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` What is Theatre? Cont Transformation is frequently part of religious ritual A.

Performers represented another being-wearing of mask of a idol or an ancestor= possession, spirit of deity or ancestor inhabited performers. B. Western theatre associated with festivals celebrating the Greek idol Dionysus C. Medieval Christian Church introduced theatre into religious services. A. Used theatre to teach biblical stories to the illiterate public B. Today Christian Pageant continues (ie. Christmas pageant-Easter pageant) Theatre has been used to disseminate and reinforce religious beliefs.

Theater and Socialization Horace-Roman writer defined theatre function is to teach and please Educational potential of theatre has been considered its most important assets. The teaching societies rules of behavior. Theatre and Politics 1. 2. 3. 4. Used to reinforce and support the government that is in power. Propaganda- material designed to advocate a particular point of view. Before newsreels and TV- military victories were reenacted and celebrated in theatres. Provided patriotic support.

Theatre Protest & Social Change (Break down stereotypes) Relationship between blacks and whites in South Africa. Questions Americans involvement in Vietnam War. Theatre and Empowerment (Used for empowering, healing, individual growth, and facilitating group process) Theatre & Cultural exploration: Vital method for learning about goals & aspirations, prejudices and blind spots- good and bad of different societies. Plays can be studied as literary documents= William Shakespeare Theatre connects us with and gives us a greater understanding of the past.

Surviving plays and other evidence of production such as critical reviews, letters, diaries, and ruins of ancient theatres provide clues to what happened in theatres long ago and inspire artists in presenting plays for audiences to appreciate now. Way of expanding opportunities to actors of color Should white actors play characters of color? Should playwrights depict cultures different from their own?

Social Control of Theatre Theatre-the threat to morality A. B. C. D. E. F.

Early Christian leaders felt same as Plato. Became standard practice in 17th century France for retired actors to renounce their S Actors were not accepted in middle or upper middle class social circles. Public display was not considered appropriate for women and women were banned from the stage in some periods. Female characters were played by men and boys in ancient Greek, Elizabethan and various traditional Asian forms of theatre. Theatre Regulations 1642-1660Theatre was banned by Puritans. London theatres were closed

Theatre Censorship Fear of the powere of theatre as a public forum resulted in strict censorships. Took place form 1739-1968. All plays had to be license by Lord Chamberlain before production. US has never had a nationwide censorship but has shut down material that they thought was embarrassing to those in power. Subject matter considered dangerous to society has been censored. A. Political views B. 19th century realistic plays dealing with taboo subjects

Analyzing a Production Theatre, Film & Television- Most viewers of televisions live performances, ie. SATURDAY NIGHT LIVE, performances on PBS: LIVE FROM LINCOLN CENTER, are seeing the program with a tape delay and only a portion of the live performance is recaptured thus limiting the viewer to seeing not nearly as much as what they would have seen as part of the on-site audience. Active Participation: *More concentration needed Two Way Communication: * Actors aware of audience & their performances are affected by this. *Responsibility comes in two way communication Nature of Live Performance: Attraction of Being Live Reading a play or seeing a taped production of a play has a much different affect than seeing the play live *Space (Theatre type, location) *Fellow audience members (who you go with) *Actors performing- well known star or local town celeb *Energy being shared between audience and performers

*Be open- take in and soak up the sensory experience* A) How do we analyze? 1) Think about what you just witnessed. 2) Look at how it was done. 3) What was the effect on you? a) Thinking about production on your way home. b) Talking about production w/others who saw it. c) Write an organized paper with support to your feelings & thoughts. 4) What did the play mean to you? a) Your life experience b) Cultural Context

c) Skills of the actors who performed

B. Intention of the performance: 1) Playwright 2) Actors 3) Directors- concept a) Playwright concept b) Directors concept c) Designers concept C. Observation: 1) Recognizing what happened on stage 2) Watching the production D. Interpretation: Personal response: 1) Your intuitive response 2) Your subjective experience of the physical action

Thinking about the actors performances1. 2. 3. 4. Execution of the Production Believability Actor Choices Character Interaction

Space& Design of Theatre: *Is the set Authentic? *What do they want the audience to see? *Where do they want them to look & why? *What is the spatial relationship of the actors to each other and the set?

Thrust Theatre( comes out at the audience) Proscenium Theatre( picture frame) Much of what the audience sees is not what it seems to be: A. Walls not real B. Representational= created realistically to look and work just like in real life C. Presentational= not meant to represent everyday life Costumes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Help locate the space & time or period & location of play Future or fantasy plays Relationship to other characters Social position Economic status Age Gender

Understanding style: A) The way in which content is packaged or expressed: o A. Language- poetry, prose (Shakespeare) dialect o B. Character movement & Social Manners o C. Changes and Fashions: Architecture Clothes Furniture Decoration o D. Music o E. Painting o F. Dance Style relies on: a. Cultural values b. Geographic regions c. Economic status of characters Imposing style (example: Romeo & Juliet) 1. Film by Baz Lurhman 2. Mafia Families New York 1920s prohibition era

3. Civil War Era (Confederate family vs. Union family) 4. Racial- Black gangs vs. Hispanic gangs, Los Angeles 2010 5. Opera same scenario Productions may use a performance style from one culture and apply it to the play i.e. Japanese kabuki and the play Hamlet. Questions to ask yourself: 1. How does the style help or hinder the production? 2. Does the new style make older material more accessible? 3. If different styles are used in a production does the differing styles conflict or contrast to make the experience confusing or more exciting?

Evaluating A Production Audience members use the terms good or bad as descriptions of a show and whether to recommend it or not. A) Considering Context & Artistic Intent: a. Contexti. New York Broadway= Dreamgirls= pro ii. New York Off Off Broadway=Dreamgirls=actors trying to aspire for professional careers. iii. Regional/Community Theatre=Dreamgirls=Nonprofessional/non-trained actors performing *Expectations vary with each production*

D. Street or Guerilla Theatre ( Activist) 1. Political or Social issues 2. Improvisational staging a. Preplanned staging b. Speeches, images, props put together in advance and used to confront the audience =in your face, challenge your beliefs or style But it is theatre! E. Artistic Intent of the production: -What was it? 1. Entertain you? 2. Shock you? 3. Confront you? 4. Challenge you?

F. Taste- The personal preference of the beholder of the theatre experience. i. Tied to our previous experiences with culture- everything around us created by humans not occurring naturally. 1. Our likes and dislikes a. Based on our experiences b. Genres of film, music, dance ii. Theatre you like 1. Moved by the performance- what moved you/ a. Actors performances b. Story c. Music d. Design: set, costumes, lights iii. Theatre you dont like: 1. What didnt you like about the play or experience- why? a. Were you confused, bored, offended b. Break down what caused you to have the respond that you had Role of the Critic They have one foot in the theatrical community and the other in the public. They are to provide a fair yet interesting critique of an event while under a deadline. A) Used to be associated wi/a particular theatre or performer and did reviews for public support. a. Today they provide unbiased writing about productions b. New York reviewers can make or break a Broadway show: producers will close a show if opening reviews are poor. B) Critic to Audience: a. Review- gives info about show( what, when, where, & how to get tickets) b. Criticism- analysis, interpretation or evaluation of what was performed- positive & negative. Need descriptions with criticism. Criticism must be fair, interesting and honest. C) Critic & the Artist a. Balance coverage on the actors: i. Point out the good work and the bad ii. Be sensitive to the nature of the production (Professional Theatre/Amateurlarge budget/smaller budget) b. Have perspective on the artist work i. What the artist is attempting to convey to the audience setting- contexthistorical- contemporary See a production at the beginning, opening weekend and at the closing weekend. You will likely have a different production.

When writing about theatre a person must connect with the experience in a personal way. So support your ideas and thoughts with evidence found in your observation of the production.

Greek/Medieval/Elizabethan Theatre *the origin of theatre today Greek Theatre: defined by the A) Theatre of Athens B) Century in which it was done- 5th Century BC( the Olympics and gladiators) Playwrights of the time: a) b) c) d) Aeschylus- Tragedies: Orestia and Prometheus Bound Sophocles- Tragedies: Antigone Euripides-Tragedies: Medea Aristophanes- Comedy: The Frogs

All four of these writers blended myth, legend, philosophy, social commentary, poetry, dance, music, public participation and visual splendor in their plays. Aristotle: Father of Criticism wrote the Poetics- premier commentary on theatre written. It is the bases for the way plays are written/developed/created today. Greek theatre is not what the Victorian revivals depicted, white robed actors who strutted ceremonially through white marble buildings: Greek theatre was a SPECTACLE. 1. 2. 3. 4. Loud music Vivid colors Vigorous chanting 12-15 costumed chorus performing dances a. Bawdy b. Frequently obscene c. Blasphemous d. Hilarious e. Scandalous

Always passionate & controversial. Both comic & tragic theatre centered around the violence of life and the social & ethical aspects of war, murder, lust & betrayal.

Orgins of Greek Theatre: a. Religion 1. Deities- who were mean & vengeful reaking havoc on mortals and with each other. Theatre dedicated to one idol Dionysus= the idol of fertility, wine, and nature. 1. City of Dionysia = New drama first publicly performed. Festivals from the period: a. Rural Dionysia- Mid Winter, took place outside the city in suburbs and country. The Dithyramb= song of praise for Dionysus led by choir. 2. Lenaea: January- all around the country and city. Merry making, drinking and celebrating = source of comedy 3. City of Dionysia/Greater Dionysia: April- surviving Greek plays performed at this festival= tragedies were developed All the Dionysian festivals involved drinking enormous quantities of wine throughout the 3 days of the festival.

a. b. c. d. e.

