIBAL MEETING (1961) Sixty-seven Tribes In 1961 more than 400 Indians from sixty-seven tribes met at the University of Chicago and issued a Declaration of Indian Purpose. (Ibid. It is legal for us to get it. Rayl. (Ibid. a suffering for someone you love.. It [the sun dance] is the foremost.

works at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York City. But it's almost like Indians can easily survive the big stuff. including alcoholism. The white waitress who wouldn't take an order. and loved. HarperCollins.) SHERMAN ALEXIE (1966. With that continent gone. except for the parcels they still retain. When Indians speak of the continent they yielded. but they mean to hold the scraps and parcels as earnestly as any small nation of ethnic groups was ever determined to hold to identity and survival. Tonto.) Spokane/Coeur dAlene. .) GAETANA DEGENNARO (1967. Mass murder. loss of language and land rights. 719. 1991. 1775 to the Present.) Tohono O'odham. the Washington Redskins. who obtained a degree in anthropology from Hunter College. It's the small things that hurt the most. 1993. Arizona Gaetana DeGennaro. they are not referring only to the loss of some millions of acres in real estate. [Indians] have a way of surviving. Atlantic Monthly Press. by Edward Lazarus. (The Lone langer and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven. Washington Sherman Alexie is a poet and short story writer.192 SHERMAN ALEXIE 718. They have in mind that the land supported a universe of things they valued. the basis of life is precariously held. Much of his work deals with contemporary problems on the reservation. (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States.

polluted air and water. We feel that this request is but little to ask from a government which has systematically stolen our lands. they offered to "purchase" the island for $24 worth of trinkets. During the two occupation periods. killed off the creatures of nature. On November 20. (February 1970. ."INDIANS OE ALL TRIBES" 193 720. At one point. This is who we are.) "INDIANS OF ALL TRIBES" (1969-1971) "All Tribes. .] Journal-News.) 722." by Laura Incalcaterra. 97th Congress. prejudice. termination. quoted in "Telling the Truth about Native Americans. (Ibid. We here on Indian land. (Ibid.' Alcatraz On November 9. Excerpts follow. fourteen Indian activists occupied Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay and held the abandoned prison for nineteen hours. suppression. It [the museum] will let people know we're still living. We are quite serious in our demand to be given ownership of this island. represent many tribes of I n d i a n s .. and socalled relocation and assimilation. 723. The museum will help open up people's minds to the stereotypes of Indian people and get rid of those stereotypes.. October 30. They held the island for nineteen months before the federal government retook it. Rockland [N. eighty-nine Indians took possession. We feel that the island is the only bargaining power that we have with the federal government. During that time. the population approached a thousand. We have a living culture.) 724. (Referring to the George Gustav Heye Center at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York. Congressional Record. It is the only way we have to get them to . and instituted a program to annihilate the many Indian tribes of this land by theft. several declarations were made by the occupiers. . ripped open the very bowels of our earth in senseless greed. 1994.) 721. 1969.Y. Alcatraz. . Indians of all tribes greet our brothers and sisters of all races and tongues upon our Earth Mother. destroyed a once beautiful landscape. 2d Session.

by Edward Lazarus. population has always been held as prisoners. By this we mean that this place resembles most Indian reservations in that: It is isolated from modern facilities . (November 1969. Proclamation to the Great White Father and all his People: We feel that this so-called Alcatraz Island is more than suitable for an Indian Reservation. . . 1775 to the Present. until the island which is rightfully ours is formally granted to us. by Jay David.194 'INDIANS OF ALL TRIBES" notice us or even want to deal with us. and thus be reminded of the true history of this nation. no industry . no educational facilities . (Ibid. they will forget us.) 729.) 726. the native Americans. soil is rocky and unproductive . . no oil or mineral rights . . a precedent set by the white man's purchase of a similar island about 300 years ago. . .) 728. and hereby offer the following treaty: We will purchase said Alcatraz Island for twenty-four dollars ($24) in glass beads and red cloth. no health care facilities . entering the Golden Gate.. as determined by the white man's own standard. would first see Indian land. This tiny land would be a symbol of great lands once ruled by free and noble Indians. Otherwise. (The American Indian: The First Victim. 1972. Ibid. unemployment . 1991. (Ibid. We wish to be fair and honorable in our dealings with the Caucasian inhabitants of this land. . . it would be fitting and symbolic that ships from all over the world. but we will not be forgotten. . .) 727. We know that $24 in trade goods for these 16 acres is more than was paid when Manhattan Island was sold. the way they always have. (Ibid. . . We are going to maintain our occupation. no fresh running water . HarperCollins. re-claim the land known as Alcatraz Island in the name of all American Indians by right of discovery. to be held in trust by the American Indian Affairs and by the Bureau of Caucasian Affairs to hold in perpetuity—as long as the sun shall rise and the rivers go down to the sea. William Morrow. . .) . To the Great White Father and All His People We. . but we know that land values have risen over the years. . . (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. Further. inadequate sanitation .) 725. We will give to the inhabitants of this island a portion of that land for their own.

Kendall-Hunt.) JANICE LaFOUNTAIN (Late t w e n t i e t h century) Crow Janice LaFountain specializes in Indian education. 730. One of the greatest strengths of American Indian cultures is the extended family. It is not uncommon to find grandparents. (Teaching the Native American. not suppress it. 1992. by Hap Gilliland. Kendall-Hunt. How devastating to think of a world in which everyone is the same. or even friends of the family rearing the Indian child. by Hap Gilliland. cousins. (Teaching the Native American. aunts. 731. 1992.JEANNE BEARCRANE (Mid to late twentieth century) Crow Jeanne Bearcrane is an authority on Indian education. We must learn to appreciate diversity. uncles.) .

1992.) Santee Sioux. As a tribal leader. . (Letter to the editor. Jr. Christian Century. 1994. January 21. Such as power-hungry leaders who have sold themselves out to g r e e d . Marty. JR. June 1-8. .JOHN LaVELLE (I960. quoted in "Borrowers and Wannabes: Impure Faith. (Commenting on young whites who attempt to copy Native American rituals. Spiritual genocide. 733. 732. Iowa John LaVelle directs the Center for Support and Protection of Indian Religions and Indigenous Traditions (Center for the SPIRIT). It has brought out the worst in people. Our tribe has been in a tumult because of the issue of gambling." by Martin E.. (Late twentieth century) Crow Creek Sioux Wallace Wells.) 196 . Lakota Times. .) WALLACE WELLS. is a tribal leader. I have never been bothered so much in my life by people who want to invest in our tribe—for gambling.

Knopf.FRED COYOTE (Mid to l a t e t w e n t i e t h century) Wailaki. Josephy. 1982. 734. by Alvin M.) 197 . California Fred Coyote is a writer and public speaker.1 will die an Indian! (Now That the Buffalo's Gone: A Study of Today's American Indians. Jr..

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Prayers. and Proverbs .Anonymous Quotations.

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ANONYMOUS Montagnais 735. the sermon today is do not call yourselves "tribes" and your land "reservations. 1988. Landsman. (Describing the first sight of a French ship.) ANONYMOUS Cherokee 736.) 201 ." Stand on your own two feet and insist that you are a NATION and that your land is your TERRITORY. by Gail H. Boys and girls. After Columbus: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America. by James Axtell. Oxford University Press. University of New Mexico Press. 1988. A moving island. (Sovereignty and Symbol.

Howard.) 202 . and blankets from the white men. somehow to learn and practice self-support. until you can no longer do without them. you have forgotten the customs and traditions of your forefathers. (Ibid.. as they did. lakes.v. and the stone-pointed lances. Why do you suffer the white man to dwell among you. The account was used by Pontiac (q. Fling all these things away. which turns you into fools. My children. Why do you not clothe yourselves in skins. and all things else. the trees.ANONYMOUS An anonymous student of Carlisle Indian School. and what is worse you have drunk the poison firewater. kettles. by Albert Britt. I am the Maker of heaven and earth. 1907. knives. you must do my will. McGraw-Hill. and use the bows and arrows. 1938. Worthington & Co. (Ibid. The land on which you live I have made for you and not for others. 737. rivers. which they used? You have bought guns.) 740.) to spur other tribes to join in a war against the whites.) ANONYMOUS Delaware A Delaware medicine man reported what he had been told at the top of a magic mountain by the Master of Life. Why cannot my people be more independent? Why can they not take care of themselves? Why is it necessary to throw meat to them as to dogs? Surely the best way is for all the children. 738. live as your wise forefathers lived before you. I am the Maker of mankind. and because I love you. (My Life and Personal Experiences among Our Hostile Indians. (Great Indian Chiefs. by Oliver O.) 739.

and swift in his course as the noble. and his name shall be known beyond the lakes. and dark as the blackbird that floats through the air.) 203 . as the hawk. his hair is flowing.ANONYMOUS Mohawk 741. My love is tall and graceful as the young pine waving on the hill. by Gail H. Schoolcraft. his heart. of earth. Ah. 1988. repeating the same. stately deer. my voice shall be heard. 5. both piercing and bright." 742. ye spirits! of water. shall cause it to swell in the breadth of the wind. and echo. We shall resist by every means any suggestion. (Ibid. any violation of the treaties..) 744. and me. and encroachment and oppression. vol. which never misses its prey. it is fearless and great. . like the eagle's. His eyes. any usurpation of our sovereignty. (Information Respecting the History of the Indian Tribes of the United States. (Ibid. and his arm it is strong in the fight. any disturbance of our people in the free use and enjoyment of our land. Landsman. and of sky.) 745.) 743. and his fame shall be spread throughout the land. while I sing in his praise. it shall ring through the sky. University of New Mexico Press. by Henry R.) ANONYMOUS Ojibway "The Maiden to the Brave. (Ibid. (Sovereignty and Symbol. His arm is as sure in the fight and chase. as this bow made of iron-wood which he easily bends. 1857.

by Charles Hamilton. . Awake! awake! my beloved. I lose the way of smiling when you are not near. beloved. Awake! awake! wonderful fawn-eyed One. the shadows of clouds darken. (Path of the Rainbow. as flowers that drink dew.S. cited in Cry of the Thunderbird." 746. and what is still better. dancing. dancing before the Wind-spirit in the moon of strawberries. We believe our right to our soil and our government. which is better than the old life so long led by our race in the past.) ANONYMOUS Creek 749. your breath is their fragrance at evening in the moon-of-falling-leaf. which I believe would be the greatest benefit of all. commission investigating the potential removal of . (Ibid. christianized. would be safer if all our race were united together here. Earth smiles—the waters smile—even the sky-of-clouds smiles—but I. That is my earnest wish.) 747. 1972. The breath of your mouth is the fragrance of the flowers in the morning.ANONYMOUS Ojibway "The Brave to the Maiden. a branch it is. University of Oklahoma Press. Then I think the rising generation could be educated and civilized. which is best suited to our peculiar necessities. (Statement of a U. When you are beside me my heart sings. Myself! behold me! blood of my beating heart. sky-treading bird of the prairie. translated by Charles Fenno Hoffman.) 748. I know I express the minds of our people when I give you this welcome to our life of a higher civilization. When you frown upon me. Awake! flower of the forest. (Ibid. This would be to our mutual benefit and good. then with your smiles comes the sun. . When you look upon me I am satisfied. my heart grows dark .

Jr. 751. very heavily on the traditional leaders and the holy men of the various tribes—to give them the direction they need so they can best help the Indian people.ANONYMOUS 205 Indian tribes to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). Our Indian Wards.) ANONYMOUS Sioux Anonymous graduate of Carlisle Indian School. We think that the American Indian Movement is not only an advocate for Indian people. (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. 1775 to the Present. 1880. Manypenny. 750. 1991. by George W. (Now That the Buffalo's Gone. HarperCollins. 1876.) . 1982. Clarke. It is the spiritual rebirth of our [Indian] nation. Knopf. Josephy. So now the American Indian Movement relies very. Most girls [who graduated from Carlisle] found their life's work in city kitchens and most boys who [did] not drift back to the reservation lost their identity in a shop.) ANONYMOUS A leader in the American Indian Movement. by Edward Lazarus.. by Alvin M. It carries the spirituality of our ancient people and of our elder people.

and pleasure. who can make many things from the buffalo for use in war. will be diseased prostitutes to get money for whoever owns them. Vigilantes from Tucson carried out the attack. 1871. and the horns can be used by the people. Our Indian Wards. Clarke. shall not make me break faith with you. an American army officer who had tried to warn the Indians of the impending civilian raid. 752. and I have been unable to defend them. (Ibid. and all they can do. What follows are the feelings of one of the chiefs. and our girls. [otherwise] our little boys will grow up as slaves. 1880.1 no longer want to live. It is so also with the man. All these things the buffalo offers to the ones who heed . The buffalo gives food from his flesh and clothing from his hide. Most Indians in my place would take a knife and cut his throat.ANONYMOUS Apache In 1871 hundreds of Indians were massacred at Camp Grant. The lieutenant was removed from this command and transferred to another post. in a language we know nothing of. but I will live to show these people that all they have done. by George W. bones. (Statement to Lieutenant Whitman. Manypenny. nor never shall see. sinew.) 753. to a great governor we never have. so that a skilled woman can make many different kinds of food and the family does not eat the same thing each day. The marrow. as soon as they are large enough. Get them [the Indians taken captive] back for us. hunting. so long as you will stand by us and defend us. Arizona.) ANONYMOUS Assiniboine 754. my women and children have been killed before my face.

