July 2012

The Long-Term Youth Jobs Gap And What It Means for America

a policy brief by Rory O’Sullivan & Alistair Johnston

Adaku Onyeka. and insight: Aaron Smith. and advocacy around the issues that matter most to this demographic. Matt Wolfson. edits. Jen Mishory. and Reid Setzer. and working to ensure that the perspectives of young people are heard wherever decisions about our collective future are being made. 2 . policy analysis.NO END IN SIGHT? Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people for their thoughtful comments. Brian Burrell. About Young Invincibles Young Invincibles is a non-partisan. Young Invincibles engages in education. non-profit youth organization that seeks to expand opportunity for all Americans between the ages of 18 and 34. focusing primarily on health care. education and economic opportunity for young adults.

. 11 12 13 14 15 16 ........ 4  A Long Road to Recovery  Getting Worse All the Time  Gone Forever ... ... 7 Young and Unemployed: Long-Term Impact Recommendations Conclusion Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 End Notes ....... 8 together... 5 5 .... 5 6 ..The Long-Term Youth Jobs Gap And What It Means to America Table of Contents Executive Summary Methodology Missing Jobs . ... . 9 . . . invincible 3 . ... .

2 percent. but also stifle future opportunities for succeeding generations. Moreover. These are not unduly pessimistic projections.1 However.to 24-year-old Americans hold any kind of job at all. The new status quo runs counter to our expectations about the American Dream .5 percent. While the national unemployment rate is 8. The results the recession’s blow. and for African Americans.  More young people went back to school during the recession. resulting in lower earnings for years to come. the unemployment rate for 16. but dismal prospects have also driven many of them from the labor force entirely. At the moment.  Unless trends change dramatically.almost four times the national average.2 percent . For Latino youth. there is a real danger that the youth labor market will never recover from the recession’s blow.  The American economy is currently “missing” an estimated 2. Young Invincibles decided to explore what the youth job market might look like over the next decade. the youth labor market will not fully 4 . Persistent youth unemployment could not only alter what it means to be young in America.to 24-year-olds more than doubles to 16. Not only are youth struggling to find jobs. summer and year-round jobs. there remains room for action.NO END IN SIGHT? Executive Summary The economy has hit young Americans hard over the past five years. The new analysis estimates danger that the the size of this “youth youth labor market jobs gap” and how long it will never recover from will persist. What comes next for America’s youth? recover until 2021 without intervention. fewer than half of 16. fewer young people were working during the recession than at any time since our nation started tracking unemployment data. that figure jumps to 20. but this migration does not come close to accounting for the lost jobs. even these startling statistics understate the problem. are not encouraging:  Even under optimistic assumptions.2 Given the current economic malaise. the Bureau of Labor Statistics predicted that young people would never regain their 2007 employment levels.rather than opportunity.5 percent. America’s leaders must aggressively pursue policies that facilitate the creation of youth jobs. young Americans can anticipate unemployment and underemployment through much of their 20s. In 2010. which would restore opportunity for this generation and safeguard the country’s economic future. The standard unemployment rate does not count those who have given up any hope of finding work. Despite the discouraging situation.7 million youth jobs. it skyrockets to 30. Expanded investments in AmeriCorps. high youth joblessness combined with lower incomes may lead to weaker economic growth. Youth Oppor- This report answers the question by comparing the number of youth jobs we have now with how many we would have in a There is a real healthy economy.

