THE AGES DIGITAL LIBRARY SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGIES

THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION IN ITS DOCTRINAL EXPRESSION.
by Edgar Young Mullins D.D..

Making the Words of the Wise Available to all — Inexpensively

Digital Publications Dallas, Texas © 2006

THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION IN ITS DOCTRINAL EXPRESSION

BY

EDGAR YOUNG MULLINS, D, D., LL. D.

President and Professor of Theology in The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary Louisville, Ky.

AUTHOR OF

“Why is Christianity True?” “The Axioms of Religion,” “Freedom and Authority in Religion,” “The Life in Christ.” “Commentary on Ephesians and Colossians,” “Baptist Beliefs,” etc.

TO THE MEMORY OF
PRESIDENT JAMES PETIGRU BOYCE,
GREAT ADMINISTRATOR AND TEACHER OF THEOLOGY, WHOSE INSPIRING VISION OF THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION FOR SOUTHERN BAPTISTS MADE POSSIBLE THE SOUTHERN BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, THIS VOLUME IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED BY HIS GRATEFUL PUPIL AND SUCCESSOR IN OFFICE.

Preface
SEVERAL reasons have led the writer to prepare the present work on theology. He has been a teacher of the subject during the past eighteen years. His own method and standpoint in dealing with truth have, as a natural consequence, taken definite form. Theology is like any other science in the fact that if it is alive, it grows. This does not mean that it goes beyond Christ and the New Testament. It means, rather, that these are provocative of endless growth. The object of religion does not grow, but the subject never attains a final and static stage in the present life. Truth does not change, but we apprehend truth with increasing clearness. Down to the middle of the nineteenth century, after Luther’s age, theology was engaged chiefly with the issues growing out of the Reformation. The method of theology was that derived from a past age. Theologies were comprehensive, more or less philosophical and abstract treatises. There was a very commendable desire to systematize the truths of Christianity. But too often the biblical method and aim were sacrificed in the interest of a “school” of theology or a philosophical principle. For example, Arminianism overlooked certain essential truths about God in its strong championship of human freedom. As against it, Calvinism ran to extremes in some of its conclusions in its very earnest desire to safeguard the truth of God’s sovereignty. We are learning to discard both names and to adhere more closely than either to the Scriptures, while retaining the truth in both systems. During the nineteenth century the whole world of human thought underwent a remarkable revolution. In physical science a new method and ideal arose. In the social and economic sphere a new sociology and political economy took shape. In psychology a new method of study created an entirely new literature. In philosophy all the issues were restated in new forms, and new schools of thought arose. It was inevitable that these changes in human thought should introduce new issues and new crises in theology. Many looked upon the changes with fear and trembling lest the foundations be destroyed. Schleiermacher, at the beginning of the century, had already anticipated the need for a change in the method of dealing with religious truth. The remarkable system of Ritschl was a logical outcome of the impact of the new ways of looking at things upon the older ways of theology. As a system it had fatal weaknesses, and is now a waning force. But it is a notable landmark, indicating a particular crisis in the history of theology.

We are at length coming to see all things in a new perspective. Several things are entirely clear. One is that none of the ultimate facts of man’s spiritual life have been destroyed by any development in recent times. Methods have changed. New issues have arisen. Old issues have assumed new forms. New statements of truth are required. But Christ remains the same “yesterday, today, and forever.” The gospel remains. The best historical and critical methods of Bible study have given us clearer views of Christ and doctrine. We appreciate better than we ever did Christ’s great wisdom and love in revealing himself gradually to mankind. This is made clear to us in the Scriptures of the Old and new Testaments. We have better methods of employing the Scriptures in proof of doctrines. We have learned to recognize that religion is a form of knowledge; that Christ is today the spiritual Creator in an ongoing civilization. Along with this we have learned that our religion is capable of clear and scientific exposition, and that new and stronger proofs of its truth and finality are possible. The gospel of Christ, not in an attenuated form, so reduced as to be scarcely recognizable, but with all its vital elements intact, is at home in the modern world and has nothing to fear from any form of sound learning. The author trusts that in some measure these truths may be made clear in the following pages. It has been felt that the ends of clearness and readableness could be best attained by the use of language as untechnical and simple as possible. Some phases of theology are inherently difficult. But for the most part the author believes the reader will not find the book difficult to understand. Primarily, the book has been written for use as a manual in the classroom. But the general reader has also been kept in mind. Care has been taken to avoid too many divisions and subdivisions. Overanalysis does not make a very attractive-looking page, nor add to the interest of the reader. The analytical table of contents will help those who wish a brief summary of any particular section of the discussion. It is impossible for the author to indicate, even in a general way, his indebtedness to other writers. Innumerable books on all phases of the subject have been read or consulted. Biblical Theologies, Systematic Theologies, Theologies of Christian Experience, Psychologies, Philosophies of Religion, and books on Comparative Religion and in other departments, have bene placed under tribute. Occasionally these have been referred to in a footnote. But it has been impossible to do so in all instances. The author desires to express his appreciation of valuable suggestions based on a careful reading of the manuscript from a former student who is professor of theology in the Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary at Fort Worth, Texas — Revelation W. T. Conner, D. D. — E. Y. M.

