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Bisc 102 Notes Chapter 1

How do we define life? What properties are common to all living organisms? At what scales do we examine life? How is the diversity of life organized? What is the unifying theme of biology? What is science? What is a theory?

What is biology? The study of life All living organisms share seven properties: A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Order Regulation (body temperature, blood pressure, pH, etc.) Growth and development Energy utilization Respond to the environment Reproduction Evolution (all populations of species are able to evolve)

Life occurs at many scales and is hierarchical: Cells- Tissues- Organ Systems & Organs- Organism- Populations- Communities-Ecosystems- Biosphere (From cellular to global) We are focusing on the organismal level which is the level of organisms on down. Smallest-Scale Life: Cells All living organisms are made of cells - Some of just one, some of many All activities required for life occur at this level - Energy converted, production, waste disposed Cells are programmed to divide - Allows for reproduction in all organisms - Allows for growth, replacement, and repair in multi-cellular organisms

All cells hold DNA

What is DNA? Chemical that directs activities of the cell - A molecule that self-replicates and is passed on to new cells - Often referred to as a chromosome

*Professor will always refer to DNA as a chemical or molecule.. Made up of 4 bases occurring in a specific sequence A given base sequence makes up a gene -functional unit that holds instructions for making a protein

e.g., pigment, insulin, hemoglobin, an enzyme

Two Cell Types 1. Prokaryotic-small, this is the original cell -DNA not contained -No membrane-bound organelles 2. Eukaryotic-large -DNA contained by a nucleus -many membrane-bound organelles Large-Scale Life: Ecosystems Two components: 1. Biotic(biological) - Producers - Consumers - Decomposers 2. Abiotic(non-living) - Rocks - Soil - Air - Water Processes: 1. Nutrient Cycling - Biota take up from the environment, use, release or die, and make available again 2. Energy Flow

Plants capture light energy, and pass it along Energy conversion is inefficient; some is lost from the system as heat

Many different kinds of ecosystems on Earth have led to a vast diversity of life forms.

Diversity of Life Known life includes 1.8 million unique organisms - Although estimates of diversity range from 8 million to over 100 million Organized into taxonomic groups base on: - Shared traits - Shared genes

Taxonomy: the identification, naming, and classification of organisms into categories: Seven levels: Domain-broadest, inclusive Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species-most specific, exclusive *A species is referred to by a two-part Latin name consisting of its Genus and species Ex. Homo Sapiens Three Domains of Life 1. Bacteria - Mitochondrion - Cyanobacteria - Gram-negative bacteria - Chloroplast - Gram-positive bacteria - thermotoga 2. Archaea - Extreme halophiles - Methanogens - Hyperthermophiles

3. Eukarya - Fungi - Animals - Cellular slime molds - Plants ciliates

All unicellular, prokaryotic Uni- cellular and Multi- cellular eukaryotic

Unicellular prokaryotes: 1. Bacteria- found everywhere on Earth Pathogenic, beneficial; some decompose, some photosynthesize 2. Archaea- discovered in the 1970s, typically beneficial; many inhabit extreme environments 3. Eukarya Domain- Kingdom Animalia- produce energy by ingesting and digesting other organisms - Kingdom Plantae- produce energy by gathering sunlight (photosynthesis) - Kingdom Fungi- produce energy mostly by decomposing dead organisms - Protista- any that do not fit into the other 3 categories; very diverse; include unicellular and multi-cellular forms (exp. Amoeba, slime mold, red algae, euglena, diatoms, and brown algae) Unity in the Diversity of Life Although diverse, all life forms are made of cells that hold DNA DNA changes over time, causing changes in traits New traits that are favorable in a given environment p ersist, leading to diversity in life forms

*Unifying theme of life is that life evolves Why and how does life evolve? Charles Darwin: natural selection leads to descent with modification Traits change over time Trait that provide a reproductive advantage for a particular environment are selected Adaptation Any kind of environmental pressure can lead to adaptation; nature selects the traits

Conditions for natural selection: In a given environment, 1. There must be a selection pressure ex. Overproduction lead to competition for limited resources. 2. There must be genetically-based variation among individuals These lead to unequal reproductive success among individuals. *See Figure 1.12 in the book for an example. Natural Selection and You Pathogenic bacteria invade and multiply in your body and make you Your doctor prescribes an antibiotic that is specific to the bacteria Most bacteria die and the body recovers, but resistant bacteria survive

What ,is science? From the latin verb meaning to know Inquiry based way of gaining knowledge Ask why, what, how , where about natural phenomena Limited to what we can observe, measure and test

Results from scientific exploration must be verifiable Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Chemistry for Non Biology Students Matter-anything that has mass (exists in three states) *water the only element to exist in all 3 a. Elements- 92 naturally occurring in the world i. 25 of these are essential to life b. 4 of these make up our body (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen) b. Atoms- the smallest unit of an element c. Subatomic particles Oxygen makes up 65% of your body. Leads to consensus about discoveries, which leads to scientific theories about nature

Carbon comes up next at 19%. Four elements make up 96% of our body. Majority 7 make up 4%. substantial And the other 14 elements make up 0.01%. trace See Figure 2.2

Atoms The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element Elements each are made up of their own kind of atom, with a unique configuration Consist of a nucleus and shells, which hold an atoms subatomic particles Subatomic Particles: Atoms are made up of 3 particles, two of which carry a charge In the nucleus: - Proton-positive charged(p+) - Neutron-neutral (n) Orbiting the nucleus( in a shell) - Electron-negatively charged (e-) Atoms have an equal num. of protons and electrons.

Isotopes: different atomic forms of an element

Elements are organized into the Periodic Table by the # of protons its atom have (atomic num.) About Electrons: Electrons of an atom orbit the nucleus from different levels: e- shells Each shell holds a certain number of eFirst, or innermost, shell is full with 2 eSecond and third shells hold a maximum of 8

An atom has as many shells as it takes to distribute its electrons The farther away from the nucleus, the more energetic the electron See figure 2.5 The outermost shell likes to be full or empty. So the number of e- in the outermost shell dictates the chemical properties of an atom Protons serve imp. Functions in the celll Chemical Bonding Bonds form as a result of atomic interactions ( which are based on the number of e- in the outermost shell) Atomic Level: 1. Ionic Bonds 2. Covalent Bonds Molecular Level: 1. Hydrogen Bonds

Ionic Bonds o Atoms give up or take electrons to/from another atom to fulfill the shell requirement o disrupts the balance between + and and results in charged atoms, called ions o ex: H+( hydrogen ion, or proton) Covalent Bonds o Atoms share electrons to fill outer shells o Very strong bond between two or more atoms, which form molecules

*see figure 2.7 Polarity When e- are shared unequally among atoms in the molecule Results when oxygen is involved; (electronegative) Oxygen strongly attracts e- away from other atoms Charge is across the molecule is still neutral

Hydrogen Bonds Bonds between polar molecules(not atoms)

H-bond forms as an attraction between neighboring polar molecules

Neighboring water molecules are held together by H-bonds.