Sacrifices Dismemberments Hallucinogenic mushrooms were taken Phallus bearing priest in goat skin Sacred marriages

A. Festival Competitions: a. Took place every year b. Play competition: 3 playwrights could enter c. Playwrights would direct and act with acting company. d. Playwright wrote 3 tragedies or a trilogy (sequence of 3 plays done on the same day tightly or loosely related) & 1 comedy for competition e. Each playwright would take the whole day from morning to night to do their plays. f. 900 tragedies were produced in Athens but we only have 31 that survived

B. Performers: a. Chorus & Actor= two separate groups i. Was representing the ideal spectator ii. Re-acting to characters and events as the playwright hoped the audience would iii. Gave advice, expressed opinions iv. Spoke in unison, stood apart from the actor v. Chorus was the bridge between the actor and audience there were 12-15 members Thespis: Thespian= actor a. First actor to step away from the chorus to become a single actor b. Began the tradition or idea of the single performer becoming a character c. Actor became answer and interpreter of the chorus C. Theatrical Mask: a. Enabled actors (all of whom were male) to portray a number of characters. All ages & sexes. b. Made of linen-pressed into a mold then stiffened, cut, and painted D. Playing Space a. Orchestra-dancing circle or stage b. Parodos-area the chorus enters from c. Skene- wooden changing room on either side of orchestra d. Theatron- the seeing place where audience sat(hillside) Violence in Greek theatre was always performed off stage. By 486 Theatre as we know it had been fully invented.

Medieval Theatre: Began as a springtime religious observance, ritualizing the resurrection of a divine figure. It became part of the political and social life of the community, as well as a vehicle for religious expression. Catholic Church A. Tropes: 925 A.D. chanted-any dialogue between choir members on opposite side of cathedral during service. a. Quem quaeritis (Whom seek ye) most famous chant i. Appeared in the Easter Mass (resurrection of Christ) ii. Visit of the 3 Marys to the tomb of the crucified Christ B. Liturgical Drama: 1. Plays included as part of worship services

2. Performed in Latin 3. Performed by the Clergy: a. Plateau- open playing space b. Mansion- temporary stages w/facades (doors/windows)eau- open playing space c. Mansion- temporary stages w/facades (doors/windows).Several mansions could be used in a play each mansion determined a dif. Location. These mansions were fixed stages. In 1210 Pope Innocent 3 decreed that drama be removed from the church. Modern Cycle Play C. Cycle Plays: community takes over production of plays- plays gave moral instruction to the illiterate mass also called Corpus Christi plays bc often performed at time of church festival of Corpus Christi- Body of Christ. a. Collection of plays based on biblical stories b. Performed outdoors c. Written in the local lang.(non latin) d. Performed by community members e. Began in 1200s performed as part of religious festivals: Christmas, Easter etc. Miracle or Saints Plays: 1. 2. 3. 4. Retold the life of the Saints Plaumaster or director began to be seen Scenic support obecame lavish Plays or cylcle could be from 1 to 25 days

Morality Plays: Everyman final hours of a man facing his death 1. 2. 3. 4. Depicted human struggle of good and evil Most famous play form in Medieval Europe Taught a moral lesson at the end of the play Performed by professional actors

Secular Plays 1. Non-religious plays 2. Performed by professional actors

Pageant Wagons:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Platform on wheels(parade float) Playing space and a small mansion or hut was placed behing the playing space Elaborate & expensive- owned by a troupe of actors (guild members) Travel form place to place -10 to 16 locations thoughout the city and perform in as many stations 5. Performed until all 48 playlets had been performed Italian Renaissance= 1500-1700 Classicallly inspired Looked back at humanistic art, literature and philosophy of the Greek & Romans Invented Proscenium (picture frame) Artificial illumination w/candles and oil lamps Created opera to understand and reconceive Greek tragedy Developed neoclassical principles for writing plays. Systematic approach to playwriting Created improvisational COMMEDIA dellarte Comedy Origins in greek and Roman mimes Acrobatic Clowning Farcical plots Attractive lovers Mask worn to distinguish characters 1.) Commedia dell'arte characters: a.) Zanni servant clown/trickster Arlecchino and Brighella b.) Miser: Pantolone c.) Braggar and Soldier: Capitano d.) Primadonna: Leading lady

e.) Innamorata: young female lover f.) Innamorato: young male lover g.) dottore: doctor

2.) Perspective scenery- 1508 a.) Inspiration: Perspective drawing and painting b.) Sebastian Serilo- popular scenic designer c.) 2 dimensional changeable wingso or flats -Chariot and pole system, to move flats simultaneiously. Giacomo Torelli 1640's developed the system -Perspective setting- wing, drop and borders, 3 areas leading to a background painting

3.) Set of Rules- 1570 a.) Justify secular plays and get church approval if the plays followed certain rules b.) Three basic themes_ reality equals events that could serve in life

Reality: i.) Time= action should take place in 24 hrs ii.) action- no sub plots Iii.) Place- must be seen in one location Iv.) Enhance believability v.) Analyzing the integrating of the play vi.) NO soliloquies or chorus Vii.) NO violence on stage c.) Morality- teach a moral lesson (at the end of the play) d.) Universality

Elizabethan England 1587-1642

a.) Queen Elizabeth- daughter of Henry VIII, Came to throne 1558-1663, aka Elizabeth I. She loved theatre, produced marquees b.) Theatre companies: Union between acting companies and mostly university educated writers -all male companies- women roles acted by boys or young men -James Burbage= 1576 (1st public (allowed everyone) theatre: "The Theatre") -Richard Burbage- actor/manager (1599) of The Lord Chamberlain's Men -Lord Chamberlain's Men= Shakespeare's company. Created the GLOBE theatre 1599-1612, burned down and rebuilt, lasted until 1644

Playing Space Public Theatres- NAMES: The Theatre The Curtain The Rose The Swan The Globe The Fortune The Hope

Theatre Space structure Three story polygonal shape Open Air Thrust stage (3 sided stage)

Faade with 2 doors, curtain, and balcony Audience- in pit (yard) surrounded 3 sides of the stage, sat in galleries or boxes 3 stories high Tiring house- attiring house or dressing room Cellarage: below stage: Trap door Gilded heavens: semi canopy where actors occasionally descended via pulleys

Playwrights Language Blank verse- unrhymed iambic pentameter IP- ten syllable line with stress on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 10th syllables Prose- ordinary grammatical structure natural flow of speech Rhymed verse: 2 successive lines of verse of which the final words rhymed with another

Playwrights of the Era

Thomas Kyd- Elizavethan drama begins with him. The Spanish Tragedy (1587) Vengeance Madness Grotesque onstage violencce Long stood model of tragedy of revenge

Christopher Marlow First to master blank verse Created models of heroic, antiheroic, and historical tragedy Doctor Faustus (1588)

Edward II (1592) 1st important chronicle (dramatic adaptation of historical events dealing with kings and the struggle over the crown) Tamburlaine and Sequel Tamburlaine II

Ben Jonson: Actor and playwright Mastered Biting satire Volpone (1606) The Alchemist (1610) Every Man in His Humour (1598)

William Shakespeare 1564-1616 Actor and writer Not university educated Wrote for the audience (plays done at the court theatre and public theatre) Wrote for Lord Chamberlain's Men Most of his heroes were performed by Richard Burbage Respected for his use of language Development of plot and action Understanding of human nature Wrote for every major dramatic form

Between 1590 and 1619 Shakespeare wrote 37 plays** Situation Comedies: Comedy of Errors (1593) Romantic Comedies: Much Ado about Nothing (1598) Fantastic Comedy of the Supernatural: A Midsummer Night's Dream (1595) Tragic Comedies: A Winter's Tale (1610); The Tempest

Chronicle Plays: Henry V Tragedies: Hamlet, Macbeth

James I takes over (TERROR AND MALCONTENT) John Webster- Duchess of Malfi (1613) Cyril Tourneur- The Revenger's Tragedy Pessimistic tones, scenes of torture, poisoning, vengeance, all with poetry in language John Ford- Tis Pity She's a Whore (1630) Poetry, crime, incest, suicide

Period ends with the closing of the theatres in 1642 due to outbreak of a political and religious war

Theatre Spaces Proscenium Theatre=Picture Frame A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. Created during Italian renaissance, 16th century Proscenium Arch marks the primary division between audience and performance space Apron- extension of the stage that continues toward the audience from rch Wings- backstage space off left and right of actors, crew, scenery, not in the visible performance space Grand drape- front curtain to hide scene changes or indicate the beginnings or ending of a production House- audience area Orchestra Pit- where orchestra is located Orchestra seating- front rows of house Balcony- seated area above house a. Advantages i. Allows for spectacle ii. Realistic scenery iii. Rivets the audiences attention focal point for the performance

Thrust Stage

A. One of the oldest theatrical arrangements. a. Used by the Greeks, Asians, Elizabethan England B. Surrounded by audience on 3 sides. C. Performance space extends out into audience w/the actors downstage and surrounded on 3 sides by audience. D. Faade- general standing or hanging structure-often multilevel maybe neutral always resides upstage of action-background that can show any location a. Greece, Rome, Elizabethan England/Shakespeare E. Vomitories (voms) a. Aisles that run under the seating and extend to the stage for entrances and exits-found in sports stadiums. F. Booth Stage- thrust stages that are portable or mobile. a. Famous Thrust Space: i. Alley theatre- Houston, TX ii. Mark Taper Forum- Los Angeles iii. Guthrie Theatre-Minneapolis iv. Vivian Beaumont Theatre- New York b. Advantages of Thrust stage i. Sense of intimacy ii. Action takes place downstage iii. Best of both worlds iv. Can have spectacle and intimacy at same time. Arena Space=also known as=Circle Theatre and theatre in the Round A. Space where audience completely surrounds the stage. a. Stage can be square, rectangle, circular or any geometric shape. B. Entrances and exits space through aisles that puncture the audience. C. Allows more people to be seated close to the action of the play- audience experiences all sides. D. Most Arena space are intimate but some are large- Fichlander at Arena Stage, in Washington,DC. a. Advantages: b. Very Intimate i. Audience Closer ii. Breaks asthetic distance c. Very economical i. No scenery would conceal part of actor d. Proven Effective Black Box Theatre= nontraditional theatre becoming traditional 1. Described as a simple room transformed to a theatre space, usually painted black. 2. Most theatre companies, universities, and colleges use Black Box=Ford Center 90 seat space