Contents
Chapter 1. Religion And Theology.
1. TWOFOLD AIM. Necessary connections between religion and theology. Definition of theology. Reasons for definitions. Use in departments of theology. Emphasis upon experience. Not sole criterion of truth. Scriptures. Christianity as a religion. Experiential method not less biblical or systematic. Four factors: Christ, the Scriptures, Holy Spirit, existence. Combination of these. Advantages: 1. Escapes false intellectualism. 2. Gives fact basis for theology. 3. Supplies best apologetic foundation. Illustrated: (1) In proofs of God’s existence; (2) Miracles; (3) Deity of Christ. 4. Shows reality, autonomy, and freedom of Christianity. 5. Helps define nature of the authority of the Bible. Objections and replies. 2. MODERN WAYS OF REGARDING RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE. 1. Comte’s view. Reply. 2. Theory of the utility of religion. Answer. 3. Mysticism. Reply. 4. Judgments of value. Goes too far. More than judgments of value needed. 5. Religion without theology. Reply: (1) Man’s nature as reasonable; (2) Nature of experience; (3) We know in part; (4) Theology necessary to defend religion; (5) And to propagate it. 6. Theology merged in history. Objections. 3. CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE AND REVELATION. Two groups of facts. Only understood in their relations. Meaning of experience. Charge of subjectivism. Antecedent probability. Religion not one-sided. Revelation, God’s answer. Three phases of revelation: 1. Jesus Christ; 2. Christ in the soul; 3. Inward conditions. Revelation based on facts. Methods of evasion. 4. NEED FOR A PERSONAL SELF-REVELATION OF GOD. Why personal? 1. Personality only adequate medium. 2. Saves from subjectivism. 3. Revelation in deed most powerful. 4. Produces necessary results in man’s spirit. 5. THEOLOGY AND TRUTH. Theology a form of knowledge. 1. Scriptures show it. 2. Christian experience. 3. Theology is a science. Reality present. 4. Denial based on false theory of knowledge. 5. Religious knowledge takes the form required by religion. All higher personal life satisfied. 6. CONCLUDING TOPICS OF PRELIMINARY SURVEY. Sources of theology; material and formal principles; arrangement of doctrines; qualifications for study. 1. Sources : Christian religion; all factors; Christ; Holy Spirit; Scriptures; experience of the redeemed; other sources. 2. Material and

formal principles: statement of these. 3. Arrangement of doctrine. Proofs of God’s existence. Trinity. Scriptures. Christian and other forms of knowledge. Subjects of chapters. 4. Qualifications for the study of theology. Religious attitude. (1) Scholarship and culture. (2) Intellectual endowments generally. (3) Moral and spiritual qualities.

Chapter 2. The Knowledge Of God.
Preliminary questions. 1. DEFINITION OF KNOWLEDGE AND OF RELIGION. Of knowledge. Importance for theology. Of religion. Methods employed. Five points in definition. 2. SOURCES OF RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE. 1. Inference from nature and man. Unsatisfactory, a-e. 2. Facts of consciousness. Must rise to Christian standpoint. 3. Comparative religion. Its value. 4. Ecclesiastical courts and councils. Second-hand knowledge. 5. The Bible. Supreme literary source. Spiritual transaction necessary. 6. Revelation of God in Christ: (1) Christ as historic person; New Testament record, a-d. (2) Christ superhistoric, ag. Conclusion.