Chapter 2 (Chapter ?s) What chemical properties of water make it life sustaining? What about waters chemistry leads to its important properties? What is pH? What does pH measure? Whats an acid? Whats a base? How is a stable pH of the bodys fluids maintained? What is life support? Much of the Earths surface is covered with water The human body is more than 70% water Cells range from 70-95% water Water has some unique properties, largely because of its polarity and H-bonding

Waters Unique Properties: Occurs as a liquid, a solid, and a gas 1. Cohesiona. The attraction of like molecules to like molecules b. H-bonds cause water molecules to stick together c. Important for internal transport in plants d. Some animals can inhabit the surface of water 2. Moderates Temperature a. Temperature is related to heat, but different: b. Heat is energy associated with the movement of molecules in matter c. Temperature is a measure of heat, specifically, how fast molecules are moving i. A rise in temperature means the avg. speed of movement has increased

d. Water resists temperature change, which means it takes a lot of heat energy to change water temperature e. Why is water resistant to temperature change? i. Because of H-bonding: ii. Added heat energy first must break H bonds, then water molecules can move faster: T increases iii. Releasing heat means H bonds reform, so water molecule movement slows down: T decreases f. So H2O can absorb, store, and release a large amt of heat energy but changes temperature only slightly i. The biological importance: 1. Earths giant water supply helps maintain temperatures that permit life g. Earth loses heat energy by evaporation; we lose heat energy by sweating i. Regulates temperature: the fastest moving (highest energy) water molecules vaporize, reducing the average speed of molecules left behind(T decreases) 3. Floats as a solid a. Above freezing, H bonds are always breaking and reforming b. At or below freezing, H bonds become rigid c. Solid H2O is less dense than liquid H2O, so ice floats in liquid water d. Ponds, lakes, and the oceans do not freeze solid 4. Versatile solvent a. A solution is a liquid consisting of two or more substances evenly mixed i. The dissolving agent is called the solvent ii. The dissolved substance is called the solute b. When water is the solvent, the solution is aqueous c. Biological chemistry is wet= occurs in the aqueous fluids in the body i. Within the cells, between cells, in blood plasma d. Why is water such a versatile solvent? i. Because of its polarity e. Polar molecules and ionic compounds are water solubleor hydrophilic(water loving) f. Water insoluble molecules or compounds tend to be nonpolar and are hydrophobic(water hating)

Acids, Bases, and pH In aqueous solutions, some H2O molecules break apart into H+ and OH- ions: H2O ___ H+ +OHIn pure water H+ and OH- are equal. Adding cetain substances can disrupt this normal balance

pH is a measure of this balance; describes the concentration of H+ in a solution -low H+ = high pH = basic -H+ equals OH- = neutral -high H+ = low pH = acidic *See Figure 2.16

Change pH by adding -acid: increases H+ of the aqueous solution by donating hydrogen ions Ex. HClH+ Cl-base: decreases H+ of the aqueous solution by taking up hydrogen ions Ex. NaOHNa+ + OH-

pH and Life pH of a solution determines solubility and biological availability of dif. kinds of chemicals - nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) - heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium) Determines how chemicals break down and whether products are of use in the body Some chemicals are toxic at lower pH because they are more soluble Buffers are chemical substances that resist pH change o Accept H+ when H+ are in excess o Donate H+ when H+ are depleted Biological fluids have built-in buffers to maintain pH Buffering can be overwhelmed o Exp: ocean acidification, acidosis

Acidosis- accumulation of acid in the blood Two Types: - Metabolic acidosis - Respiratory acidosis In acute cases, acidosis can lead to confusion, lethargy, coma, even death

Chapter 3: The Molecules of Life Which element is at the center of all molecules of living organisms? What is a macromolecule? What kinds of chemical reactions build or break down macromolecules? What is a biological molecule? What are the four dif.

Often shares electrons with other carbons to make various carbon skeletons Carbon skeletons vary in length C.S. may have double bonds, which can vary in location

Simplest organic compounds are just hydrogen and carbon: hydrocarbons Larger hydrocarbons are the main molecules in gasoline Hydrocarbons of fat molecules provide energy for our bodies

Organic compounds occur in unique three-dimensional shapes Allows for recognition Defines function

Shape (and function) of organic compounds depend on Carbon skeleton (# and organization) Other groups of elements bonded to the skeleton

Four Kinds of Biological molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Nucleic Acids

4. Lipids

Proteins: Proteins make up the body and perform most of the functional tasks of the body Polymers constructed from amino acids monomers Tens of thousands of different kinds The most elaborate of lifes molecules

Different Kinds of Proteins: (figure 3.15) a) b) c) d) e) Structural proteins provide support Storage proteins provide amino acids for growth Contractile proteins function to move the body Transport proteins move substances around Enzymes assist, or catalyze, chemical reactions

Protein monomers: amino acids All proteins are built from a common set of 20 amino acids Each has the same basic structure but differs in one way: o The side group that they have

*Amino acids are linked * A small number of amino acids bonded together is a peptide; many together is a polypeptide. (figure 3.17) Protein Structure:: Four levels: The unique amino acid sequence is primary structure 1. 2. 3. 4. Primary Sequence- makes a polypeptide Secondary structure Tertiary structure Quaternary structure a. a protein has at least tertiary structure, and often quaternary structure

Structure Affects Function A change in primary structure can affect function. A single substitution can cause a serious disorder. Higher-level structure

Protein function depends on form, allows: - Recognition between molecules, and - Binding to other molecules Changes in temperature and pH affect protein shape - Proteins can be denatured

Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acids provide the directions for building proteins Two types: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) store the instructions as genes RNA (ribonucleic acid) uses the instructions to build the proteins

Nucleic acids are polymers made up of nucleotide monomers: Lipids Carbon skeleton (straight or ringed) with H and O, and other elements Diverse, but all alike: they are hydrophobic (figure 3.10) Two types: Fats Steroids Sugar (5-carbon monosaccharide) Phosphate group Nitrogenous base ( adenine=A, thymine=T, guanine=G, cytosine=C, and uracil= U)

Fats In the human body provide: - Energy storage - Cushioning, insulation Take the form of the triglyceride: (see figure 3.15b) Triglycerides vary in fatty acid chemical structure, leading to: o Saturated fats (saturated with hydrogen) Have fatty acids with carbons bonded to a maximum number of hydrogens ( only single bonds) o Unsaturated fats Have fatty acids with carbons bonded to less than the maximum number of hydrogens (double bonds)

*see figure 3.12

*hydrogenation solidifies: makes trans fats Steroids Steroids are dif. From fats In structure and function Carbon skeleton is fused into rings Cholestorol is the base steroid Found in cell membranes Precursor to sex hormones

Chapter 4: Eukaryotic Cell Anatomy and Functions

Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells 2. All cells are formed from previously existing cells All cells vary in size. How do we see something so small? With microscopes ( see figure 4.3) Light microscope Electron microscopes (scanning)

Cells are diverse in type Cells are diverse in function Liver cells make enzymes Immune cells produce antibioties But eukaryotic cells are also alike They all need to: Make energy and protein Transport materials Dispose of waste

And they all have these same features: Plasma membrane Nucleus with DNA Variety of membrane-bound organelles (organelle is a specialized subunit of the cell)

Animal Eukaryotic Cell 1. Plasma membrane and the cell surface - separates the living cell from its nonliving surroundings - Regulates the movement of chemicals into and out of the cell

2. 3.