7 million job hole under different growth rates. This fact may have serious long-term consequences for the future of our country. (See Appendix 1 for a detailed explanation. For instance. These estimates use data from 2007 to offer a marker for what the economy would have looked like if the recession never occurred.to 24-yearfewer jobs for people us closer to a full recovold demographic in the ery for the youth work years to come. some missing jobs will be to preserve the American Dream for recovered. The situation is grim.000 jobs a year at an pected demographic changes. We assumed by 2016. More worrisome are the most recent BLS estimates. and adjusted for exadd 500.7 million fewer jobs for people ages 16 to 24 than there would have been if the economy remained healthy. In annual cost of $6. We owe it to young people employed tothis generation and to the fuday are employed going forture of our country to take action ward.5 billion contrast to projected trends (less than the monthly cost in the general labor force. we compared current youth employment totals to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics’ (BLS) projections from 2008 through 2018.The Long-Term Youth Jobs Gap And What It Means to America tunity Grants. Methodology In order to estimate the size of the youth jobs gap. our youth. A Long Road to Recovery To get a sense of the scale of the problem. increased investthis same number of jobs would be added ment in AmeriCorps alone could each month. which predict that youth jobs will never return to their pre-recession levels.) of 16.4 Getting all of these young Americans back to work will not be easy.to 24-year-olds economy remained working. but if the same numbers of not hopeless. (See Appendix 4 as a smaller proportion would have been if the for details. We found that of maintaining troops in there will be fewer people there are 2. invincible 5 . This is a staggering number. we examined monthly job gains for some of vation Corps could close the youth jobs gap the best recent economic periods. This means that healthy. it could take as long as a decade to fill the hole. we estimated how long it would take to close the 2. Even under optimistic assumptions. roughly the size of the entire population of Chicago.) In order to calculate how quickly these missing jobs could be replaced under different scenari- Missing Jobs We found that there are 2.os. TANF. and applied a youth unemployment rate we might expect in a healthy economy. if the youth labor market expands at together. we subtracted the actual number of jobs that young people had during those years. we took the size of the youth labor force as projected by BLS. resulting in the number of jobs “missing” every year. For example. and Conser. as well ages 16 to 24 than there force. For every year after 2007.3 From this number. YouthBuild.7 million Afghanistan) bringing in the 16.

it would take almost a decade for young Americans to regain the ground they lost. 46. it would take until 2021 to reach pre-recession youth employment levels. In contrast. The average monthly jobs added during the entire decade of the 1990s offers a more realistic. because those were exceptional circumstances. during the 1980s and 2000s. 9. As a result.000. and it predictably supported 6 20 the strongest youth labor market in decades. Yet even that scenario may prove unreachable. The 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in U. history. 20 21 .150 per Month) the rate it did during the best year in the 1990s (1998) or 2000s (2004) it would take until 2015 or 2016. it is unlikely the economy could sustain that growth for several years. even if we could recreate our best economic conditions.000. young people actually lost jobs. respectively. to recover its pre-recession form (Figure 1). young Americans are left hoping for an ideal recovery that would take far too long for millions of young people.S.833 per Month) Average for 1990s Annualized (109. If the economy added youth jobs at the 1990s rate. Unfortunately. baseline. 41.7 Young workers are no exception. the job market in each recession has taken longer to mend than the previous one.800. but still optimistic.083 per Month) Best Year in 1990s Job Additions (562. Getting Worse All the Time Experience provides little hope that the youth labor market will recover quickly on its own.6 Therefore.NO END IN SIGHT? Figure 1: Average Monthly Youth Job Gains from 2007 to 2021 1000000 500000 0 -500000 -1000000 -1500000 -2000000 -2500000 -3000000 -3500000 08 09 10 13 15 16 18 19 07 11 12 17 20 20 20 20 20 20 14 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Jobs Gap to Date Best Year in 2000s Job Additions (493. Over the past several decades.5 (See Appendix 2 for additional examples).

9 During no other down. In fact. invincible 54 57 66 7 .is not a foregone conclusion. this where it was in 2007. returning to their pre 1990  91 recession unemployment rate in  2001  Never less than three years (Figure 2).The Long-Term Youth Jobs Gap And What It Means to America Unemployment Rate After the 1981 recession.8 It took significantly longer after the  2007  N/A 1990 recession. young people would have roughly 2 million few- Percentage Change in Unemployment Rate 170% 160% 150% 140% 130% 120% 110% 100% 90% Figure 2: Youth Unemployment Recovery Times During Recent Recessions 9 12 15 18 30 33 36 39 45 48 60 63 0 3 6 21 27 42 51 24 Months Since Start of Recession 1981 1990 2001 2007 together. the most return in recent memory was the unemployment cent BLS projections do not expect young people to ever fully recover. the Although sustained growth in the youth labor youth unemployment rate is 141 percent above market could eventually close the jobs gap.Recessions employment rate. The youth labor market never fully recovered from the 2001 dot-com crash. And four and one-half Gone Forever? years after the Great Recession hit in 2007. young people made a relatively speedy  1981  34 recovery.10 The Bureau estimated rate so high for so long. more than seven years passed before young people Table 1: Months Until Youth Unemployment Rate Recovers in Recent regained their pre-recession un.