Chapter 3. Preliminary Study Of Christian Experience.
1. SIX ASSUMPTIONS. Fundamental to all thought. Christian experience a transaction between God and man. 2. THE ANALYSIS OF CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE. Divine initiative. 1. Point of contact. 2. Response of sinner. Two acts. 3. Divine activity. Forgiveness. Justification. Regeneration. Adoption. Conversion. 3. THE SYNTHETIC UNITY OF CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE. Unitary nature of experience. Likeness between God and man. Consequences. Synthesis must be combined with analysis of experience. Parts understood only in light of the whole. 4. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE. The self. Various aspects. Struggle and conflict. Four stages in unfolding of the self. Response of the gospel Restored relationship. Question as to the subconscious. Varieties in Christian experience. Types of personality. Universal elements. 5. THE NATURAL AND THE REGENERATE CONSCIOUSNESS. Discrimination necessary. Difficult for the unconverted. Christian’s account of the change: 1. Failure of the natural self. 2. Gospel call. 3. New power from without. 4. Three new elements in consciousness, a-c.

6. THE TRANSITION FROM THE NATURAL TO THE REGENERATE STATE. Not by natural forces. 7. OBJECTIONS. 1. Intellectual objection. Reply. 2. Moral objections. Renunciation, etc. Answer. Elements of doubt become elements of certainty. Intellectual superiority not claimed. 8. HOW KNOWLEDGE ARISES IN CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE. Recall presuppositions. Realities given. Mind active. Ordinary principle of knowledge involved. Doctrinal system thus arises. 9. ELEMENTS OF KNOWLEDGE IN CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE. 1. Power from without. 2. Spiritual. 3. Redemptive. 4. Personal. Recognition of another. Power not below the personal. If above, retains personal elements. Fact basis for claim as to personal object in religion. 5. Religious object is triune. Transcendent objects of faith. We know God as Father, Son, and Spirit in experience. Great creeds. Objections usually metaphysical. 10. THE CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE AND THE CHRISTIAN CERTAINTY. Nature of the certainty: 1. Negatively. Not mathematical proof. 2. Positively. Facts of consciousness. Enabling power. 3. Question of degrees of certainty. As to Christ. Elements of knowledge. Unity of experience. 11. OBJECTIONS TO THE CHRISTIAN CERTAINTY. 1. Does not compel assent. Reply. 2. Standard narrow. Reply. 3. Criterion subjective. Reply. 4. Anthropomorphic basis. Reply. 5. Unfair. Reply.

Chapter 4. Christian And Other Forms Of Knowledge.
How is Christian related to other knowledge? General reason, Reply. Departments of knowledge. 1. PHYSICAL SCIENCE. Agreements and differences, a-c. Alleged disinterestedness of physical science. Professor Haering. Statement needs modifying. 1. Absence of interest mistaken conception. 2. Scientific material different. 3. Scientist and religious man both devoted to truth. 2. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELIGION. 1. Vindicates the spiritual view of man. 2. Emphasizes the varieties of religious experience. Normal and abnormal types. 3. Shows the prevalence of law in the religious life. 4. Shows divine energy in conversion, a-c. 3. THE RELATION OF CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE TO ETHICS. Christian experience deeply ethical. 1. Ethical ideal at beginning. 2. Solves problem of theoretical ethics. 3. Leads to higher ethical level. 4. Reveals new ethical method.

4. CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE AND COMPARATIVE RELIGION. Results of scientific study of religion, a-e. Question of origin. Christianity fulfils the religious ideals. Object of worship determines character of a religion. Progress in religion: 1. Gods tend to become more personal. 2. More ethical. 3. Growth of idea of revelation. 4. Recognition of purposiveness and providence, a-c. 5. Advance in idea of redemption. 6. So also idea of atonement. 7. Immanence and transcendence perfectly expressed. Summary of preceding, a-f. Conclusions from the study of comparative religion. 5. CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE IN RELATION TO PHILOSOPHY. Meaning of the word. Points of emphasis in modern philosophy: Experience. Truth. Reality. Unity. Philosophies go astray when they fail to give adequate recognition to these. 6. MODERN WORLD VIEWS. 1. Agnosticism. Statement. Objections. 2. Materialism. Statement. Objections, (1)-(3). 3. Idealism. Statement. How far tenable and untenable, (1), (2). 4. Personalism. Statement. Arguments. Fact basis. First and final causes. Knowledge. Freedom. Physical nature, (1)-(5). God’s relations to universe, (1). (4); God in history, a-f. An impersonal universe. Three evil results. General conclusion. 7. PERSONALISM AND CHRISTIAN THEISM. Relation to monism, a-f. The proofs of God’s existence: 1. Cosmological argument. Reenforced by experience, (1)-(4). 2. Teleological argument. Objections and replies. Argument restated. Evidence of design, (1)-(4). 3. Anthropological argument. 4. Ontological argument, (1)-(4). 5. Moral argument, (1)-(3). Conclusion: 1. Older proofs reenforced by Christian experience. 2. Proofs given exhaust spheres of reality. 3. Charge of subjectivism.