Cell surface_ Extracellular matrix: sticky external coat secreted by some cells; holds cells together; protects and supports cells - Cell junctions: connect cells to coordinate interactions in tissues Cytoplasm - Space between the nucleus and the plasma membrane, filled largely with cytosol Cytoskeleton - The infrastructure of the cell: microtubules, filaments - Cilia and Flagella_ appendages of some cells: cytoskeleton extensions that aid in movement - Cilia move in a coordinated back and forth motion - Flagella propel the cell with a whipping motion Mitochondrian - Site of energy production: cellular respiration- chemical energy converted to cellular energy(ATP) - Double membrane Nucleus and ribosomes - Nucleus: control center where DNA and RNA are located - Ribosomes: sites of protein synthesis Two kinds: Cytoplasmic ribosomes-produce proteins to be used in the cell E.R. Ribosomes- produce proteins to be used elsewhere Endomembrane system - Structure: internal membrane divided into a system of organelles Endoplasmic reticulum Primary factory of the cell Produces diversity of molecules Membrane within the cytoplasm divided into a maze of tubes and sacs o Two kinds: Rough ER and Smooth ER Golgi apparatus Receives products of the ER Then refines, stores, and distributes the final product Transport vesicles (figure 4.12) Membrane sacs that move materials around in the cell Lysosomes Sacs of membrane holding digestive enzymes Digestive functions: o Break down damaged organelles o Digest food particles Vacuoles Sacs of membrane that bud from the ER, Golgi, or plasma membrane Different kinds of vacuoles: o Food vacuole: bring food molecules into the cell

o Contractile vacuole: pumps water o Storage vacuole: in plants the central vacuole is this Functions: manufacture and distribute cellular products a. Consist of several organelles

All eukaryotic cells need to make energy & proteins (lipids) Mitochondrian Nucleus and ribosomes and endo. System Transport material, dispose of waste- plasma membrane +cytoskeleton +vesicles

Chapter 5: The Working Cell Energy Concepts Energy = the capacity to do work Can only be converted from one form to another, never created or destroyed The principle of conservation of energy

Potential Energy=energy in storage Kinetic Energy=energy of motion (ex. Heat) Potential E. in chemicals Stored in molecules o Arises from the arrangement of atoms o Hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, and fats store a lot of energy

Potential chemical: Energy in gasoline (octane) Energy is measured in calories (cal) Chemistry: A calorie (cal) is the unit of energy needed to raise temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree C Nutrition: A kilocalorie (Cal) is a unit of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1 degree C We get energy from food: Figure 5.3 Cellular workers: 1. ATP kinetic energy (+heat)

a. Chemical potential energy for the cell 2. Enzymes 3. Plasma Membrane a. Regulates transport into and out of cell ATP: adenosine (ribose+ adenine) and three phosphates 1. ATP: adenosine triphosphate a. How is ATP energy? The bonds hold energy (Figure 5.4) 2. ATP is continuously renewed: a. Upon release, a third P binds again with ADP to make more ATP 3. Rate of ATP production: a. 10 million molecules/sec/cell Phosphate transferred to target molecules: 1. Mechanical work a. Motor proteins accept the P to change shape and contract (Figure 5.5a) 2. Transport work a. Proteins in membranes accept third P and pump ions across the membrane (Figure 5.5b) 3. Chemical work a. Monomers accept third P to build polymers (Figure 5.5c) Enzymes Enzymes are specialized proteins that assist in chemical reactions Specific to a particular reaction Thousands of different kinds Used over and over again Identified by name: end in ase Enzymes lower the energy required to activate a reaction (activation energy) Figure 5.7 o How do enzymes do this? 1. Enzyme available with empty active site 2. Substrate binds to enzyme 3. Substrate is converted to products 4. Products are released Induced fit- upon binding the enzyme and substrate change

Sucrose+sucrose+water glucose+fructose+sucrose ------hydrolysis reaction An enzyme decreases the energy required to activate the reaction. Enzymes can be inhibited Inhibitors disrupt enzyme function: 1. Substrate imposters(competitors)

2. Active site deactivators The Plasma Membrane Separates the internal environment from the external environment; controls transport in and out A foundation made of: o Phospholipids o Two-tailed fatty acid lipid

In a phosphate heads are hydrophilic, but the lipid tails are hydrophobic In an aqueous environment: The water-loving phosphate heads orient towards water The water-fearing lipid tails orient toward each other, away from water. The phospholipids orient to create two layers, called the phospholipid bilayer *oxygen and carbon dioxide move through the membrane freely bc theyre small and nonpolar 1. Phospholipids ( bilayer, the foundation) 2. Proteins embedded in the bilayer Fluid Mosaic Model Plasma membrane is semi-permeable, or selectively permeable: only some substances freely cross Water can also move freely through the plasma membrane bc of the fluidity of the membrane that creates little gaps that water can seep through. Membrane Processes 1. Passive transport- movement from a high to low concentration (down a concentration gradient) a. Diffusion(solutes move) b. Osmosis(water moves) 2. Active transport- movement from a low to high concentration (pumping of molecules) 3. Large molecule transport 4. Chemical signaling Diffusion- dissolved solutes move from high to low concentration (down the gradient): Figure 5.12a Facilitated diffusion: movement of solutes through a channel (a membrane protein)

Figure 5.11 Osmosis (diffusion of water) Membrane is permeable to water but not to solutes Water moves to equalize solute concentration o Water goes where solute are of high concentration The volume of water changes on the two sides of the membrane o See Figure 5.13 Osmosis works to maintain solute and water balance in cells (70-95% water) o Solutes in solution=solutes inside cell (Figure 5.14) o A. Isotonic- cell is normal o B. Hypotonic- cell will burst (lysing) o C. Hypertonic cell will shrivel And in blood and the fluid surrounding cells of tissues o At the body level, the urinary system does the job of regulating water and solutes Water and solutes from the blood are filtered and reabsorbed The wasted is collected to make urine, which is excreted

Active Transport Use energy (ATP) and proteins Molecules pumped against the solute concentration gradient Figure 5.16

Transport of Big Molecules: (Figure 5.18) Exocytosis: molecules exit the cell Endocytosis: molecules enter the cell

*see page 88 Cell Signaling Form of communication Cells receives a signal from outside Initiates a signal transduction pathway: Figure 5.19

Chapter 21: Animal Structure and Function Generally, how does form relate to function in living organisms? What tissues make up the body? Form Fits Function

Biological equipment is refined to serve a purpose within an organisms environment (Figure 21.2) See Figure 21.1 for example of the human body Understanding the relationship between form and function is the focus of: o Anatomy: study of the structure of an organism and its parts o Physiology: study of the function of the structures

Tissues An integrated group of similar cells that performs a specific function Cells are specialized and held together in some way, such as By a net of fibers By sticky substance By special junctions Four types of tissues: o Epithelial o Connective o Muscle o Nervous Epithelial tissue (Figure 21.3) Structure: sheets of tightly packed cells Function: protect, absorb, secrete Covers the body surface; lines orgasms and cavities of the body Surface epithelium is continuously renewed Connective tissue (Figure Structure: sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix o Extracellular matrix- a web of protein fibers embedded in a foundation (liquid, jelly-like, solid) Function: binds and supports other tissues (most widely distributed of all) o Six kinds of connective tissue (Figure 21.4) Loose- cells in a semi-fluid matrix with a loose weave of collagen and elastic fibers; bind Adipose- dense within a jelly-like matrix of sparse fibers; store Blood- cells suspended in an aqueous liquid matrix (plasma); transport Fibrous- fewer cells in a dense matrix of bundled collagen fibers (tendons, ligaments); connect Cartilage- dense gel-like matrix with thin collagen fibers; cushion

