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Federigo da Venezia's Commentary on the Apocalypse: 1393/94 Author(s): Anthony Luttrell Source: The Journal of the Walters Art

Gallery, Vol. 27/28 (1964/1965), pp. 57-65 Published by: The Walters Art Museum Stable URL: Accessed: 08/09/2009 07:17
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Accademia Brittannica, Rome

a Dominican and 1350.1 He became as a Doctor of Theology matriculated in the uni around 1380.2 In 1386 the versity at Bologna of the Clementist Dominicans chapter-general meeting others, at Avignon denounced among Federigo, as a schismatic follower of the Roman 13 February, Urban VI.3 On 1387, the

Federigo da Venezia, ably about

de Rinoldo, usually known as Federigo was presumably born in Venice, prob

in August, wished, while to return to the convent he had borrowed

from of them.6 On 8 September, if he had disposed described as professor da Venezia, 1392, Federigo was received de collegio bononiensi, formally in colegio paduano magistrorum and incorporated et doctorum sacre th?ologie,1 He was at Padua on 20th he 16 October, 1393,8 and on November delivered an oration in the cathedral at the funeral the former da Carrara of Francesco the Elder, Pier Paolo Vergerio, as "dis described this, Federigo reported and he in doctrine and eloquence," tinguished that he spoke both in Latin and in the mentioned At vulgar tongue so as better to be understood.9 com about this time, in 1393 or 1394,10 Federigo ruler of Padua. who The humanist

1389, he was ordered at Venice all the books or to make restitution it,

Pope, of the Urbanist Dominicans Master assigned him as a conventual to the Order's house at Ferrara.4 In 1388 he was back in Bologna, where he became

prior.5 On 13 June, 1389, Federigo was appointed lector or regent in the convent at Padua to teach in the Studium gen?rale there for two years. On July 1 lth he was granted a license to send two brethren he of his order from Padua to Venice whenever

1The basic are G. Stadtm?ller, Eine studies griechische des italienischen Apokalypsenkommentars ?bersetzung von P. da O.P. Venezia 1936); Federigo (Leipzig, e di filolog?a, II: per di erudizione in his Scritti Vaccari, e dell'esegesi testo la storia b?blica del (Rome, 1958), on These authors concentrated the texts pp. 407-416. are not and manuscripts, studied which here, seriously details but misleadingly that the biographical declared an outline career to construct of Federigo's here utilized did not would doubtless further research reveal exist; more. known and the printed editions The manuscripts are listed at the conclusion of this article. 2 can only be dated matriculation Federigo's approxi in F. Ehrle, in the list given / its place from mately statuti antichi dell'Universit? d?lia pi? facolt? teol?gica di Bologna 105. p. 1932), (Bologna, 3 Fratrum Monumenta Ordinis His Praedicatorum Acta t?rica, VIII: III, ed. B. capitulorum generalium, Reichert (Rome, p. 24. 1900), 4 . . . , XIX: litter arum Monumenta Registrum fr. ordinis: de Vineis 1380-1399, Raymundi Capuani magistri ed. T. Kaeppeli p. 9. (Rome, 1937), & et les biblio Fabio Ibid., p. 23; M.-H. Laurent, Vigili au d?but de Bologne du XVIe si?cle th?ques (Vatican,

in instructed de Moymago, Niccol? p. xxxi. 1943), a debt to settle owed by Federigo, November, 1388, was regens at Bologna (Registrum, pp. 15, 17, 20). 6 11 34. On 1389, Ibid., 23, 24, 27, July, pp. was as regent at Padua to act license his however, same F rater On the revoked p. day 25). (ibid., was a kinsman, also Andrea Raynoldi, presumably cura sub to Padua the convent, magistri assigned 11 March, On Federici 1395, Andrea p. 24). (ibid., was at Padua: de Veneciis Francisci Renoldi quondam Monumenti d?lia Universit? di Padova: ed. A. 1318-1405, II (Padua, Gloria, p. 294. 1888), 7 . . . . , II, p. 266. Monumenti ? Ibid., p. 278. 9 "Turn ut constitutum sacrorum erat subiit in medio Praedicatorum Federicus Magister Religionem professus, turn literato, doctrina, atque eloquentia qui praeclarus, turn vulgari sermone, quo magis quisque intelligeret, constanter Defuncti m?rita, gloriamque exposuit:" Rerum Italicarum ed. L. Muratori, XVI Scriptores, p. 193. (Milan, 1730), 10 Two N. 1394: Ms. (E and L) manuscripts give