Chapter 5. Revelation.
Introductory statement. Fundamental facts. Biblical writers. 1. OPPOSING VIEWS. 1. Agnostic. 2. Pantheistic. 3. Natural religion. 2. CONTENTS OF REVELATION. 1. God making himself known. 2. A spiritual transaction. 3. Rooted in the people’s life and needs. 4. Evokes man’s active response. 3. THE RECORD OF REVELATION. The Scriptures. Two methods of approach. Process. Results. 1. Psychological distinctions. 2. Theories of inspiration, a. Shortcomings of theories. Biblical and experiential method. b. Bible contains best answer 4. DISTINGUISHING MARKS OF BIBLICAL REVELATION. 1. Historical and experiential. 2. Regenerative and morally transforming. 3. Genetic. 4.

Gradual and progressive, a-c. 5. Unitary and purposive. 6. Congruous with man’s intellectual and religious life. 7. Supernatural. 8. Sufficient, certain, and authoritative. Errors to be avoided.

Chapter 6. The Supreme Revelation: Jesus Christ.
1. CHRIST THE KEY TO SCRIPTURE. Experience brings us close to early Christians. New Testament witness to Christ. 1. Synoptic Gospels. (1) Humanity of Christ. (2) Messianic calling. (3) Sinlessness. (4) Unique relation to God. (5) Unique relation to man. 2. Book of Acts. 3. Teachings of Paul and John. Summary of New Testament teachings, (1)-(4). 2. JESUS CHRIST IN MODERN RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE. Affirmations: Revealer of God. Social and church relations through him. He is Lord. He is the key to doctrine.

Chapter 7. The Deity Of Jesus Christ.
1. A NECESSARY ARTICLE OF FAITH. Reasons: 1. He works divine result. 2. Great intuitions involved. 3. Unifies the evidence. 4. Social redemption. 5. Historical continuity. 2. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS CONFIRMING THE ABOVE. 1. Christ makes known personality of God. 2. Higher continuity of world thus explained. 3. Christ reveals God in act. 4. Completes man’s religious life. 5. Completes ideas of world, man, God, religion, (1)-(4). Recapitulation. 3. HUMAN AND DIVINE ELEMENTS IN CHRIST. Early attempts to explain Christ’s person: Ebionites. Docert. Arians. Appollinarians. Nestorians. Eutychians. Council at Chalcedon. Chief requirement. Two-nature conception. Its difficulty. Possible attitudes toward efforts to define Christ’s person. 4. THE PREEXISTENCE OF THE DIVINE SON. 1. New Testament teaching. 2. Not ideal preexistence. 3. Necessary presupposition. 4. Divine Son; transcended current philosophy. 5. Christ’s work unified. 5. THE DIVINE SELF-EMPTYING. 1. A self-emptying. 2. Creation and selflimitation. 3. So also incarnation; infinite resources of grace. 4. Fatherhood and sonship essential in God. 5. Not putting off of divine attributes. Kenotic theories. 6. Helpful analogies. 7. God’s answer to man’s search. 6. STAGES IN REASCENT OF CHRIST. His life in real human conditions. Laws of growth; this an element of perfection. Intellectual, moral, and Messianic factors. Eternal relation to God involved. Dorner’s view of gradual incarnation. Principle of life through death.