3. Flexible Space-stage and seating can be changed for each production. 4. Also known as Lab theatre a. Artist free to experiment with new work or methods. 5. Advantages: a. Intimate b. Convert any room

Found Theatre Space: a) Anywhere indoors & out that was never intended for a theatre space. b) Room in a public building, restaurant, house, church, factory, warehouse, etc. c) Park, field, street corner, rooftop d) Any space can become a theatre a. Actor b. Space c. Audience Advantages: a. Allows the audience to appreciate the beauty of a work of art b. Gives the production a sense of authenticity c. Unconventional, unique, & cool Environmental Theatre- rejected conventional space a. Exploded in 1960s and 1970s i. Little or no separation from actors and audience-the audience is a part of the performance ii. Can happen in traditional or found spaces iii. Audience members feel put on the spot and have a hard time finding a comfort zone iv. Performers play around, above, behind and among the spectators. Experimenting with space: a) Traveling performance: actors and audience move from room to room to watch the play Street Theatre a) Open, meets needs of a specific community Mixed Media 1. Performances combination of the arts and technical equipment such as slides and film

The Play What happens in theatre? Itsw an event, its the theatres drama, a word derived from the word dran = something done. A play is action not just words in a book.

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Action: a. Argument b. Struggle c. Persuasion Threats a. Seduction b. Sound c. Music d. Dance e. Speech f. Passion Play is literature Play is playing a. Childs plays i. Acting out ii. Playing dress up= costumes and props iii. Adventure All plays must have a beginning and an end. Duration: a. Full length: 2-3 hours, w/15 min. intermission i. Lunch=matineee ii. Dinner=bed time b. One acts: i. 1 hour or less ii. 10 min. plays combined to make a full theatre program= night of one acts

Blue Print of a Play A. Parts of a playa. Dialogue- printed text- words spoken by characters b. Stage directions= written description of physical or emotional action or physical appearance c. Outline production team= 2 dimensional until artist make it 3 dimensionall B. The Poetics= Aristotle (Well Made Play) a. 4th century BC = components of a play b. Six elements of a play i. Plot ii. Character iii. Thought iv. Language v. Music vi. Spectacle C. Plot: organization of the action of a play a. Plot gives a play its unity b. Most important element c. Another word for plot is structure Casual Structures: 1. Western Theatre: (European & North America) a. Linear plot= drama progress forward and sequentially in time b. Casual (cause and effect) = one causes the next event c. Most films & TV follow a linear & casual structure. Plays example= Romeo & Juliet 2. Conflict: opposing forces go against each other until an out come is decided. No conflict, no story!! 3. Point of Attack: point in story where background information ends and the action begins. a. Some stories have happened before: -Romeo & Juliet, families already at war, lovers havent met yet at beginning of play * late point of attack 4. Exposition: Background info of the story and the characters. Sets upa. Character b. Setting- location life of the play is taking place c. Crucial past events- can be conveyed by: dialogue i. Before 19th century-Idols, Nurse(Medea), single character comes forward to explain the events of the play ii. Telephone calls, servants or characters ( the bluest eye = Claudia) iii. Our Town- narrator- stage manager d. Inciting incident: Are single events that spark main action of the play. i. Hamlet= his fathers ghost

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ii. Romeo and Juliet= 1st time lovers meet e. Rising Action- small actions build upon one another f. D g. D h. Subplots: secondary lines of action in which different conflicts are developed. i. A midsummer nights dream- lovers/fairies/the workers/mechanicals=subplot i. Discovery: something important is found about the character himself or the human experience j. Reversal: line of action veers around to its opposite,ie. Prime suspect in a murder turns up dead. Variations of Structure: going against what we expect a. Cliff Hanger- stops at the climax- outcome of conflict is now shown. Ie. Lost b. Flashback-20th century device= events that we are able to see that actually took place in the past,ie. the Glass Menagerie Situational Structure: a. Events of the situation are the structure b. Does not follow the casual structure- plots based on idea, image, mood, or character c. Substitution of condition Structure by other means: play is unified by 1. Idea 2. Character 3. Image a. Shadow box= 3 dif. Stories lined together by the same line b. D c. D d. After 19th century artists wanted to challenge the classic structure i. Challenge the public to think in different ways ii. Searching for truth in a dif. Way iii. Mirror life in a better way- life is not a tidy string of events, its chaotic and sometimes does not make sense of chaos. Repetition as structure: a. An event, action on line of dialogue repeated with or without variation- but provides a unity for the play. i. Rashamon- Japanese play, repeats story 3 times , each time we learn something different ii. Life repeats itself, we do the same things over and over. 1. More true to the way life really is Poststructuralism: Drama written after WWII that breaks down traditional casual structure Much of it is Meta-theatrical= 1. Play about doing a play a. Noise off b. Six character in Search of an Author c. A Midsummer Nights Dream st 21 century structure: Structure experiments & diversity a. Playwrights:

i. Defied traditions ii. Broke rules iii. Pushed boundaries iv. Experimented w/dramatic elements v. Shattered audience expectations b. Experimentation w/ word text i. Pantomime- silent actor creates scenario w/out words 1. Samuel Becketts- Act Without Words- physical action expresses human emotions c. Happenings: events planned or spontaneous where audience watches or participates in temporary art. d. Performance art- one person show where artist is subject of performance. i. Combines theatre, music, dance & visual art. e. What is purpose?: Usually in reaction to political or social events- used as a form of expression i. Ann Deveare Smith- Twilight Los Angeles (topic LA riots) 11. Character: fictional person created to perform action of the play. - Character exists only within the action and words of the play a. Protagonist- central character can be good or bad- MacBeth b. Character informationi. What characters say about themselves ii. What others say about them iii. What the character does c. Levels of characterization i. Biological1. What is the character? species, human, fairy, demon, animal, spirit,etc. 2. Gender 3. Race 4. Twin- Comedy of Errors ii. Physical iii. Psychological & Emotional iv. Social v. Ethical d. Social Traits: i. Job/Profession 1. Troy Maxson Fences struggling garbage collector 1957, prison, Negro League baseball passed over during integration of major league baseball. 2. Soicoeconomic status 3. Religious or political affiliation e. Ethical traits-

i. Moral standards- The Crucible (Arthur Miller) John Proctor on trial for witchcraft chooses death rather than incriminate other innocent people 12. Understanding Character Relationships: how character relate to one another, what we learn about them. a. Audience observation: i. Past relationships usually presented through exposition 1. Brother/sister- Tom/Laura in The Glass Menagerie 13. Thought: Ideas in a play a. Written speech for a character arguing a point: Hamlet- to be or not to be b. Visual image or expressive lang.: Hamlet= skulls, bodies, dueling, posions i. Plot contributes to thought

1. What can language suggest about character? a. How they express or convey their ideas? b. Characters intelligence simple or sophisticated emotional state c. Emotional state d. Economic background e. Where they are/or where they are from i. Dialect- Tennessee Williams (southern character w/ regional dialect) 2. Language describes characters environment and set mood of play. a. Drama-longer speeches, moves slower b. Comedy- fast paced, witty 14. Music: a. Has been apart of theatre from the beginning( Greek Chorus) b. Power of music i. Emotional identification1. Suspence 2. Excitement 3. Sadness 4. Happiness ii. Offstage sound effects 1. Mood 2. Important information 3. Cause action

15. Spectacle: visual elements called for in a play a. Scenery b. Costumes c. Props d. Lighting e. Actor physicality & movement A. Conveya. Mood b. Excitement c. Meaning

The Playwright History of the PlaywrightA) Earliest Greek playwrights were actors and directors of their palys B) Medieval-names of most cylcle plays and their authors is not knowen, but the palsy were based on biblical stories C) Origin of the word playwright: a. During Medieval period the term Wright was used for a craftsperson: i. Shipwright=built ships ii. Wheelwright=made wheels b. Playwright is not just a writer but a crafter D) Renaissance- playwrights name became more importatnt as theater became seen as more professional E) Elizabethan England- writer could sell their plays to competing theatrical troupes profiting from their works. F) 1791 French National Assembly passed first law giving royalties a. Playwrights are paid fee for each night of a performance G) Playwrights who didnt earn a living as playwright or another job in the theater had jobs as novelists-journalists,poets, and editors. The playwright is the most central and most peripheral figure in a theatrical event The playwright is an independent artist, whose work is executed in isolation o o o o Some work from improvisation Some are initial directors of their own work Some act in their own works Shakespeare and Moliere wrote plays for actors they had in their companies

Independence of the playwright is the most important characteristic. A. Sources of inspiration a. Visual image b. Newspaper article c. Previous play d. Novel e. Place f. Historical event- Henry V g. Comic strip-Annie h. A painting-Mill Hands Lunch Bucket by Romare Bearden (Joe Turners Come and Gone-August Wilson) B. Writers use both subconscious and subconsciousness mind a. Must be aware of creating a document that is complete, rich , full and will inspire visual and interpretive artists and the body and voice of the actor. Literary and Nonliterary Aspects of Playwrighting Some plays or portions of plays are never written at all o Improvisational plays o Rituals o Comic business o Subtextual behaviors o Mime or nonverbal in nature Impact depends on the collective endeavor of cast and crew and whose appreciation by the audience must be spontaneous and immediate Play attains its finished form only in performance