gives 22 June, 1393; Ms. A gives 24 July, 1393. The

reference to Wyclif's death in 1384 as having occurred









on the Apocalypse, written pleted his Commentary in the vernacular at the command of Francesco da was Carrara the Younger, Lord of Padua.11 He General in 1395,12 but by 28 May, 1396, the the Dominicans that had decided he should leave; he was assigned as inquisitor to or not he went, the convent at Bologna.18 Whether of he was in Padua still at Padua

of piety and aimed at a public largely of the classics. For example, the exciting ignorant afforded by a text so clouded with opportunities and numerology mysterious imagery, symbolism tradition did not stimulate in Federigo such antique fantasies as those found in John Ridevall's Lectura super Apocalypsim.17 the assertion expositio Federigo's began with was that the Apocalypse, the Book of Revelation, the only biblical book of which Christ himself was the author, St. John where Alexander all sorts Apocalypse But Saladin, own times, Thomas and being merely of Bremen the found scribe.18 in the to of his from

1398.14 again on 15 February, he died soon after. Probably was a Dominican of the Federigo professor a minor to university local figure devoted ology, He produced teaching and popular preaching.15 what was technically a Hieraus expositio, a study of the text and its grammar, rather than an interpre tation of its spiritual or allegorical significance. The approach was uninspired and, like many of his among the Italian friars, Federigo contemporaries kept close to his text, each Latin phrase being followed by a translation and a literal explanation in of the meaning. his work was Presumably tended than obvious for academic rather public from copious teaching. Apart to the Scriptures, it cited only a few the vernacular-reading

figures passages and where Niccol? de chronicles, contemporary written earlier in the four Lyra's commentary, teenth century, saw the book as full of allusions included whole to many great historical figures,19 Federigo made to any event later than the almost no reference fall of Rome. The problems arising out of the schism in the church and a consciousness of con conciliar have been re temporary theory may on the flected in Federigo's insistence repeated as including all good old idea of the ecclesia for example, he wrote, in his only Christians; to Padua, "all the good Christians reference that who live in Padua are together called the church and all the faithful Christians of the of Padua, are of one church of God."20 world The only to a contemporary in the whole work reference a concern with heresy. demonstrated Federigo mentioned John Wyclif, who died in 1384, writing that the body of Christ of the latter's doctrine was not truly present in the mass and of his sup port among the nobles and the continued preach the fatal paralysis ing of his ideas. He described
17 Cf. B. and Antiquity in the Friars English Smalley, 115-121, 1960), (Oxford, pp. Century Early Fourteenth on extracts with from Ridevall the 265-298, 312-314, Apocalypse. 18 1-lv fols. Incunabulum, 19 "Friar Alexander J. Gilson, and for example, See, the Apocalypse," of in his Historical Interpretation et al. Collectanea Franciscana, II, ed. C. Kingsford und W. Kamiah, 1922); Apokalypse (Manchester, der Die mittelalterliche Auslegung Geschichtstheologie: vor Joachim von Fiore (Berlin, 1935). Apokalypse 20 nos et fecit 8v. The fol. Incunabulum, phrase was se et sacerdotes "tucti christiani regnum glossed cio e preti" dire sacerdoti, (fol. 5). poteno

