This paper presents computer generated design data in terms of load capacity and oil flow for multirecess hydrostatic journal bearings. The Reynolds equation for a finite bearing was solved on a high speed digital computer satisfying appropriate boundary conditions and using the finite difference method. Results for various L/D ratios, recess to bearing area ratios, number of recesses etc are presented for capillary and orifice compensated bearings
Multirecess hydrostatic journal bearings have found application in machine tools and the aerospace industries due to their high stiffness and low friction. The bearing configuration can either have axial drain grooves in between recesses or can be without drain grooves. The bearings without axial drain grooves have better characteristics due to the interaction of flow between the recesses and have become popular. Capillary and orifice restrictors are most commonly employed. Raimondi and Boyd I first presented a complete theoretical analysis for a multirecess hydrostatic journal bearing based on a one-dimensional flow model. Rippel 2 subsequently presented detailed analysis, design procedure and design data for various configurations of externally pressurised oil bearings including a rlaultirecess hydrostatic journal bearing. Cowley and Kher a presented both theoretical and experimental results for a four-recess hydrostatic journal bearing. Davies4 presented a general theoretical analysis for multirecess hydrostatic journal bearings, taking into account the effect of shaft rotation. O'Donoghue and Rowe s'6 developed a design method for externally pressurised bearings based on the pad load and flow coefficients which depend only on the geometrical shape and proportions of the bearing and are independent of the control device used. Design data in terms of pad load and flow coefficients were presented for various geometric configurations based on short land theory. O'Donoghue et al 7,s discussed the procedure for the optimisation of externally pressurised bearings on the basis of minimum power consumption and obtained optimum sill width ratio (0.25) and optimum speed parameter. O'Donoghue and Rowe 9 also gave the exact computer solution of Reynolds equation for a finite multirecess hydrostatic journal bearing using the f'mite difference method. Decker and Shapiro a reported on the computer aided design procedure for hydrostatic bearings. However, adequate design data were not presented. Ghosh ~1'12 obtained a computer solution of Reynolds equation for bearings with large circumferential sills and showed that an optimum sill angle existed at which load capacity of the bearing was a maximum. Experimental verification of the theoretical results was also reported and finite element solutions have recently been recorded t3 .
*Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India tIndian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, India
The above review reveals that most of the theoretical analysis and design data available in the literature are for bearings with short axial and circumferential lands. Results available for bearings with large axial and circumferential sills are inadequate and the effect of various parameters eg LID ratio, recess to bearing area ratio, number of recesses etc are nbt depicted clearly in-the literature. This paper presents computer generated design data in terms of recess pressures, load capacity and oil flow for multirecess hydrostatic journal bearings. The Reynolds equation for a finite bearing was solved on a high speed digital computer satisfying proper boundary conditions. Results for various LID ratios, recess [o bearing area ratios, number of recesses etc are presented for capillary and orifice compensated bearings. Analysis
A multirecess hydrostatic bearing system is shown in Fig 1. The off is supplied from a constant pressure source at a pressure Ps and it enters the bearing through a restrictor (either capillary or orifice). The recess pressures get adjusted in such a way as to carry the net load on the bearing.
With the usual basic assumptions for an isoviscous, incompressible lubricant the generalised Reynolds equation for a nonrotating journal (neglecting the time dependent terms) can be written as ~-~(h3aP~ + ~ (h 3 ap ) = 0 ~--, a ~Using the following substitutions
-fi = PIPs,-h = h/C, 0 ."-x/R, 2 = z/(L/2)
(1)
(2)
where h = 1 + eo cos 0 Equation (2) is written in a finite difference form and solved by iteration using a high speed digital computer satisfying the following appropriate boundary conditions: ff (0, + 1 ) = 0 a__~_ff 0) = 0 for symmetry (0,
to pump the fluid into the bearing clearance, it would be advantageous to operate at a value of/3 ~< 0.6. An optimum value of/3 with respect to load capacity is also observed to lie between 0.3 and 0.6. Therefore, while designing the bearing an optimum value of/3 should be chosen for load capacity and this also reduces the oil flow. For the known values of/3, dimensionless capillary and orifice design parameters can be calculated from the concentric flow parameter.
Effect of
L/2 27r
Wc = - 2 f
O
f
O
pcos0Rd0dz
LID ratio
The oil flow rate of the compensated bearing is: Qc2C 3 2r~ -~p (l+eoCOS0)aRd0 12/a o [ ~-zlz=L/2 f
The static load capacity and oil flow rate are expressed in dimensionless form as Wc = lye Q c - 12/aQc
Dimensionless load capacity I#c vs LID ratio is shown in Fig 3. It is seen that the dimensionless load capacity of the bearing decreases with increase in L/D ratio. However, this does not mean that the actual load capacity of the bearing is also reduced, since increase in length of the bearing results in increase in the projected area of the bearing for the same diameter. Variation of dimensionless oil flow Qc with L/D ratio for capillary and orifice compensation is shown in Figs 8 and 9, respectively. It is observed that oil flow decreases with increase in L/D ratio. Therefore, for a particular load to be carried by the bearing, a higher value of LID ratio must be chosen.