Playwrighting as Event Writing The core of every play is action The playwright works with two tools o Dialogue o Physical Action Events of drama are compelling Events can be connected chronologically with cause and effect continuity o Continuous or linear (most modern drama) o Discontinuous or nonlinear( Greek and Shakespeare and some modern) Audience must be able to put dramatic events into some sort of meaningful or satisfying fashion

Qualities of a Fine Play Crediility and Intrigue

Credibility is an audience imposed demand Action must flow logically from characters, situation, and theatrical context What happens in Act 2 makes sense from what happened in Act 1 Characters must act and think like human beings James Barries Peter Pan Undeniably fantastical All character aspirations are human ones

Intrigue o The quality of the play that makes us curious Suspense Cliffhangers o Artfully contrived plot devices o Can delve into intrigue of character and them o Intrigue draws us into the world of the play; credibility keeps us there o Intrigue demands surprise, credibility demands consistency Speakability, Stageability, and Flow o Speakability Common fault of new playwrights-lack of speakability Line of dialogue achieves maximum impact when spoken Line of dialogue must appear to realistically emanate from that character Dialogue is the basis for actors to develop characterization Actors also have to breathe from time to time o Stageability Dialogue must work into the action of the play Audience cannot be continually bombarded with metaphors o Flow Play must continually say something, mean something or be doing something for the audience o Richness Detail and dimension Margaret Edsons Wit (last hours of Dr. Vivian Bearings life, ovarian cancer, experimental treatment) o Depth of Characterization Every character must possess an independence of intention, expression and motivation All characters must act from motives that appear reasonable to them A sense of validity of purpose o Gravity and Pertinence Describes the importance of a plays theme and relevance to the concerns of the audience

The Playwright The human predicament o Aging o Discord o Love o Insecurity o Ambition o Loss Pertinence o How the play touches on concerns of the audience, both of the moment and timeless Political and drama (quickly outdated) Ephemeral=(lasting a short time) or universal drama (The Crucible) Compression, Economy, and Intensity o Compression Skill of condensing story into a theatrical time frame o Economy Consolidating or eliminating characters, events, locales, and words in the service of compression o Intensity Conveys to audience that this theatrical moment is unique and its revelations profound Must evolve out of development of issues Leads to climatic confrontation o Celebration A fine play celebrates life, not merely analyze or criticize it Intentionally uplifting dramas may only serve to whitewash life It must be created out of a passionate, personal vision of reality The Playwrights Process o Dialogue Remembered dialogue Imagined dialogue o Conflict Should be involving of all characters without depending entirely on shouting and denunciation Seperation Loss Crucial decisions Rejection Emotional breakthrough o Structure Different approaches by playwrights

Develop outlines Some start with a scene or two Others begin with dialogue and structure develops itself Strong dramatic structure compels interest and attention The Playwrights Rewards o The most celebrated artists of the theatre o Money and prestige, not to mention influence o It is a creative act that enlarges human experience and enriches our appreciation of life The Playwright and Production: o Playwright: responsible for vision of the play (words spoken & suggested action) Company connection: writing for a specific theatre company Shakespeare & Moliere wrote for ppl they worked with and themselves o Shakespeare wrote for Richard Burbage Can be create limitations and restrictions o Number or type of characters (depending on who is in the company) o Space to perform in (what type of theatre space are you creating a play for) o Collaboration: First production: playwright is part of the team developing it Sam Shepard :The God of Hell 2004 at Actors Studio Drama School August Wilson- Yale Reportory (Lloyd Richards) o Productive and exciting time during play development o Painful& Destructive time during play development Dramaturge- Specialist in dramatic literature & theatre history, helps the playwright Attends readings Attends rehearsals Offers suggestions New Thought: Began with designers Gordon Craig & Adolphe Appia focused attention on the director as the master artist of the theatre o Playwrights as directors: Sam Sheperd: often directs his own first productions of his plays No collaborations with a production team (director) o Play Development Script Reading- hear play come alive Workshops Nontraditional play development: Write & Perform- solo artist (develop material in front of an audience)

Interviews with variety of people; o Anna Deavere Smith: Twilight: Los Angeles

Produce Some companies will produce a new play from beginning to the end. The Laramie Project (1998) Matthew Shepard (homosexual youth killed because of his sexuality) Tectonic Theatre Project & members of the community developed the script Theatre Companies looking for new works create competitions and festivals for writers

Contemporary Playwrights Arthur Miller-Death of a salesman Lanford Wilson- The Gingham dog Neil Simon- most successful in history of theatre- The odd couple Edward Albee-Whos afraid of Virginia woolf Terrance McNally-ragtime Sam Shepard- True West August Wilson-Fences David Mamet-Glengarry glen Ross Wendy Wasserstein-The Heidi chronicles Paula Vogel- How I learned to drive Tony Kushner- Angels in America David Henry Hwang- FOB Neil Labute- SOME GIRLS Suzan Lori Parks- Top Dog under Dog The emotional response a play creates in the audience (Tragedy, Comedy, Farce, Tragicomedy or Dramaedy, Melodrama) Tragedy Ends in disaster Ends unhappily Serious Evokes pity and fear in the audience

a.) Pity= audience sympathizes with the protagonist b.) Fear= audience empathizes with the character who is facing a difficult problem

Protagonist- biggest conflict in the play Greeks- tragedy was about people of noble birth (certain social class). 1.) Something happens to a royal family, entire kingdom is affected, (ex. Oedipus the King's fate is tied to that of his people) 2.) Ethical Choices: protagonist has to make a major decision about moral issue a.) Greeks- tragedy explained why bad things happen and if terrible things happened to a good person for no reason b.) protagonist- good people who made mistakes

Examples: Oedipus The King, Othello, Death of a Salesman (ex. Antigone- one brother dead, body to rot due to fight against the king= uncle. Antigone's religion and family loyalty tell her she must give her brother a proper burial. She follows her conscience and buries brother, disobeying Uncle/King orders, and she gets punished by death) 2. Tragic Hero: a. Pit themselves against forces represented by: i. Other characters ii. Own inner demons iii. Physical environment b. We witness their pain, suffering, and inevitable defeat. Sometimes triumph in the face of defeat. c. Tragic hero in classic drama accepts his fate. d. Tragic hero in modern drama does not accept his fate. e. Tragic Realization i. Despite suffering and external law exists which people can learn from ii. or that human acts and suffering are futile in an indifferent universe 3. Modern Tragedy: a. Ordinary person can be faced with tragedy in their lives even though they are not of noble birth. b. Common man who represents any other common man. c. Character is in charge of their destiny unlike the tragic hero. d. Effects not whole of humanity but will effect those close to him/or her (Arthur Miller Death of a Salesman) 4. Comedy: taking a subject that could be tragic and using humor to make the problem seem less dangerous.

a. b. c. d. e.

Social norm being violated Social order is put back into place at the end Comedy defined through lack of the emotions of pity & fear. Comedy seldom has a sense of impending doom- stakes of conflict are lower Comic action diverts audience by taking them out of themselves

Situation comedy: emphasizes the humorous qualities of the situation in which the characters find themselves. A. As early as Roman times B. Modern playwrights: Neil Simon (the odd couple) - TV situation comedies= Friends, Cosby Show *Farce= situation comedy that includes in its humor broad physical action. Play: Noises Off" TV: Big Bang Theory Many doors onstage Multi-level set, people running around Fast paced Mistaken identity

*Comedy of Character= eccentricities of major character 1. Moliere famous for his characters: Imaginary Invalid= hypochondriac The Miser= Harpagon blinded by greed *Comedy of ideas: comic thought Aristophanes- comedic based on ideas o Lysistrata= women take over fortress of the city & refuse to have sex with their mates until the men decide to stop fighting. George C. Wolfe- The Colored Musuem satirize stereotypes from black history

*Comedy of Manners: the behavior of a particular segment of society. Characters find that their own desires are at odds with the social expectations of them Focused mostly on upper class society o Oscar Wilde-Importance of Being Ernest A. English Restoration- 1660-1700: was golden age of comedy of manners a. My Fair Lady- common flower girl made into a duchess *Romantic Comedy: follows the attempts of lovers to get together

1. Watch 2 people trying to become a couple 2. the two find themselves in complicated comic situations- but all ends well. Shakespeare Much Ado About Nothing Film- Sleepless In Seattle

Tragic Comedy: tragic and comic equal mix, it incorporates serious action, everyday characters and a happy ending. 1. Could have a tragic beginning but ends well 2. Both serious and comic elements 3. Characters are both high and low in society a. Anton Chekhov Uncle Vanya- middle aged man realized he has spent his life as a pretentious fraud b. Lorraine Hansberry A Raisin in the Sun Melodrama: Greek for music-music & Drama: Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street 1. Action of play ends happily but focus is on what happens not how things happen 2. Melodrama refers to a specific genre of play w/recognizable characteristics a. Fast paced action & suspence b. Audience concerned whether or not something will happen rather than how characters react: i. Soap operas- One Life to Live c. Climax= spectacle: things blow up - High speed chase- Fast & Furious Thelma & Louise d. Dramatic tension to the breaking point e. Emphasis on suspense f. Usually good vs evil 3. Centers around over dramatic way in which events happen a. Lavish costumes and set b. Emotional acting 4. Good and Bad= Melodrama Romantic Hero: The Hunchback of Notre Dame 1) Social outcast 2) Looking for peace 3) Search for acceptance a. Movies: Wesley The Princess Bride or Luke Star Wars i. Serous action caused by a villain

ii. iii. iv. v. 20th century:

Characters are either good or bad Good prevails over evil External conflicts happen to the characters Ending is clear cut/not complex

A) Black Comedy: modern comedy where we find ourselves laughing at horrible strange characters and absurd situations- laugh and gasp at the same time 1. Christopher Durang

Realism Realism (1865-1914) is the rebellion against romanticism and melodrama but keeps the visual aspect of romanticism & melodrama A. Romanticism: 18th Century reactivated passion (1820-1865) a. Staging=box set-scenic device that imitated the interior of a room. Historic accurate costumes and scenry. b. Shakespeare-became internationally known and respeceted through his plays done in this era. Shakespeare had already been dead 180 years. c. Plays ended tragically for a purpose-to learn from mistakes of others. (Macbeth,Hamlet) d. Sturm and Drang (Storm & Stress-Turbulence & Urgency) i. These playwrights shocked audiences w/plays full of violence, forbidden tropics,ie. Teen pregnancy, rape, self mutilation. (emotion over enlightment) e. Organic structure-form of play dictated by subject matters f. Wild forces of nature (the unexplainable) g. Gothic and mystical h. Emotional triumph over reason i. German artist in all fields of are lead this movement j. Writers are interested in history or legend k. Language often inflated/formal l. Characters maybe larger than life-(Ichabod Crane-The legend of sleepy hollow) m. French slowly succumbed to it: Victor Hugos novel Notre Dame of Paris= Hunchback of Notre Dame n. Actors created new standared of acting: i. Emotional overflow ii. Athleticism iii. Sudden outbursts iv. Mixed tone o. This era brought about the 1st known professional African American theatre-The African Company (1821) in New York. They performed Shakespeare and original works.