7. OBJECTIONS. 1. Based on unity of God. Reply. 2. Finite and infinite. Reply. 3. Mystery. Reply. 4. Modern thought. Reply, (1)-(3). 8. RIVAL THEORIES. 1. Humanitarian Christ. 2. Man filled with divine presence, (1)-(3). 3. Ideal preexistence. Reply. 4. Sanday’s theory. Reply, (1)-(4). 5. The Ritschlian theory. Reply.

Chapter 8. The Holy Spirit And The Trinity.
1. THE HOLY SPIRIT. 1. Old Testament teachings, (1)-(8). 2. In New Testament, (1)-(6). 3. Summary, (1)-(4). 2. THE TRINITY. 1. Statements preliminary to discussion of Trinity. 2. Immanent and economic Trinity. Proofs of immanent Trinity, (1)-(3). 3. Inferences from God as thinking, willing, and loving personal being. 3. THE PRACTICAL RELIGIOUS VALUE OF THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY. As to God, Christ, Holy Spirit, believers. 4. OBJECTIONS. Ethnic trinities. Reply. Self-contradictoriness of doctrine. Reply. Unthinkable. Reply. Metaphysical doctrine. Reply.

Chapter 9. The God Of Our Lord Jesus Christ.
Why discussion of doctrine of God was reserved to present. 1. DEFINITION OF GOD. Analysis, (1)-(7). Objections to briefer definitions. 2. THE CHRISTIAN DEFINITION. 1. God is Spirit. 2. God is a person: (1) Inferred. (2) Objections and replies. 3. God is living. 4. Supreme personal spirit. 5. Word infinite. 6. God is one. 7. Words absolute and unconditioned. 3. THE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD. Various classifications, 1. Natural attributes: (1) Self-existence. (2) Immutability. (3) Omnipresence. (4) Immensity. (5) Eternity. (6) Omniscience. a. Method. b. Extent. c. Questions as to necessity and free choice. (7) Omnipotence. a. How manifested, b. Unexhausted. c. Limitations self-imposed. 2. Moral attributes: (1) Holiness. a. Old and New Testament meaning, b. Other moral qualities grounded in holiness. (2) Righteousness. a. Meaning as applied to men. b. Mandatory, punitive, redemptive, c. Grounded in God’s nature, (a)-(c). (3) Love. a. Grounded in God’s nature, b. Desires good of object, c. Desires to possess object, d. Acts in behalf of object, (a)-(c). e. Is manifested in various ways. f. Inclusive of mankind, (a), (b). (4) Truth. Practical, considerations, a. God’s personality manifest, b. Error gets meaning, c. Element of knowledge in faith, d. Element of doctrine inevitable. 3. The attributes and the divine personality. God a unitary being. Errors to be

avoided: (1) Merging all in one. (2) Making one superior. Discussion as to righteousness and love: a. Prominence in Scriptures. b. Question as to conscience, c. Question as to option and obligation, d. Attribute of being, or of action, e. Question as to a norm. f. Relative place in the atonement. (3) Thinking of attributes in conflict. (4) Arbitrary action of will.

Chapter 10. Creation.
1. DEFINITION. Science and religion. New creatures in Christ. Purpose implied in development hypothesis. Logic and philosophy. Summary in five points. 2. OPPOSING VIEWS. 1. Matter eternal. Reply. 2. Dualism. Reply. 3. Emanation. Reply. 4. Eternal creation. Reply. 3. THE CREATION OF MAN. Man the crown. 1. Physical and spiritual being. Discussion as to body of man. 2. The connecting link of universe. 3. Man spiritual. 4. Created in God’s image. (1) As rational. (2) As moral. (3) As having emotions. (4) As having will. (5) As free. (6) Originally sinless. (7) Dominion over animals. (8) Immortality. Proofs of immortality, a. Inferred from progressive creation, b. Universal belief, c. Psychology. d. Phenomenon of death, e. Inequalities of life. f. Capacity for growth. Biblical teachings, a. Old Testament. b. New Testament. c. Religious experience. 4. ORIGIN OF SOULS. Theories. 1. Preexistence. 2. Immediate creation. 3. Traducianism.