of prophetic Becket and other



Boethius authorities, including Augustine, and Bernard. the more imaginative com Ignoring on his text by men like Gioacchino da mentaries Fiore and the Franciscans Alexander of Bremen and Niccol? de Lyra, he copied liberally and at times merely from such closely, translating, as Hughes sound Dominican authorities de Saint in Apocalyp and the anonymous Expositio to Albertus Magnus.16 Al sim falsely attributed he was writing in Padua, a great humanist though


references of the type favored centre, classicizing some of the fourteenth-century friar by English commentators in the work of found no place an older, conservative who represented Federigo,

better documented career a Pisan T. of "La contemporary: Kaeppeli, e di atti da di discorsi scolastici di Simone Raccolta Cascina O.P. Archivum Fratrum Praedica (t ca. 1420)," torum, XII (1942). 16 See no full analysis op. cit., pp. 413-414; Vaccari, of the expositio has been made.

earlier op. years (cf. Vaccari, the two Mss. (B and F) mistakenly 1394 rather than 1393. gest 11Mss. B and N mention Francesco 12 . ., II, pp. 294, 295. Monumenti. 13 . . . , pp. 50, 51. Registrum 14 . . , II, p. 323. Monumenti. 15 Cf. similar the somewhat but

ten and


pp. giving

414-415), 1384, sug

da Carrara.



1 St. (Ms. W. 335, fol. 2vo. Federigo John da on Patmos and his Vision on the Apocalypse,"







1 ^^^^^K^^^E^^
IH^ ?

j I




Vtmtmt che quefio tiomc 8f?raUpfi ? tt?nnc$rctO< . MM


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lacntbu di? elfo ?qm?obfamt fl p p>tbqu?? xunac

* flBUt^A. ^^ *"?v'**y- ^JBP**"". *r*\



' 4fe ^^BB^^flll^B^BlEi^fl^B ? ^?d^* ^ v ^^ w #^H^Hr^S^HHVr% J



JBr ft

FIGURE 5/. (Ms. W. 335, fol. 3. Federigo da John Dictating to Prochoros on the Apocalypse,"







FEDERIGODA VENEZIA^ COMMENTARY at the moment? struck Wyclif dumb to Federigo?that he entered the pulpit according to preach his heresies.21 This story, a version of which was current in England,22 probably reached which students, some of through one of various them Dominicans, from Padua who went and to study theology at Oxford Venice and Cam Padua bridge.23 the late fourteenth non-Tuscan By century, used for the more dialects were quite commonly academic type of religious writing, as well as for a wide sermons of spiritual works, variety published and devotional treatises. A number of vernacular versions of all or parts of the Bible, some in Venetian dialect, were current including in trecento Italy, the Apocalypse being especially but Federigo's work, written in a rather of his native Venetian literary version speech, was one of the very first biblical commentaries composed directly in an Italian tongue rather than popular,24 in Latin; it just preceded Rinieri dei Rinaldeschi da Prato's Espositione dei Salmi, in commenced 2397 25 Federigo was presumably anxious to se cure a wide general public. His Venetian-type text was probably over a wide comprehensible area of northern Italy, but since it was less easily in central Italy without understood it adaptation, was gradually "Tuscanized." Partly perhaps be cause it was in the vernacular, partly perhaps be cause so straightforward it was and uncontro

versial, Federigo's commentary was widely copied some of the manu during the fifteenth century, one into other dialects, scripts being translated rather late manuscript being "reduced from the to the Perugian and common tongue."26 in Italian in the copy was the only manuscript of the celebrated Nicholas of Cues, who library a student was at Padua.27 An incunabulum most probably printed in Rome around edition, was in a central Italian dialect, 1470, possibly it was followed Umbrian; by two "Tuscanized" in differing at texts, each languages, printed in 1515 and Milan Venice in 1520.28 Federigo's own reputation suffered during this diffusion of what was apparently his only work, and several and the incunabulum falsely attributed manuscripts its authorship or in part to the more wholly One commentator famous de Lyra, Niccol? while as merely others presented Federigo the translator of Niccol? de Lyra's work.29 least two manuscripts of Federigo da Vene were in Candia, the commentary copied town of the Venetian chief of Crete. colony Candia's intellectual life was closely linked to that zia's and many Cretans studied in the uni was copied One manuscript versity at Padua.30 at Candia for Zacear?a by a Venetian notary of Venice Vitturi in 1409;31 another is (which in the Walters Art Gallery) was completed there in 1415 and apparently illuminated by a Greek of Venice At Venetian