We owe the adoption of the Proscenium Theatre building to the romantic period. And Romanticism survives today in the form of 19th century based musicals such as Phantom of the Opera Melodrama: 19th century 1. Dominates TV now. a. Disaster epics on land- Earthquakes b. Crime and detective thrillers-CSI: Miami c. Supernatural horror stories-Buffy the Vampire Slayer d. Tales of adventures in exotic places-Lost e. Conflicts of love/divorce-Brothers & Sisters f. Villainous business man-Tony Soprano The Sopranos g. Lawyers and outlaws- Law and Order i. Uncle Toms Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, had been adapted by George Aiken. Story of a slave woman who runs away agree hearing her only child will be sold. Uncle Tom, also a slave is sold and placed on a river boat sailing down the Mississippi, he befriends a little white girl and their adventure ensues. 2. Gaslights introduced-very dangerous a. Could be dimmed to make image of night or dark/shadowy scenes b. Made black outs possible on stage c. Colored lights created using silks and glass d. Spectacle became literal e. Conveyer belts used f. Hydraulic and electric lifts created bridges and levels g. Traps in walls that enabled sudden entrances h. Collapsible scenery for earthquakes and fires Realism: Theatre without conventions or abstractions-likeness to life is realisms goal. Realism is having actors be the characters have dialogue that is conversation not stand for conversation. Instead of scenery and costume that convey a sense of time, space and atmosphere, it has a genuine scenery that is inhabitable and costumes that are real clothes. a. Henrik Ibsen= father of realism i. A Doll House- woman leaves husband and children (womans rights), GhostSTDs b. Charles Darwin-Sociologist, wrote On the origin of species by means of natural selection (1859) i. Humans not center of universe ii. Evolutionary theory-man evolved from animals gave way to the importance of heredity and environment

iii. Ibsen uses this theory in his plays to give explaination of his characters human behavior iv. Playwrights fascinated by cultural and social evolution as well c. Environment to character behavior d. Conversational dialogue (w/no poetry) i. Repetition ii. Inane remarks (without sense or substance) iii. Pauses iv. Imperfect responses to imitate how people really speak/interact e. Subject matter i. Frank discussions of prostitution adultery and divorce f. Everyday life i. Social problems-marriage, rights for women, plight of the working class Playwrights in Realism: Henrik Ibsen: Norwegian (Father of Realism) didnt provide an easy solution or a happy ending to his plays. Audience demonstrated and waited for Noras return when she left her husband and children in A Dolls House August Strindberg: Swedish o Miss Julie (1888) social mismatch group (servants and mistress) tease/flirt and become intimate only to end in suicide of Miss Julie. Embarassment and ridicule by servant and feelings of society class of the day. George Bernard Shaw: English o Mrs. Warrens Profession- madame explains to her daughter, life choices of prostitution to pull her out of poverty. Heidi Fliss Anton Chekhov: Russian o the Cherry Orchard(1904) wealthy familys demise due to failure to recognize the social and economical changes taking place around them. They lose the things that mean the most to them but do nothing to prevent it. Independent theatres presented these plays: Theatre Libre= by Andre Antoine in Paris (1887) Moscow Art Theatre= Constantin Stanislavski(1898) o Created a new actor and acting style (The Method). Got away from romantic tortured actor and created actors that work in an ensemble. Characters created through observation of real life. Character history, motivation and psychology Imaginary fourth wall developed (audience not present) The Group Theatre was born from this

American Realism:

Playwrights1. Eugene Oneill (1888-1953) Irish American a. Son of actor and morphine addicted mother. Became a sailor who spent most of his time in waterfront bars and brothels until he was stricken with tuberculosis and was confined to a sanatorium. After his death his widow published his autobiographical play Long Days Journey Into Night: often though Theatricalism and Expressionism (October 19, 2011) Theatricalism= Nonrealistic Theatre 1. 2. 3. 4. Also known as anti-realistic or nonrealistic theatre: goes beyond the surface of human existence Goal is to create sheer theatrical brilliance (art) beauty and excitement and lead their collaborators in explorations of pure theatre and pure theatrical imagination. Concentrated images: grotesque images/nightmares Visual images and poetic language: fragmented or nonsensical speech used to explore the absence of meaning in human interactions Interior journey of the character- inside mind, how character sees the world Bizarre and personal

*read Angels I America in our book and write a review for extra credit. Images of what character sees: o Props o Movement o Music o Light o Projection All these are layered to build themes5. Audience/Actor relationship a. Reminds you that you are watching theatre b. Mechanics of the theatre exposed i. See actors changing costumes ii. See actors change scenery c. Presentational staging- audience aware of all that is taking place on stage A. Audience demanded to use their imagination B. Bold images/abstract ideas or concepts are used as symbolic expressions through character, character action, design, and language Expressionism: Dehumanization/destruction of humanity at the hands of industry and war. (Ex. Nosferatu) A. dramatizing, objectifying an idea/feeling, thought, imagined event

B. scenery suggested the anxiety and mental breakdown of the central character C. abstraction of Form Artist of Expressionism Martha Graham (choreographer) Pablo Picasso (painter)

Metropolis (movie) = industrialist son attempts to stop the manufacture of poison gas in his fathers chemical plant. a. Large images, skyscrapers dwarf the humans. b. Dehumanized characters perform their jobs and are insignificant in the world of machines. c. Stylized movement by the actors just as important as the dialogue German Expressionist Theatre (1905-1922) Also known as theatre of shriek or Cry. Anguish performances were a cry for humanitarianism to replace the brutality seen around them. o Dramatizing, objectifying Bertoit Brecht: German playwright and director (1898-1956) Founder of Berliner Ensemble Theatre, directed his plays there. Non-realistic theatre of Brecht= epic theatre o Brecht wanted the audience to step back from the drama in order to encourage them to analyze what they are watching not just empathize/sympathize or identify with the characters. He wanted the audience to question what they were witnessing and have an internal dialogue with the performance. He wanted his work to evoke actors and audience member to engage in social action. o Brecht: Alienation Effect= to make change. Brecht wants spectators to question why the characters make the choices they do. He used music to change the mood and demand the audience attention. Music used for thought rather than a mental break. Approach to acting- actor should comment on the character, stand outside & inside the character as if the actor were describing his or her conduct and have a dialogue with the audience about the character= acting in quotes. Actor does not completely become the character. Actor and audience be emotionally invested but bring a critical attitude to their participation in the theatre.

Theatre of Cruelty: Personal rather than social change= work on emotions by attacking the audiences senses. Process over product and visual imagaer over text = (Antonin Artaud The Theatre and its Double)

Theatre of the Absurd:

Created by international playwrights who wrote in Paris o Centers on characters who are strangers to each other, trapped in a violent meaningless world without design or purpose o Playwrights: Samuel Becket(Irish)- Waiting for Godot Eugene Ionesco(Romanian) The Bald Soprano Arthur Adamor (Russian) Le Professeur Taranne Jene Genet (French) The Blacks

The Actor A bewildering profession o It can be extraordinarily rewarding o It can be draining o Payscale Examples Mondays off 48 hrs per week avg. $30.52 an hour o At any given time, 85% of the members of Actors Equity are unemployed Payscale Example o ASF Lort C (theatre) o Avg 48 hr week o 2% dues o $118 dues per year o $1,100 initiation o 10% to manager o 10% to agent o Avg. $13.81 an hour What is Acting? o The two Notions of Acting Notion 1: The Actor Presents to the Audience Ability to imitate different characters Variety of associated talents (i.e. juggling, fencing) Presentational, external, or technical Covers many characters and many styles Notion 2: Character emanates from inside the actor Study the role closely and enter the world of the play Actor lives the life of the character o Connect: understand the character o Motivation: what the character wants

o Objective: how the character gets what they want o Reacting: how the character reacts to certain stimuli Internal or representational acting: represents life Presentational acting: bigger than life-muscial Method Acting o Based on Stanislavskys Method o Lee Strasburg and the Actors Studio Constantin Stanislavsky- The Method o Moscow Art Theatre (1898) o Russias greatest actor o Identify the steps of the actors preparation o Trained realistic acting style Find characters problem- objective Motivate the character Psychology of character Human Behavior Use of self (actors self) Concentrate on action o Subtext- unspoken and undescribed characters goals o Sense of Ensemble o Emotional Recall or Affective Memory- Magic If Actors Studio Origins o 1919, Richard Boleslavski and Maria Ouspenskaya formed the American Laboratory Theatre o Lee Strasberg, an Austrian immigrant and student of ALT, formed the Group theatre in 1931 o 1947, the Actors Studio is formed by Elia Kazan, Cheryl Crawford and Robert Lewis o Lee Strasberg became Artistic Director in 1951, and remained so until his death in 1982 o In New York, Al Pacino, Harvey Keitel and Ellen Burstyn are current Co-presidents o Inside the Actors- James Lipton, Bravo TV o Actors Studio Drama School-James Lipton, Dean Emeritus Strasbergs Method o Derives from Stanislavskys early system o Emotional recall is principle technique o Makes the actors own feelings as much the subject of the play as their characters actions o Became the standard actor training technique in America o Students included: Marlon Brando, Monty Clift, James Dean, Jane Fonda Two Qualities of great performers o Virtuosity Exceptional dramatic technique