. Choctaws. Then he said our spirits were there. 1961. England its black plague. where they make so many people unhappy. by Peter Nabokov. (New York Review of Books. the white men. and where they don't know what to do next. .) ANONYMOUS Psychiatrist Robert Coles reported this view of the moon landing. the Dawes Commission. was also known as the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes. too—and he was sure Indians were crying up there. while other lands were opened up for white settlement. . When the white man landed on the moon.) ANONYMOUS (Late nineteenth century) Oklahoma Creek. established in 1893 by President Grover Cleveland. Certain lands were allotted to each tribe. (Native American Testimony. I told him there weren't any Indians on the moon. Norman. Oklahoma The Dawes Commission. and hoping that soon they'd go back to their Earth. March 20. 1975. France its Jacobins. Kennedy. and Seminoles. Oklahoma. 755. but it was left for unfortunate Indian Territory to be afflicted with the worst scourge of the 19th century. Memphis had the yellow f e v e r . edited by Michael S. . Egypt had its locusts. . He said nothing for a long time. told to him by a young Indian boy. 756. Asiatic countries their cholera. Creeks. Viking Penguin. Chickasaws. Its job was to end tribal government among the Cherokees.) . (The Assiniboines. 1991. so stop crying.ANONYMOUS 207 the talks of the old men and the old women who know that the lives of the people and the growth of children depend on the buffalo. my father c r i e d . and trying to hide.

it is the voice of the deceased returning to tell of a coming catastrophe. but they ended the same way. In war. Mother. where all were related and therefore under- .v. The [Ghost Dance] visions varied at the start. University of Arizona Press. do come back! My little brother is crying for you— My father says so! 760. however.) what he remembered about it. (A Pima Past. The hooting of an owl is a bad omen. Mother. Here come the buffalo returning— Mother.) ANONYMOUS (Late 1880s) Pine Ridge Sioux Many years after the time of the Ghost Dance.ANONYMOUS Pima 757. hand me my sharp knife. 758. hand me my sharp knife. you should give the owl hoot as a sign to warn of enemy warriors hiding in the thicket. an oral historian told anthropologist Ella Deloria (q. 1974. do come back Mother. hand me my sharp knife! 759. Mother. like a chorus describing a great encampment of all the Dakotas who had ever lived. including some of the Ghost Dance songs. by Anna Moore Shaw.

cited in Now That the Buffalo's Gone: A Study of Today's American Indians. Reprinted by University of South Dakota Press. by Ella Deloria. Bearded men should come & take away their Country & that there should none of the original Indians be left. Other scholars point out that since the Native Americans had no written language. and there was no sorrow but only joy. Some scholars point out that such predictions were not recorded until after the Europeans arrived. Knopf.) (Editor's note: Historians disagree over similar predictions supposedly made before the Europeans came to the New World.. where the buffalo came eagerly to feed them. Our Arlington. Friendship Press. the predictions could not have been recorded any earlier. (Speaking of Indians. 1944.) ANONYMOUS Powhatan A shaman's prediction. In 1964 the Army Corps of Engineers moved its 300 Indian graves to a new location to make way for the floodwaters of a new dam.ANONYMOUS 209 stood each other. Charlottesville. (The Reverend John Clayton: His Scientific Writings and Other Related Papers. by Alvin M. edited by Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy Smith Berkeley.) ANONYMOUS Seneca 762. Josephy. within an hundred & fifty years. 1982.) . where relatives thronged out with happy laughter to greet the newcomer. 761.. 1965. Jr. Va. (Referring to an Indian cemetery in Pennsylvania.

ANONYMOUS Shoshone Describing a meeting with members of the Lewis and Clark expedition in the northern Rockies in about 1805. (Ibid. fairer than ourselves.) 210 .. again overwhelmed with fear. (Ibid. and gave them many things that had not existed before even in their dreams or imaginations. the account was given to a fur trader named Warren Ferris in 1831. and which sometimes showed us our own faces. Many of our people were now exceedingly terrified. A. and clothed with skins unknown to us.) 767. by W. Phillips. 1940. convinced us that it was best to conciliate if possible the favor of a people so terribly armed. They gave us things like solid water. who treated them with great kindness. They were unlike any people hitherto seen. for we soon discovered that they were in possession of the identical thunder and lightning [firearms] that had proved in the hands of our foes so fatal to our happiness. . Our beloved chief. The Old West Publishing Company. instead of an overwhelming force of their enemies. . . We thought them the children of the Great Spirit.) 766. But we w e r e . (Ibid. This opinion was strengthened by a request they made for us to go and meet their friends. This state of tranquil happiness was interrupted by the unexpected arrival of two strangers. and coming jointly to destroy us. (Life in the Rocky Mountains. .) 764. 763. Ferris and edited by Paul C.) 765. [He] induced most of our warriors to follow him and accompany the strangers to their camp. they found. a few strangers like the two already with them. and who might protect us. (Ibid. . Nothing could equal our wonder and delight. which were sometimes brilliant as the sun. Upon arriving at the strangers encampment. making no doubt but that they [the white strangers] were leagued with our enemies the Blackfeet. .

This was the response of one of the chiefs. 1991. 1775 to the Present.ANONYMOUS Spokane In the late 1890s. by Edward Lazarus. the Black Hills the most. if we would move to this place. . We came to this place and gave up our old lands. HarperCollins.) 770. on account of their color. When we were on our old reservation there came to us men from the government. seed. will we not be treated this way again? (Spokane (Wash.) Spokesman-Review. they would give us each a house. or Black Hills. perhaps. 768. (Ibid. They told us that. If we do as you say. who spoke as you have spoken. We have no houses and we have no wagons. October 31. the Spokanes were asked by the government to move to a new reservation. wagon and harness. The slopes and peaks were so heavily wooded with dark pines that from a distance the mountains actually looked black. In the wooden recesses were numberless springs of pure water and numerous small lakes.) 771. 1897. . The [Teton] named these hills the Sapa. Of all our domain. According to a tribal legend these hills were a reclining female figure from whose breasts flowed life-giving forces and to them the [Teton] went as a child to its mother's arms. we loved.) 211 .) ANONYMOUS Teton 769. They talked well and we believed them. (Ibid. They told us that we would be treated r i g h t . and the government has given us nothing. . There were wood and game in abundance and shelter from the storms of the plains. We gave up all that we had. (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. fence.

and no one will want to marry you again.) 775. do not make an idol of your wife. My son. my son. work for him. Steel yourself against them. 1916.) 774. I warn you against the words of women. after a while she will never let you go to any feast at all. this also I will tell you. All the other women will know of this." 776. if you keep on listening to your wife. The more you worship her. If you marry a man and you want to be certain of always retaining him. If you ever get married. You thought too much of a woman and in worshiping her you humbled yourself.ANONYMOUS Winnebago "What Every Young Man Should Know/' 772. and as a consequence she has been taken away from you. My son. Everyone will consider you a very bad man. After a while you will become so jealous of your wife that she will leave you and run away. Women can never be watched. With work you will always be able to retain your . For these reasons. All your relatives will scold you and your own sisters will think little of you. the more will she want to be worshipped. You yourself will be to blame for this. my son. For if you do not do so you will find yourself different from other men. ("The Winnebago Tribe." a chapter by Paul Radin in the 37th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. (Ibid. (Ibid.) 773. If you try to watch them you will merely show your jealousy and your female relatives will also be jealous. It is not good to be enslaved by a woman.) ANONYMOUS Winnebago "What Every Young Woman Should Know. (Ibid.

Then your parents-in-law will tell your husband that their daughter-in-law is acting nicely to them. 1959.) 777. Don't hurt me. Prentice-Hall. Lead a chaste life. If. I am sore. a chapter by Paul Radin. and the world will ridicule her. by Dorothy Lee. If you do not listen to what I am telling you and you are unfaithful to your husband. Let your husband likewise take care of your parents. The tree says. for they depend on him. kill everything. (Ibid.) ANONYMOUS Wintu 781." But they chop it down and cut it up. 1916. (Ibid. (Ibid. We don't chop down the trees. Whatever he tells you to do. Kindness will be returned to you if you obey your husband. If a wife has no real interest in her husband's welfare and possessions she will bestow on him no more than any other woman. Remain faithful to your husband. all the men will jeer at you.) 780. (Ibid. 37th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Your parents were instrumental in getting you your husband. for he will treat you in the same manner. They will say whatever they wish to [and no one will interfere].) 778. We only use dead wood. you pay more attention to your husband than to your parents. pull down the trees. your parents will leave you. so remember that they expect some recompense for it. If you are good-mannered you will be placed in charge of the home at which you happen to be visiting. Do not act as though you are married to a number of men at the same time. But the white people plow up the ground. When you visit your husband's people do not go around with a haughty air or act as if you considered yourself far above them. (The Winnebago Tribe.) . If you do your work to the satisfaction of your husband. "Don't. Try to get them to like you. (Freedom and Culture. do it. he will never leave you.) 779. on the other hand. Do not act haughty to your husband.ANONYMOUS 213 hold on men. as likewise for the fact that they raised you.

784. Berkhofer. for they were all in the d a r k .) ANONYMOUS Wyandot The impact of missionaries is indicated in this report of a dream by a Wyandot woman shortly after a prayer meeting. That hurts them. . and from the foot of this pole there were two paths: one was a broad road. and on the top of that pole there was a white child fastened and it gave light to all around in a circle. The spirit of the land hates them [the white people]. and dreamed that I s a w . . I lay down to sleep. . . They saw up the trees. "You cannot go in now. the man spoke to me and said. but to fight my . Everywhere the white man has touched it.) PRAYER Anonymous 785. Jr.. the other was a narrow one.) 783.. . University of Kentucky Press. The Indians never hurt anything. .1 seek strength. that if they want to get to heaven they must take this narrow road. How can the spirit of the earth like the white man? ." (History of the Wyandot Mission. and had a great desire to go in. for there is no other that leads here. . but the white people destroy all. and it led down hill. When I came up to the gate.214 ANONYMOUS 782. and led up a hill. . (Ibid. I heard in that house [at the top of the hill] the most delightful singing I ever heard before. a high pole set in the ground. it is sore. . I went. . after being at m e e t i n g . by Finley. by Robert F. . (Ibid. 1965. . not to be greater than my brother. One night. At the foot of the pole stood the missionary calling the Indians to come into the light. You must go back and tell all your nation. . cited in Salvation and the Savage. .

Come snow in plenty. edited by Patrick O'Connor. that water may be abundant when summer comes. War Resisters League. that the planting may yield abundance. (The Prayers of Man. 1974.) PRAYER Pueblos 787. edited by Patrick O'Connor. 1961. Give me what I need. diNola. Grant me thy aid. (The Prayers of Man. 1961. have pity on me—for I am poor. Hasten clouds from the four world quarters. compiled by Alfonso M. Ivan Obolensky. Let me win against my enemies. That I might steal many horses. cover the fields. Ivan Obolensky.) PRAYER Osage 786. compiled by Alfonso M. diNola. Wakanda.PRAYER 215 greatest enemy—myself. (As Long as the Rivers Shall Flow.) . Come ice.

compiled by Alfonso M. friends. Ivan Obolensky.) PRAYER Great Plains Indians 789. compiled by Alfonso M. May our trails lie straight and level before us. edited by Patrick O'Connor. We are all your children and ask these things with good hearts.) PROVERB Cheyenne 790. Great Spirit! bless our children. I will also give you a blanket if you grant that I return whole and well to my fireside after having killed a Pawnee. Then it is done. 1961. 1961. A nation is not conquered until the hearts of its women are on the ground. Ivan Obolensky. no matter how brave its warriors nor how . O Wakanda. and visitors through a happy life. Let us live to be old. I promise thee a calico shirt and a dress. (The Prayers of Man. (The Prayers of Man. diNola. give us peace and refreshing sleep. edited by Patrick O'Connor. Morning Star! when you look down upon us. diNola.PRAYER Sioux 788.

PROVERB

217

strong their weapons. (Lakota Woman, by Mary Crow Dog and Richard Erdoes, Grove Weidenfeld, 1990.)

PROVERB
Sioux

791. A beautiful tepee is like a good mother. She hugs her children to her and protects them from heat and cold, storm and rain. (Lakota Woman, by Mary Crow Dog and Richard Erdoes, Grove Weidenfeld, 1990.)

PROVERB

792. You cannot judge another person until you have walked a mile in his moccasins. (Traditional.)

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Indexes

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Author Index

The author index includes groups (for example, "Indians of All Tribes" and the National Council of the Cherokee Nation) as well as individuals. Biographical or background information about an author can be found in the paragraph immediately preceding that author's first quotation. All numbers refer to quote numbers. Abieta, Andy, 505 Adams, Henry, 652-654 Ahkcah, Sam, 447-448 Albert, Daisy, 531 Alexie, Sherman, 719 Allen, Paula Gunn, 612-614 American Horse, 289-292 Anonymous, 735-784 As-Go-Ye-Wat-Ha. See Red Jacket Baldwin, George, 700-701 Ballard, Louis W., 557 Banks, Dennis, 600-606 Barnes, Jim, 561 Bearcrane, Jeanne, 730 Bedagi. See Big Thunder Bellecourt, Vernon, 589 Bent, George, 297-300 Big Eagle, 156-160 Big Elk, 76 Big Thunder, 419 Black Elk, 357-360 Blackfoot, 187-188 Black Hawk, 49-58 Black Kettle, 134-140 Blatchford, Herbert, 536 Bonaparte, Darren, 587-588 Bonnin, Gertrude Simmons, 407^411 Boudinot, Elias, 131-133 Brave Bird, Mary, 705-716 Bronson, Ruth Muskrat, 449-451 Bruce, Louis R., 467 Buck Watie. See Boudinot, Elias Bull Bear, 363-364 Burnette, Robert, 509-513 Calf Robe, Ben, 457 Campbell, Ben Nighthorse, 562-568 Canoe, Lorraine, 558-560 Captain Jack, 284-287

Luther. 310-311 Earthboy. 434-437 Deloria. Lewis. See Captain Jack Krentpoos. Susette. 322 The Four Bears. 110-112 Chisholm. 288 Garry. Mary Crowfoot. 532 Dockstader. Vernon. John.. 272-277 Chiksika. See Brave Bird. 499-502 Hayward. 523 Crazy Horse. 670-674 Haozous. 420-421 Fox. 153 Clearwater. 525 Dull Knife. 551-556 Hayes. Janice. Janet Campbell. 698-699 Harris. 350 Kicking Bird. Edward. 615 Flying Hawk. 444 Joseph. 422-427 Keedah. John. Carl. 473 Keokuk. Leonard. See Old Tassel Coyote. Louise. 116-117 Kicking Bear. Charles A. Baptiste. 478-481 "Indians of All Tribes. 466 Cooweescoowe.. William Shorey. 675-677 Hollow Horn. Vine. Michael. Ella. 323 LaFountain. David L. 330-333 LaFlesche. 445-446 Dillion.222 Castillo. Sandra J." 723-729 Inter-Tribal Meeting. Larry. Napoleon B. 456 Houser. 648-650 Harjo. 656-658 Echohawk. 125-126 Four Guns.. 486-489 Dorris.. Dan. Harriett Starleaf. 309 Downing.. 458-460 Hale. See Chief Joseph Kah-nung-cla-geh. 241-244 Giago. 396-398 Kaywaykla. 506 Cochise. 702-704 Flute. 720-722 Deloria. 218-219 Dragging-Canoe. Sr. See Sequoya Good. Linda. 734 Crawford. 731 LaVelle. James. 646-647 Johnson. Teddy. 197 Cupp. See Ross.. 390-395 Gorman. 353-355 DeGennaro.. 687-697 Erdrich. Jerry. 349 Ishi. Sr. Jr.. 569-583 Delshay. 25-29 Draper. 161-163 Little Big Man. Francis. 529 Eastman. 524 Keeler.. Gaetana. 11-13 Coodey. Robert. 378 . Peter. 667-669 Doublehead. Eugene R.. Jim. 655 AUTHOR INDEX Gall. William W. LaDonna. 169-173 Eagle Wing. Joy. Lori. 590-593 Gist. George. See Major Ridge Katchongva. John Cornplanter. Garry Geronimo. Richard A. John. Charles. 377 Goodbird. Ira. 507-508 Curtis. 356 Jacobs. Mary. 337-341 Echohawk. 270-271 Dempsey. Allan. See Captain Jack Kushiway. Wilson. 718 Iron Shell. 732 Lion Bear. 678-679 Hogan. 154 Cooper. 293-296 Crow Dog. 717 Chief Joseph. Jack. 468-472 Gumbs. Jesse. 7 Kintpuash. Tim. 30-31 Corn Tassel. See Spokane. 178-182 Conassatego. 307-308 LaFlesche. Fred. 550 Crow Dog. 269 King Philip. Frederick.

