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The airplane is a testimony to what man can achieve if he dares to believe; what started out as pure fantasy has made travelling to any part of the world, within a

matter of hours or jets.

, possible.

DESCRIPTION: The airplane is an aircraft with fixed wings powered by propellers HOW IT WORKS: The basic parts of an aircraft are:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) The fuselage (body of the plane) The wings The flaps The propellers The tail The ailerons

Internal combustion takes place just like it does in the automobile; the released energy is sent to the propellers or jets which give the airplane a heavy boost, causing it to move. The wings are shaped with a slight curve at the top and positioned

at a particular angle so as the plane moves, air travels over the wings and the slight curve causes the air travelling at the topside of the wing to move faster than the air underneath. Due to the greater speed of the air travelling topside, the pressure exerted on the top of the wing is lower than the pressure exerted by the air moving

underneath of the wing and this causes the airplane to lift. The airplane continues to lift until its weight is balanced by the air displaced and then it cruises

through the air. The flaps and ailerons are like hinged doors , located on the wings of the plane and they help to steer and control the plane. The flaps tilt down to increase the curve of the wing and slide back to increase the surface area of the wing, giving the plane more lift. The ailerons help the plane to turn by generating more lift in one wing than the other; ailerons work in opposition so while the right aileron moves downward, the left moves upward and vice versa. The tail offers the airplane

stability and with the help of elevators and rudders located on the tail, the planes direction can be controlled. The elevators move upward or downward and this result in a change in the direction of the planes nose, enabling the plane to go up or down through the air. The rudder move sideways and enable the plane to be steered to the left or to the right. And this is the basic principle of the airplane.

INVENTORS OF THE AIRPLANE: Mans first foray into flight was by the use

of hot air balloons . On the 4th of June 1783, the Montogolfier brothers showcased their unmanned hot-air balloon creation to the public in Annonay, France. Before long, others got in on the act and in August of that year, another group of

Frenchmen, Jacques Charles and the Robert Brothers, launched the worlds first unmanned hydrogen-filled balloon. In 19 October 1783, the Montgolfier brothers launched a hot-air balloon capable of carrying passengers and 3 of the team members involved in the production were cargoed on this trip. Not to be outdone, Jacques Charles and Nicolas-Louis Robert launched their own manned hydrogen-

filled balloon in Paris to a huge, anticipating crowd of 400,000. The 1800s ushered the introduction of a more ingenious apparatus for flight; the glider

and this could be effectively steered unlike the hot-air balloons which

went only in the direction of the winds. In 1804, Sir George Cayley from England built a man-sized glider with a wing surface of 300 feet. In 1856, Jean-Marie Le Bris flew on his glider and achieved a height of 100m over a distance of 200m. Several other scientists tried their hands on improving the glider but the most notable improvement came from Francis Herbert Wenham, an Englishman, who correctly deduced that long, narrow wings are more suitable for flight than short, stubby ones.

In 1871, another Frenchman, Alphonse Penaud , built an aircraft prototype that inspired the modern day plane; his was the first to incorporate a tail mounted at the rear and curved side wings. In the 1900s, balloons powered by internal combustion engines often referred to as blimps were created and a Brazilian, Alberto Santos-Dumont was the first successful creator and pilot of this kind of aircraft. In

1901, the famous Wright Brothers began carrying out extensive experiments on gliders and made a wind tunnel to test run about 200 of their design ideas. As a result of this, they established several aeronautical basics which are still employed till this day. On 17 December 1903, the Wright Brothers made several sustained flights with Wilbur Wright achieving a height of 260m over a period of 59 seconds. Due to a severe crash of one of their planes, the Wright Brothers improved

further on their designs until at last, they unveiled the Flyer III on October 1905. The Flyer III was the first aircraft to fly for a long period of time and still have control being maintained by the pilot; Wilbur Wright was able to fly 39km in 39 minutes 23 seconds with it.

EVOLUTION OF THE AIRRPLANE: Airplane use was propelled to greater

heights with the introduction of the jet propulsion system which was invented

independently by two engineers, Frank Whittle

from Britain and Hans von


from Germany. When Frank Whittle was just a little boy, his father

brought home a miniature airplane which he would play with for several hours, thus kindling his interest in aviation. At age sixteen, he signed up for the RAF but failed the medicals on two occasions. Relentless about following his dreams, he signed up again but with a different name and this time, he gained admission as an

apprentice. His extraordinary aptitude for the mathematical sciences caught the attention of his commanding officer who then recommended him for

training as an RAF officer . He performed exceptionally well in all his courses but to graduate successfully, Whittle was required to write a thesis on any topic of choice so he used the opportunity to write about his long harbored interest: Future Developments in Aircraft Design. It was a well established fact by the time, that planes which were flown at higher altitudes experienced less turbulence and resistance due to the earths natural jet stream present at those altitudes but no one had yet found a way to get a plane to fly that high consistently. Whittle worked tirelessly to get

his ideas of jet-powered planes out to top officials who could perhaps fund his research but to no avail. With the help of some private investors in 1939, Whittle

began developing his jet system idea and by 1941, an aircraft powered by Whittles jet engine The Pioneer, took its historic first flight. Hans Von Ohain was a doctor in physics working as a junior assistant to Hugo Von

Pohl, the director of the physical institute at the University of Gottingen. He was recommended by Pohl to Ernst Henkel, a German aircraft maker, when Henkel came to the university looking for new airplane propulsion designs. Ohain had

conceived a jet engine system and by 1934, was already a patent

holder of a

jet engine propulsion system engine. He officially joined Henkels company in 1936 and continued further work on his jet propulsion concept. In 1937, he had successfully created a working jet engine system with the help of an automotive engineer, Max Hahn. Henkel then constructed a small aircraft which could accommodate this new engine and the aircraft was successfully flown on 27 August, 1939 by flight captain, Erich Warsitz, making it the first publicly flown jet engine.


Neither of them got married with Wilbur Wright stating at one point that he didnt have time for both a wife and an airplane.

Both were serial entrepreneurs and their endeavors included mass

printing, newspaper airplane manufacture.

publishing, bicycle

repair and

The brothers never flew together except on one occasion; 25 May 1910 when

Orville flew his brother Wilbur and their father on two separate flights with his father screaming during his flight Higher, Orville, higher. Visit for more great inventions.

Wikipedia: History of Aviation Parts of a Plane History of the Airplane How Stuff Works: How Airplanes Work Wikipedia: The Wright Brothers History of the Airplane