500. The fact that they show a youth jobs gap that continues indefinitely raises the question: will the youth labor market ever recover? If not. already the youth labor force outperformed expectations in 2011 and may do so again in 2012.8 years of earnings.000 -3. the consequences for our nation’s future could be dramatic. This effect diminished over time. One study found that men who lose their jobs when unemployment is above 8 percent lose 2. Young and Unemployed: The Long-Term Impact Research findings on unemployment’s effects on young people are unequivocal: lack of work leads to lower wages and worse economic prospects.000 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 14 20 20 20 20 Jobs Gap to Date er jobs than the pre-recession prediction by the end of the decade (Figure 3).000. but was still visible 15 years later.to 24-Year-Olds 0 -500.500.12 Another found that for every percentage point increase in the unemployment rate.000 -1.NO END IN SIGHT? Figure 3: BLS Jobs Gap 2010 Projection for 16. In contrast. when those who had graduated 8 20 BLS Current Projections 20 20 .11 Still. The projections are not flawless. since they may be the best guide we have to the future of the labor force.000 -1.000 -2.000 -3.500. these dismal predictions should alert us to the potential severity of the problem.000 -2. new labor entrants have wages 6 to 7 percent lower than similar people who graduated during healthy economic times.000. the BLS forecasts that workers over age 25 would nearly regain their employment level by 2020 (Figure 4).000.

It will scar not only Millennials. Disconnected youth do not learn the work skills or build the social networks necessary for future success.000 -6. and we can expect darker economic conditions for over a decade. who will themselves suffer many negative effects.000.000 -8. we have the tools to create jobs for young people that will get Figure 4: BLS 2010 Jobs Gap Projection Ages 25+ 0 -1.13 Project these figures out for millions of unemployed young people. Moreover. but each successive generation of young Americans: literally the future of our country. Predictably. A recent report estimated that having this many disconnected youth contributes to an aggregate cost to taxpayers of $1.000 -3.000 -2. we risk serious.000.000 -5. nor working. Thankfully. this problem is solvable.15 If we fail to change course soon.56 trillion and a cost to society of $4.7 million. high unemployment and lack of opportunity contribute to a trend known as “disconnected youth”: young people who are neither in school.000. invincible 20 BLS Current Projections 20 20 9 . and they are at risk of raising children in poverty. members of this contingent suffer significant consequences as a result of their detachment. unaffordable damage to our economy and this generation’s dreams.000 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 14 20 20 20 20 Jobs Gap to Date together.The Long-Term Youth Jobs Gap And What It Means to America into rough economic times received wages 2.000 -4.000. Recommendations Permanently depressed youth employment is unacceptable. and often do not have a high school degree.000.000. the number of disconnected youth is an estimated 6.000 -9.14 Nationwide. -7.5 percent lower than their compatriots for every percentage point increase of unemployment when they entered into the labor market.75 trillion.