Wilbur. 585-586 Marks. 594-597 Montezuma. See Seattle Obeale. Carlos. 99-109 Ross. 20-24 Lyons. 281-283 Parker. Will. 177 Pizi. Janet. 474 Pierce. 18-19 Posey. 118-121 Picotte. 680-682 Ross. Simon. Maris Bryant. 37-42 Reifel.. Daniel. 622-630a Meninock. 342-343 Peltier. Luther. John. Charles A. 428 . John. 461-465 Rogers. 247-252 Seattle. 253-254 Rose. 71-75 Riegert. William. 4-6 Prayers. 176 Pontiac. 78-81 Means. Harriett. 608-610 Ortiz. 659-663 Maracle. 401-406 Powhatan. John. Russell. Susan LaFlesche. Roxanne Dunbar. Emma. 533-535 Robles. Tim Nicholas. 334-335 Standing Elk. Old Tassel. 477 Martin. 320-321 Pokagon. 384-389 Standing Buffalo. 145-149 Ridge. Wendy. 87-98 Sequoya. 259-268 Small. 519-522 Mankiller. Anna Moore. 530 Mclntosh. 616-618 Smohalla. 44-48 223 Red Cloud. 77 Shaw. 231-238 Standing Bear. N. Ely. 379-383 National Council. See Cornplanter Ohiyesa. 127-130 Spokane. Scott. 361-362 Pierce. 43 Mohawk. 198-210 Red Dog. 32-36 Logan. 429-431 Red Iron. 482-483 Rogers. William P. 189-191 Palaneapope. Wilma. 664 Momaday.. Garry. 221 Ridge. 142-144 Little Hill. Thomas. 790-792 Pushmataha. Major. 619-621 Pegg. Joseph. 14-17 Oochalata. See Shabonee Shabonee. 438-442 Mills. 371 Stands in Timber. 255-258 Polatkin. Alexander. 167-168 Satanta. Mark. 183-186 Speckled Snake. Simon. 366-370 Satank. Oren R. 785-789 Proverbs. Leslie. John Rollin. 239-240 Nawica Kjici. 312 Peaches. 346-348 Little Raven. 141 Ouray the Arrow. Peter. 452-454 Silko. John. 122-124 Ortiz. 344-345 Opothleyoholo. Ben. 683-686 Sitting Bull. Billy. Lillian Valenzuela. 222-230 Parker. 607 Minavavana. See Giago. Gail. 211-217 Standing Bear. 278-280 Red Jacket. 412-418 Roman Nose. 651 Petalesharo. Quanah. Phillip. 192-196 Little Turtle. 455 Ridge. 174-175 Spotted Tail. John. See Gall Plenty-Coups. 537-549 MacDonald. 514-517 McCloud. See Eastman. 637-642 Osceola. Leonard. 69-70 Shabbona. 365 Red Fox. 503-504 Noah.AUTHOR INDEX Little Crow.

82-86 Welch. Shirley Black Stone. 301-305 Wooden Leg. 665-666 Warren. David C . 399^00 Taoyateduta. 373 White Bird. See Little Crow Tashunka Witko.. James.. John Rollin Yellow Wolf. 598-599 Walking Buffalo. 636 Wetatonmi. Richard. Dick. Jake L. Jack. Jr. See Bonnin. Elizabeth A. 643-645 Weston. Grace. W. 631 Wells. Gerald. Jim. 313-319 Vasquez. 485 Tatanga Mani.224 Sun Bear.. 443 TallMountain. 113-115 Thorn. 336 Yellow Bird. 374-376 Zitkala-Sa. 584 Young-Man-Afraid. Clyde. 496-498 Thorpe. 484 Vizenor. See Crazy Horse Tecumseh. See Ridge. 164-166 Wilson. William. 59-67 Teedyuscung. Wallace. Mary. John Weatherford. 526-528 Sweet Medicine. William. Joseph C . 220 Warrior. Jr. 518 Wild Cat. 490-495 AUTHOR INDEX Washakie. 632-635 Wells. Annie Dodge. 155 Whitecrow.. 245-246 Two Moon. 8-9 Talayesva. 351-352 Wovoka. Melvin. 475-476 Wayquahgishig. Don C . 150-152 Washakie. See Rogers.. 611 Thorpe. 1-3 Tahajadoris. See Wovoka Winnemucca. Gertrude Simmons . 10 Ten Bears. 432-433 Tuskeneah. Jr. Severt. 733 West. Sarah. 324-329 Young Bear. 372 Wauneka. See Tatanga Mani Warren.

343 Abenakis (Tahajadoris). 485 Albany (L. or pp. All other numbers refer to quote numbers. p." as well as under the key words "fight" and "sun. 776-780 Afterlife (William Warren). 176 Agreement (Ouray the Arrow). "From where the sun now stands. Lyons). 543-544 Abundance (Black Hawk). 223-224. only one way to achieve. 189 Air Force (Phillip Martin). 6 (bio). 723-729. 449-451 (Mary TallMountain). Chief Joseph's famous quotation. 220 Agents (Ely Parker). For example. more than suitable for an Indian reservation." can be located under the subject "surrender. p. Alaska is my talisman. 647 Alcatraz ("Indians of All Tribes").Subject and Key Word Index All quotations are listed by subject matter. 662 Alcohol . Many may also be found by a key word in the quotation. David Jacobs)." Page numbers are preceded by p. 728 (Wilma Mankiller). 9 Aboriginal history (Oren R. Abandonment (Thomas Pegg). Scott Momaday). 226 Aging (Polatkin). 162 (bio) Achieve (Carlos Montezuma). 49 Academy of American Poets (N. I will fight no more forever. 380 Advice to Young Men (Anonymous Winnebago). 143 (bio) Alaska (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). p. 772-775 Advice to Young Women (Anonymous Winnebago). agreement the buffalo makes with his hunters.

encompasses both ugliness and beauty. 563 Ancestors (Will Rogers). Ross). Lyons). 589 (Mary Brave Bird). Anthropologists have invented culture. to get us to assimilate. reflect the soul of its creator. we stand between the mountain and the ant. 236 Alphabet (Sequoya). 170 (bio) American Indian Telecommunications (George Baldwin). art should . 743 Armies (Shabonee). 412-414 Ancestry (Jack Dempsey). 762 Arm (Anonymous Ojibway). p. 131 (bio) Art (Frederick Dockstader). Jr. 69 Animals (Sweet Medicine). 468-172. Jr. . 169 (bio) American Indian Civil Rights Act (Vine Deloria. . . 670 Assimilation (Anonymous Carlisle Graduate). reality in my art . 583 American Indian Movement (AIM) (Anonymous AIM Leader).226 (Charles Curtis). 77 Arms (Pontiac). 83 Annuity distribution SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (John Ridge). 513 Allocation (Daniel Peaches).). p. 650 (Allan Houser). 620 (Vine Deloria. 598 Arizona (Anonymous Apache). p. Our Arlington. . 210 (bio) (Harriett Pierce). 152 (bio) (Russell Means). like the sands of the sea. 750 (Anonymous Creek). 206 (bio) (Geronimo). p. Indian art is dying out. 146-147 Ant (Oren R. 353 Alcoholism (Mary Brave Bird). like catching a wild animal and taming it.). 10 (bio) Americans for Indian Opportunity (LaDonna Harris). p. p. p. p. 481 Ashes (Wild Cat). p. 152 (bio) Anasazi (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 486-489 (Carl Gorman). p. p. 368 Arlington (Anonymous Seneca). government's intention . 579 Almighty (Standing Bear). 142 (bio) American Revolution (Cornplanter). 164 (bio) (Vernon Bellecourt). 2 Animate (William Weatherford). 165 Assimilate (Janet Campbell Hale). his arm is strong in the fight. the ashes of my kindred. . 751 (Dennis Banks). the Almighty looks down on me. 538 Anthropologists (Gerald Vizenor). 445 Animal (Sequoya). 11 (bio) (Dragging-Canoe). . 19 Army Corps of Engineers (Anonymous Seneca). . The armies of the whites are . . I cannot animate the dead. 427 Arkansas (William P. p. 708 (Leonard Crow Dog). 471 (Robert Haozous). 241 (Kaywaykla). 69-70 American Indian Anti-Defamation Council (Russell Means). 188 (bio) American Indians and Friends (Robert Burnette). 648. 712 (Robert Burnette). 749 .

. 766 Blackfeet Confederacy (Crowfoot). 19 Association on American Indian Affairs (Jerry Flute). good intentions of a benevolent government. named . . 371 (Severt Young Bear). 583 Black Hawk War (Black Hawk). 8 Banks. 103 (bio) (Spotted Tail). Jr. 325 Bill of Rights (Vine Deloria. 584 Black Hills Sioux Nation Council (Peter Dillon). p. these Black Hills were a reclining female figure. 177 Awake (Anonymous Ojibway). 582. 507 Believe (Black Kettle). Jr. 509 Better Off (Vine Deloria. 301 Audience (Louise Erdrich). my first audience . Ruth (Ella Deloria). Ross). 377 (Vine Deloria. walking in beauty. 76 (bio) Bear Tribe Medicine Society (Sun Bear). p. p. Dennis (Russell Means). never to drop the axe. 410 Betrayal (Robert Burnette). 140 Benders gang (William P. . 146 (bio) Beauty (Lori Cupp). on account of their color. 85 (Ira Hayes). hard .). 769. . I cannot accept money for the Black Hills. p. 752 (George Bent). 657 (Napoleon B. . . is American Indians. 17 (bio) Black Hills (Anonymous Teton). 748 Axe (Tahajadoris). 156 (John Echohawk). . 724 Battle (Black Hawk). 298 (Logan). is never sated. hopes I should be killed in Battle. 579 (Little Big Man).). 771 (Baptiste Good). 166 Beadwork (LaDonna Harris). to believe white men. 21 (Sarah Winnemucca). 552 Bear Paw Mountains 227 (Chief Joseph). p. . we loved . this continent a lot better off. . 367 Benedict. wonted avarice . the Black Hills the most. p. 168 (bio) Athlete (Jim Thorpe). Johnson). p.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Big Eagle).). 148 (bio) Blackfeet (Anonymous Shoshone). 169-170 (bio) Barbed-wire mind (Leonard Crow Dog). 550 Bargaining power ("Indians of All Tribes") only bargaining power that we have. . 378 (Red Dog). pp. 703 Avarice (Maris Bryant Pierce). 432 Atrocities (American Horse). greatest athlete in the world. 155 (Yellow Wolf). Jr. 56 Battle Tactics (William Weatherford). Awake! Awake! my beloved. We don't sit around doing beadwork. 217 (Standing Elk). 499-500 (Wild Cat). 444 Assistance (Pontiac). p. 213. 55 (bio) . 576 Big Hole River (White Bird). 121 (bio) Benevolent (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). 289-292 (Anonymous Apache). 770.

S. to become a great brave. 99 (bio) (Luther Standing Bear). 259 Breath (Ten Bears). 47 Brains SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Sarah Winnemucca). . California offered bounties for dead Indians.S. I want no blood on my land. . 518 Brothers (Russell Means). 454 (Sitting Bull). p. 363. 101 (bio) (Kicking Bear).). there runs not a drop of my blood. the buffalo is our money. 299 Blind (Kushiway). the red men became like the buffalo. our country . we other Indians . p. p. ever drew bow against the United States. p. Whitecrow. 113 Brother (Cornplanter). 308 Blood (Lion Bear). Eastman). 83 (bio). 306 Brave (Luther Standing Bear). we are all brothers. 205 (Spokane Garry). 114 Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show (Black Elk). same as the whites. troops did. 80 (Ouray the Arrow). the Great Spirit's book which is the whole of his creation. 115 Boas. . Jr. 60 (Ten Bears). give up the buffalo for the sheep. 297. 627 Buffalo (Anonymous Assiniboine). . make sure you are born white and male. ever try skinning a buffalo. Franz (Ella Deloria). 42 (bio) Black Kettle (George Bent). p. The buffalo gives food . 483 Bow (Pushmataha). . . are blind. 754 (Anonymous Sioux). 30 Brotherhood (Jake L. and clothing. 387 Bravery (Anna Moore Shaw). 136 (Bull Bear). 121 (bio) Bones (Red Iron). here come the buffalo returning. . 705 (Cochise). 94 (bio) Boudinot. 191 (Standing Buffalo). . 658 . the blood is red. pp. wherever the buffalo range. make the snow red with the blood of the white man. trail of blood. 109 (bio) (Sitting Bull). 178 Boston University (Charles A. p. . 162 (Logan). when you were young and weak. 221 Boundaries (Little Turtle). 279 Book (Tatanga Mani). 399 Born (Mary Brave Bird). 268 Bulldozers (John Echohawk). 72 (bio). we will leave our bones on the ground. . where everything drew a free breath. I used to call you brother. U. p. none . 22 (Red Cloud). forest service bulldozers accomplish . buffalo . . 35 Bounties (Lillian Valenzuela Robles). 175 (Tecumseh). we are born like the animals. . what U. 758 (Black Kettle). are our cattle. Elias (John Rollin Ridge). you have brains. 364 (William Mclntosh). stain the earth red with their blood. if we cut ourselves. 334 (Ten Bears).228 Blackfoot (Washakie). we must live near the buffalo.