Embody the character Keep the character fresh Expressive voice The voice is an instrument Should be able to articulate Should be able to hold an audiences attention Splendidly attuned body Physical strength and command of the body Trained in movement techniques

Magic o Presence, Magnetism, Charisma o An indescribable quality people are drawn to o We call them stars o Based on an actors inner confidence o This magic can be turned on and off like a character Becoming An Actor o The Actors Instrument: is him/herself The actor voice is an instrument The actors body is clay to be sculpted The mind- training is physiological and psychological o The Physiological Instrument Voice Breathing, phonation, and resonance Articulation, pronunciation, phrasing Projection, volume, loudness Rhythm- fast/slow Inflection- rise & fall of the voice Variety- dialect/accent It is the constant training and regimented use that keeps the voice o Movement Physical relaxation, muscular control, economy of action, expressive rhythms and movement patterns Dance mime, fencing and acrobatics Circus techniques and masked pantomime Young actors are easily recognized by uncontrolled behaviors Alexander Technique Control External Aspects o Limp/hunchback Strength o Flexible

o Disciplined o Expressive Specialized training o Dance o Stage combat Body Language Gesture Awkward Relaxed Uptight Facial expressions

The Actor o The Psychological Instrument Imagination and the willingness to use it Make the theatre real to the audience Put the actor in the interpersonal relationship created by the play Discipline of imagination o Bound within the requirements of a play o Bound within the directors vision of the play Self-discipline of the actor Works rigorously to develop physiological and psychological instrument Meets technical obligations without reminder Works to the success of the entire production Works within the ensemble The Actors Approach o Actor pursues the characters problem to be solved or goal Identify primary goal in relation to other characters Focuses the actors energy o Identify actions necessary to achieve goals and avoid defeats Commit and play with energy Play as if you are going to win, hope o Research style of play and performance style Separate from or confrontational with audience Stylized speech or everyday language The Actors Routine o The Audition Demonstrate to the director how well the actor fits the role Cold readings Cattle calls with prepared monologues Fit the pieces chosen to the show Adjust to the space you are auditioning in

Director looks for qualities in the actor that fit the part and the show Ease of handling the role and naturally delivery Physical, vocal and emotional stability Spontaneity, power and charm Direct able- are you able to be directed

The Rehearsal o Rehearsal periods range from a normal ten week to as little as one week for some summer stock o Actor learns the role through research and investigation (find the characters truth) Character biography Subtext of the play Characters objective Playwrights and directors vision for the play Characters physicality o Memorize lines and stage movement- blocking o Actors get used to using props o Costumes (rehearsal costumes often actors own clothes)- hair and makeup o Timing and delivery of lines (voice of character-dialect) The Performance o Brilliant rehearsals can crumble when put before an audience Stagefright can take the edge from the performance Timing can be off from the audience o Some actors come alive with performance o Audience adds new dimension to play and their presence is always felt o Timing changes with each audience o Actor has to keep each performance fresh o Actors responsibility: Study text Memorize lines and blocking Bring new ideas to the rehearsal process Work with director and other actors collaborate Be creative Refine and adjust character development Work with consistent high energy Maintain health, voice and body Sustain freshness in performance and execute repeated performances at consistent level of quality The Actor in Life o Common sense o Acute powers of observation o Tolerance and understanding of all human beings

o o o o

Sound general knowledge of ones own society and culture Training Business Acumen Realistic vision of ones own potential

The Director The are of directing is an exercise in leadership, imagination and control Art of directing can be ambiguous o Not visible like costumes or scenery o Cannot be directly heard or sensed o Technically, director organizes the production o Artistically, director conceptualizes play and gives it a vision and purpose, both social and aesthetic o Leads the collaborative process The arrival of director; a historical overview o Directing has been around since the beginning of theatre, but directors have not o Directors have only influenced the development of theatre in the past century Phase One: The Teacher- Directors Greek didaskalos- teacher Medieval play master maestro(prompters/ordinaries)- coordinated and staged the cycle plays Molinere was an author-teacher-director Dedicated to unified and coherent theatrical works th o 17 and 18th century- actor manager/lead actor runs the company- Richard Burbage (Lord Chamberlains Men) Financial decisions made Selected plays Hired actors Performed th o 18 and 19th century folks started demanding revivals of plays where the author was no longer alive. This required research, organization and comprehensive coordination, thus an independent director Phase Two: The Realistic Directors o George II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (Germany) 1st modern director (premiered plays and did reviews) Headed provincial troupe of actors, 1870s-1880s Heralded for harmonizing acting, staging and scenery Emphasized ensembles over star turns By thhhe time the troupe stttopped touring the role director was estalblished

o o o o o o

Andre Antoine (Paris, Theatre Libre 1887) Estalblished movement toward greater realism in 1887 with the Theatre Libre Constanin Stanislavski (Moscow Art Theatre 1898) Began the movement in Russia with the MAT Both influenced by Duke in acting, actor coaching, and staging Both Both Both

o Developed realist and naturalist drama o Human psychology (thanks to Freud) made psychoanalysis a part of play script analysis Phase Three: The Stylizing Directors o A reaction to realism, that wanted to break away from the rigid rules of realistic theatre o Sought the creation of originality, theatricality and style for brilliance, beauty, and excitement o Paul Fort and the Theatre dArt in Paris directly opposed Antoines principles o Vsevolod Meyerhold began biomechanical constructivism that was characterized by bold gestures and almost acrobatic movement Lyricism and symbolism used in plays Expressive and abstract use of design Contrived methods of acting Extremely theatrical Gordon Craig The Art of Theatre, 1905 o Compared director to captain of a ship, an indispensable leader whose rule, maintained by strict discipline, extends over every last facet of enterprise o Called for systematic progression of reform to overtake all theatre arts The Contemporary Director Directorial function has shifted from teaching what is proper to creating what is stimulating and wondrous No style is obligatory No interpretation is definitive o Directorial Functions Defined: to lead, to supervise, to instruct, to give shape, to unify/coordinate the work of all the theatrical artist Director has final responsibility for everything that happens in a production Develops Directorial Vision Choosing a point of focus and guiding everyone to face the same way

Create meaning beyond what is obvious in the text- finds and brings out the hidden meaning Find intent of playwright Or uses script as a way to present directors own vision/ideas o A) director chooses his interpretation o B)No two productions are directed the same o C)Style of production- director chooses either simple to the point or extravagant depending on time and budget Concepto A)Artistic decision- meant to communicate a specific interpretation of the story to the audience o B)director o C)Production team- work together to make the play happencreated visually and aurally

Director does these things Provide goals and establish procedures Facilitate the communication Drive the schedule and monitor progress Encourage and rein in Heighten stakes and refine objectives Build morale and inspire excellence Process may be weeks or years and is in no way as orderly as you see it written

Phases of directorial process Preparatory phase o Play selection Directors interest Audience interest Capability of director to produce the play with the resources at hand

Conceptualization Directorial Image or Interpretation A product of the directors personal intelligence and personal experience, likes, leanings, and want of audience reaction Central idea that focuses his/her interpretation Social or philosophical statement about meaning Basic tone(sad, heroic, royal) Basic texture (rich, cerebral, stark) Concept is the directors starting point in choosing designers and cast

Designer selection Directors want compatibility, mutual respect and complementary artistic and intellectual vision Collaboration is a true give and take

Designing Ideas become concrete visual realizations Directors work in design is suggestive and corrective Director and designers goals should be aligned at this phase Designers will bring independent perspective Director has to show leadership and artistic inspiration in this phase Begins with concept meeting Designers respond with individual visions Director responds with approval or rejection or suggestions Leadership!!!!