9. For example. up from 536. (See Appendix 4 for more information).000 applicants to AmeriCorps. The current AmeriCorps program costs roughly 743 million per year and provides jobs to 82. These are initiatives that 10 20 we simply cannot afford to ignore.000 -3. summer and year-round jobs programs.000 08 09 10 13 15 16 18 19 07 11 12 17 20 20 20 20 20 20 14 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Jobs Gap to Date Average for 1990s Annualized (109.NO END IN SIGHT? Figure 5: Projected Youth Recovery with Targeted Youth Job Creation 500.17 By increasing the supply of AmeriCorps jobs.000 -2.000 -2.00 the first year. Assuming an additional 500.411 service members. we could meet this record demand.000. Ramping up programs like AmeriCorps. 20 21 . would annually cost $6. a targeted youth jobs program could mean the difference between closing the jobs gap in May 2016 rather than December 2021.000.000 a year.150 per Month) Young Invincible Proposal (1.000 -1.000 -3.5 million jobs added over 3 years) them back to work and back on track for economic success. and 1. We estimate that increasing the number of AmeriCorps jobs to 500.5 million youth jobs we could push the youth labor market to recovery much faster than predicted. Last year there were 582. if we created 1. This would fill a serious piece of the youth jobs gap. We would cut the number of “missing” jobs in half.000 in 2010. Youth Opportunity Grants. and Conservation Corps could significantly reduce youth unemployment.500.000. Take for example a large-scale increase in the AmeriCorps program as a part of a series of reforms. interest in the program is growing. TANF.000 0 -500.000 jobs every year (500.500.5 billion.16 While the number of funded AmeriCorps jobs is shrinking.500.000 -1.5 million the third year). YouthBuild.800. 1 million the second year.

Our country. For example. 2012. the best-case scenario is Taking these bold steps is also feasible po. summer and toward restoring opportunity to our year-round jobs programs. Conclusion The current recession proved worse for young people than any other since the Great De- YouthBuild. generation. A similar size expengeneration and future genditure targeted at youth erations have a shot at a employment programs. has a greater need than ever for the kind of community service AmeriCorps provides. still working to sort through the wreckage of the Great Recession. the United States can tackle both of these problems at once. programs like could go a long way AmeriCorps. This is not acceptable. but it is also partisan progress on youth and student issues possible to avert that outcome. Through an increase in AmeriCorps funding. This paper lays when youth are organized and political leaders out one compact initiative to expand the size of are moved to take a stand. There are 2. together. Governor Romney.– we need to force our political leaders to undent Obama. Young adults terest rates from doubling on July 1. Ramping up including AmeriCorps.Dream Agenda later this summer.7 million fewer youth working than would be expected under healthy economic conditions. helping to ensure that young people do not suffer permanent economic scars while working to rebuild necessary services in our still fragile country. serving the greater public good in the process. with a $6-billion fix passed with 74 votes Together. TANF. and Conservation Corps could significantly reduce youth unemployment. Young AmeriCorps. and Congress derstand that they have no choice but to act. The cannot wait for the political will to materialize campaign ultimately drew support from Presi. Young Invincibles will be presentInvincibles and youth partners recently led a ing other ideas as part of our Young American successful campaign to prevent student loan in. Youth Opportunity Grants. brighter tomorrow.The Long-Term Youth Jobs Gap And What It Means to America pression. Unless the government takes dramatic action. Young adults have persistently high unemployment rates and are withdrawing from the labor force in greater and greater numbers.that it takes nearly a decade to recover missing litically. Perhaps most frightening is the prospect that the current economic conditions for youth may never end – that the new American status quo is one of permanently elevated unemployment and underemployment. invincible 11 . we can get young adults back in the Senate and 373 votes in the to work and guarantee that our House. Young people are eager to get back to work.youth jobs. The situation is win-win. We have seen that we can achieve bi. a fact that could have negative consequences that reverberate for years.