727 Bureau of Indian Affairs (Louis R. . 229 (Captain Jack). 762 Centaur (Wendy Rose). . 173 Butchered (Roman Nose). 664 Cats (Mary Brave Bird). p. cession of our possessory rights in Georgia. 517 (Russell Means). like those who butchered. David Jacobs). 253 California State University at Long Beach (Lillian Valenzuela Robles). 220 Bury (Doublehead). 108 (bio). General E. [the centaur reflects] my hybrid status. Bruce). 510 (Sandra J. 71 (bio) . 592 Bureau of Caucasian Affairs ("Indians of All Tribes"). 629 Cass. bureaucracy out of control.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Bum (James Welch). .S. Lewis (John Ross). Jimmy (Russell Means). the Cherokee. will not let us keep oland] . sufficient to bury our dead. we will butcher each other. 308 Cherokee Phoenix (Elias Boudinot). 119 (bio) Carlisle School (Luther Standing Bear). 752 Care (Wild Cat). 496 Bureaucracy (Clyde Warrior). by doing away with the [BIA] you stop making . 284 Captives (Anonymous Apache). 178 (bio) (Phillip Martin). pp. 307 (Spotted Tail). the identity offered to the Indian was and remains a Catch-22. 165 (bio) (Carlos Montezuma). 494 Burial (William Warren). 100 Change (Sweet Medicine). we are like cats.R. p. 79 (bio). . p. p. 206 (bio). p. p. pp. 109 (bio) Carter. p. . 682 Center for Support and Protection of Indian Religions and Indigenous Traditions (John LaVelle). 1-3 (Grace Thorpe). 309 Butcher (Dull Knife). 85 (bio). 154 (bio) Cherokee (Kushiway). only one tribe that knows much . take care of me. p. . 165 Carlisle (Anonymous Carlisle Graduate). 752 Canada (L. 498 Chariton Review Press (Jim Barnes). 216 (Jim Thorpe). 188 (bio) Camp Grant Massacre (Anonymous Apache). 99 Catch-22 (John Mohawk). 383 (Ben Reifel). 36 (bio) Chicago (Simon Pokagon). Fox). 706 Cemetery (Anonymous Seneca). 647 (Mark Maracle). 169-170 (bio) (Billy Mills). 482 California University at Monterey Bay (George Baldwin). . useless beings. 586 Canby. soldiers look . p. 129-130 (bio) (Robert Burnette). never give a bum an even break. p. p. 196 (bio) Cession (John Ross). . 126-127 (bio) (Gail Small). 750 (Kushiway). 616 (Grace Thorpe). 634 Bumper Stickers (Tim Giago). p. p. pp.

and everything else. 622 (N. 609 (Leonard Peltier). we do not want your civilization. 749 Claim (Peter MacDonald). 452 Church (Lorraine Canoe). Sr. 96 (bio). 129-130 (bio) . 293 Civilized (Anonymous Creek). what life we can make for our children. 146 (bio) (Wilson Keedah. 83 (bio) (Black Kettle). p. 520 Cleaned out (Black Kettle). rising generation could be educated and civilized. . p. 562564 (Red Fox). p. p. when we all have the same color of skin. Sr. p. Christopher (John Echohawk). p. 207 (bio) Colonialism (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). 457 (Russell Means). . 153 Chivington. Lyons). p. . the power of the world always works in circles. 618 Code talkers (Eugene R. we must claim what is ours. 269 Chiefs (Standing Buffalo). not for Christians. throw off the garments of civilization. p. p. Christians see themselves as . 544 Christians (Tatanga Mani). 342-343 (John Ross). 33 (bio) (Thomas Pegg). party of civilization. p. 140 Cleanliness (Susan LaFlesche Picotte). a special creation. 221 (Sarah Winnemucca). 651 Color (Ben Calf Rove). 323 (John Rollin Ridge). 106 (bio) (White Bird). Crawford). 361 Co-existence impossibility (Opothleyoholo). Columbus makes Hitler look like a juvenile delinquent. 543 (Russell Means). I am a chief no more. 109 Civilization (Old Tassel). 15 (Susette LaFlesche). 27 (bio). we are the chiefs of the plains. 303 SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Crazy Horse). 656 (Oren R. 357 Civil War (Opothleyoholo). 134 Chosen People (Oren R. p. Scott Momaday). horses.). 145 (bio) (Peter MacDonald). 144 (bio) Coles. 147 (bio) (Wetatonmi). Bruce). the church is a crutch. cleaned out our lodges. 595 (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 430 Commissioner of Indian Affairs (Louis R. . Robert (Anonymous Indian Boy). Columbus brought European religious intolerance. 44 (bio) (Yellow Wolf). tribal dances . 145 (bio) (Teddy Draper. Lyons). 687 Chisholm Trail (Jesse Chisholm). p.230 Chief Joseph (Jim Earthboy). p. 630 Columbus. Colonel John (George Bent). 560 Circles (Black Elk).) p. 91 (bio) Chief (Kicking Bird). 105-108. 400 (Anna Moore Shaw). 264 Chinook (Larry Echohawk). 122 Coal mining (Gail Small). 335 Children (Sitting Bull).

215 Cooperation (Satanta). but only the Great Spirit can count . 142 Coyotes (Tatanga Mani). 33 (bio) Connectedness (Lori Cupp). . you can count your money . 131 (bio) Corral tanding Bear). 3 Crazy Horse (Red Fox). 540-542 Compact of 1802 (Major Ridge). nobody makes coyotes behave like beavers. 118-119 (bio) (Sitting Bull). 40-41 (Sitting Bull). a nation is not conquered until the hearts of its women are on the ground. 590 Confederacy (John Ross). travel over the country and have no trouble. 438 Creator (John Stands in Timber). p. 260a Country (Little Raven). will cost us our lands. 579 Concentration Camp (Tim Giago). they get them to a corral. 20-21 Crime . too. a universal spiritual C. 496 Conversion (Anonymous Creek). p./ of the Western area. 508 Conquered (Cheyenne Proverb).). we have absolutely no continuity. the country was big enough for the white man and the Arapahos. 650 Continuity (Grace Thorpe). Lyons). 27 (bio). . . 157 Credo (Larry Echohawk). p. p. p. you will become crazy and will forget all that I am teaching. 80 (bio) Cowardice (Little Crow). 72 (bio) (Young-Man-Afraid). 749 (Anonymous Wyandot). 784 (Red Jacket). p. a conquered people has to take what the conqueror gives. . . to slaughter cattle .SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Ely Parker). . Michael (Logan). pp. 719 Cornplanter (Harriett Pierce). 271 Court of Indian Affairs (Gall). 428 Credit (Big Eagle). p. 400 Crazy (Sweet Medicine). the creator has made human beings' bodies . 268 (Spotted Tail). as he had made the earth. 790 Conqueror (Peter Dillon). . so-called // conquest . my art is contemporary because I live in the present. 73 Count (Sitting Bull). 192 Coping 231 (Sherman Alexie). our lives. 247 Cooper Union (Little Raven). . 233 Cost (Major Ridge). 109 (Thomas Pegg). 62 (bio). 532 Conquest (Frederick Dockstader). p. 105106. 222 Common Sense (Oren R. 106 (bio) Creation (Meninock). 696 Cresap. the blades of grass. 103. 72 Compensation (Vine Deloria. 96 (bio) Confederate Army (Opothleyoholo). 193 (Delshay). Jr. 487 Contemporary (Robert Haozous).

swift . 95 Days (Charles A. 326 Death Penalty (National Council). 82 (bio). 66 (Wetatonmi). 760 Dallas. 279 (Seattle). 100 (bio) (Crazy Horse). I have signed my death warrant. stately deer. . 75 Deception (Black Hawk). 651 Crook. . 42 (bio) Crow Dog. death . p. 76 (Red Cloud). 88 (bio). 239-240 Death Song (George Bent). 741 . Leonard (Mary Brave Bird). 673 Death (Paula Gunn Allen). 189-190 (bio) Cruel (Carl Gorman). Jr. George (Herbert Blatchford). no America without the death of an Indian. 315 (Will Rogers). p. people talking and crying. p. 99 (bio) Dakotas (Anonymous Sioux). we have a living culture. 182 (bio) Dawes Commission (Anonymous Creek). 118-119 (bio) (Sitting Bull). . pp.). 366-370 Criminals (Leonard Peltier). 296 (Vine Deloria. life of the Navajo is harsh and cruel. 722 Custer. "immediate and appalling/' 133 Dartmouth (Michael Dorris). do our best with the hand we've been dealt. as the noble. to stand and resist we are called criminals. 536 (Black Elk). Warren). Custer died for your sins. 209 (Red Iron). 97 Dealt (Janet Campbell Hale). Marie Pierce SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (David C. Ross). 377 (Red Fox). 763-767 Culture (Carl Gorman). 72 (bio) (John Stands in Timber). the invisible dead of my tribe. General George (Geronimo). 415 (Wilma Mankiller). 688-689 Danger (Elias Boudinot). 672 (Lorraine Canoe). 756 Day (Seattle). fear of death. 612 (Big Elk). 373 (Yellow Wolf). Eastman). 570 (Flying Hawk). p. everyone was crying even the warriors. p. p. p. . p. all days are God's. pp. 118 (bio) (Two Moon). p. 90 (bio) (Baptiste Good). 98 (Tecumseh). 337 Dead (Seattle). but a change of worlds. day and night cannot dwell together. 299 Death Warrant (Major Ridge). 742 Defiance (Anonymous Mohawk).232 (William P. 468 Crying (George Bent). 54 Deer (Anonymous Ojibway). 529 Cultural interaction (Anonymous Delaware). 300 (Jim Earthboy). there is danger. 242 Crow (Washakie). 665 Dams (Larry Echohawk). 740 (Anonymous Shoshone). 468-469 Qanet Campbell Hale). 558 (Gaetana DeGennaro). 663 (Wooden Leg). Death will come.

. not afraid to die. when we settle down. by right of discovery. 782 Destroyed (Tecumseh). 616 Disappear (Red Jacket). will we let ourselves be destroyed. . 65 Devil Water (Little Crow). . 760 Demagogues (John Ross). . 231 Differences (LaDonna Harris). . contribute our differences. 674 (Peter MacDonald). I wish to die in this land. wisdom comes in dreams. p. we shall disappear forever. 554 233 Dignity (Allan Houser). . like the rabbits when the hungry wolves hunt them. p. Alcatraz . 183 Dundy. 18 (Anonymous Wintu). 5 Discovery ("Indians of All Tribes"). . 691 Democratic Party (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). . 36 (Meninock). 219 Desolation (John Ross). claim . a people's dream died. strive for . Michael (Louise Erdrich). 143 Dog Soldiers (Bull Bear). white people destroy all. I will die an Indian. all dreams were thought to be from the spirits. . 439-440 Dogs (Little Crow). die with a silent throat. reaches the reservations. Ella (Anonymous Pine Ridge Sioux). . 65 Deloria. 241 (Little Crow). you will die. 108 Destroy (Pontiac). p. I mean to destroy the English. dare to dream great dreams. 725 Discrimination (Sherman Alexie). 454 (Standing Bear). 189 (bio). Dependence does not destroy sovereignty. Dreams . 731 Division of Labor (Little Turtle). like dogs in the Hot Moon. 734 (Geronimo). 478 Dime (Gail Small). 282 Diversity (Janice LaFountain). 172 (Fred Coyote). die in peace. 392 (Janet Campbell Hale). 719 (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). 103 (bio) Dorris. 287 (Dull Knife). 144 (Satanta). 378 (Osceola).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Little Big Man). only a dime of every dollar . 566567 Dependence (Lewis Downing). 248 (Anna Moore Shaw). 143 Die (Captain Jack). 101 Democratic National Convention (Larry Echohawk). we grow pale and die. dignity. we must learn to appreciate diversity. 208 (bio). 451 Disease (Palaneapope). Judge Elmer . better to die fighting. 38 Disarmament (Powhatan). speak to the individual. 522 (Smohalla). 703 Dream (Black Elk). 360 Dreams (Edward Goodbird). 141 (Tecumseh).

456 (Oren R. 389 (Anonymous Wintu). good for the skin to touch the earth. 474 (Crazy Horse). 83 Encampment (Anonymous Sioux). Bruce). 294 (Hollow Horn). 687-690 (Harriett Starleaf Gumbs). 124 (John Rogers). 216-217 (Annie Dodge Wauneka). 408 (John Castillo). 251 (Yellow Wolf). 760 Encroachment (Tuskeneah). 781-782. 329 Environmental Justice (Gail Small). 11-13 (Tim Giago).234 (Standing Bear). entered one ear and shall not escape. a man ought to concentrate his mind upon the remembered earth. Lyons). 116 (Little Crow). 164 (Anonymous Prayer). Jr. 305 Emigrants (Washakie). the earth. 374 Environment (Vine Deloria. your mother.). Lyons). 458 (Hollow Horn). 235 Dust (Little Hill). Indians have a spiritual tie with the earth. 596 (Luther Standing Bear). Scott Momaday). 785 Enforcement (Young-Man-Afraid). 330-332 (Tatanga Mani). 476 (Sarah Winnemucca). 245-246 Enemies (Anonymous Shoshone). 692. how can the spirit of the earth like the white man. 447-448 SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Anonymous Carlisle Graduate). 792 Emuckfaw (William Weatherford). leagued with our enemies. one does not sell the earth. 348 Eagles (Oren R. 458 (Oren R. your ears are full of roaring water. a great encampment of all the Dakotas who had ever lived. . 542-547 (Quanah Parker). 750 (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). 783 (Jim Barnes). 312 (Satanta). 561 (Larry Echohawk). it was all dust. 467 (Pushmataha). 537-542 Economy (Louis R. 577 (Harriett Starleaf Gumbs). 695 Ecology (Anonymous Wintu). 287 Enemy (Wild Cat). 150-152 Empathy (Proverb). to save her. no seat for the eagles. 399 (Phillip Martin). 417 (Spotted Tail). in one ear and out the other. my greatest enemy—myself. 593 (Kushiway). 514 (Opothleyoholo). Lyons). 455 Education (Sam Ahkcah). 144 Earth (N. 766 (Captain Jack). . 44 (Ben Reifel). 307-308 (Francis LaFlesche). 537 Ear (Petalesharo). 783 (Harriett Pierce). 717 (Conassatego). Indian tribes are major . living in an Indian-managed economy. 118 (Young-Man-Afraid). 374 Ears (Keokuk). will beg you . 456 Echo Hawk (Larry Echohawk). my enemies under me. 462-465 (Will Rogers).

617 Erdrich. 743 (Little Crow). 730 Exterminated (Standing Bear). I am resigned to my fate. 121 Execution (Big Eagle). Albert (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). treaties may be . 144 235 (John Rogers). 145 Father (Big Thunder). 160 Executioners (National Council). 419 Father of Waters (Major Ridge). 612-614 Exploited (Paula Gunn Allen). 23 (Tecumseh). the Great Spirit is our Father. Warren (Anonymous Shoshone). 143 (bio) Evans. ethnically diverse peoples who had prospered . 746 FBI Agents' Murders (Leonard Peltier). 273 (Dragging-Canoe). 177 (bio) Fear (Logan). eyes like the eagle's. p. for many thousands of years. 614 Extended Family (Jeanne Bearcrane). p. 69 Evil spirit (Petalesharo). 210 (bio) Fetterman Massacre (Red Cloud). never felt fear. proclaim the extinction of the whole race. who are the white people that we should fear them?. . p. 777 Fall.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX players in the environmental justice movement. her eyes sparkled as the sun's laughing waters. 675 Farewell (Black Hawk). 234 Extermination (Ely Parker). p. 38 Extinction (Dragging-Canoe). we were no expense to the government. I will fight no more forever. 74 Fawn-Eyed One (Anonymous Ojibway). 450 Fallen Timbers (Little Turtle). 128-129 Expense (Crazy Horse). 745 Family (Linda Hogan). your eyes are full of smoke. 60 Ferris. Jeremiah (Sequoya). 228 (Red Jacket). give up these lands and go over the great Father of Waters. 674 Fight (Chief Joseph). . p. 27 Eyes (Anonymous Ojibway). Louise (Michael Dorris). 56 (bio) Fiction (Janet Campbell Hale). 37 (Speckled Snake). Fiction and dreams spring from a common well. 461 Faithfulness (Anonymous Winnebago). from where the sun now stands. 182 (bio). piercing and bright. We've been exploited right out of house and home. my children have been exterminated. 240 Expansion (Red Jacket). 58 Fate (John Ridge). 562 Europe (Phillip Martin). 668 Ethnically diverse (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 32 Fame (Anonymous Ojibway). 295 Exploitation (Paula Gunn Allen).