Effect of recess to bearing area ratio
LDp-~s'
CaPs
Dimensionless load capacity Wc vs concentric pressure ratio/3 at different eccentricity ratios is shown in Fig 2 for both capillary and orifice compensated bearings. It is observed that the load capacity of the compensated bearing has an optimum value with respect to/3. The orifice compensated bearing is seen to exhibit higher load carrying capacity. Variation of dimensionless oil flow Qc vs concentric pressure ratio/3 is shown in Figs 6 and 7 for capillary and orifice compensated bearings, respectively. Oil flow is found to increase with increase in/3. It is also seen that up to/3 ~< 0.6 (approximately) the oil flow increase is nearly linear with respect to/3 and beyond/3 > 0.6 oil flow increase is large and nonlinear with respect to/3. Since large amount of oil flow would mean more power required
Variation of dimensionless load capacity We with recess to bearing area ratio is shown in Fig 4. Since large recesses mean large areas of constant pressure, the load capacity of the bearing increases with increase in recess to bearing area ratio. Variation of dimensionless off flow Qc with recess to bearing area ratio is shown in Fig 10. Oil flow increases almost linearly with E and b for ~ and b ~< 0.6 approximately, beyond which increase in oil flow is quite high. Therefore, there seems to be an optimum value of ~ and b for which a balance can be obtained between load capacity of the bearing and the correspond-
Nomenclature
a ~b Axial length of recess Dimensionless axial recess width, a l l Circumferential length of recess Dimensionless circumferential recess length, Nb/TrD Radial clearance Pr Ps Qc Qc R Wc H/c x, z /3 6o Dimensionless recess pressure at rth recess,Pr/Ps Supply pressure Oil flow rate Dimensionless flow rate, 12/JOe/Caps Journal radius Load capacity Dimensionless load capacity, Well DPs Coordinates Concentric position recess to supply pressure ratio Orifice restrictor coefficient, 37T/J Cd do 2 C3 6o 0 1~ p 2 P Ps
C Cd
D do eo h L N p p-
Eccentricity ratio, eo/C Angular coordinate, x/R Absolute viscosity of the lubricant Density of the lubricant
Pr
74
<>F,,.,
-.()
( ~ .
.
Motor
0.6
0.6
. . . .
0.5
0.5
04
8
as
=_o
._E 0.2
,,-,,
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.8
i.o
0.5
1.0
LID
1.5
2.0
2.5
TRIBOLOGY
i n t e r n a t i o n a l A p r i l 1980
75
ing increase in the pumping power required to force the liquid into the bearing. The optimum value for ~ and lies between 0.4 and 0.6. Optirnisation by O'Donoghue et al 8 shows that this value is approximately equal to 0.5.
0.6
0.5
~=b=
0.6 0.5
0.4
Design procedure
0.2
The following parameters must be determined: Concentric pressure ratio/3 Concentric oil flow rate ~)c Length to diameter ratio LID Dimensionless restrictor parameters/i c or 6o In order to design the bearings to carry a particular load W, the following steps may be followed:
0.I
0,2
0.4
0,6
0.8
1.0
Eccentricity o ratio,,
Fig 4 Load capacity of capillary compensated bearing vs bccentricity ratio for various recess bearing area ratios
0,6 | /3 =0.6 I 0=~=0.6 ~=1.0
Usually LID ratio is taken as 1 but a higher value may be chosen. Optimum value of the concentric pressure ratio parameter/3 is to be determined from Fig 2 for a particular eccentricity ratio. Usually operating eccentricity ratio is kept less than or equal to 0.5.
45.0
05 N=
6
40.0
35.0
I~ 04 3
o.
50.0 25.0
.~ 20.0
-_
"N
-~ 0.2
i:5
15.0
f i.o
I
0.2
I
0.4
I
0.6
I
0.8
I
1.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Eccentricity ratio,, o
Fig 5 Load capacity of capillary compensated bearing vs eccentricity ratio for various number of recesses
76
Since orifice compensated bearings exhibit higher load capacity, orifice compensation may be chosen. For the optimum value of the parameter/3 obtained, concentric oil flow rate Qe is found from either Fig 6 or 7 depending on the type of compensation chosen. Using the concentric oil flow rate Qe and the concentric pressure ratio/3 dimensionless restrictor parameter 8 c or 8 o is calculated.