21 on IX: text 2 in incunabulum, Commenting (the fols. 65-65v, is corrupt; cf. Vaccari, op. cit., pp. 414-415). 22 . . divino ". horribili tactus percussus, Eg. judicio est paralysi per omnia membra sua"; Chronicon Angliae, ed. E. Thompson (London, p. 362. Years 1874), later, in 1441, Wyclifs curate swore John Horn that Wyclif was paralyzed while mass": J. Workman, John "hearing

The idea

of Edinburgh University

and explicits incipits below reproduced of the variations in language. (Mr. Alan

some give Freedman

kindly gave advice on these


A. "Giovanni a Venetian Luttrell, Contarini, at Oxford: Journal the Warburg and 1392-1399," of Courtauld XXIX Institutes, (1966). 24 and his "Bibbia," in op. cit., pp. 378-389, Vaccari, VI 899-901. Italiana, Enciclopedia (Milan, 1930), pp. See also Bibbia istoriata delta fine del trecento, padovana ed. G. Mellini Folena?G. and the (Venice, 1962), texts in Prosatori minori del I: scrittori di trecento, ed. G. De Luca religioni, (Milan, 1954). 25 Vaccari, op. cit., p. 416. 26 See below under Ms. L. The autograph of Federigo's work is not known, but the other manuscripts and the an would editions set of texts for provide interesting a study of the transmission and "Tuscanization" of a didactic work in a regional composed originally prose.

23 Cf.

II (Oxford, 1926), p. 316.

questions.) 27 This is made in a forthcoming point by P. Kristeller article under Ms. D). (cf. below 28 See below. 29Mss. B, E, G, H, error is still I, J, K, L, O. This on the Apocalypse was repeated. being Lyra partly translated summarized, into the vernacular partly (eg. Biblioteca Ms. Urbin. Lat. but Vaticana, few 546), survive manuscripts op. cit., p. 413). (Vaccari, 30 Extensive in D. references Greek Geanakoplos, Scholars in Venice (Cambridge, Mass., 1962), pp. 13-70; A. Leonzio Pilato e Boccaccio: Pertusi, le fra Petrarca sue versioni omeriche di Venezia e la negli autografi cultura del greca Umanesimo primo (Venice, 1964), pp. 30-34. 31Ms. K. In 1398 Vitturi was one of the sapientes dit Venice, Crete and in 1401 he was a galley sending

to Candia

(Venice, Archivio
46v47v); under below, fol.

34v; XLV, Crete (see

in 1409 Ms. K).

di Stato; Misti, XLIV,

he was


a consiliarius









in Crete It was artist, presumably (figs. 1, 2).32 in Crete at about the same time almost certainly that a rather clumsy and literal translation of the was made the biblical into Greek, commentary from a Greek texts themselves being supplied The work of an obsure version of the Bible.33 friar thus took a minor place among the important series of translations, more through which Byzantine of Roman usually from the Latin, a acquired This process theologians

BELLUNO, in July, Copied


vulgari super apocalipsim profesoris ordinis predicatorum xxxiiii (sic) beati Johannis apostoli edita inM.ccc. domini ad mandatum Illustris francisci de Cararia." sis Sancti habetur Nicolai

Biblioteca Ms. 54. Lolliniana, in 1450. "Incipit litteralis expositio sacre th?ologie fratris Federici de Veneciis

knowledge theology. of understanding that measure helped to produce the serious attempt to secure which made possible took place at the reunion of the churches which the Council Federigo's of Florence death.34 a few decades after

"Explicit Expoxitio Vulgaris Apocalip edita ut Johannis apostoli et Euangeliste cum aliquibus gloxis in exordio uoluminis de Campixiis de lira per me Guidonem sibi

de papia. 1450. mense Julij. deus miseatur et quadragintaquatuor." Carte scripte ducentas

C. COPENHAGEN, De University Library. fire in 1728. op cit., p. Stadtm?ller, stroyed by

8, n. 4.