We then divided all the 2008 Census projections by this ratio (1. We then subtracted this from the number of jobs that actually did exist to create a “jobs gap” of missing youth jobs. the year of BLS projections. to calculate how many jobs would have existed during this period.7% every year. We applied a “typical” unemployment rate. We simply continued this trend going forward. and thus be included in calculations of anticipated jobs – means more missing jobs. 2016.19 Other analysts also predicted that this trend would continue. It has trended downward in recent years for young people. While this method is rough and could conceivably lead to different predictions than those of BLS far into the future. The method we used depends on a number of factors that could influence our estimate of the jobs gap. and 2018 – and divided them into the corresponding Census projections for the same years to get a ratio difference between the two sets of projections. the end date of BLS projections.5% and decreasing by 0. For 2018. we took the projections for the last four BLS years – 2015. we used data from 2008 and adjusted it to match BLS projections. This can change as immigration patterns change.20 The jobs gap also depends on the labor force participation rate.18 Because no Census data was available for 2007. based on data from 2007. settling just above 10% before the recession. 12 . we used the trending labor-force participation rates for BLS projections to estimate the labor-force participation rate beyond 2018. Finally.21 The 2000s saw a decline in the overall size of the labor force. To do this. the last year the economy was fully healthy. assuming there would be a 53.NO END IN SIGHT? Appendix 1 We calculated the missing youth jobs by using BLS projections for the youth labor force in the years 2008 to 2018. mostly due to an increase in school attendance. we only projected population and labor force participation rates three years beyond those projected by BLS. which can vary over time.22 The size of the labor force also depends on the size of the population. The absence of these immigrants after a recession – who would be expected to join the US work force under healthier conditions. While this number is higher than the youth unemployment rate during most of 2007. and BLS projections from 2007 essentially continued that pattern. We assumed an unemployment rate of 11% in a healthy economy. we used census projections for the population size.0151) to adjust them to BLS levels. BLS projected the labor force participation rate for youth to be 54. For years after 2018. A healthy economy will typically attract more immigrants than one coming out of a recession.8% labor force participation rate in 2019 and so on. 2017. the unemployment rate has been slowly trending up in recent years. The predictions also followed BLS’s pattern very closely.

677  46.083  45. invincible 13 . Youth Job Market during Strong Economic Periods and Date of Missing Job Recovery Various Economic Periods  Best Year in the 1980s (1983)  Best Year in the 1990s (1998)  Best Year in the 2000s (2004)  Best Year since Recession Began (2011)  2010.433 Years Missing Jobs are Recovered  2016  2015  2016  2016  2016  Never  2021  Never together. and the year the missing jobs would be fully recovered if the youth labor market grew at the rate it did during these strong periods.The Long-Term Youth Jobs Gap And What It Means to America Appendix 2 Below are average monthly youth job additions during various recent periods of economic expansion.833  41.000  31.150  -28. and 2012 Average  1980s Average  1990s Average  2000s Average Jobs Added Per Month  40. 2011.575  9.931  -26.

respectively). Unlike youth.6 percentage points a year. the current unemployment rate. We continued to apply this rate of decline to the unemployment rate until it reached the 4 percent level. this group had a pre-recession unemployment rate of around 4 percent. They also typically have a lower unemployment rate (6.NO END IN SIGHT? Appendix 3 By using current BLS projections for the size of the youth labor force in coming years.9 percent most recently) that was shrinking by about . our baseline assumption for a healthy economy. and subtracting those figures projected from 2008 to 2018 under healthy economic conditions. and its current yearly rate of change (about 16 percent and a drop of about a percentage point a year. We did the same thing for those 25 and older. 14 . we were able to estimate the future of the jobs gap. We continued to adjust the unemployment rate down by its current rate of change until it reached 11 percent.

24 If we add all these costs together. the cost of the Segal AmeriCorps Education Award.000 AmeriCorps members per year would cost about $542 million per month under the Young Invincibles plan. the entire award amount does not have to be funded. The actual amount of the award is $5.212. together.4 million). By using the percentage of the CNCS’s operational budget dedicated to AmeriCorps (61.24. invincible 15 . the war in Afghanistan is set to cost about $7. $1.006. and the proportionate administrative cost of running the AmeriCorps program (calculated by taking the operating cost of the AmeriCorps programs as a percentage of the total operating budget for the CNCS – 61. and then dividing this figure by the total estimated number of AmeriCorps member service years for 2013 (52. or go directly to pay for education – was found to be $4. having an AmeriCorps member complete an entire year or 1. we get the estimated administrative cost per member service year. National Community Civilian Corps. during FY 2013. we get an estimate for the total cost of an additional AmeriCorps job: $13. which can be used to pay off student loans. This led to an estimated cost of $742. By contrast. estimates the cost of a member service year (i. and multiplying this percentage by the total administrative costs requested in FY 2013 ($103. student loan interest.491 for the AmeriCorps program. AmeriCorps’ biggest program.550. To hire 500.25 To calculate the cost of AmeriCorps in Fiscal Year 2011.971.23 The cost of the Segal AmeriCorps Education Award – the award each AmeriCorps member is entitled to after service. we took the operating cost of the three AmeriCorps programs (AmeriCorps State and National.754).022.79 billion per month during FY 2012.700 hours of service) at $7.86 percent).The Long-Term Youth Jobs Gap And What It Means to America Appendix 4 The Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS). and cost $8.13 billion per month.e.20 per member service year. but because not every AmeriCorps member uses his or her award immediately (time during which interest can be accrued) or at all.and multiplying the administrative costs by this percentage).11% -.60.772 for AmeriCorps State and National. the most recently enacted budget. and AmeriCorps VISTA). in their Congressional Budget Justification Fiscal Year 2013.