8-9 French and Indian War (Cornplanter). 351 Fort McDermitt (Sarah Winnemucca). carry their lives on their fingernails. mountains. p. 218 Flag (George Bent). 765 Firewater (Tecumseh). p. p. 613 Food (Minavana). 9 (bio) (Teedyuscung). we were like the trees of the forest. 21 Friendship . 740 First American (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). . Hayward). . 130 Fort Keogh (Wooden Leg). . live as your wise forefathers lived. my fighting days are done. . . 78 Forgiveness (William W. 248 (Wooden Leg). Keeler). 277 (Satanta). the first American—the Red Man. 708 Flag-raising photo (Ira Hayes). 297 (Mary Brave Bird). p. p. 180 Fire (Standing Bear). Thomas (Black Kettle). 61 Fighting (Dull Knife). 746 Flush (Paula Gunn Allen). 165 Flowers (Anonymous Ojibway). p. the past days of real freedom. . . the friend of white men. 740 Forest (William Mclntosh). 28 (Tecumseh). the Great Spirit . 184 (bio) Free (Red Cloud). 11 (bio) (Pontiac). white man comes upon us as a flood. lakes and . 439. 235 Firearms (Anonymous Shoshone). 6 (bio) Friend (Logan).236 all right for men too old to . p. 138 (bio). 411 Fish (Meninock). p. some Navajo goes without the water. Fight. you have drunk the poison firewater. flowers that drink dew. 138 Five civilized tribes (Lewis Downing). 167 (bio) Fitzpatrick. 441 Fish-in demonstrations (Janet McCloud). . poisonous firewater. 690 (Meninock). every time you flush the toilet. 123 SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Florida (James Kaywaykla). 652-653 (Larry Echohawk). . 530 Fishing rights (Henry Adams). 149 (bio) (Melvin Thorn). . 43 Forefathers (Anonymous Delaware). we had the fish . 473 Forked Tongue (Speckled Snake). 6 (bio). 303 Foxwoods Casino (Richard A. we must fight each other's battles. 68 (Anonymous Delaware). has provided food for us in these . 500-502 Flood (Opothleyoholo). 441^42 Fish-ins (Herbert Blatchford). 170 Fingernails (Cochise). free as the winds and eagle. 352 French (Tahajadoris). every star in this flag represented a state stolen from Indians. 207 Freedom (Chief Joseph). in front of a great prairie fire. 117 (bio) (Wild Cat). before the white man came. p.

684 Frustration (Grace Thorpe). Lyons). . slavery. watch your garbage float away. and outright genocide. 498 Gambling (Darren Bonaparte). 151 Garbage (Oren R. 336 (Young-Man-Afraid). the metal forbidden to man. 547 Garland. 88 (bio) Garry. spiritual genocide. 52 (Ira Hayes). p. 376 Ghost Dance Songs (Anonymous Sioux). 603 (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). Scott Momaday). 20 Genocide (Dennis Banks). 133 (bio) Gold-rush (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). imported disease. relic of the gold-rush days. not accident. 758-759 GI benefits (Joseph Nicholas). publicity and glory. 625 (John Mohawk). Jr. 424 (Little Raven). Genocide is colonial policy. 594 Glory (Black Hawk). p. 99 (bio). General Gordon (Cochise). p. 733 Game (Washakie). p. When I look for game. 50 (bio) Generation Gap (Emma Marks). 697 (L. 342 Grace (Oren R. benefits. p. we live somewhere on the fringes. didn't receive any G. 85 Ghost Dance 237 (Kicking Bear). gets nothing. the good Indian . 610 Georgia Legislature (William Mclntosh). Hamlin (Two Moon). 78 Georgia Militia (William Weatherford). 477 Generosity (Logan). 407 Fringes (Leslie Silko). 449 Good Indian (Satanta). Ulysses (Geronimo). 647 (Wallace Wells. 565 Good Spirit (Petalesharo). 608. p. a state of grace.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Pushmataha). 93 (bio). 539 Granger. the gift of seeing truly. 664 (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). 564 (John LaVelle). 194 Golden Gate Exposition (Allan Houser). Spokane (Polatkin). 247 Good luck charm (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 350 (Sitting Bull). 503 Gift (N.I. 732 (Russell Means). 241 (Ely Parker). Lyons). 500 Gold (James Kaywaykla).). . path to glory is rough. David Jacobs). forced relocation. 587-588 (Larry Echohawk). gold. nationhood or genocide. our government has been paralyzed. 62 (bio) Grasping Eagle (Sitting Bull). 267 Grass . I see only wagons with white tops. 72 (bio) (Wovoka). 121 Government (Thomas Pegg). p. frightened and bewildered as the young of a wild creature. 44-45 Frightened (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). 178 Grant.

the hawk . 527 (Tecumseh). p. 90 Great Spirit (Anonymous Shoshone). 61. 507 (Jake L. 84 (bio) Healing (Big Thunder). Whitecrow. 604-605 Halfbreed race (John Ridge). 201 (Seattle). . (Sarah Winnemucca). took our Great Father's advice. 169. . 148 Hancock. grovel to none. 253 Hand (Black Kettle). 171. 129 Gratitude (Maris Bryant Pierce). 280 Great Father (Dull Knife). 152 (bio) Harrison. 88 (Smohalla). 429 (Sun Bear). 401 Hair cutting (Dennis Banks). while the grass grows or the river runs. Rutherford B. . 63 Hate (Sitting Bull). 133 (bio) Guns (Powhatan). the greatness of tribes now almost forgotten. 76 (Black Hawk). 19 (bio). . 79 Haozous.238 (Red Cloud). we neither know nor feel any debt of gratitude. 52 (Edward Goodbird). 177 Graves (Red Cloud). never misses its prey. 774 Hayes. William Henry (Tecumseh). children of the Great Spirit. do not act haughty toward your husband. your people are like blades of grass. 173 (Little Hill). . Fred (LaDonna Harris). 5 Hair (Alexander Posey). his people . 300 Grievances (Young-Man-Afraid). Robert (Allan Houser). we Indians did not believe in one Great Spirit. 304 Heathens (Robert Burnette). 67 Guadalcanal (Wilson Keedah. 198-199 (Spotted Tail). 65 Grief (George Bent). p. taken your hand. 186 (Speckled Snake). . Sr. 262 Haughty (Anonymous Winnebago). 419 Heart (Sarah Winnemucca). are like the grass that covers the .). 212 Greatness (Seattle). 145 (bio) Guggenheim Fellowship SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Allan Houser). we have sold our own graves. 778 Hawk (Anonymous Ojibway). General Winfield Scott (Roman Nose). p. be removed. p. 391 (William Mclntosh). 374-376 Grovel (Tecumseh). 346 (Red Cloud). I insist the guns and swords . 137 (William Mclntosh).). I hate all the white people. harmony within the Universe. 78 (Red Fox). 512 . prairies. we took the white man by the hand. there is no Great Father between me and the Great Spirit. 518 Harris. p. 199 (Red Iron). sacred graves to be plowed for corn. Jr. 72 Harmony (Lori Cupp).. written on my heart. 481 Happy Hunting Grounds (Major Ridge). 764 (Big Elk). .

p. 677 Games Welch). Warren). 360 Hoover. hunted . 35 Hunting Rights (Old Tassel). the real hostiles are the whites. 545 (Wilma Mankiller). . 154 (bio) (Gaetana DeGennaro). . 622 Holistic education (Sandra J. 665 History (Red Fox). 362 Hoop (Black Elk). p. 691 (Carl Gorman). admitted to heaven . p. 472 (Red Cloud). p. . . p. as though we were wild animals. 355 Hope (Mary Brave Bird). . our power came . 531 House Committee on Territories (William P. 100 (bio). the greater and best part of your brothers' hunting ground. Herbert (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). 423 (Powhatan). 543 Ideas . 655 Holocaust (Oren R. 530 Hitler. 430 (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). the home is the foundation. these histories can be likened to an iceberg. 188 (bio) Heritage (Larry Echohawk). p. 752 Henderson State University (George Baldwin). I am the Maker of heaven and earth. 421 Helplessness (Anonymous Apache). . our holocaust. 192 (bio) Hunting (Pontiac). the flowering tree was the living center of the hoop. Lyons). Allan (Robert Haozous). the history of holocaust visited upon the indigenous peoples. 610 (Janet McCloud). from the sacred hoop. places without hope. unless there are writings . 32 (bio) Humble (Sitting Bull).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Heaven (Anonymous Wyandot). 268 Humor (Linda Hogan). to be so hunted that I cannot rest. . 19 (Satanta). Ross). 114 (bio) (Charles Curtis). 660 Home (Susan LaFlesche Picotte). . 208 (David C. develop humor or die of despair. p. Trail of Tears was . 135 (bio) Human Sacrifice (Petalesharo). 358. 6 Hunter College (Lorraine Canoe). p. Vasquez). 738 (Four Guns). 366 Houser. 24 (bio) Hostiles (Daisy Albert). . p. 144 (bio) (Joseph C. in a great book. . 16-17 Husband (Anonymous Winnebago). the nation's hoop is broken. 176 (bio) Hughes Aircraft (Peter MacDonald). 357-358. 320-321 Iceberg (Oren R. Adolph (Russell Means). Fox). 635 Hunted (James Kaywaykla). Lyons). 784 (Anonymous Delaware). 776-780 Hypocrisy (Plenty-Coups). p. trying to humble me. history books are wrong. no white man . . 709 239 Horseshoe Bend (William Weatherford). . 252 Hunting Ground (Little Turtle).

31 Inter-tribal disputes (Keokuk). 506 Games Welch).240 (Dan Katchongva). 515 Irony ("Indians of All Tribes"). 525 (Ira Hayes). 16 (bio) Gohn Ridge). 678 Interaction (Pushmataha). Jr. the quality of Indianness. we stand a small island. 40 (bio). 497 (Joseph C. 27 (bio). don't know how to be Indi'n. 138 (bio) (Wilson Keedah. 484 Qames Welch). p. p.). Crawford). we are what we imagine. 644 Indian Law Resource Center Gohn Mohawk). Andrew (Elias Boudinot). 36 (bio) (Pushmataha). 161 Indian (Luther Clearwater). p. 693 Island (Red Jacket). 145 (bio) Jackson. . p. 750 (Gaetana DeGennaro).). 398 Identity (Anonymous Carlisle Graduate). guiding set of esthetics in Indian art. 146-148 Gohn Ross). p. p. 718 (Simon Ortiz). Jr. 181 (bio) Indian life (Ella Deloria). 138 Indian art (W. 497 Indian police (Sitting Bull). 726-728 Iroquois (Larry Echohawk). Richard West. images of Dick and Jane. 701 Ingratitude (Speckled Snake). 489 (Billy Mills). 119 (bio) Interpreter (Cornplanter). 553 (Inter-Tribal Meeting). Sr. investment. 582-583 (Leslie Silko). we preferred hunting to a life of idleness. 294a Images (Simon Ortiz). 99 (Speckled Snake).). Vasquez). only an Indian knows who he is. 434 Indianness (Frederick Dockstader). 344 Investment (Phillip Martin). 597 Imprisonment (Lion Bear). 639 (Grace Thorpe). 145 (bio) (Teddy Draper. 44 Interior Department (Grace Thorpe). 639 Imagine (N. 245 (William Weatherford). determined to hold to identity. 607 (Grace Thorpe). 82-86 . 496 International Olympic Committee Gim Thorpe). 267 Indian Rights Association (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). 24 (bio). 633 Idleness (Crazy Horse). 686 Injustices (Richard A. 116-117 Intruders (Oochalata). 127-128 Injustice (Vine Deloria. 633 Indian agent (Black Kettle). 38 Iwo Jima (Eugene R. new and selfish ideas. p. 449 SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Information Age (George Baldwin). p. Hayward). 720 (LaDonna Harris). historic injustices perpetrated on indigenous people. p. . p. so busy actin' Indi'n. Scott Momaday). 127-130 (Tuskeneah). no precedent for .). Sr.

Jr. 488 Knights of the Hood (William P. 465 Kroeber. 101 (bio) Labrador (Mark Maracle). Lyndon (Clyde Warrior).). 688 King Charles (King Philip). Ross). too old . 4 (bio) Japanese (Eugene R. . . 179 (Vine Deloria. gain knowledge from my walks. Alfred (Ishi). 72 (William Mclntosh). 523 Jealousy (Anonymous Winnebago). 92 (bio) Lakotas (Luther Standing Bear). Lyons). 548 (Major Ridge). we obtained the land from the living God. 4 Jesus (Blackfoot). 244 Joan of Arc (Sarah Winnemucca). 367 LaFlesche. 14 (Simon Ortiz). thought I was Japanese. and unprogressive people. 84 (bio) Jobs (Phillip Martin). 5 (bio) Knick-Knacks 241 (Frederick Dockstader). Ross). 78 (Old Tassel). Knowledge is of the past. 490 Jones. the land . to follow your Jesus road. 369 Knowledge (Vernon Cooper). 736 (Anonymous Delaware).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Jamestown (Powhatan). . we will give you land for yourselves and for your children. you call the Great Spirit Jesus. 432 King Philip's War (King Philip). 739 (Cochise). 563 Kansas (William P. p. 775 (Powhatan). 649 (Oren R. I have made for you. 7 King Gustav Gim Thorpe). Ross). I love the land and I love people. 578 (Doublehead). p. 466 Gohn Rogers). 386 Lance (Satanta). 718 (Robert Haozous). 110 (Cornplanter). silent. p. Kill me. 516 Johnson. 187 (Geronimo). 267 Killer (Larry Echohawk). Crawford). p. p. jobs gone to Mexico or Taiwan. the Lakotas are now a sad. their cry is more land. Evan Gohn Ross). Susette (Francis LaFlesche). 31 (Oren R. related to the land . your land is your territory. 284 (Chiksika). the land supported a universe of things they valued. let the real killer go free. KnickKnacks and tourist souvenirs. 166 (bio) Justice (Captain Jack). 541 Kahokia (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 249 Land (Anonymous Cherokee). let the soldiers . p. 586 Lacygne (William P. 309 (Inter-Tribal Meeting). 367 Kill (Sitting Bull). I have laid aside my lance. Lyons). . 101 Jurisdiction (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). . you have our land. .