D. A. Art Gallery, Ms. W. 10 October, (Crete), Beati Johannis liber apocalypsis 1415. "Incipit cum expositione et evangeliste notabili Apostoli in vulgari sermone deo gratias." "Explicit literalis Walters BALTIMORE, at Candia 335. Copied Beati Johannis super Apocalipsim exposicio et ordinata per et Evangeliste Apostoli compilata sacro s?nete de veneciis fratrem Frederichum Anno doctorem Ordinis predicatorum. th?ologie domini M.ccc. lxxxxiii die xxiiii fuit hoc ad mensis laudem Julii. omni Scriptum atque completum die X octobris opus Candide dei amen. Millesimo potentis quintodecimo." and W. Ricci Renaissance Manuscripts celeberimum Ms. 23. Incipit: CUES, Hospitalbibliothek, con "Questo libro elqual si appella lapocalisis;" sovra dicta. Amen. "Sancta Jerusalem clusion: Gracias. Amen." J. Marx, der Verzeichnis des Hospitals zu Cues (Trier, 1905), p. 18.


Handschriften-Sammlung am Mosel bei Bernkastei

E. FLORENCE, Biblioteca Laurenziana, Ms. ital. XXVII. 7. Title: "La Exposici?n dell'Apocalipsis Nichollo de per volgar, con le giose de Maistro da Veniexa traslatada per Maistro Lira, Federigo del ordene di Frari Predicadori in Mcccxciv." Incipit: "Questo libro, el qu?le si apella Apocalip se sis tra tuti gli altri libri della Santa Scritura die lezere." Conclusion: "Citadini della Citate The manu Santa Ierusalem sopradita. Amen." to Simone Malerbo of Zara script once belonged an illumination depicts St. John the in Dalmatia; and there is a family shield. A. Bandini, Evangelist Catalogus Codicum ceae Laurentianae, Italicorum V Bibliothecae 1778), (Florence, Medi pp. 6-7.

It is mistakenly Census Wilson,

quadragentesimo stated in S. de and of Medieval States and

in the United

2 vols. I, p. 1935-1937), Canada, (New York, was copied in Venice. 820, that the manuscript to a Greek attributable Two miniatures, artist, the vision of Christ among the seven candle depict to Pro sticks (fig. 1) and St. John dictating The rest of the illumi choros on Patmos (fig. 2). nation, including is in the early fifteenth-century and is described manuscript reproduced by L. Olschki, (1914-1915), pp. 49-50, Dorothy Walters initials with foliage and figures, Italian style. The the two miniatures bibliofilia, III, IV. checked XVI (Miss at the this

in the hands of the Librer?a Leo F. FLORENCE, in S. Olschki in 1937. "Incipit literalis expositio

in La

Miner, Keeper Art Gallery, very kindly additional and provided description

plates of Manuscripts

32Ms. A. 33 The Greek ana, Ms. Graec. see also Vaccari, 34 and Survey tine Background of the American

version VII. 9)

Biblioteca (Florence, was and identified

studied by Stadtm?ller, who

printed extracts from


Laurenzi its problems


information.) 62

op. cit., pp. 407-410. in K. Setton, bibliography to the Italian Renaissance," vol. Society, Philosophical

Byzan Proceedings C (1956).