Bone- matrix of rubbery collagen fibers hardened with calcium salts; support

Muscle Tissue Most abundant of all tissues in most animals o Bundles of long thin cells (muscle cells) o With cellular proteins arranged to contact when signaled o Three types: Skeletal Cardiac Smooth Skeletal Muscle o Contractile apparatus of the cells (fibers) form a banded pattern: striated (striped) Figure 21.5 o Attached to bones by tendons o Action of skeletal muscle is voluntary movement Cardiac Muscle o Fibers striated, but also branched and joined to one another Allows for quick signaling to all muscle cells at once Heart contracts in a coordinated heart beat o Contraction of heart muscle is involuntary Smooth Muscle o Fibers are not striated o Found in walls of organs o Contraction is involuntary Nervous Tissue Made up of nerve cells (neurons) that have long extensions Found in the brain, spinal cords, nerves Transmit electrical signals, fast and in some cases, over long distances o Nervous Tissue (Figure 27.17) Sensory receptors receive input, transmit the signal, and the body responds

Organs Two or more tissues packaged into one working unit that performs a specific function

o Examples: small intestine, heart, liver, stomach, brain, bone Another example is blood vessels: arteries & veins (figure 23.8)

Organ Systems Multiple organs work together to perform vital body functions Survival depends on the coordination of all organ systems Failure of any one organ system jeopardizes the entire body o Names Integumentary Respiratory Circulatory Digestive Excretory Reproductive Endocrine Lymphatic/Immune Muscular Skeletal Nervous * go to pp. 462-463 for an overview

Chapter 21(II) Questions What is an open system? How are open systems designed to support exchange? How is the bodys internal environment regulated? How do negative and positive feedback mechanisms of regulation differ? How are temperatures and water/solute balance maintained in the body? How is the urinary system structured to The Open System Organisms continuously exchange chemicals and energy with the environment Nutrients and oxygen enter, wastes produced by metabolism exit Exchange occurs at all biological levels o The smallest scale=the cell

Exchange: Size and Shape Matter (Figure 21.9) What about longer, more complex organisms? How do they meet the demands for exchange that come with increased size?

Layers of cells are folded or branched to maximize surface area (relative to volume) to support exchange Branching or folding tissues increases surface area for a given volume; maximizes exchange

Exchange involves Organ Systems Figure 21.11

Exchange requires regulation: In open

Homeostasis: a dynamic state (Figure 21.12)

Homeostatsis Dynamic state maintained mostly by processes under negative feedback control o A change in a condition triggers a process o The result of the process feed back to inhibit the process o Brings the condition back to the norm

Ex: body temperature, food digestion, water-solute balance, insulin production,etc. Negative Feedback: Room Temperature The results of a process inhibit that very process. *Signal: temperature drops below set point *The process: heat released *Results: temperature increases, process stops Positive Feedback A process is initiated, but the results intensify the process Less common in animals Example: childbirth contractions * Signal: pressure from fetus *The process: chemicals released *The result: muscles contract

1. Thermoregulation (regulation of temperature) a. Among animals: i. Ectotherms do not regulate body temperature-conform to the environment temp 1. Fishes, reptiles, amphibians ii. Endotherms derive body heat mostly from metabolism 1. Mammals, birds b. See Figure 21.4 2. Osmoregulation (regulation of water) a. Living cells depend on precise balance of water and dissolved solutes b. Many animals must osmoregulate: control water and solute balance in the body c. Based largely on regulating solutes; water moves according to solute concentration (osmosis) i. Osmoregulation in Land Animals 1. Gain water by eating and drinking 2. Lose water by breathing, perspiring, wasted elimination 3. Metabolism of fats, sugars, and proteins produces wastes 4. Must maintain proper iron concentrations (e.g., Na+, K+,H+) 5. The regulation of water and solutes is the job of the urinary system (see Figure 21.17) ii. Urinary system 1. Kidney- filters blood, concentrates wastes in excess water 2. Ureter-the tube by which urine leaves the kidney 3. Urinary Bladder-where urine is stored 4. Etc. a. The Kidneys: the main processing center of the urinary system ( see Figure 21.17) i. The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron ii. Millions of nephrons amounts to 100s of miles of tubules in each kidney iii. Valuables reclaimed, waste goes to the collecting duct b. Processes of the Nephron (Figure 21.18) i. Filtration: blood pressure forces H2O and small molecules from blood plasma; filtrate collects in the tubule ii. Secretion: wastes not initially filtered are pumped into the filtrate

iii. Reabsorption: H2O and valuable solutes are returned to the blood (excess water, wastes collect in the collecting duct as urine) iv. Excretion: urine leaves the kidneys and the body iii. Urinary System Regulation 1. These processes of the nephron are under control of hormones a. When water content is low, brain signals secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) b. Water content increases and ADH secretion stops Good Kidney Health is Essential 200 quarts of blood are processed by the kidneys every day; 2 quarts of fluid excreted, rest is reabsorbed In a single heartbeat, 20% of the bodys blood flow goes to the kidneys Kidney health is essential to good health Prevent diabetes and high blood pressure o Maintain a healthy weight, eat well, exercise

Kidney Failure Can result from unmanaged diabetes, high blood pressure, infection or injury Body can not eliminate waste

Treatment for Kidney Failure: Dialysis See Figure 21.19

Chapter 22: Nutrition and Digestion Food Processing Food processing takes place along the alimentary canal as series of four steps (Figure 22.15) Food moves through the canal by peristalsis

Two Kinds of Digestion Digestion dismantles food particles by: 1. Mechanical digestion: a physical process 2. Chemical digestion: Chemical Digestion:

Hydrolysis reactions are assisted by enzymes; as a group, we refer to them as hydrolases (Figure 22.3)

Human Digestive System The Mouth (Oral Cavity) Figure 22.6 o Functions in processing: Ingestion Digestion (mechanical + chemical): chewing is mechanical digestion, the tongue moves food, salivary gland duct secretes salivary amylase: chemical digestion(carbohydrates only) The Pharynx (Figure 22.7) o Connects the mouth to the esophagus, but also opens to the trachea (wind pipe) o Epiglottis closes the trachea entrance during swallowing The Esophagus o A muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach o Food moves via peristalsis: the rhythmic, involuntary contraction of smooth muscle tissue (Figure 22.8) Here and throughout the digestive system Food moves in one direction The Stomach (Figure 22.9) o Food storage o Mechanical digestion: food churned into chyme o Chemical digestion: secretes gastric juice Strongly acidic(HCl) Digestive enzymes(proteins begin digestion here) o Produces mucus for protection Stomach Related Ailments 1. Heartburn, acid reflux: backflow of gastric juice into the esophagus 2. Gastric ulcers: tissue is eroded by gastric juice a. Most caused by bacteria that damage mucus b. Severe cases may result in a hole, leading to internal bleeding and infection The Small Intestines o Small in contrast to the large intestine o The longest part of the alimentary canal (20ft) o Receives chyme from the stomach o Regions are specialized to perform specific functions The duodenum of the small intestines Specialized to complete digestion Receives chemicals from accessory organs:

Pancreas: secretes neutralizing juice with various hydrolases Liver: secretes bile, which breaks down fats (bile is stored in the gallbladder) Enzymes at work in the duodenum Carbohydrates o Pancreatic amylase o Sucrase, Lactase (disaccharides broken down into monosaccharides) Proteins o Proteases- break down proteins o Peptidases- digest peptides to amino acids Lipids o Lipases- digest fats that have been emulsified first by bile The Rest of the small intestine(Figure 22.13) o Next several feet are specialized for absorption o Wall is folded, with extensions of the tissue called villi o Cells of each villus have their own extensions: microvilli o Provides large surface area for the absorption of nutrients Cells with microvilli take up nutrients Nutrients move to interstitial fluid, then to blood Blood transports nutrients elsewhere in the body The Large Intestine (Colon) o Wider and shorter than the small intestine Absorbs water, dissolved ions o Home to diversity of mostly harmless bacteria Produce some vitamins Release gases o Waste left over is feces Stored in rectum, eliminated by anus

o o

Second Half of Chapter 22: Nutrition Food is potential chemical energy o Your cells convert food energy into ATP: another form of potential chemical energy (Figure 5.3b) Food Provides Energy o Energy from food (measured in Cal) supports metabolism of the body (all chemical reactions) o The amount of energy that the body uses per day is metabolic rate Some to support basic body functions (basal metabolic rate, BMR)

Metabolic rate varies widely among people: BMR depends on age, sex, heredity, body size (on avg., ranges from 1300-1800 cal/day) Everyones activity level is different (Table 22.1) Unused calories are stored as fat Food provides Raw materials o Cells build organic molecules to make new cells and to support cellular activities o Digested food provides raw materials to be reassembled into new biomolecules Proteins and DNA Food provides essential nutrients o Substances the body cannot make: Essential amino acids Vitamins Minerals Essential fatty acids Essential Amino Acids: o Of the 20 amino acids, 8 cannot be made by the body o Deficiency leads to degradation of proteins o Different foods vary in amino acid content Animal proteins are complete (have all 8) Most plant proteins are incomplete (deficient in 1 or more) Vitamins o Organic molecules required from the diet in small amounts o Most function to help enzymes o Two kinds: Water soluble (most B vitamins, vitamin C) Fat soluble (vitamins A, D, D, and K) *see table 22.2 o Recommended daily value (RDV) established to prevent deficiencies Minerals o Inorganic substances required from the diet Essential fatty acids o Cells make fats and other lipids by linking fatty acids with other molecules o Essential fatty acids are those the body cannot make o Polyunsaturated fats ( >one double bond) o Two families: Omega-6 Omega-3

o o

Regulate body functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, blood clotting Deficiencies linked to a wide range of serious health conditions

Nutrition and Digestion (Chapter 22 cont) Health and Diet Many health conditions that reduce the quality of life and shorten lifespan are linked to diet: o Heart health o High blood pressure o Diabetes o Cancer o Digestive disorders o Eating disorders o Food allergies/intolerances o Excess weight

USDA 2011 Dietary Guidelines Overall eat less, avoid oversized portions Eat more healthy foods Eat less sodium, saturated and trans fat, added sugars, and refined grains Drink water, not sugary drinks Balance calories with physical acitivity

Packaged food is labeled with nutrition details: (in order of abundance) Start Here

Energy per serving

Energy from fats

Limits nutrients In gold

Quick guide to % Daily Values 20% or more is high 5% or less is low

Maximize nutrient I blue

Nurtitional Disorders Malnutrition health problems from an imbalanced or insufficient diet (ex: protein (amino acid) deficiency Usually results from a shortage in food supply Also results from eating disorder, e.g., anorexia, bulimia Obesity results from excessive food intake o Associated with chronic disease (increases risk of heart attack, diabetes, and other illnesses) o Body mass index (BMI) is a rough measure of weight health o To some extent, a tendency toward obesity is inherited

Chapter 6: Cellular Respiration How does life run on solar energy? How does cellular respiration convert energy? What are the steps, the reactants, the products? What is the role of oxygen? What is the role of electrons? How does your body make energy when it doesnt have a lot of oxygen? What is fermentation? Figure 6.2 Sunlight energy enters ecosystem Energy flows: enters as sunlight, exits as heat Chemicals cycle: glucose and oxygen, carbon dioxide and water Photosynthesis: the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy

Cellular Respiration A biochemical pathway of the cell that converts energy in food to ATP An aerobic process: it depends on O2 CO2 and H2O are waste products Respiration is the process that exchanges O2 and CO2

How is energy converted? o Electrons: subatomic particles that are energized

Using electrons:

Controlled step-wise transfer from glucose to oxygen o Picked up by carriers o Through proteins in the mitochondrion

Oxygens Role in e- Transfer 1. An electron-grabber, oxygen attracts electrons through all steps of the pathway 2. Accepts spent electrons at the end of cellular respiration (along with H+, makes H2O) 3. Binds carbons released from glucose break-down (makes CO2) Steps of Cellular Respiration: (Figure 6.6) In the cytoplasm: 1. Glycolysis a. Glucose from digestion of your French fries broken down here, in the cytoplasm b. Uses 2 molecules of ATPwhy? c. Releases i. Pyruvic acid (goes to step 2) ii. Electron carriers (go to step 3) iii. 4 ATP molecules (by e- transfer) iv. No waste In the mitochondria: 2. Citric Acid Cycle (CAC) a. In the mitochondrion, pyruvic acid molecules from Step 1 are broken down b. Electrons are transferred to carriers c. Releases: i. Electron carriers (go to step 3) ii. 2 molecules ATP (by e- transfer) iii. CO2 (waste, exhaled) 3. Electron Transport Chain a. In the mitochondrion, electrons from steps 1 and 2 accepted by protein molecules spanning the inner membrane b. Energy released by electron transfer used to pump H+ across the membrane: creates a concentration gradient c. As H+ flows back across the membrane, binds ADP+P to make ATP


In the absence of O2: Fermentation

Anaerobic conversion of food enery Glycolysis continues, but lactic acid is the product E- are not sent to ETC; steps 2 and 3 do not run Very little ATP produced Short-term emergency metabolism

Fermentation by Microorganisms (Figure 6.16) Microorganisms get energy by fermentation o Bacteria ferment and produce lactic acid Cheese,sour cream, yougurt from milk Yeast ferment and produce ethyl alcohol, release CO2 o Beer, wine o Bread

Circulation and Respiration (Chapter 23) What is the function of the circulatory system? What parts make up this system? How are the parts of the system structured? How do they function, both separately and together?