Casting Casting is 90% of directing Casting takes place in auditions An actors training, experience, look, sound, intelligence, personality, presence, attitude and directability all go into the directors decisions to cast Beginning casting is made in 2-4 minutes Callbacks then weed out the rest over days or weeks Casting against type or typecasting is: choosing a certain actor due to their physical appearance or personality o Implementation Phase Staging Blocking- positioning actors on the set and moving them about in a theatrically effective manner The medium of staging is the actor in space and time, where space is the acting area and time is duration of event Create focus for plays theme Lend credibility to plays characters Aesthetic wholeness of the plays appearance Blocking patterns are a result of character interaction Director may pre-block or allow for improvisation Specialized blocking may be done by choreographers and fight masters Business is small-scale movements that an actor performs, such as drinking from a cup while waiting Actor coaching

o o o Pace o o o

Coaching begins with first meeting of cast It can be passive or the director can involve themselves in every detail of motive and characterization Too little and too much direction is harmful for the development of the play

This element the director is fully held accountable Pace is not just how fast lines are said but is the overall rhythm of the production Pace of the play should be determined by the quantity and quality of information it conveys to the audience o Pace will change with action and crisis o Director has to guide the pace Coordination o Separate elements must be pulled together in technical and dress rehearsals o Rehears al period 4-6 weeks o Read through-ensemble o Staging- blocking movements, musical numbers o Development rehearsals- develop characters o Tech rehearsal- lights, sound added to process o Pace and flow will be grossly affected with each element added in o Actors and crew take over production beyond this point and the timing and pacing must be tweaked during this rehearsal process o The director hands over the play to the stage manager for opening night Presenting o At this point some directors walk away while others are more involved in creating the atmosphere around the play The training of a director o Directors tend to come from other areas o Comprehensive knowledge of theatre helps a director to lead collaboration o Some are trained in graduate programs and conservatories o Some are apprenticed through programs o Well trained directors should possess Mastery of staging, actor-coaching, pacing, and production coordinating Strong literary imagination and the ability to conceptualize intellectually and visually The Producer o Person or institution responsible for the financial support of any production o Producer is responsible for hiring director o Establishes production budget o Determines theatre facility and production dates o Plays important role in selecting play o Engages in artistic staff

o May also help in casting actors Designers and Technicians o Even the most primitive of dramas has a visual and aural impact o Questions that should also be asked of a play How does it look? How is it built? How does it run? o All design elements work in collaboration o Designers work as a team for the Director Designers job: o To control the environment Communicating information Shape the audiences experience Shap and fill the stage Create the 3 dimensional environment Inspire artists and collaborators o History of Design: Have had some sort of designer since the beginning of theatre, but not much record about them left Italian renaissance first record Giacomo Torelli o Designs drew eye to horizon and beyond, stages seemed to extend to infinity Giuseppe Bibiena o Opera scenic design o Only 1 location- neoclassic rules renaissance interpretation of Greek and roman models of plays and theory th 18 Century-changed Phillipe de Loutherbourg- innovative designer o Created low flat painted scenery stage level-extended wind out towards center stage o Worked for Drury lane theatre o Box set-enclosed set w/walls and ceiling o 1823-james robinson planche- made historically accurate costumes for shakespeares king john, then again in 1824 for henry IV part 1 th 20 century: o Adolphe appia-switzerland o Gordon craig-england Went back to simplicity design suggested realism Inspired by Asian theatre

Josef Svoboda Experimented w/space and lighting Combined platforms Three dimensional scenery- projection screens Choices: o Representational- completely representing life in the realism environment o Presentationall- suggest, distort, or abstract reality o Decision- made by the directors and the designer Collaboration- director and design team Space- what kind of space are we in (Proscenium, Thrust, Arena, Black box) Working with space o Not letting the space control you but you control the space o Objectives of a designer Read the play/analyze the script Meet w/ the director about his/her concept as a team Goal is to be true to the intent of the play and help enhance directors vision Estalblish the style of the play Mood/emotional tone Location Research o Scenery- creates a home for the play Given circumstance- what the play calls for( where located-inside or outdoors) Tools of the scenic designer: Sketches Ground plans-overhead view of the set blue prints Technical director- responsible for safety of the theatre space, scheduling, construction, equipment, installation, and executing designers specifications Most remembered element Costumes, masks, and makeup are older elements in theatre than scenery Scenery in most Asian theatre is rare or non-existence Flourished in renaissance Indoors with artificial illumination Beginnings of perspective

Proscenium developed to show off scenic elements Modern Scenery realistic or metaphoric Realistic scenery represents a specific time and place Tries to transform us to the specific place of action Illusionism of 18th century o Wings-vertical scenery pieces o Borders-horizontal scenery pieces o Drops- backdrops; large scenery pieces at the rear of the stage Box set of 19th century o 3d construction of flats to represent walls and ceilings Metaphoric scenery uses image to evoke feelings concerning the theme or mood Reminds us we are in a theatre Conceptual than literal or kinetic than stable Began with Adolf Appia and Gordon Craig Can establish locale, but more effective setting mood and style Scenery is the visual and spatial architecture of the plays performance Intrinsic to the plays action Scenic materials Platform-elevated area for the actor Can be flat or raked Flats- portable framed wall sections Tracked or flown Drapery Black masking to hide stage machinery and backstage Cyclorama (cyc) Set pieces Supporting element such as mother courages wagon Focal point for overall setting design Light Slides or projections Scrim Loosely woven, gauzy fabric

Lit form the front, it is solid Lit from the behind, you can see through it Stage machinery-anything that moves Fly systems Turntables Elevators Wagons Sound Properties and Furniture The Scenic Designer at work Analysis of play/research/concept Research of period and style-estalblish syle, period and location Environment-balance Mood of the play Works in collaboration with director Distinguish realistic/nonrealistic Idea boards and sketches Working drawings and elevations Part artist, part engineer Lighting History: 1st 2000 years theatre was mostly outdoors Without light, nothing can be seen Greeks used sunrise and sunset to great effect Halos of the medieval theatre to reflect light 1600s- candle and oil lamp illumination for indoor theatre 1803- 19th century gaslights (threat of fire) with gas tables 1879- Thomas Edison invented electric light bulb- could control intensity(dimmer device created)-could add color w/get or material Carbon arc and limelight Incandescence o Focused, reflected aimed and shaped Modern Lighting Design Visibility and focus are primary Ambience (mood) designer things about o Spotlight is a 20th century development o Darkened theater auditorium rare up until 1880s

Lighting unifies all the production elements both 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional Realism and Atmosphere o Can be achieved through color and direction o Practicals real lighting sources (lamps) Highly theatrical lighting vs. bright, cold, unmagical o Moody atmosphere effects o Splashy, bright and colored Stylized effects create mood changes or change of scene Color, direction and intensity can change the character in focus Objective of light: help define and create the visual environment. Provide visability o General wash- covers whole stage o Special-highlight on scene or individual Establish time and place Create mood Provide focus Lighting designers tools: Instruments Form and shape of light Color Movement Lighting terms: spill, worklights, wash, master electrician, gobo (stenciled cuts placed inside light instruments to produce patterned light effects) The Lighting Designer at work Analysis of play-read script Directors concept Research of period and style Works in collaboration with director, scene designer and costume designer Idea boards, color boards and sketches Light plot- (map that shows grid system and lights to use-light instruments, locations, color) real or abstract, restrictions, visibility

Cue sheet Lighting instruments and implementations (hanging lights)-any special effects Costume Always a major element of the theatre Separated actor from audience Began as ceremonial vestments o Himatian and kothurnoi Priestly robes in medieval theatre Elizabethan theatre sometimes used cast-off clothes of +nobility Stylized costumes of commedia dellarte Costuming started true realization during 18th and 19th centuries for historical accuracy in Realism Four functions of costume Ceremonial or primordial theatrically Historical place or period o Silhouette of the time o Reveals production style as it emanates from the characters Specific individuality of each character o Profession, wealth, age, status, taste and self-image o Subtle vices, virtues, hopes, and fears o Color, shape fabric, and sound of fabric can create individual character Wearable clothing for the actor o Workable, danceable, actable clothing Analysis of play-understand concept Establish mood and style of production Research of period (historical) and style- communicate who person is by what they wear Show relationships to other characters Works in collaboration with director, scene designer lighting designer, and sound designer Idea boards, swatch boards and sketches Costume plot Pulled shows vs. built (buy, build, borrow) Provide organized list for shop manager (person who runs the costume shop where costumes are held)

Crafts and accessories Design clothing, hair, make-up and masks Attend fittings o Makeup Design of the actors face Actor changes his or her appearance to resemble that of the character Physical image to portray psychological traits Simplify and embolden actors features Supernatural, mysterious and theatrical o Sound Design: has always been a key elemt of the theatre, whether it be music, choral chanting as in Greek chorus or the actors voice. Aristotle considered music one of the six essential elements of tragedy Shakespeare used sound effects Sound reinforcement Amplifying the actors voice Amplifying instrumentation Sound reproduction Live or recorded sound effects Underscoring o Sound design has grown in importance over the last two decades. Until 1950 all sound effects were produced live for the theatre o Modern technology and amplification vs. natural unamplified sound o Before sound designers came to be the assistant stage manager was in charge of sound o W/development of sound equipment came the sound designer, relatively new field in theatre, grew in 1970s Special Effects o Fog, smoke, wind, rain, snow, lightning and blood Computer technologies in theatre design o Show control- link together and operate multiple entertainment control systems o CAD and modeling- tech systems used Sound serves theatre: o Help actors be heard-mics o Location o Weather conditions

o Time of day/year o Nature sounds-street noises o Mood=mystery/musical o Realism o Special effects: doorbell o Create mood o Set environment o Set rhythm o Reinforce production Sound designer process: read script, plot out all effects, collaborate w/director and other designers, research, record music/sound, prepares sound track, develops sound cue sheet(creates sound levels, timing of the sounds) obtains equipment needed, special effects Hierarchical Structure Production manager o Scheduling, staffing and budgeting o Coordinates all of the shows elements Stage manager o Coordinates directors work with actors, technicians, and designers o Records blocking and anticipates any technical needs o Calls the show Assistant stage manager o Assists Technical director o Building and operation of scenery o Coordinates scene shifts and strikes o Keeps everyone of schedule Crews o Scenery supervisor, carpenters, scenic painters o Costume director, dyers, cutters, drapers, stitchers, first hands, craft specialist, hairstylists o Master electricians, electricians, light board operators, spot operators o Sound engineers, sound board operators Each technician plays a crucial role in making sure that each The Musical Theatre Wednesday, November 16, 2011 10:03 AM Theatre that includes music and songs and usually dance. It is anti-realistic in aesthetics unique to its performance