FEDERIGODA VENEZIA^ COMMENTARY translata per Fr. Frederichum

millesimo mense trecentesimo januari." Vaccari, quarto

. . (sic)

de Veneciis
octuagesimo op. cit.,

. edicta

records were destroyed, Olschki's pp. 410-411; cannot now be traced. and this manuscript G. MILAN, sup. latino. Ms. M. 22. Ambrosiana, at Aquila, 27 May, 1467. Copied Sancti Johannis apostoli "Incipit liber apocalipsis cum glosis Reuerendi magistri nico et euangeliste lai de lira ordinis francisci septatoris seraphici crucifixi yhesu christi qui easdem visiones Johanni reuelauit. Questo libro libro (sic) si e nominato Biblioteca

John. The coat of arms on the first page forms ornament and consists of a part of the marginal shield; in the upper part is a blue lion, standing on a gold ground, not rampant, in the lower a straight red field. There seems no reason part for de Ricci, ibid., to have attributed these arms (Professor P. O. Kristeller very a description of this manuscript kindly provided as well as other useful information.) J. NEW Ms. Library of Dr. Curt F. B?hler, at Urbino, 8 October, 1456. Copied Incipit: "Questo libro che se chiama lo apochal la uulgar ipsi, tra tutti li altri libri." "Explicit de sancto zohane sopra lapocalipsi exposition et ordinada per appostolo conpilada euangelista YORK, 20. to the Guerruci.

sancta ieru Conclusion: "citade apocalypsis." salem sopra dicta. Amen. Deo gracias. Amen. domini Mcccc Anno s?ptimo. Die sexag?simo 27 Madij. in libri apocalipsis Explicit postilla qua continentur iste ab agnello reuelate. ordinis explicit given H. septem visiones iohannis euangel christi sibi diuinitas inmaculato Francisci. Magistri nicolao de lira Laus tibi christe qui In urbe aquilana." Not

frate federigo da uinexia del ordene di predicha de la sancta theologia, etc. Queste tori, magistro ouer exposition sono de magistro Nicolo glose da lira del ordine ch'ano di frati minori e de li altri sopra lapochal sancta opera, de questa exposition ipsi. Questa del apochalipsi, fu acopiada per mi Bardo di mazi da bressa a honore e reuerentia del altissimo dio e del sanctissimo et euangelista miser appostolo sancto zohane quale sempre sia mio deuotissimo denanzi ala maesta aduochato diuina quale per la soa gratia mi faza degno de la soa cita superna e de la eterna uita. Amen. Anno domini con pletum fuit hoc opus existente in pretura Ciuitatis Vrbini Anno 1456 die 8 octubris." The manu is decorated, and has a shield on folio 1. script from photocopies (Information kindly provided Cf. T. Pettigrew, Bibliotheca Sus by Dr. B?hler.) sexiana, I (London, 1827), pp. ccxxxv-ccxxxvi; recorded by Vaccari, op. cit., p. 411, as being in

edita a Reuerendo seraphici liber iste. Amen.



in Vaccari,

op. cit., p. 411.

Biblioteca Ms. VI. D. Nazionale, liber apocalipsis sancti Iohannis "Incipit cum glossis nicholai et euangeliste, de apostoli lira ordinis In dei nomine. fratrum minorum. Amen. si e nominato Questo libro, lo quale NAPLES, 78. intra tutti li libri." The two final apocalipsis, folios are missing. A. Miola, Le scritture in vol . . . della Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli, I gare (Bologna, I. NEW 1878), pp. 123-124.

Public Library, Ms. 86. A late YORK, in dialect. fifteenth-century manuscript Incipit: "Questo libro e (sic) lo fi appella la pochalipsis tra tutti li altri libri de la sancta scritura." Con "citadini de la citade sancta iherusalem clusion: Amen. liber apochalipsis Explicit cum glosis iohannis apostoli et euangeliste or magistri nicolai de lira." A sixteenth-century later hand added: "Est magnifici Petri Guerruci, nee non filiorum eius nunc occupantium Muriani Oppidum, quod distat a venetiis itus Sagitae." Un sopra sancti known de Lyra Venetian to Vaccari, in de Ricci, binding and falsely attributed to Niccol? op. cit., II, p. 1328. Elaborate and an initial miniature of St. 63 dita.