Circulatory System Function is transport, to serve the cell o Oxygen/carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes An organ system consisting of three parts: Heart (cardio) Blood vessels (vascular) make up cardiovascular system blood (circulates to transport, is a tissue not an organ) confined to vessels: closed system Heart pumps blood via a system of vessels; functions to maintain homeostasis by: Controlling chemical balance Controlling blood composition Distributing hormones Defending against foreign invaders Regulating body temperature 1. Heart (Figure 23.4) a. Muscular organ that functions to pump blood to the lungs and to the body b. Regularly contracts (systole) and relaxes (diastole)

i. Pumps blood out, flows back in ii. Heart rate set by the sinoatrial (SA) node, averages 60-80 bpm c. Valves ensure that blood flows in the right direction 2. Blood Vessels (Figure 23.8) a. Arteries: carry blood away from the heart b. Veins: carry blood to the heart c. Capillaries: tiniest, thinnest vessels; occur in clusters to make capillary beds (F 23.9b) i. Designed for local exchange ii. Very thin with a high surface area to volume ratio iii. Leaky, which allows for exchange between bl ood and interstitial fluid by diffusion iv. Cellular respiration in the cell demands O2, produces CO2 as waste v. So in the cell: concentration of O2 is lower than outside; and CO2 concentration is higher than outside vi. O2 and CO2 exchanged by the process of diffusion 3. Blood a. Adult circulatory system carries about 11 pints of blood b. Composition: (Figure 23.11) i. Plasma (mostly water) ii. Cells (mostly red blood cells) c. pH: 7.35-7.45 d. Cellular Elements of Blood: (Figure 23.12) i. 45% of blood is made up of: 1. Red blood cells that transport O2 to support cellular respiration 2. White blood cells fight infections and cancer 3. Platelets, for clotting How do RBCs transport O2? Their structure supports this function: o High surface area to volume o Lack nuclei and other organelles o Loaded with 250 million molecules of hemoglobin A protein made up of 4 polypeptide subunits; each subunit has heme iron at the center, binds to O2

*Anemia: low iron low hemoglobin low O2 delivery Origins of blood cells Stem cells of bone marrow differentiate o Into RBC, WBC, and cells that become platelets Red blood cells mature when signaled by the hormone EPO

When oxygen in tissue is low, kidneys release EPO, which boosts RBC production o Trigger: oxygen low=RBC count below set point o Process: EPO released, RBC produced o Results: RBC returns to set point, EPO stops

Double circulatory system: two paths to blood flow (Figure 23.3) Which vessels carry O2 rich blood? Depends on the circuit: o In the pulmonary circuit, arteries carry blood away from the heart to the lungs Pulmonary arteries carry O2 poor blood Pulmonary veins carry O2 rich blood o In the systemic circuit, arteries carry blood away from the heart to the body Arteries(aorta) carry O2 rich blood Veins (vena cava) carry O2 poor blood

Blood Pressure The force that blood exerts against blood vessel walls A function of cardiac output and blood vessel resistance Measured in arterial pressure at systole and at diastole o Optimal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg Varies a lot, affected by all kinds of things Hypertension is high blood pressure o Average reading of >140/90 mmHg Often asymptomatic, goes undiagnosed Blood vessel walls weakened; increases risk of atherosclerosis o If uncontrolled, can threaten life o Controlled by diet, exercise, medication if necessary o Plaque: an accumulation of cholesterol and other substances (figure 23.14) Atherosclerosis can lead to: o Heart attack: coronary arteries blocked o Stroke: a blockage in the brain

Respiration The process of exchanging O2 and CO2 in support of cellular respiration Occurs in three phases: o Breathing (air flows in and out of the body) o Transport (via circulatory system) o Service to the cell Depends on a moist surface in contact with both air and capillaries: respiratory surface o Respiratory surface is the site of exchange with the external environment (Figure 23. 17)

The Human Respiratory System (Figure 23.19)

Lung Health

Cells of the respiratory system have cilia and produce mucus, which help to remove debris from the respiratory system Breathing: alternating process of inhalation-exhalation (Figure 23.20) o Creates negative pressure so that air flows in Breathing is regulated (Figure 23.21) brain regulates breathing by monitoring CO2

Every breath exposes respiratory tissue to potentially damaging chemicals Tobacco smoke is a serious source of airborne pollutants o Irritates the cells that line the respiratory system o Inhibits ability to remove foreign substances from the airway Smoking kills about 440,000 Americans annually: (Figure 23.24) Lung cancer COPD ( chronic bronchitis, emphysema)

Risk factors for disease of the circulatory and respiratory systems Genetic predisposition Poor diet (high in salt, fat) High cholesterol Sedentary lifestyle Tobacco smoking (especially for diseases of the respiratory system)

Chapter 10: DNA How are DNA and RNA structured? How are they alike? Different? Why and how does DNA replicate? How do DNA and RNA work together? What is the outcome of this partnership? What are the mutations and the consequences of mutations? What are viruses? How do they relate to DNA? Nucleic Acids: o o Two kinds: DNA and RNA DNA is always in the nucleus; RNA is made there but goes out to the cytoplasm

o o

Function: to make proteins o DNA segments code for proteins ( genes) o RNA makes proteins at the ribosomes Polymers made up of nucleotide monomers: 5 kinds of nucleotides, each defined by a nitrogen-containing base: (Figure 3.24) o Adenine* o Guanine* o Cytosine** o Thymine** o Uracil** * = purines: adenine and guanine (double ringed bases) ** = pyrimidines: single ringed bases o These four make up RNA Many nucleotides: polynucleotide o How are nucleotides linked together? (Figure 10.1)

DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (Figure 10.5) Sugar: deoxyribose Nucleotides: A,G, T, C Two polynucleotide strands (double stranded) Holds the genetic code (for making proteins) Structure discovered in 1953 by Watson and Crick DNA is made of two complementary polynucleotide strands Linked by H-bonds between bases of the nucleotides A base of one strand always pairs with a specific base of the other strand, according to this base pairing rule: A bonds to T G bonds to C Each molecule of DNA is made up of thousands of base pairs o Each has its own unique sequence of bases (ex. ACTGACCAGTCGA) The human genome is made up of 23 molecules of DNA (n) All but one kind of cell has 2 copies of each (2n) (the sex cell only has one) Molecules of DNA are divided into functional units,, each with a unique base sequence: genes o A given gene codes for a specific polypeptide; a molecule of DNA has many genes (Figure 10.10) How can so many molecules of DNA fit in the nucleus of a cell? o A: DNA molecules coil up around proteins, making chromatin (Figure 4.9) At specific times in the life of a cell, chromatin condenses into chromosomes:

DNA Replication

o o o o

DNA is the hereditary chemical of life To be passed on via new cells, it must be replicated exactly Each strand of a DNA molecule serves as a template (Figure 10.6) DNA polymerase facilitates replication (Figure 10.7) o Breaks open an existing molecule o Brings nucleotides that match the template sequence (A <>T, G<>C)

RNA o o o o o Ribonucleic acid Single stranded Sugar: ribose Nucleotides: A,G, U, C Different kinds with different functions; ex. mRNA delivers DNAs message to ribosomes for protein synthesis

DNA and RNA are partners o o o DNA stays in the nucleus, but proteins are made in the cytoplasm, at the ribosomes RNA goes out to the cytoplasm to direct protein synthesis This process occurs in two steps: (Figure 10.8) Transcription Translation