Chapter 11. Providence.
1. DEFINITION. God’s preservation of the world. Immanence and transcendence. Truths contained in definition: 1. Divine purpose. 2. Divine sovereignty. 3. Physical and moral law. 4. Human freedom. 5. Unity of the race. 6. Care of individuals as well as the race. 7. Miracles. (1)-(7). 8. Prayer, (1)-(6). 9. Pain and suffering. 2. ANGELS. Unwarranted assumptions. Biblical teachings. 1. Angels assumed. 2. Little said as to origin. 3. Teachings as to office. 4. Angel of the Covenant. 5. Satan and the fall of angels. 6. Satan chief of evil spirits. 7. Cause of the fall of angels.

Chapter 12. Sin.
Providence takes account of sin. 1. THE ORIGIN OF SIN. Dilemma against theism. Reply. Theories: 1. Material body of man. Reply. 2. Sin negative, due to finiteness or ignorance. Reply.

3. Due to creation of free beings. Genesis account. (1) Little light on sin prior to man. (2) Man created morally free. (3) Moral dignity of man in part explains sin. (4) Opportunity for God. (5) Opportunity for man. 2. CHRIST’S NATURAL AND SPIRITUAL RELATIONSHIP TO THE HUMAN RACE. Source, medium, and goal of creation. 1. Explains conscience and religious instinct. 2. Danger of substituting the natural for the spiritual relation. 3. Illustrated in case of infants. 4. Natural relation the precondition of the spiritual. 3. THE BIBLICAL TEACHING AS TO SIN. Sin as selfishness, as lack of conformity to law, as moral disposition, as rupture of relations with personal God. 1. Old Testament teachings, (1)-(3). 2. New Testament teaching. Want of fellowship. Sinful motive. Christ’s character. (1) With Jesus all are sinners and lost. (2) Fourth Gospel. (3) Paul. Flesh. Dead in sins. Law. Deliverance through Christ. Source of sin in Adam. 4. THE CONSEQUENCES OF SIN. 1. Sin universal. Total depravity. Its true meaning. Human ability and inability. “Natural” and “moral” ability. 2. Guilt and penalty. a. Guilt defined, b. Penalty defined, c. Question as to nature and object of penalty. Divergent theories, d. Chief penalty death. Physical death. Relation to penalty, e. Spiritual death. Eternal death. 5. SOLUTION OF SIN PROBLEM THROUGH CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE. Stages in the process. 6. OBJECTIONS TO THE BIBLICAL DOCTRINE OF SIN. Moral system arraigned. Reply. Salvation of infants, and heredity. Reply.

Chapter 13. The Saving Work Of Christ.
1. THE THREEFOLD OFFICE OF CHRIST. As prophet. As priest. As king. These inseparable. 2. THE ATONEMENT. Why a central doctrine. Variety in forms of representation. Many theories of atonement. Why defective. “Fact” as opposed to “theory” of atonement. Reply. 3. REVIEW OF THEORIES. 1. Ransom to Satan theory. Reply. 2. Theory of Anselm. 3. Grotius. 4. Socinian theory. 5. Moral influence theory. 6. Variations: McLeod Campbell, Maurice. 7. Eternal act of God. 4. GENERAL PRELIMINARY STATEMENTS AS TO THE BIBLICAL DOCTRINE. 1. All phases of teaching necessary. 2. Avoid abstract method. 3. Must study the facts involved. 4. Conception of law in Paul’s writing must be understood.

5. BIBLICAL DOCTRINE OF THE ATONEMENT. 1. The motive of the atonement. 2. The end, (1)-(3). 3. The atonement defined. As means to the end, it involved: (1) Christ’s identification with the race. (2) Life of obedience. (3) Subjection of Christ to the operation of the law of sin and death. 6. ATONEMENT AND THE DIVINE IMMANENCE. Means of becoming immanent in man. Descent of moral ideal through Christ. Gift of Holy Spirit. Mystical union. 7. VITAL AND LEGAL ELEMENTS IN ATONEMENT. Legal elements explained. Atonement expression of law. Element of law. Series of questions and answers. 1. How a satisfaction of law? Reply, (1)-(4). 2. In what sense penal? 3. Did Christ endure divine wrath? 4. In what sense a propitiation? 5. Was it substitutionary? Fact and principle of substitution: (1) Fact. Not merely question of Greek prepositions. Christ’s work representative or substitutionary. Various New Testament passages. Old Testament teachings. (2) The principle of substitution. In relation: a. to personality; b. to morality; c. to Christian experience; d. to Christ’s original relation to the race. 8. THE GODWARD AND MANWARD REFERENCE OF THE ATONEMENT. 1. The Godward. Not only law, government, honor involved, but also the divine nature as righteous love. Necessity in God. Two objections. 2. Manward reference, (1)-(3). Attributes of God in atonement. Extent of the atonement. Intercession of Christ.