ital. 86. Ms. Nationale, PARIS, Biblioth?que in Candia 9 February, 1409. (Crete), Copied On fol. lv: "Introitus. In nomine dei omne genu terrestrium et infernorum quia flectatur celestium dominus (sic) factus obediens usque ad mortem mortem autem crucis ideo dominus yhesus christus in "Che si (fol.3): gloria est dei patris." Incipit tra tuti i altri libri del? sancta apella lapocalipsi scritura se die legere et aldire." "Explicit literalis expositio super Apocalypsim Beati Johanis








Apostoli Fratrem

et ordinata per et Evangeliste compilata th? sacrosancte de Venetia Fredericum Ordinis Predicatorum. Doctorem Anno, ologie etc. Glose iste omnes que sunt in isto libro Sunt de Lira ordinis Fratrum Minor commentatorum qui commentave librum transcripsi ego de Candida Notarius Domi

et ordinata secundum apostoli compilata federicum de uenetiis sacre th?ologie pro et ad Instantiam fessorem ordinis predicatorum ac magnifia mandatum Illustris principis domini Iohanis fratrem domini Iuniorum francisci de cararia due. Mccclxxxxiii pilatum hoc opus." catalogue describes die xxii mensis domini pa Iunii fuit com

Magistri Nicolai orum et aliorum

runt Apocalypsim. Hunc dono Venetiarum Johanes et Sapienti ac nobilo Viro Domino Egregio

no Cacharie Crete Consiliaro vituri Honorabili suo precordialissimo Sub anno Domini domino nono mense februarii Millesimo quadringentesimo tercia. diei Indictione hora die nono prima Candide. copied m?ller, L. Deo Gratias. Amen." Fowler.) by Dr. Kenneth op. cit., pp. 38-51, with (Material kindly See also Stadt extracts.

At fols. 94v-101 is what the as an "Apochalipsi ad literam dello with stesso)" (volgarizzamento incipit: La quala dio ha de yheso Christo. "Apocalipsi dada a manifestar ali soi servi: che bixonga esser facto tosto." Codices Italici B. Peyron, manu exarati . . . in Biblioteca Taurinensis Athe naei (Turin, 1904), p. 26. ital. 4788 Ms. Marciana, 31 August, 1433 to 22

0. VENICE, [Z2].

Biblioteca at Venice,

Comunale Biblioteca Augusta, PERUGIA, or later manuscript. Ms. 979. A sixteenth-century de la Pocalipsis "Questa e la expositione per vol de lira trans con le giose de mastro Nicolo gare de l'Ordine da Vinegia latata per mastro Federico del m.ccclxxxxiiii Frati Predicatori dei copiata da e ridotta di lingua Venigiana Iosephe de li Oddi [a] perugina et communa. Incipit Proemium Apo libro il quale si apella apocalip Questo calipsis. sis." The final pages are missing. M. ROME, uncatalogued Archivio di Sta. Maria Ms. sopra Minerva, On fif VIII.K.3).

Copied 1434. Beati October, "Incipit liber Apochalipsis et Euangelliste Iohannis Apostollj chom Exposici one notabilj sermone. Deo Gracias. in vulgarj Che si Appella l'Apocalipsj. Tra tuttj j altrj librj." Conclusion: "zitadinj della zitade sampta Ieruxa lem sopra ditta. Amen. Deo Gratias. Explicit Lit teralis Expositio super Apochalipsim Beatj Iohan et hor et Euangelliste. nis Apostollj Chompillata dinata De de Vanijs de Venecijs. per Andream etc. Scriptum chomffinio Sampte Marie Noue, fuit hoc celleberimum atque chompletum hopus