Opera Developed Italy in 1500sGreek and Roman TragediesPeak in the 19th centuryMozart- composed 23HandelNo dialogueUpper Class Characters/noblesOperettaThe Begger's Opera: Theatrical Style that has musical elements of opera but Is lighter and more popular in subject and style and contains spoken dialogue John Gay (1728) created the beggar's opera1920's revival had 1,464 performancesBurlesque (1850s)Serious and comic elements used side by side to achieve grotesque effectCan Can Girls (kick dancers)Took place in bars, brothels, and gentlemen's clubs - Moulin Rouge (1890s Paris). Originated Strip TeaseComic Opera (1879)W.S. Gilber and Arthur Sullivan- witty/comic operas (The Pirates of Penzance)George Edwardsstole from Gilbert and SullivanDorothy, comic opera similar to Gilbert and Sullivan'sSketchy plots used topical songs, lighter less satiricProduction numbers- fashionable costumesWanted to attract more affluent crowdFlorenz Ziegfeld (1867-1932)Ziegfeld Follies (19071931) musical revue, extravaganzas, lavish productions, elaborate costumes, choreographed production numbers to music y Irving Berlin, George Gershwin, Jerome Kern. Glorifying the "American Girl". Made stars of W.C. Field, Will Rogers, Eddie Cantor, Fanny BriceNew show developed based on theme every yearBlack Musical ComedyChallenging the custom of white actors in Black Face (burnt cork make up on their faces) for minstrelsBob Cole (1868-1911), black man from Athens, GA"A Trip to Coontown"- Full length black musical comedy performed by Black Americans. Song "No Coons Allowed" tells of a young man unable to bring his date to the hottest place in town on account of the club's racist policy. Vaudeville (1880-1930s) Collection of musical and variety actsOriginally performed in brothels and drinking parlors (bars), musicians, dancers, comedians, trained animals, magicians, female and male impersonators, acrobats, illustrated songs, jugglers, one act plays, freak showsVaudeville circuit begins in Peoria, Illinois, if it succeeds here it will succeed anywhereActors in Vaudeville: Al Jolson, Buster Keaton, Marx Brothers, Jimmy Durante, Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, Edgar Bergen (father of Candice Bergen), Jack Benny, Bob Hope, Milton Berle, Judy Garland, Sammy Davis Jr., Red Skelton, Burns and Allen, Three Stooges The Development of American/Broadway Musical The Broadway Musical is America's Greatest Contribution to theatre The Black Crook at Niblo's Garden, 1866, first piece of musical theatre that conforms to the modern notion of "Book Musical" (musical play

where song and dnace are fully integrated into well made story, with serious dramatic goals and able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter)Staged musical entertainmentsVaudeville and Ragtime (syncopated or ragged rhythm( reviewsGilbert and SullivanGeorge M. CohanBeginning of Broadway as the source of popular music Musical Comedy Gershwin, Kern, Darktown Follies and Rogers and Hart1900-1930 was the great age of musical comedyGirl choruses, patriotic jingoism, and lots of danceGeorge and Ira GershwinFunny face, Girl Crazy, Porgy and BessJerome Kern- SunnyCole Porter- Anything GoesRichard Rogers (music)- and Lorenz Hart (lyrics)- Babes in Arms Formula For SuccessLaughably simple plotsRomantic and comedic cast of charactersWholly unchallenging themesLots of pretty girls in revealing costumesCheerful singing and dancing with little or no connection to plotHarlem TheatreBert Williams (Vaudevillian comic, best selling black artist before 1920. Performed in Burnt Cork (blackface) with his partner George Walker and J. Leubrie Hill (wrote songs for Williams and Walker)- formed The Colored Vaudeville Exchange), wrote My Friend From Kentucky- began trend of folks going to Harlem for entertainmentWilliams and Hill- Darktown Follies of 1914Eugene Blake and Noble SissleShuffle Along (Black musical dominated in 1921 Broadway Season)Ran More than 500 performancesIntroduced the popular dance, the Charleston A Golden AgeUshered in the new genre, Musical DramaSerious plotsSophisticated musical treatmentsShow Boat- Jerome Kern (music and Oscar Hammerstein II, lyrics 1927)Combined musical comedy and serious dramaComplex plot carried by music and dancingReal people in the story not beautiful dancing girlsTouched on race relationsGershwin Brothers involve politicsUp the Band and Of Thee I Sing (Pulitzer 1932)Porgy and Bess (1935) full-out folk operaRichard Rogers and Lorenz HartPal Joey (1940)Shocked prewar audiences with its sexual natureThe Golden Years (1940-1968) Serious MusicalsWorld War II- a way to escape diversion, seriously themed musicals dominatedRichard Rodgers and Oscar HammersteinOklahoma (1943) social and sexual tension of pioneering new territories. Included ballet and on stage killing.Carousel (1945) Spousal AbuseSouth Pacific (1949) Racial prejudiceThe King and I (1951) gender prejudice and ethnocentricityThe Sound of Music (1959) NazismLeonard BernsteinOn The Town (1944) WWII Sailors on town in ManhattanWest Side Story (1957) retelling of Romeo and Juliet with contemporary Polish American Tony and Puerto Rican MariaMarc Blitzstein's- The Cradle Will Rock (1938)Organization

of steel workers into unionsCancelled one hour before opening by govt. officialsHart, Gershwin and Weill- The Lady in the Dark (1941)Psychoanalysis and dream analysisChallenged old-fashioned ideas of marriage and women's role in societyJerry Bock and Sheldon HarnickFiddler on the Roof (maintenance of Jewish religious traditions while outside influences encroach upon their lives) Lighthearted Musicals of the 1940-1950s Frank Loesser's- Guys and Dolls Cole Porter's- Kiss Me Kate Irving Berlin's- Annie Get Your Yun Adler and Ross's- Pajama Game and Damn Yankees Lerner and Loewe's Brigadoon and My Fair Lady (Pygmalion) Plays ran for years and were cultural phenomenon Touring companies took shows to the rest of the country songs made top radio play film versions were made of most musicals stage performers gained national recognition through film and television The Contemporary Musical Choreographer Directors Agnes de Mille: worked with Rogers and Hammerstein; choreographer for Oklahoma, plot advancing dance numbers Jerome Robbins (1918-1998): Training in ballet and acting. Started with The King and I and West Side Story, Directed Gypsy and Fiddler on the Roof, Jerome Robbin's Broadway (1989, Tony Award) Gower Champion (1921-1980): placed dance at the center of dramatic entertainment, Bye Bye Birdie, Carnival, and Hello Dolly! Died on the opening night of 42nd street Bob Fosse (1927-1987): Idiosyncratic style of quick jerky movements that move into sinuous umps and grinds from strip tease, big fan of white gloves and bowler hats, Chicago, Dancin, Cabaret, Pajama Game, Damn Yankees, All that Jazz Tommy Tune (1939- )- Director, choreographer, leading and featured actor, created celebrations of dance entertainment, Will Roger's Follies, Grand Hotel, My One and Only Michael Bennett (1943-1987): The ultimate dancer musical A Chorus Line, Co-directed Company and Follies

Susan Stroman (1954-) The Producers, Contact, revival of The Music Man Alan Jay Lerner and Fredrick Loewe- Brigadon, My Fair Lady, Camelot Frank Loesser (1910-1969)- Guys and Dolls Comtemporary Musical Theatre Composers Stephen Sondheim- most recognized BW composer, worked his way up as lyricist for great composer, Jules Styne's Gypsy, Leonard Bernstein's West Side Story (racial differences, street gangs, violence) Turned composer for A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum Turned away from standard formats of musicals and developed his own style Disturbing plots Brutal skepticism of conventional morality Sophisticated intricately rhymed lyrics Brought new rhythms to popular music Sondheim Shows include: Company- incisive look at sexual politics Follies A Little Night Music- adapted from Ingmar Bergman film Pacific Overtures- kabuki-inspired music and staging Sweeney Todd- Brechtian alienation with opera, music hall and melodrama in a morbid storyline Sunday in the Park with George- Pointillist George Seurat Assassins- musical review of presidential assassinations Passion- 19th century Gothic tragedy musical Sondheim's musicals push the audience to rethink music, society, politics, and relationships and subtly, sometimes overtly John Kander and Fred Ebb Cabaret (1966)- pre-war Germany, gritty night club, made into a movie with Liza Minnelli and Joel Grey The wrote music for Martin Scorses's film New York, New York Chicago (1975)- gritty subject matter, domestic violence and murder (Fosse Choreographer) Galt MacDermot Hair (1967)- rock musical, hippie counter culture and sexual revolution, nudity, and profanity

Mel Brooks: The Producers Contains elements from the early musical entertainments Corny jokes, dumb blonde secretary, scantily clad chorus girls, vaudeville style of production Shows conventional theatrical craft Directions in Modern Musicals Again tackling serious subjects Black musicals Rock musicals Disney Black Musicals- The Wiz (1978) with Charlie Small, Bubbling Brown Sugar (1976) with Loften Mitchell- music of Harlem Renaissance, Eubie, Ain't Misbehavin (1978), Sophisticated Ladies (1981), Dreamgirls (1981), Jelly's Last Jam (1992), Bring in da Noise Bring in da Funk (1995) European MusicalsAndrew Lloyd Weber- Cats, Joseph and the Technicolor Dreamcoat, Phantom of the Opera, Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita, Starlight Express, Aspects of Love, Sunset Boulevard Alain Boublil and Claude-Michel Schonberg (French)- Les Miserables, Miss Saigon, Mama Mia Known for lush and musical scores and spectacle Musicals of the new century-Rent (1996) Urinetown (2001) Hairspray (2002) Avenue Q (2003) Jerry Springer, The Opera (2003) Caroline and Change (2004) Spring Awakening (2006) Fela! (2009) Hedwig and the Angry Inch Any Cirque du Soleil performance New York is still the capital of the world's musical theatre Disney Takes over 1990s animation

Lion King Beauty and the Beast Tarzan Aida Mary Poppins The Little Mermaid Las Vegas is becoming the Broadway of the West Newest trend: movies to musicals- Legally Blonde, Dirty Dancing, Billy Elliot, Lord of the Ringsperformance runs smoothly