250 Life (Crowfoot). politically. p. p. . the language of the whites. culturally. 313-314. (Ely Parker). 740 Literature (Vine Deloria. 356 Las Vegas (Darren Bonaparte). Much contemporary literature is thinly disguised romanticism. 587 Law (Oren R.. laws which . are in words that we have no possible means to understanding. personally. 90 (bio) (Gall). 48 (bio) (Flying Hawk). p. now I live the artificial. how smooth . p. 132 Language (Black Hawk). Lyons. 210 (bio) Liberty. 143 Long Beach (Calif. 536 Gohn Stands in Timber). we have plenty of land. 118 (bio) (Sitting Bull). Robert E. 704 Little Bear (George Bent.) School District . 338 Lincoln. 246 (Major Ridge). 82 (bio). 55 Lee. Las Vegas in your hometown.). 118 (bio) (Red Fox). 27 (bio) Liquor (Anonymous Delaware). p. . 160 Locusts (Little Crow). harass our braves. 296 (Dull Knife). 541 (Plenty-Coups). p. 50 (Simon Ortiz). I have no little ties. . p. 272 Land rights (Meninock). 298 Little Big Horn (Crazy Horse). I lived the natural life . 316-319. p. 210 Land claims (Mark Maracle). . we are the landlords of this continent. Abraham Gohn Ross). . 664 Lewis and Clark expedition SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Anonymous Shoshone). 585 Land ownership (Sitting Bull). p. p. 197 (Charles A. 99 (bio) Little Crow (Big Eagle). p. 441 Land sale (National Council). 118 (bio) Lies (Satanta). Native American literature is about as descriptive a term as non-Native American literature. 606 Lands (Elias Boudinot). 638 Language recognition (Ishi). coming to collect the rent. p. 581 (Michael Dorris). 325 (Wooden Leg). Margot Gohn Stands in Timber). Jr. 320 Laws (Tuskeneah). one of the problems is the distribution of literature. . . . 239 Landlords (Dennis Banks). 62 (bio) Legitimacy Gohn Mohawk). 642 (Petalesharo). 72 Laziness (Black Hawk).242 . 80 (bio) (Herbert Blatchford). 667 (Louise Erdrich). my love of language. our lands . . white men are like the locusts. 260 Land purchase (Chief Joseph). . are about to be seized. 120 (Red Cloud). Eastman). . Laws that . 72 (bio) 259 (Two Moon).

. John Stuart (Ella Deloria). their sons . 37 (bio) (Satank). 268 Medicine (Edward Goodbird). 512 Mayflower (Mark Maracle). . p. 127. p. 248 Men (Conassatego). all lost. 716 Manhattan ("Indians of All Tribes"). I love everybody now that I have grey hair. 742-748 Lumpkin. General Nelson (Chief Joseph). 350 Mexicans (Lillian Valenzuela Robles). . . . . had to call themselves Mexicans. 373 Love (Polatkin). 269 Medicine Lodge Council (Black Kettle). 792 Miles. 395 Medicine Lodge (Kicking Bird). Wilson (John Ridge). They say we massacred him [Custer]. the Christian doctrine of manifest destiny—that one people will rule the world. . 604 Manifest Destiny (Oren R. 412 (William Warren). but he would have done the same. 663 Manners (Francis LaFlesche). 563 Mahicans (Tahajadoris). 176 Love Medicine (Louise Erdrich). 61 (bio) McLaughlin. . 146 243 (Chiksika).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Lillian Valenzuela Robles). 140 (bio) Male-female relationships (Anonymous Winnebago). 296 Massasoit (King Philip). 130 Love songs (Anonymous Ojibway). 273. it is called a massacre. 222-226 Mill. 704 Loves (Speckled Snake). 9 (bio). 506 Military supervision (Ely Parker). Lyons). when a white army loses . 111 Massacred (Crazy Horse). 702. 434 Machu Picchu (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). p. in order to survive . make men of them. 134 (bio) Lord Dunmore (Logan). 92 Lost (Wetatonmi). my ancestors did not come over on the Mayflower. . Cotton (Robert Burnette). 585 (Will Rogers). 772-780 A Man Called Horse (Mary Brave Bird). militants keep wantin' to put things way back a hundred years. 5 (bio) Mather. 726 Manhood (Dennis Banks). p. 9 Maine Legislature Goseph Nicholas). 602. p. loves his red children. 13 Messiah (Kicking Bear). everything to lose and nothing to gain. 483 Mile (Proverb). 544 Manifesto (Wilma Mankiller). send us . 167 (Satanta). . p. and we will . 275 Militants (Luther Clearwater). Major James (Sitting Bull). our Indian manifesto. 20 Lose (Seattle). 330-332 Massacre . walk a mile in his moccasins. we walked silently on into the wintry night.

64 Money (Bull Bear). 102 Mother Nature (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 419 Mother Earth (Larry Echohawk). mourning in every lodge. 127 Museum of Anthropology (Ishi). vindicate my character from misrepresentation. morning must flee the rising sun. 346-347 Minority Goseph C. who is there to mourn. 24 Mourning (Dull Knife). p. walk a mile in his moccasins. 129 Missouri (William P. Ballard). when the white man landed on the moon. Ross). 363 SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Ouray the Arrow). 95 Mother (Big Thunder). 557 Mutilation Games Kaywaykla). 792 Modoc War (Captain Jack). 51 Missionaries (Vine Deloria. 398 Mines (Blackfoot). were he to give me a million dollars. 301 Muscogees (Speckled Snake). 588 (Sarah Winnemucca). 232 Mineral resources (Dan Katchongva). lived in harmony with Mother Nature. 694 (Russell Means). 79 (bio) Mohican (Tecumseh). 302 Misrepresentation (Black Hawk). 188 Mining (Smohalla). money in the bank. James (Petalesharo). the buffalo is our money. 281 Names (Eagle Wing). 185 (Sweet Medicine). 288 Mixed ancestry (Leslie Silko). 119. 190 Monroe. 101 (bio) Music (Louis W. 784 Mississippi (Speckled Snake). 626 Mother Lodge Gohn Ross).244 Million (Standing Bear). 118 Monster (Chiksika). p. defile our sacred Mother Earth. 573 (Petalesharo). we have given names to many beautiful things. 425 (Palaneapope). 484 Misery (Darren Bonaparte). 755 Moon landing (Anonymous Indian Boy). 310 . I belong to a minority with seniority. 563 Mourn (Logan). 369 Missouri River (Gall). Jr. the earth is our mother. 683-685 Moccasins (Proverb).). p. 3 Minnesota (Little Hill). 755 Morning (Seattle). those mountains are full of mines. 32 (bio). Vasquez). 112 Moon (Anonymous Indian Boy). the white man is a monster who is always hungry. 171 Muddy Lake Reservation (Sarah Winnemucca). put out of our misery. 121 Missionary (Anonymous Wyandot). make a profit on their misery.

117 (bio) Newspaper stories (Geronimo). 5 (bio) New York (Mark Maracle). 112 (Charles A. 644 Navajo Tribal Council (Sam Ahkcah). . Richard West. p. we were close students of nature. 681 . 144 (bio) National Indian Youth Council (Herbert Blatchford). 167 (bio) (Clyde Warrior). 410 Negotiations (Red Cloud). . 73 Neglect (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). Scott Momaday). names [are] essential parts of . 114 (bio) National Indian Health Board Gake L. p. 136 (bio) National Marine Fisheries Service (Larry Echohawk). 123 (bio) National Council of American Indians (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). p. p. 243 New World (King Philip).). shared concept of nature. Keeler). inefficiency and criminal neglect. nature . no better than that of the Negro. 659 (Alexander Posey).). 586 (Wendy Rose). 64 Nation (Mark Maracle). 149 (bio) (Melvin Thorn). 687 National Museum of the American Indian (Gaetana DeGennaro). 142 (bio) (Vine Deloria. p. 608 Native American Literature Prize (N. 695 Necessity (Major Ridge). 192 (bio). 528 (W. 610 Nebraska (Larry Echohawk). 162 (bio) Native American Rights Fund Gohn Echohawk). p. 144 (bio) Nazi Germany (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). . the white man seeks to conquer nature. Jr. p. . almost all of Nebraska. 479 (Sun Bear). 479 (W. p. Eastman). 678-679 (Allan Houser). is their textbook for living. Whitecrow. p.). p.). . 157 (bio) (Napoleon B. 451 Neutrality Gohn Ross). 184 (bio). 645 National Sacrifice Area (Russell Means). Jr. 174 (bio). p. 720-722 (Richard A. 586 National Association of Manufacturers (William W. p. p. p. p. Richard West. 401-403 Narragansett (Tecumseh). Johnson). Hayward).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Wilma Mankiller). unbending. iron necessity. I am one of the native sons. Jr. Jr. p. we are a lost nation. 623 Nationhood (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). 339 (Allan Houser). a position . 124 (bio) (Peter MacDonald). 71 Nature (Chiksika). personalities. 131 (bio) National Congress of American Indians (Robert Burnette). the Pawnee used to have . 178 (bio) Native sons 245 (Major Ridge). . when the Hopi hit New York. 200 Negro (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). 586 New Mexico Games Kaywaykla). p. 104-105 Newfoundland (Mark Maracle). p. . . Nationhood or genocide. living in harmony with nature.

his mother was dead was still nursing. you .). 44 (bio) Nicholson. 165 (bio) Gim Thorpe). Keeler). p. p. 431 (Seattle). p. 154 (bio) Northern Cheyenne (LaDonna Harris). Indian oral history has not been acceptable. p. p. p. tidings like the sound of the fall of a mighty oak. 48 Oakmulgee (Speckled Snake). . hooting of an owl is a bad omen. 31 Night (Seattle). David Jacobs). Sr. 140 (bio). 154 (bio) New York World's Fair (Allan Houser). 432-433 Omen (Anonymous Pima). p. 49 (bio) (Will Rogers). have made us outcasts. 149 Owl (Anonymous Pima). . until there is no more out. Wells). p. . Joseph (Cornplanter). 91 Palmer. 374 Northeast Missouri State University Gim Barnes). 262 Outlaws Gohn Ridge). The Indian's night promises to be dark.246 New York City (Lorraine Canoe). 69 (bio) Origin (Leslie Silko). General Innis N. our origin is unlike any other. 128-129 Oil (Will Rogers). p. 435-436 . 780 Passamaquoddy Homes Incorporated Goseph Nicholas). . hooting of an owl is a bad omen. disfigure their faces with black paint. 106 (bio) Olympics (Billy Mills). 647 Out (Spokane Garry). 291 Oak (Pushmataha). 418 Oklahoma Hall of Fame (William W. 254 Parents (Anonymous Winnebago). 145 (bio) Oklahoma (Dull Knife). 555 Nursing (American Horse). 685 Orre Drumrite Walking Heritage (Elizabeth A. p. North America is our old country. 123 (bio) Old country (Janet Campbell Hale). 504 Paternalism (Ella Deloria). Crawford). p. Johnson). orator of the plains. 174 Outcasts (Sitting Bull). 142 Okinawa (Eugene R. 119 (bio). (Roman Nose). 171 (bio) Ottawa (L. 672 Ollokot SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Wetatonmi). banded outlaws . 129 Oconee (Specked Snake. p. . 757 Operation Desert Storm Gerry Flute). . p. p. 96 Noble. 637 Orator (Satanta). 145 (bio) (Wilson Keedah. 615 Oral history (Simon Ortiz). 131 (bio) Oklahoma Supreme Court (Napoleon B. 757 Paint (Red Fox). John (Young-Man-Afraid). 418 Ojibways (Little Crow). p. 133 (bio) Nez Perce War (White Bird). for the purposes of intimidation or assassination. the child not knowing .

your children. any pretty pebble was valuable. the Indian talks in poetry. 64 Policy (Leslie Silko). Susan LaFlesche (Francis LaFlesche). . Jr. plow the ground. Mississippi (David C. are political. 132 (Dull Knife). 202 (bio) ' Poor (Red Cloud). 572 (King Philip). 86 Pebble (Charles A. offers of peace. Warren). 5 (bio) (Mark Maracle). p. 117 (King Philip). p." 571 Plow (Smohalla). as a physician I can do a great deal more. 222 Peace terms (William Weatherford). we are not poor but rich. p. poems about Indians written by whites. . 641 Games Welch). 7 (Little Turtle). 666 Phillips Petroleum (William W. 362 Picotte. p. Politics can't alter sound biology. 619-621 Political attacks (Ely Parker). 686 Policy issues (Daniel Peaches). prudent to listen to . 404-405. p. 22 (bio) Peace (Black Kettle). 229-230 Politics (Larry Echohawk). 715 Philadelphia (Little Turtle). 19 Plight (Vine Deloria. to live in peace. 632 Poetry (Simon Ortiz). we are for peace. there is no peace. 406 Pokanoket (Tecumseh). 10 Peace plan (Ely Parker). 640 (Alexander Posey). 379-381 Pawnee (Big Elk). 169 (Gall). their poems. Indians have had a "plight. 36 Philadelphia. 288 (Keokuk).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Carlos Montezuma). 34 (Red Cloud). 338 Pequot (Tecumseh). 335 Poor People's March . 184 Poems (Simon Ortiz). Poetry is a way of engendering life. we must smoke the same pipe. personal and social. 365 (Standing Buffalo). 61 Pity (Pontiac). 687 Pontiac (Anonymous Delaware). Eastman). take pity on us. 203 (Tahajadoris). Great Spirit made us poor. Keeler). 742 Pine Ridge Reservation (Russell Means). 723 Peyote (Mary Brave Bird). 131 (bio) Physician (Susan LaFlesche Picotte). 202 (Red Dog). p. I shall treat of peace only with the King. 585 247 Pine (Anonymous Ojibway). 134 (Elias Boudinot). Jr. poor because we are all honest. 92 (bio) (Susette LaFlesche).).). graceful as the young pine. 8 (Teedyuscung). 623 Pipe (Tecumseh). 64 Persecution ("Indians of All Tribes"). 90 (bio) Pilgrims (Vine Deloria. we shall never make peace.