Chapter 14. Election: God’s Initiative In Salvation.
1. SOVEREIGNTY. Predestination and election. Fundamental fact: “In the beginning God.” Errors to be avoided: 1. As to sovereignty. 2. As to limited atonement. 3. As to divine initiative. 2. GOD’S PURPOSE TOWARD MANKIND. Four statements: 1. God’s gracious purpose racial 2. Favor to the world through Israel 3. Atonement of worldwide purpose. 4. New Testament history and teaching show universality of grace. Five conclusions. 3. THE SALVATION OF INDIVIDUALS. Series of questions: 1. Are men chosen because of foreseen faith? Reply. 2. Does God coerce the will or leave it free? Reply, (1)-(3). 3. Can we reconcile sovereignty and freedom? Reply. 4. Can we assign reasons for God’s method? Reply. 5. Was there a fairer method ? Reply. 6. Is God seeking to save as few or as many as possible? Reply, (1)-(5). 7. Can we discover any guiding principle in election? Reply.

4. OBJECTIONS. 1. Makes God partial. Reply. 2. Involves insincerity in gospel invitation. Reply. 3. God does not desire salvation of all. Reply. 4. Election cuts the nerve of endeavor. 5. It involves profound mystery. Necessity of proclaiming universal gospel. 6. Hardening the heart, (1)-(4).

Chapter 15. The Beginnings Of The Christian Life.
1. THE WORK OF THE HOLY SPIRIT IN SALVATION. 1. In relation to God. 2. In relation to Christ, (1)-(3). 3. In relation to the human spirit. Things that are clear: three points. 4. In relation to the means of grace. Why means of grace, (1)-(3). 2. THE BEGINNINGS OF SALVATION. 1. Calling. Universal. Sincere. 2. Conviction. Work of Spirit. Meaning of convict. Refers to Christ, a-c. A caution. 3. THE ORDER OF SALVATION. 1. Repentance. Meaning of word. Man’s whole nature acts, (1)-(3). How produced. Additional statements. 2. Faith. Central place in Scripture. Three elements. Relation of faith to the Christian life, (1)-(9). 3. Conversion. Meaning of word. 4. Regeneration. Definition. Scripture teaching. Details emphasized negatively, (1)-(7). Positive statements, (1)-(3). 4. REGENERATION IN ITS LARGER RELATIONS. 1. Regeneration and the idea of God. 2. Regeneration and revelation. 3. Regeneration and Christ’s person. 4. Regeneration and the Holy Spirit. 5. Regeneration and other doctrines. 6. Regeneration and final causes. 7. Regeneration and problems of philosophy, (1)-(3). 8. Regeneration and the problem of knowledge. 5. JUSTIFICATION. 1. Definition. Five points emphasized. 2. Why is justification by faith? Reply. 3. The relation of justification to Christian experience. Need for free response of man to God: (1) Evil tendencies without it. (2) Nothing else can take its place. 4. An objection to the doctrine. Forensic salvation. Reply. Abstract method. Detailed answer, (1)(4). Are we conscious of justification? 6. ADOPTION AND SONSHIP. Two groups of passages. Theories as to sonship: 1. All sons of God. Reply. 2. Only the redeemed in Christ. 3. God father of all, but all not sons. Reply. 4. All sons, but not all spiritual sons. Reply. 5. All constituted for sonship, but become real sons only in new birth. Arguments in support of the view. Sons by faith and adoption. Faith the condition of sonship. Traits and blessings of the sons of God. 7. UNION WITH CHRIST. Phrase sums up preceding. 1. Teachings of Scripture as to union with Christ. Figurative expressions. Nature of the union: Vital. Moral. Spiritual. Personal. Inscrutable. Abiding. 2. Consequences of our

union with Christ. (1) Identity with him in relation to God. (2) In his relations to the race. (3) To sin and death. (4) His identity with us in our earthly experiences.