Two steps to Protein Synthesis In the nucleus, a gene(DNA) is transcribed into a molecule of RNA (Figure 10.10) At a ribosome, the message of RNA is translated into a polypeptide o Transcription DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA); RNA polymerase assists: (Figure 10.13a) mRNA takes the message to the ribosomes where it is translated Before leaving the nucleus, mRNA must be processed (Figure 10.14) Caps and tail added Introns(junk code) removed Exons (effective code) spliced together o Translation The language of mRNA is translated into the language of proteins at the ribosome The base sequence of mRNA is read in groups of three: triplet codons- each corresponds to a specific amino acid (Figure 10.10) The genetic Code: The bases of RNA combine in different ways to make 64 triplets

20 amino acids, each coded for by a codon (no ambiguity, some redundancy) o Triplet codon: A U A (Figure 10.11) One start codon and three stop codons mRNA attaches to a ribosome and a translator, transfer RNA (tRNA) reads it, codon by codon tRNA brings the right amino acid to the ribosome and they link, one by one initiation (start codon) elongation termination (stops codons)

Mutations o Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA o Can involve large regions of DNA or just a single nucleotide pair o DNA polymerase (and other proteins) are tasked with correcting mutations o If not fixedx, mutations vary in effect Inconsequential, positive, negative, lethal o Two categories: Substitution (Figure 10.22a) May be lethal Impair function Go undetected Insertion/Deletion (Figure 10.22b) Often disastrous reading frame shifts, code becomes nonsensical Causes of Mutation Errors in replication Exposure to mutagens: physical or chemical agents that cause mutations Toxic chemicals X-rays UV rays (sunlight and lamps) o Are mutations always bad? Source of diversity of life Natural selection acts on traits that result from changes at the genetic level Genetics make use of mutations in the laboratory to learn more about genetics Viruses: Are they life? (Figure 10.24) o Show some, but not all, characteristics of living organisms Have genes Do not utilize energy Do they respond to the environment? o Persist only by infecting a living cell

Kinds of Viruses DNA or RNA covered by a protein coat: genes in a box (Figure 10.24) Type/structure varies according to host Bacterial: inject viral DNA or RNA into host cell Plant: use vectors to infect cells with viral RNA Animal: surface aids to infect with viral DNA or RNA Virus Diversity: DNA or RNA + protein coat Bacteriophage(DNA,RNA) Plant viruses (RNA)(rod shaped) Adenovirus (DNA) (polyhedron shape) Enveloped virus (DNA,RNA) Pox virus (DNA) (brick shape) Virus Replication Acellular so cannot reproduce the way cells do Must use host cell machinery and materials: Make more nucleic acid Persist in different ways Figure 10.26 1. Nucleic acid replicates, virus is latent 2. Bursts from the cell (cell death) 3. Viral body leaves by budding within cell membrane Mechanisms of Disease Some viruses lyse host cells, which causes death of the cell Whole organism may suffer if enough cells dies Some disrupt homeostasis, leading to disease Some viral genes code for toxins Human Immunodeficiency virus Figure 10.32 An enveloped virus A virus that persists by its RNA being transcribed into DNA is called a retrovirus Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome HIV infects white blood cells, which impairs immune system AIDS results from secondary Medication extends life, but does not rid the body of the virus Anti-HIV drugs interfere with virus reproduction Inhibit reverse transcriptase (AZT) Inhibit proteases Viral Illness Common ailments Cold, flu, chickenpox, cold sores Serious disease

Ebola, avian influenza, SARS (severe acute respiratory disorder) Maybe caused by virus Multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome Viruses and Cancer Many viruses are linked to cancer: Human papillomavirus (cervical in women) Hepatitis-B and hepatitis-C (liver) Epstein-Barr virus (lymphomas) Human T-lymphotropic virus (adult leukemia) Transmission of Viruses Vertical: mother to child Horizontal: organism to organism Exchange of blood, saliva Breathing in droplets of aerosols Contaminated food or water Insect vectors Human Defense Personal protection, vaccinations Prevent infection Immune system Once infected, immune bodies attack virus Antiviral drugs Inactivate viruss newly synthesized DNA Why do antibiotics NOT work against viruses? B/c they work against living germs and viruses are not considered to be living

Chapter 8: Cellular Reproduction: Cells from Cells Why do cells reproduce? What are the two ways of cell reproduction? Why are there two? Why not just one? What happens to DNA during cell reproduction? Biological Reproduction o Asexual (Figure 8.1) o Occurs by simple division of a somatic cell (body cell) o Offspring DNA identical to parent DNA Sexual o Requires two specialized cells: gametes (or sex cells) o A sperm fertilizes an egg (contributes its DNA to the egg DNA

o Offspring DNA is unique Eukaryotic Cell reproduction o Two processes, different purposes: Mitosis: cell replacement and growth, asexual reproduction Limited to body(somatic) cells DNA replicates and is passed on New daughter cells are genetically identical Meiosis: for sexual reproduction Starts with a specialized body cell, the product: sex cells (gametes) DNA replicates, but then is mixed up and then divided in half twice New cells have half the DNA of the starting cell, and are genetically unique o Body Cell Cycle Starts with birth of a cell division to two daughter cells An orderly sequence of events, consisting of two phases: Interphase: 90% of cell life o For most of the life of the cell, DNA occurs in chromatin form, that is, as single molecules wrapped around proteins. o With DNA in chromatin form: The cell does its job Prepares for division: Protein, organelles of the cytoplasm increase in number Cell grows in size Each molecule of DNA replicates For cell division: the two daughter molecules are called sister chromatids Chromatids will separate and be distributed between daughter cells during mitosis Mitotic Phase(figure 8.6)

Missed Friday, Nov 11

Chapter 8: Through what cell division process are sex cells made from the body cells? How is genetic variation in sex cells created? What happens when sex cell reproduction goes awry? Why sexual reproduction? It creates genetic variation Offspring inherit a unique combination of genes from two parents You dont look exactly like your parents or your siblings

DNA in Humans Human genome has 23 molecules of DNA (n=23) Include the autosomes(1-22) and sex chromosomes (X,Y) All body cells have 2 copies of each (2n=2x 23=46:diploid) X,X chromosomes= female X,Y chromosomes= male In body cells (2n), we call the two molecules of a pair homologous chromosomes (Figure 8.11) o Carry the same genes (except X and Y) o One of the pair contributed via the egg (maternal) o One contributed via the sperm (paternal) Sex cells have just one molecule of each (n, haploid) o Figure 8.12 Starts with: egg+sperm=zygote Zygote develops by mitosis into adult Adults reproduce gametes from body cells by meiosis and the cycle goes on

Meiosis Cell division process that makes cells used exclusively for sexual reproduction o Begins with a cell that has the normal amount of DNA o Result in cells with half the DNA of the starting cell o Each new sex cell has uniqueDNA Two key concepts: DNA of original cell must be divided in half DNA of original cell must get mixed up so that the new cell has its own unique DNA The basis for sexual reproduction. Two Phases of Meiosis (Figure 8.13)-

Creation of Genetic Variation

1. Chromosomes assort independently o Tetrads line up independently in Meiosis 1 o A tetrad could come to the plane and line up in two possible ways Red-blue or blue-red o There are 8 million (3^23) ways that the chromosomes could line up in Meiosis I o Affect the combination of chromosomes that cells have after Meiosis II o Figure 8.16 2. Crossing over between tetrads o Adjacent sister chromatids exchange genes o Figure 8.18 3. Random Fertilization o The genetic makeup of any given gamete is 1 of 8 million possibilities o Which two games that meet is random o So there are 8 million x 8 million =64 trillion possible genetic combinations resulting from a single fertilization event Errors in chromosome distribution during gamete formation- (Figure 8.20) o o Nondisjunction: pair of homologous chromosomes fails to separate(Meiosis I)all have abnormal number of chromosomes Nondisjunction: pair of sister chromatids fails to separate (Meiosis II) some have ab. Num. of chromosomes

Sometimes an abnormal gamete is involved in fertilization and results in an abnormal zygote: Abnormal zygotes usually spontaneously abort long before birth: miscarriage (Figure 8.21)

Chapter 9: Patterns of Inheritance o o o o What is genetics and who is Gregor Mendel? What are alleles? What is the role of alleles in expression of a trait? What kinds of traits follow the most simple pattern of inheritance? What are the two laws of Mendelian genetics?