787 (Sioux Prayer). 555 Promises (Anonymous Spokane). 462 Prison (Leonard Crow Dog). p. . . 238 (Sun Bear). tribal ideas of progress. 768 (Chief Joseph). 324 Prophecy (Hollow Horn). 534. 109 (Standing Bear). 177 (bio) Population (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). . 647 Racism (Mary Brave Bird). 505 (Great Plains Indians). Poetry is a noose that strangles. 786 (Pueblos Prayer). 241 Populations (Red Cloud). force. 505 Predictions (Anonymous Powhatan). for himself . David Jacobs). 1-3 Prosperity Gohn Ross). will be diseased prostitutes. 593 Progress (LaDonna Harris). Racism breeds racism in reverse. the Indian prays . 550 Pro Gim Thorpe). Racism in America . . 526 Prayer (Andy Abieta). . . 210 Propaganda (Yellow Wolf). no idea I was a pro. p. 564 (Geronimo). . . 646 (Wilbur Riegert). the path of power is different for every individual. 94 Pulitzer Prize (N. 398 (Sweet Medicine). 354-355 Pride (Fred Coyote). . a power which I cannot resist. 162 (bio) Punishment (Black Hawk). 761 Presidential Medal of Freedom (Annie Dodge Wauneka). 396. more racism toward Indian people. dormant qualities that had been thought killed long ago. David Jacobs). for other people. Poetry . 433 Problems (Tim Giago). the prosperity of our people fixed upon a permanent basis. . . 437 Quebec (L. 393-394 (Seattle). reservation SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Indian . "progressive" poverty brought about by . . is a stigma of disgrace. 211 Power (Big Eagle). . 201 Poverty (L. 676 (Russell Means).248 (Henry Adams). 132 (bio) Presidential politics (Charles Curtis). has already practiced being in prison. 753 Protection (Edward Goodbird). Scott Momaday). 533. 707 (Linda Hogan). 456 (Dan Katchongva). 788 Prays (Andy Abieta). 535 Powder River Road (Spotted Tail). 274-275 (Red Cloud). I had learned to love the primitive life. Poverty is our biggest problem. the white man prays . power of the whites. p. our girls . 53 Qualities (Ella Deloria). 159 Gohn Ross). 789 (Osage Prayer). 734 Primitive Gohn Rogers). . 99 Prostitutes (Anonymous Apache).

such removal will be injurious. 463 Reagan.). 352 . you have broken the great cycles of regeneration. 671 (Lorraine Canoe). 560 249 Gohn Echohawk). means power over our own lives. renaissance going on in tribal America. 49 (bio). 388 Regeneration (Oren R. 567 Resentment (William W. you want to force your religion upon us. 100 Renaissance (LaDonna Harris). Red Power . 480 Red ants (Quanah Parker). only the white man rapes his mother. p. 556 Republican Party (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). and cattlemen. reservation . 161. 460 Rattlesnakes (Kaywaykla). 550 ("Indians of All Tribes"). 473 Reservation (Anonymous Spokane). 511 Oanet Campbell Hale). 163 Red man (Seattle). a . the fundamental law of natural life. institutionalized and pervasive. . p. 113 (David C. no jobs on the reservation. 427 Read Gohn Rogers). 169 Red Iron (Lion Bear). 40 (Anna Moore Shaw). 103 (bio) Redundancy (Luther Standing Bear). . raping someone's way of life. 524 (Carlos Montezuma). remove resentment from your hearts. 39-41. 396. Ronald (Daniel Peaches). 531 (Anonymous Delaware). 347 (John Ridge). the white man did not take his religion any more seriously than he did his laws. 547 (Plenty-Coups). 630a Rapes (Russell Means). 783 (Lorraine Canoe). 248 (Ten Bears). 97 Red Power (Vine Deloria. 95. dangerous as the rattlesnakes upon which they fed. 621 Recognition (Allan Houser). . Warren). read more in the swaying of the trees. 40 (bio) (Major Ridge). 381 (Satanta). 398 (Oren R. Keeler). the red man has ever fled the approach of the white man. 244 (Edward Goodbird). 728 (Wilson Keedah. . the reservation is our landbase. 666 (Wooden Leg). . Scott Momaday). 546 Religion (Daisy Albert). 27 (bio). 626 Raping (Harriett Starleaf Gumbs). . the white man's religion talks about mastering the earth. 559 (Leonard Crow Dog). coyotes. 452-453 (Wovoka). . 154 (Little Hill). 336 Remembrance (N. 321 (Red Jacket). 21 (bio) Gohn Ross). when the last red man shall have perished. Lyons). 656-658 (Geronimo). Lyons). 390-395 (Dan Katchongva). the reservation is my home. 596 Removal (William Shorey Coodey). 738 (Anonymous Wyandot). surrounded by thieves. Jr.). [the land] is only good for red ants. 768 (Robert Burnette). 312 Red Cloud (Dull Knife). 569 Red River War (Bull Bear).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX against Indian people . p. . p. Sr. p.

36 (bio) Gohn Ridge). 577 (Standing Bear). grieved at the ruin of my people. Major (Elias Boudinot). 235 Rivers (Chief Joseph). 49 Roosevelt. 189 (bio). 114 (bio) Roosevelt. 670 Resistance (Spokane Garry). 145. 40 (bio). 504 (Ben Calf Robe). John (Elias Boudinot). 615 Saddle . 591 (Janet Campbell Hale). government would like . 108 (bio) Rosebud Reservation (Mary Brave Bird). learning to respect Passamaquoddy money. 148149 (William P. p. p. 14 (bio) Riches (Red Cloud). 395 Sacred sites Gerry Flute). 104 (bio) Rothschilds Gohn Ridge). 62 (bio). 277 Road (Red Cloud). 428 SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX River (Vine Deloria.250 Reservations (Crazy Horse). 294a (Tim Giago). 148 Ruin (Kicking Bird). there will be no more Indians. the red man no longer has rights. in this sacred object dwelt his god. p. p. 89 Ritual Gohn Stands in Timber). p. this called on me for revenge. 22 (William Weatherford). 637 Revenge (The Four Bears). 44 (bio) Gohn Ridge). 221 Rights (Ely Parker). 198 (Washakie). we do not want riches. p. Franklin (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). Jr.). idleness on the reservations. 152 Rock River (Black Hawk). 40 (bio) Gohn Rollin Ridge). 360 Sacred object (Edward Goodbird). 457 Responsibility (Simon Ortiz). Theodore (Geronimo). p. 126 (Logan). . building of this road . p. responsibility for all the universe. a mean spirit of revenge. 86 Revolution (Clyde Warrior). 709 Rosenthal. 494 Revolutionary War (Red Jacket). p. 138 (bio) Ross. no rights possessed by the Indians that they were bound to respect. p. . you might as well expect the rivers to run backwards. 174 (Melvin Thorn). . without the reservations. . p. respect for each other. will destroy many of our root grounds and drive off our game. 223 (Seattle). 68 (bio) (Carlos Montezuma). Ross). 203 Ridge. creating an inflammable river. 269 Sacred (Black Elk). John (William Shorey Coodey). 611 Respect Goseph Nicholas). the sacred tree is dead. p. p. Joe (Ira Hayes). 36 (bio) (John Rollin Ridge). to abolish the reservations. 221 Ridge. on the bank of an overflowing river. iron road.

my face got as tough as a saddle. 416 Self-reliance (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 492-493 Self-government (Oochalata). . Shadows are long and dark. 568 (Carlos Montezuma). 661 Sequoya redwoods (Sequoya). 126 (bio) Sand Creek (Roman Nose). 181 (bio) Shadows (Red Cloud). there will be scalps. settlement of this land dark and bloody. 680 Self-determination (Tim Giago). white men do not scalp. 221 Savages (Sun Bear). 101-102 Segregated (Wendy Rose). 344 Self-image (Clyde Warrior). 298 Scalps (Little Crow). filled you with their sayings. Indian depicted as a savage. 260 Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs Gerry Flute). redeem their people from their savage state. p. . Kansas (Charles Curtis). p. 168 Scalp (Black Hawk). 285 Sell (Sitting Bull). white people are like poisonous serpents. the idea that all Indians are noble savages. 37 (bio) Satire (Alexander Posey). selfishness. 21 (bio) Serpents (Tecumseh). 253 Sand Creek Massacre (George Bent). they poison. 159 Scourge (Anonymous Creek). 254 Scores (Big Eagle). 493 Salt River Reservation (Anna Moore Shaw). p. . 446 Sadness (William Shorey Coodey). 430 Gohn Rollin Ridge). 353 She-bear . related to poetry. berated as unfit for self-government. 379-382 Self-sufficiency (Anonymous Carlisle Student). 297-300 (Black Kettle). What's wrong with this world? . 615 Sequoya (Wilma Mankiller). 693 Seventh Generation Fund Gohn Mohawk). 83 (bio). p. 591 (Clyde Warrior). 38 (bio) Secret society 251 Gohn Ross). 490-492 Selfishness (Will Rogers). 527 Sayings (Satank). 57 Scalping (George Bent). . worst scourge of the 19th century. 756 Screenwriting Goy Harjo). 209 Shawnee County. 698 Second Seminole War (Osceola). slick job of salesmanship.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Gack Dempsey). Screenwriting is . 29 Seventh Generation (Larry Echohawk). settle old scores. 401-403 Savage (Red Fox). segregated in the literature of America. p. p. 142 (Roman Nose). 59 Settlement (Dragging Canoe). we cannot sell this land. 737 (Louis R. sadness of the heart. 154 Salesmanship (Clyde Warrior). Bruce). 467 (Captain Jack).

25 (Red Cloud). Our nation is melting away like the snow. chief who never sleeps. 34 (bio). p. 17 Sleeps (Little Turtle). we are not your slaves. 45 (bio). 145 (bio) Sorrow (Yellow Wolf). 155 Sin (Eagle Wing) we have been guilty of only one sin. Crawford). 198 (Wild Cat). 142 Sherman. with your smiles comes the sun. 338 Soldiers (Red Cloud). Is it wicked for me because my skin is red?. Hayward). methodologies of the social sciences. 599 Society (Charles A. 64 Social sciences (Gerald Vizenor). soldiers. souvenir or exotic curiosity products. 311 Sioux Uprising of 1862 (Big Eagle). artificial blocks which may be built into the walls of modern society. a big snake crawling across the prairie. 164 Snake eggs (Simon Pokagon). 325 Southern California Indian Center Gohn Castillo). 747 Smith. 261 Sky-treading bird (Anonymous Ojibway). p. 258 Snow (Dragging-Canoe). 201 (Tecumseh). p. 92 (bio) SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (W. air was heavy with sorrow. slaughter of the Pequots. as a she-bear covers her cubs. 741 . Eastman). 97 (bio) Site desecration (Lillian Valenzuela Robles). shoot as well as any . 255 Snakes (Simon Pokagon). not created us to be your slaves. Jr. p. 204 Solomons (Eugene R. 735 Shoot (White Bird). William (Robert Burnette).). 511 Ship (Anonymous Montagnais). 102 Slaves (Anonymous Apache). John (Powhatan). 256. they followed us like the snake. he had a snake in the other . as snow before a summer sun. 753 (Minavavana). our little boys will grow up as slaves. p. 174 (bio) Snake (Black Hawk). 43 (Old Tassel). Hayward). Richard West. 184 (bio) (Francis LaFlesche). p. 191 (bio) Southwest Indian Women's Conference (Annie Dodge Wauneka). 55 (Luther Standing Bear). dangerous snake in our midst. 678 Slavery Gohn Ross). 4-6 Smithsonian (Richard A. . 746 Slaughter (Richard A. 39 (bio) (Little Hill). 125-126 Smiles (Anonymous Ojibway). p. . 33 Smallpox (The Four Bears). 159-160 (Little Crow). 486 Sovereignty (Anonymous Mohawk). 384 (Red Cloud). p. duty of these soldiers is to follow people who are bad. p. whole nations have melted away like snow. 482 Skin (Sitting Bull). 475 Souvenir (Frederick Dockstader).252 (Little Crow).

575. Dependence does not destroy sovereignty. 310 ("Indians of All Tribes"). 721 (Vine Deloria. 700 (Gaetana DeGennaro). 658 (Severt Young Bear). We love the white man. stereotypes of western history. . 510 Spirits (Edward Goodbird). the sun rose and set on their land. racism . 719 (George Baldwin). 751 Sports teams (Russell Means). 491 Superiority (Big Eagle). 443 253 Stevens. there is no power in a square. 288 Stereotypes (Sherman Alexie). as long as the sun shall rise. 716 Sunday School Picnic (Clyde Warrior). keep my word until the stones melt. Jr. attached to sports teams with names like Indians. but we fear your success. 97 Stone (Kicking Bird). 579 Gohn Echohawk). 586 Star-spangled language (Red Fox). 273 (Eagle Wing). 552 (Mark Maracle). 269 Stones (Delshay). 585 (Simon Ortiz). 727 (Red Cloud). in star-spangled language. my sun is set. these spirits are our gods. . 94. have souls or spirits . The sun is a gift from God. striving to take first and not settle for less. . from where the sun now stands. speak straight. 430 (Don C. . 159 (bio) . 630a Square (Black Elk). we are not squaws. 60 St. 261 (Ten Bears). 357 Squaws (Tecumseh).). 372 (Wovoka). 219 Speak (Cochise). 206 (Sitting Bull). American history . his sun is setting. Jr. 278 Starve (Lion Bear). you are like the mighty storm. 428 Striving (Billy Mills).). 58 (Chief Joseph). I am as a stone. 162 State responsibility (Daniel Peaches). spiritual rebirth of our [Indian] nation. nothing to break the light of the sun. . whose reactions to social ills will seem like a Sunday School picnic. 430 Starvation (Red iron). 336 Sun Dance (Mary Brave Bird). Talayesva). starve like buffaloes in the snow. 270 Storm (William McIntosh)m. . 312 Sun (Black Hawk). 158 Supreme Court (Vine Deloria. Lawrence (Mark Maracle). 113 (Dick Washakie).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Lewis Downing). 580 (LaDonna Harris). I will fight no more forever. 621 Steamboats (Gall). 181 Special Interests (Robert Burnette). Isaac (Seattle). 607 Success (Quanah Parker). all things . open up people's minds to stereotypes. 218. p. 390 Spiritual (Anonymous AIM leader). when the sun died. . 639 (Red Fox). 81 Storyteller Gohn Stands in Timber). . whisper our names to the sun that kisses them.