Chapter 16. The Continuance Of The Christian Life.
1. SANCTIFICATION. 1. General survey. Meaning of word. (1) Old and New Testament teachings. (2) Vitally related to other spiritual facts: faith, justification, regeneration, work of Spirit. (3) Attainment of moral character through struggle. Three sources of opposition. (4) A gradual process. Growth never ceases. (5) The agent and means. Holy Spirit. Truth the chief means of sanctification. 2. Moral ideal in sanctification. Individual and social ideal. (1) Individual ideal in outline. (2) Social ideal in outline. The family. Slavery. The state. Economic problems. War. 3. Wrong views as to sanctification: (1) The antinomian. Reply. (2) Perfectionist view. Reply, a-e. Conclusion: five points. 2. PERSEVERANCE. Question involved. 1. Two tendencies in theology. 2. New Testament avoids both dangers. Must unify New Testament teachings. Groups of passages. Threefold conclusion. 3. God’s method moral and personal. Exposition explains many difficulties.

Chapter 17. Last Things.
1. CYCLE OF IDEAS IN THEOLOGY COMPLETED. Backward glance over ground covered. God’s working purposive. It moves toward a goal. 2. PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS. 1. Can we dispense with a doctrine of the future? Various denials as to immortality, and the replies, (1)-(4). 2. What were the sources of the eschatology of Jesus? Originality of Jesus and contact with other sources. (1) Old Testament teachings. Not a complete picture of the future. Summary. (2) Jewish eschatology. 3. Can we dispense with the outward form of the eschatological teaching? Cannot eliminate the apocalyptic element. (1) Cautions. (2) Eschatological events in historical realization. (3) Resurrection of Christ an apocalyptic stage. (4) Second Coming. (5) Christianity with historical beginning and consummation. (6) Judgment. (7) Summary: Fundamental question is one of a self-consistent Christianity. 4. What is the relation between the present and the future of the kingdom? Both elements are present. Difficulty in the language of Jesus. Direct and simple method of interpreting these passages. Points of the interpretation, (1)-(4). Gospel of John supplements synoptic Gospels. Principles rather than events. Combine both groups of teachings. Conclusion: four points.

3. DEATH OF THE BODY. Separation of soul and body. Christian hope includes victory over death. 4. THE INTERMEDIATE STATE. Scripture teaching meager, but clear. Hades and Sheol. 1. The righteous dead, (1)-(6). 2. The unrighteous dead. A few clear passages. 5. THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST. Series of statements. 1. New Testament teaches an outward, visible return. 2. The time is unrevealed. 3. There are various subordinate comings. 4. Right attitude one of constant expectancy. Question: Was Paul mistaken? 5. How the expectation helped Christians. 6. THE QUESTION AS TO THE MILLENNIUM. Passage in Rev. 20: 1-6. Issue between premillennialists and postmillennialists. Premillennial view in outline. Postmillennial view in outline. Objections urged by the opposing theorists. Postmillennial objections to the opposing theory. Premillennial objections to the opposing theory. Conclusion: five points. 7. THE RESURRECTION. Teaching in the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles. Two questions: Is New Testament teaching simply a doctrine of immortality? Reply. How is the body raised? Reply. Summary as to resurrection: six points. 8. THE JUDGMENT. Topics discussed. 1. The fact. 2. The Judge. 3. The subjects. 4. The purpose. 5. The necessity. Finality in various ways: (1) For the conscience. (2) For history. (3) For theism. 9. THE FINAL STATES. HEAVEN. OUTWARD ASPECT. Various teachings. Inward aspect: 1. Heaven as relief. 2. Heaven as reward. 3. Heaven as realization. 4. Heaven as appreciation. 5. Heaven as endless growth. Hell. Four statements as to hell: 1. Absence of heavenly elements. 2. Symbolic and figurative teachings of Scripture. 3. There are degrees in punishment of wicked. 4. Doom of wicked is endless. 10. THEORIES WHICH DENY ETERNAL PUNISHMENT. Two theories, annihilationism and restorationism. Annihilationism. Soul not naturally immortal. Several forms of the theory. Biblical words relied upon. Various passages. Reply, 1-7. Restorationism. Several forms in which it is held. 1. Arguments based on Scripture passages, and replies to them. General statements in conclusion. 2. Arguments based on inferences from God and man and the moral kingdom. Reply. Detailed reply. General considerations, (1)-(3).

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