Qeo - 12 p Qeo C3 Ps Oil flow rate Qeo = 6.1 x 10 -6 m3/s An equation can be derived to get a relationship between 80, ~ and Qco:
45.0
40,0
B=a6
Design example
A multirecess hydrostatic journal bearing has the following specifications: Operating eccentricity ratio, eo = 0.4 Diameter of the journal, D = 100 x 10 -3 m Diametral clearance, 2C = 100 x 10 -6 m Viscosity of oil,/a = 24 x 10 -3 Ns/m 2 Density of oil, p = 0.9 x 103 kg/m 3 Supply pressure, Ps = 106 N/m2 To design the bearing for maximum load capacity choose LID _-_ 1.0,~ = 0.6 and b = 0.6, N = 4, Orifice compensation Therefore L = 100 x 10 -3 m, a = 60 x 10 -3 m, b = 47.1 x 10 -a m From Fig 2, the optimum value of concentric pressure ratio # for eo = 0.4 is obtained as//= 0.55, and the corresponding dimensionless load capacity ~/e = 0.28. Concentric oil flow parameter Qeo as obtained from Fig 7 = 14.00 (approximately)
3~LO
300
25.0
0
2Q0
il5.0
IO0
5.0
I
05
J
1.0
L/D
I
1.5
L
2.0 2.5
LDPs
'
Wc= ~ LDps
We = 2800 N
45.0 40.0 -
L=0.6 35.0
--
i i
0.4,0.6
~ 25.0
j ~oo
15.0
I
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Concentric pressure rotio,,8
5.0
J 0.5 J 1.0 LID L i - ~
1.5
2.0
2.5
5o -
~o
sv (i - ~)1/~
"40.0
6=/3=O6 L=I.0
Substituting values of Qco, N and/3 8o = 5.2 Now taking a value of Ca = 0.8, the orifice diameter d o = 4 . 8 x 1 0 -s m This design will also be valid for a rotating journal if the journal speed is limited to about 7 rad/s. With C/R = 0.001, M = 24 10 -3 Ns/m = ,Ps = 106 N/m=, the angular velocity of the journal is found to be approximately 7 rad/s.
35.0 -
30.0
--
25.0 -"5
20.0
N=5,4,5,6
Conclusion
Effect of various design parameters eg concentric recess to supply pressure ratio, L I D ratio, recess to bearing area ratio, number of recesses etc on the load capacity and oil flow rate of multirecess hydrostatic journal bearings is discussed. The design procedure presented utilises computer generated data and shows that an o p t i m u m design for the maximum load capacity is possible by proper selection of various design parameters.
i:5
t5.0
-"
I0.0
5.0
References
1. Raimondi A.A. and Boyd J. An Analysis of Orifice and Capillary Compensated Hydrostatic Journal Bearings. ASME-ASCE Lub. Conf. Baltimore USA, Oct. 1954 2. Rippel H.C. Design of Hydrostatic Bearings. Machine Design, August 1963 to December 1963, pts. 1 to 10 3. Cowley A. and Khet A.K. The Design and Performance Characteristics of a Capillary Compensated Hydrostatic Journal Bearing. Proc. 8th Int. MTDR Conf., September 1967, Pt. 1,397
45.0
i.O
Eccentricity ratio,%
Fig 11 Oil f l o w o f capillary compensated bearing vs eccentricity ratio f o r various number o f recesses
4QO
35.0
3QO
/lli- "f'
25.0
g
20.0 Q
15.0
4, Davies P.B. A General Analysis of Muitkecess Hydrostatic Journal Bearings. Proc. L Mech. E. Lond., 184, Pt. 1, No, 43, 1968-70 5, O'Donoghue J.P. and Rowe W.B. Hydrostatic Bearing Design. Tribology International, 1969, 2(1), 25- 71 6, O'Donoghue J.P. and Rowe W.B. Design of Hydrostatic Journal Bearings. Mach. and Prod. Engg., 1968, 11, 1284 7. O'Donoghue J.P. et al. Optimisation of Externally Pressurised Bearing for Minimum Power and Low Temperature Rise. Tribology International, 1970, 3,153 8. O'Donoghue J.P. et al. Design of Hydrostatic Bearing Using an Operating Parameter. Wear, 1969, 14, 355 9. O'Donoghue J.P. and Rowe W.B. Hydrostatic Journal Bearings (Exact Procedure). Tribology International, 1970, 3, 230 10.Decker O. and Shapiro W. Computer Aided Design of Hydrostatic Bearings for Machine Tool Applications. Proc. 9th Int. MTDR Conf. 1968 (Sept.) Pt. 2, PP 797-834 11.Ghosh B. An Exact Analysis of a Hydrostatic Journal Bearing with a Large Circumferential Sill. Wear, 1972, 21, 367-376 12. Ghosh B. Load and Flow Characteristics of a CapillaryCompensated Hydrostatic Journal Bearing. Wear, March 1973, 23(3) 377-386 13.Singh D.V., Sinhasan R. and Ghai R,C. Finite Element Analysis of Orifice Compensated Hydrostatic Journal Bearings. Tribology International, 1976, 9(6), 281-284 14. Majumdar B.C. The Numerical Solution of Hydrostatic Oil Journal Bearings with Several Supply Ports. Wear, 1969, 14, 389- 396 15. Gho~ M.K. Dynamic Behaviour of Externally Pressurised Multirecess Oil Journal Bearings, Ph.D. thesis, Mechanical Engineering Department, HT, Kharagpur, 1977
IQO
5.0
I
0.2
L
0.4
1 _ _ I _ _ ~
0.6 0.8 I.O
78
TRIBOLOGY
international
April
1980