Genetics o o The scientific study of heredity(the passing of traits from one generation to the next)(trait is the combined expression of two copies of the same gene) Not all traits are passed on the same way

Patterns of Inheritance o o Gregor Mendel: the father of modern genetics Growing out many generations of pea plants

Mendels Pea System o Easy to control fertilization because plants: o Self-fertilize( self-pollinate) o Cross-fertilize(exchange pollen) Starting with true breeding* plants, explored inheritance patterns of several discrete traits: each with only two forms: (Figure 9.4) o *purebred; self-fertilization always produces offspring with traits identical to the parents

Mendels Four Hypotheses o o o o H1: Genes have alternate versions(alleles), units that determine heritable traits H2: For each trait of the body, an offspring inherits two alleles, one from each parent H3: if different alleles, most simply, one masks the other when they occur together H4: Gamete carry just one allele for a trait because the allele pair segregates during meiosis(Law of Segregation)

H1: genes have alternate versions: alleles o Ex. One allele codes for purple, another for white H2: for each trait of the body, an offspring inherits two alleles, one from each parent o If the same: homozygous o If different: heterozygous o The two alleles produce a specific trait form o Genotype phenotype o H3: Alleles occur in two forms; most simpley, one masks the other when they occur together Dominant: determines phenotype(notated in uppercase,e.g.,P,A, or D Recessive: no noticeable effect( notated in lowercase, e.g., p, a, or d) o H4: A gamete carries only one allele because during gene pairs segregate during meiosis: the Law of Segregation Fertilization restores the gene pair:

Final Exam: Wednesday Dec 7, noon 35 questions from Chs 9(II), 25/26 65 questions from all previous chapter

Chapter 9(II):

What are the two laws of Mendelian genetics? How do we use knowledge of parent traits to predict traits in offspring of two parents?

Are different traits inherited together? Two Hypotheses: H1: Yes, and so the genes for different traits assort together to gametes H2: No, so gene pairs assort separately, or independently, to gametes o Actual results support the second hypothesis (Figure 9.8)

Mendel tested these using a dihybrid cross:: A cross involving how many traits? 2 o o Traits between two parents are the same except for the two traits of interest Cross two true-breeding parents, homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive

Law of Independent Assortment: Allele pairs assort independently of other pairs during gamete formation

Genetic Disorders of the Autosomes Table 9.7 Most human genetic disorders are recessive. Heterozygotes express the normal phenotype but carry the recessive allele(carriers) and pass on to offspring

Sexual Reproduction: Predicting Genetic Outcomes Knowing geno- or phenotypes for a trait of each parent, we can calculate the probabilities of offspring genotypes Genotype probabilities give us phenotype probabilities Family pedigrees and a Punnett Square are simple tools for determining probabilities Figure 9.13

Chapter 26: Reproduction and Development

How do eggs and sperm meet in humans and in other animals? What anatomical structures facilitate sexual reproduction? What are hormones? What organ Sexual Reproduction in Animals o New genetically unique individual created by fertilization of an egg by a sperm: The union of two haploid gametes to create one new diploid offspring (Figure 26.12) o Fertilization can be either: External: aquatic organisms (Figure 26.3) Internal: occurs inside female body; allows reproduction in conditions that may be unfavorable for gametes; requires complex reproductive anatomy o Human reproductive Anatomy Both sexes in humans have: Gonads for a) hormone secretion and b) gameotogenesis Lets talk about hormones for a second. o What are hormones? Regulatory chemicals that transmit messages between organs in the body o Govern metabolic rate, growth, maturation, and reproduction o Made by the endocrine system/ transported by the circulatory system o Hormone is a signal that prompts a response in target cells only (Figure 25.1) o Hormone production can be disrupted by endocrine disorders (ex. Diabetes) Endocrine system o A dozen major organs, including: Hypothalamus Pituitary Thyroid Pancreas gonads Figure 25.4) o Hypothalamus and pituitary Part of the the brain that controls the endocrine system Responds to information from the nervous system Sends out responses via the two parts of the pituitary: (Figure 25.5) o Sex Hormones Steroid hormones manage sexual reproduction, including gamete formation: Testosterone o Develops, maintains male reproductive system Estrogen o Promotes female trait development; maintains female reproductive system

Progesterone o Prepares, maintains the uterus for pregnancy

o o

Gametogenesis The production of gametes in the gonads In females: oogenesis o In the ovaries, occurs once every 28 days In males: spermatogenesis o In the testes, ongoing Males: Spermatogenesis (Figure 26.8) o The ongoing process of meiosis o Occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes o Haploid cells mature into sperm, streamlined in shape to swim (Figure 26.12) Females: Oogenesis o Ovaries contain all follicles at birth o Each follicle holds a primary oocyte (2n cell paused in meiosis I) o Once a month, hormones prompt ovulation: Development and release of secondary oocyte (paused in meiosis II) Secondary oocyte completes meiosis only if fertilized-whats left is the corpus luteum Human Reproductive Anatomy Both sexes in humans have: o Gonads for hormone secretion and gamete production o Ducts to store and deliver the gametes o Structures to facilitate the meeting of the gametes o Male Reproductive Anatomy: (Figure 26.5) o Female Reproductive Anatomy: (Figure 26.6) Ovulation: once about every 28 days, a follicle matures and releases an egg Female Reproductive Cycle o Repeats about once a month (varies from 20 to 40 days) o A recurring sequence of two cycles: The ovarian cycle: controls growth and release of the oocyte, varies in length The menstrual cycle: prepares the uterus for possible implantation, 14 days long Hormones coordinate the cycles o Hormones Ovarian cycle(varies in length): Estrogen signals the hypothalamus to tell the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH, LH Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) prompts follicle development; the follicle itself secretes increasing amounts of LH and estrogen Luteinizing Hormone (LH) peaks and triggers ovulation The corpus luteum( follicle remnant) degrades over time until it is gone

The Menstrual Cycle(14 days long) o Follicle remnant secretes progesterone, which inhibits FSH and LH and promotes thickening of the endometrium o Once the follicle remnant is gone, so is the progesterone HCG and Pregnancy Hormone targets the corpus luteum Progesterone and estrogen maintained Endometrium not shed Secretion of HCG promotes pregnancy: carrying developing young in the uterus In humans, pregnancy is 40 weeks from day 1 of the last menstrual cycle Divided into trimesters