Venecie Ad

(formerly libro che "Questo paper. Incipit: teenth-century la se chiama tra tuti." "Explicit lapochalipsi del Sancto sopra volgar lapocalipsi expositio e evangelista zuane appostolo compilata per frate del ordene dei predicatore da venexia fedrigo doctore de la sancta theologia." (Padre Thomas Kaeppeli, O.P., very kindly provided this and other information.) N. Ms. 1720. Biblioteca Nazionale, TURIN, e "Questa sopra la pocalissi exposition stada facta per maistro federigo de rinoldo de In in padoa." lordene de i fratri predicatori la pocalissi "Questro libro che e appellado cipit: se die tra tuti altri libri de la sancta scriptura "citadini liezare et oldire." Conclusion (fol. 94): soura dicta. Amen. de la citade santa Ierusalem literalis expositio super apocalypsim beati 64

sechundo menssis hottobris. Die vigessimo laudem homnipotentis dei. Amen. Millesimo etc. Gloxe quarto, trigessimo quadragentessimo iste homnes de

que sunt in isto libro sunt Magistrj lira. Ordinis Fratrum Minorum, Nichollaj et alliorum chomentatorum, quj chomentauerunt notes Further repeat the above Apochalipsim." text the Latin In this manuscript information. owner is omitted. A former (sixteenth-century?) was Jacopo Ghisi. Cf. C. Frati and A. Segarizzi, Italiani, I (Modena, Catalogo dei Codici Marciani 1909), pp. 4-5. P. VICENZA, 1. "Tuscanized" Biblioteca


Ms. Bertoliana, 2, 8. text, lacking first ten folios and "citadini de la ci conclusion: without colophon; Laus Deo." tade sancta Jerusalem sopradicta. 411-412. op. cit., pp. Vaccari,





ca. Incunabulum [ROME? 1470]. de Lyra. Probably ascribed to Niccol? Falsely printed in by Ulrich

Conclusion: endo

del reuer "Qui finisce la expositione v?neto frate Federico nelle theologo ouer revelatione de S. Giouanne ditte proph?tie:

or perhaps Naples, Rome, possibly Han or Sixtus Riessinger. No title. [Red] "Incipit et liber apocalypsis Sancti Iohannis apostoli cum glosis Nicolai de lira ordinis fra euangeliste trum minorum. In dei nomine. Amen." [Black] libro loquale si e nominato "Qvisto apocalypsis infra tucti li altri libri." Conclusion: "citatadini della Cita sancta ierusalem decta amen." sopra in G. Barwick, Discussed of Books Catalogue Printed in the XVth Century now in the British IV (reprint: London, Museum, 1963), pp. 142

nouamente deducte in luce per Alex Apochalypsis in Venetia andro Paganino del .M.D.XV. Adi de Aprile." .VIL in M. Described Sander, Le livre ? figures (Milan, cit., p.

1942), 414,

italien depuis 1467 p. 633. According the original

jusqu'? 1530, II to Vaccari, op. is "medio language


seu apocalipsis 1520. Title: MILAN, "Proph?tie Beati Ioannis apostoli et Euangeliste: Cum vul ..." Incipit: "Questo libro elquale gari expositione he chiamato clusion: tra tutti li altri." Con Apochalypsis del reuerendo "Qui finisce la expositione ne le proph?tie: frate Federico V?neto

surviving copies, with in Ameri variant incipits, in F. Goff, Incunabula can Libraries (New York, 1964), p. 346. Ac op. cit., p. 415, the text is in cording to Vaccari, a "dialetto centrale"; it is somewhat corrupt. 1515. Title: "Apocalypsis iesu christi. VENICE, hoc est reuelatione fatta a sancto giohanni euange . . ." a lista. cum noua expositione Following tabula and a prologue the text proper commences on fol. 2v: "Questro libro el quale si e nominato."



to the

theologo ouer reuelatione de Sancto Giouanne ditte Apo deducte in luce per meser lo. calypsis nouamente in Milano el .M.D.XX. Adi Scinzenzeler Angelo .xv. de Aprile." in L. Balsamo, Gio Described vanr? Angelo Scinzenzeler, tip?grafo in Milano: 1500-1526 (Florence, (no. 1959), pp. 180-181 to Vaccari, op. cit., p. 416, the 162). According text is more "toscanizzata" than that of 1515.