. 138 (bio) Threat (Standing Elk). 237 Syllabary (Sequoya). not even a word for time in our language. See also Tipi Themes (Michael Dorris). abolishment of the system of Indian traders. Hayward). if a white man had land. 273. 283 (Ely Parker).254 Surgery (Lori Cupp). 714 (Spotted Tail). 679 ("Indians of All Tribes"). 83 Tallaschatchee (William Weatherford). 147 (bio) Survivor (Ishi). 83 Teapot Dome (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). 83 Tomahawk (Black Hawk). 397 Talking leaves (Wilma Mankiller). 409 Tongue (Wild Cat). . 322 Tlingit (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). important for people from other . symbol of great lands once ruled by free and noble Indians. Jr. p. 70 Symbol (Richard A. tired of the much talk. 101 (bio) Swindle (Standing Bear). education and tolerance. and someone should swindle him. his tongue was forked. 377 Thorpe. 44 SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Temperance lesson (Simon Pokagon). dug up the tomahawk. 30 (bio) (Pushmataha). Jim (Grace Thorpe). p. all talkers and no workers. 669 Thieves (Baptiste Good). 168 Talkers (Black Hawk). 729 Talk (Satank). 58 (Chief Joseph). 157 (Palaneapope). presume or even dare to speak for or write about themes . chief of all thieves. 371 Time (Mary Brave Bird). there is a time appointed to all things. p. 214 Tipi (Flying Hawk). 177 (bio) (Janet McCloud). in my tomb. 719 (Vine Deloria. 791. 275 (William Weatherford). 82-86 Survival of American Indians Association (Henry Adams). 563 Tepee (Sioux Proverb). 450 Technology (George Baldwin).). tribal backgrounds. 713. . 164 Tonto (Sherman Alexie). 661 (Sequoya). 255-258 Tenoshtitlan (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 227 . 70 Talladega (William Weatherford). 507-508 Surrender (Black Hawk). 574-575 Traders (Big Eagle). 56 Tomb (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). symbol of understanding. Indian time and white man's time. 451 Tohopeka (William Weatherford). p. p. 55 Talking (Dan Katchongva). . I was destitute. 700-701 Tecumseh (Chiksika). sweet way of talking.

653 (Lewis Downing). 105-107 Union Pacific Railroad (Luther Standing Bear). 261. 789 Traitor (Big Eagle). 160 Translation (Francis LaFlesche). thoughts have frequently been travestied. 75 Treaty of Traverse Des Sioux (Big Eagle). . security afforded by our treaties. 406 Travel (Little Raven). 44 (bio) (Wilma Mankiller). p. p. 344-345 (Satank). 242 Truman. 558 Gohn Castillo). may our trails lie straight and level. p. you have grown to be a mighty tree. 195 Travestied (Francis LaFlesche). p. 404. 56 (bio) (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). 167 Treaty (Delshay). 668 (LaDonna Harris). 349 (Red Cloud). p. 61-62 (Teedyuscung). 537 Unity (Herbert Blatchford). bending tree. 556 Trail of Tears (William Shorey Coodey). only treaty I will make. 81 Trees (Anonymous Wintu). 139 Treaty of 1868 255 (Iron Shell). 21 (bio). 7 Tree (Charles A. 699 Trouble (Geronimo). I am an aged tree. p. 717 (Michael Dorris). 150 (bio). 145. p. Eastman). . usurpations sanctioned by . 270-271 (Dragging-Canoe). . 141 (Pushmataha). bringing tradition along with us into the future. create a film with a truly tribal vision. 333 Treaties (Henry Adams. p. 33 (bio) (Thomas Pegg). travel the same road as the white man. 185 (bio) University of California at Los Angeles (Paula Gunn Allen). p. 37 (William Mclntosh). 27 (bio). 35 Treaty of New Echota (Major Ridge). 338 (Red Jacket). 26 (Osceola). 660 Gohn Ross). 27 (bio) Trails (Great Plains Indians). 254 United Nations (Oren R. 42. shoot me as a traitor. p. 96 (bio) (John Ross). Lyons).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Tradition (Lorraine Canoe). ever growing tree an object of reverence. 166 (bio) Treaty of Greenville (Little Turtle). within the tradition of a particular tribe. 384 (Roman Nose). 10 University of Arizona (Leslie Silko). 536 (Peter MacDonald). 781-782 Tribal Goy Harjo). p. 27 (bio) (Sitting Bull). 521 (Tecumseh). 263 Treaty negotiation (Black Kettle). p. trouble has come from the agents and interpreters. 156 Treaty-making (King Philip). 74-75 Gohn Ross). 167 (bio) . p. 46 Gohn Ridge). 70 (bio). . 218 (Oochalata). treaty. we are like the . 148 (Major Ridge). Harry (Opothleyoholo). 333 (Alexander Posey).

. 665 (Elizabeth A. 56 (bio) Waponahki Museum Goseph Nicholas). Indians have been the victims of fine rhetoric. we do not take up the warpath without a just cause. a vision. I was raised with Indian values. 150 War causes (Big Eagle). 140 (bio) War (Edward Goodbird).). . . . . Warren). 199 (Tecumseh). back to the War Department. 697 (Allan Houser). 15 (Simon Ortiz). 36 (Old Tassel). war brought upon us by the children of the Great Father who came to take our land. 6 Warpath (Pushmataha). 551 Victory songs (Luther Standing Bear). made women of our warriors. is a matter of extrasensory as well as sensory perception. 27 (bio) (Tecumseh). transfer . 62 Victims (LaDonna Harris). a war with the Great Father would be disastrous. .256 University of Chicago (Inter-Tribal Meeting). given the warrior. . 392 (N. 594 SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Voice (Captain Jack). . p. 265-266 (Smohalla). 631 (Shirley Black Stone Weston). that people died except by violence. 191 (bio) Uranium (Russell Means). power . volcanic eruption of violence. p. the Indian bureau . 286 Wagon Box Fight (Red Cloud). 9 (Washakie). . 495 Virgin Mary (Cochise). 62 War Department (Ely Parker). 222 War of 1812 (William Mclntosh). 77 (Spotted Tail). 177 (bio) Violence Games Kaywaykla). Wells). Scott Momaday). . 333 Values (Dennis Banks). p. the voice of my people. 600 (Larry Echohawk). . p. 182 Vision (Edward Goodbird). 422 (Clyde Warrior). 19 (bio) War on poverty (Wilbur Riegert). 78 (John Ross). a kind of dream while yet awake we called . 62 . Sr. p. 637 (Harriett Pierce). p. . utterances belittled when put into English. 156-159 War cry (Red Cloud). the native vision . 479 (Little Turtle). 46 Warrior (Yellow Wolf). 623-624 Ussen (Kaywaykla). 636 Vengeance (Tecumseh). 524 (Shabonee). 426 Utterances (Francis LaFlesche). 474 (Sitting Bull). 183-186 (David C. meaning of Ussen is Creator of Life. went to war because . 213 (Tahajadoris). no jobs. 327 Warriors (Tecumseh). to begin a war without just provocation. 149 (bio) Warning (Powhatan). p. 393 (Wilson Keedah. 388 Vietnam War (Henry Adams).

328 Wolves (The Four Bears). tribal women have the lowest wages. Lyons). 356 Water rights (Peter MacDonald).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Wars Ganet McCloud). 113 Wisdom (Vernon Cooper). 57 (Mary Brave Bird). Lieutenant (Anonymous Apache). the whites run our country. 192. cry like a woman. 164 Wolf's bark (Black Kettle). p. 459 Wessells. 255 White Antelope (George Bent). 647 Washington Redskins (Sherman Alexie). think I will look like a white man. 719 Washington State (Herbert Blatchford). no such work as wild. our wisest men knew not what to do. p. 135 Wolf-Power (Yellow Wolf). p. we have not come with a little wolf's bark. do not make an idol of your wife. Only to the white man was nature a "wilderness. Captain (Dull Knife). p. 385 Wild West shows (Red Fox). wolves will shrink with horror. p. 530 Waterman. the white man has taken away everything. 101 (bio). 125 Woman (Anonymous Winnebago). Thomas (Ishi). 530 Washakie (Dick Washakie). 299 White man (Captain Jack). 285 (Dan Katchongva). white people are all thieves and liars. I spent my scout pay for whiskey. could not shoot him as I could a wolf. p. women must be- . not good to be enslaved by a woman. 343 Wolf (Wild Cat). 149 (bio) Ganet McCloud). 396-398 (Little Raven). the last Indian wars. 196 White people (Spotted Tail). 288 Whitman. 119 (bio) Wilderness (Luther Standing Bear). 752 Wife (Anonymous Winnebago). woman beating is part of everyday life. Wisdom is of the future. 7 (bio) Wind (Ten Bears). 466 Wisest (Thomas Pegg). 173 Whiskey (Wooden Leg). a nation is not conquered until the hearts of its women are on the ground. 711 Women (Cheyenne Proverb). 549 Wild Man (Ishi). 105 (bio) Washington. live like a white man. where the wind blew free. 351 "Whiskey eggs" (Simon Pokagon). 33-34 Welfare (Harriett Starleaf Gumbs). 790 (Linda Hogan)." 385 William and Mary College (Conassatego). (L. 101 (bio) "Wild West" (Luther Standing Bear). 772 Wild 257 (Oren R. 774 Woman beating (Black Hawk). 519 Wayne.C. 675 (Annie Wauneka). D. 216 Whites (Gall). David Jacobs). Anthony (Little Turtle).

87 Work (Smohalla). Eastman).. p. 600 (Mary Brave Bird). 81 (bio). men who work cannot dream. p. p. 169-170 (bio) (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). 276 (Seattle). 152 (bio) (Russell Means). 405 Words (Dan Katchongva). 289292 SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Louis W. 359-360 (Charles A. p. p. p. Sr. p. Sr. p. 144 (bio) Goseph Nicholas). 561 Writing (Four Guns). 397 (Chief Joseph).). an inventor of many words. 94 (bio). p. 99 (bio) WPA Gim Barnes). 93 (bio) Wounded Knee Occupation (Dennis Banks). p. p. women . 476. 164 (bio) (Black Elk). 475 Word (Alexander Posey). good words will not get my people a home where they can live in peace. 121 (bio) (Peter Dillon). 189-190 (bio) (Leonard Crow Dog).258 come more active in politics. 166 (bio) (Wovoka). p. 164 (bio). second-class citizens. my words are like stars that never set.). 169-170 (bio). p. 183 World War II (Eugene Crawford). the Indian needs no writing. p. p. p. 153 (bio) (Dennis Banks). gorgeous word pictures. p. p. p. 140 (bio) Wounded Knee Massacre (American Horse). 148 (bio) (Teddy Draper. p. 628 Wovoka (Kicking Bear). 146 (bio) (Jim Earthboy). 145 (bio) (Peter MacDonald). Ballard). . 147 (bio) (Wilson Keedah. 101 (bio). 420 YMCA (Charles A. 94 (bio) . 83 (bio) (Ella Deloria). p. Eastman). 340-341 (Russell Means). p. .

259-268. 14-17. 344-345. 608-610. 412-418. 665-666 Coeur d'Alene. 245-246. 78-81. 396-398. 482-483 "All Tribes/' 723-729 Apache. 514-517. 457. 680-682 Hunkpapa Lakota. 484. 698-699. 670-674. 122-124. 192-196. 733 Dakota. Acoma Pueblo. 349. 449-451. 44-48. 297300. 730. 221. 643-645. 309. 1-3. 455 Cherokee. 444. 366-370. 749 Croatoan. 363-364. 145-149. 10. 131-133. 478^81 Choctaw. 529 Creek. 187-188. 790-792 Chickasaw. 178-182. 351-352. 551-556 Cree. 71-75. 531. 594-597. 754 Blackfeet. 659-663. 113-115. 25-29. 632-635 Brule Sioux. 505 . 161-163. 239-240. 561. 719 Comanche. 401-406. 461-465. 598-599. 134-140. 288 Iroquois. 320-321. 632-635 Hidatsa. 211-217. 717. 675-677 Chippewa. 443. 589. 736 Cheyenne. 473. 752-753 Arapaho. 738-740 Gros Ventre. 69-70. 169-173.Tribe Index All numbers refer to quote numbers. 127-130. 390-395 Hopi. 526-528. 43. 529. 557. 241-244. 731 Crow Creek Sioux. 702-704 Chiricahua Apache. 652-654. 312. 82-86. 189-191. 197. 637-642 Akagchemem. 218-219. 99-109. 648-650. 428. 445-446. 154. 278-280 Delaware. 643-645 Assiniboine. 600-606. 153. See Lumbee Crow. 313-319. 342-343. 11-13 Isleta Pueblo.

762 Shawnee. 365. 141. 631 Miami. 76. 429-431. 750. 323. 530 Ute. 787 Quapaw. 247-252. 741 Montagnais. 422-427 Winnebago. 337341. 648-650 Nez Perce. 346-348. 718 Southern Cheyenne. 532. 198-210. 272-277. 330-333. 379-383 . 7 Wanapum. 164-166 Seneca. 518. 87-98 Teton. 189-191 Wabanakis. 116-117 Sac/Fax. 307-308. 558-560. 8-9. 612-614. 772-780 Wintu. 651. 525. 590-593. 466 Mandan. 361-362 Oneida. 270-271 Tulalip. 377-378. 59-67. 467. 594-597 Koyukon Athabascan. 474. 77 Pottawattami. 786 Ottawa. 646-647. 156-160. 289-292. 118-121 Pima. 615 67 Tribes. 452-454. 746-748 Oklahoma Creek. 150-152. 569583 Stoney. 222-230. 334-335 Sisseton-Wahpeton Dakota. 506. 447-448. 667-669 Mohawk. 537-549 Osage. 763-767 Sioux. 622-630a. 486-489. 496-498 Santee Sioux. 509-513. 584. 734 Wampanoag. 683-686 Lakota. 18-19 Paiute. 357-360. 323. 322. 407-411 Yankton Sioux. 438-442 Yankton Dakota. 651. 619-621. 587-588. 742-745. 350. 499-502. 434-437. 399-400 Suquamish. 612-614. 167-168. 336. 486-489 Onondaga. 656-658. 30-31. 518. 678-679 Mescalero Apache. 664. 475-476. 384-389. 253-254 Spokane. 281-283 Yavapai. 607. 301-305. 490-495 Potawatomi. 735 Navajo. 174-175. 700-701. 110-112 Shinnecock. 432-433. 176. 536. 761 Pueblos. 562-568. 142-144. 231-238. 788. 310-311. 680-682 Modoc. 636. 372. 732 Seminole. 524. 503-504 Pawnee. 611 Passamaquoddy. 655 q i b w a y . 757 Pine Ridge Sioux. 557 TRIBE INDEX Sac. 768 Standing Rock Sioux. 781-783 Wyandot. 125-126 Mashantucket Pequot. 758-760 Ponca. 720-722 Tonto Apache. 687-697 Pawnee Loups. 353-355. 467. 293-296. 485 Laguna. 255-258 Powhatan.260 Kaw. 585-586. 535. 769-771 Tlingit. 705-716. 269. 155. 468-472. 324-329. 49-58. 519-522. 550 Lumbee. 700-701 Kiowa. 507-508. 374-376. 220. 616-618 Oglala Sioux. 373 Northern Cheyenne. 20-24 Miwok. 791 Sisseton. 458-460 Shoshone. 652-654. 484. 371. 183-186 Warm Springs Apache. 477 Tohono O'odham. 756 Omaha. 419 Wailaki. 784 Yahi. 719. 356 Yakima. 4-6. 32-36 Mingo. 456. 37-42. 523. 177. 284-287. 420-421. Apache.

he now works as a free-lance writer and college journalism instructor. including Who Puts the Print on the Page? (1976) and Directory of Speakers (1981). LANGER is the author of several articles and three books.About the Editor HOWARD J. . editor. and director of publications. Having worked in publishing as a reporter.