(See Appendix 3 for methodology). manipulated by students in bad economic times. Palumbo “The Finances of American Households in the Past Three Recessions: Evidence from the Survey of Consumer Recessions: Evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances.” Federal Reserve (2010). 2012.fas. 2. in October/November 2008.” Civic Enterprises (2012). and much lower rates of full-time employment.gov/emp/ep_data_labor_force.neu. the author used birth year to predict graduation rate. 10. 2012.usnews. Henry M. 7. “Current Population Survey. and Kevin B.net/MediaLibrary/Docs/econ_value_opportunity_youth. It should be noted that this study did not include regressions. August 13.com/money/blogs/ flowchart/2010/04/02/why-the-recovery-is-takingso-long.yale. at the start of the Great Recession than they did in 2000. Labor markets 2000-2008 and the Case for an Immediate Jobs Creation Program for Teens and Young Adults. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 6. Recognizing that graduation might be an endogenous variable.” NBER Working Paper Series Working Paper 17638 (2011). Although this study compared young people at the start of the Great Recession. 15. “Disconnected Youth: A Look at 16.bls. Ibid. available at mba.federalreserve. Andrew Sum and Joseph McLaughlin.pdf.htm.” Ibid. Bureau of Labor Statistics.lib. Steven J. 11. 8. Levin. it clearly shows that the trend noted had been developing for some time before the recession struck. Analysis of Data from the US Census Bureau. 2012. “Out with the Young and in with the Old: U. available at http://www. edu/faculty/pdf/kahn_longtermlabor. 5.” Working paper. This study examined white. “Labor Force (Demographic) Data. April 2. Fernandes and Thomas Gabe. von Wachter. youth unemployment tends to be slightly higher than the average.” Center for Labor Market Studies (2008). 2009. Ibid. Belfield. 3. to young people in October/November 2000. “Current Population Survey. Rick Newman. Adrienne L. Kahn “The Long-Term Labor Market Consequences of Graduating from College in a Bad Economy. Available online at: http://www.xhtml. 2009). “Current Population Survey. “American Fact Finder. Figures for Latino and African American youth are not seasonally adjusted. “The Economic Value of Opportunity Youth. young people of all levels of education who were out of school had much lower rates of employment. 4. http://factfinder2. Available at http://www. Analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics.to 24-Year Olds Who Are Not Working or In School. feds/2010/201006/201006pap. “Why the ‘Recovery’ is Taking So Long.civicenterprises. http://www. 9. Lisa B. available at www. Analysis of data from Bureau of Labor Statistics. available at http://money. 2010. cgi?article=1017&context=clms_pub. Note that even in a healthy economy. 13.” Accessed June 21.S.pdf. Note however that although some of the losses during the 2000s could be attributed to higher postsecondary school enrollment. Davis and Till M. She found that this still led to the high earnings losses reported here. and the negative effects of disconnection could be attributed to other unobserved variables correlated with being disconnected.org/sgp/ crs/misc/R40535. 12.pdf. Moore and Michael G.gov/PUBS/. 14.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index. “Recessions and the Cost of Job Loss. such as a lack of motivation.” Congressional Research Service (April 22.NO END IN SIGHT? End Notes 1.pdf.bls.edu/cgi/viewcontent. This paper looked at men under 50 who had been at the same firm for at least three years.” Accessed June 22. but still substantial for those who had graduated from college. available at http://iris. 16 . Clive R.”US News and World Report.gov/data/#unemployment.” Accessed June 20. Losses for both employment and full-time employment were far worse for high school dropouts than for college graduates. and Rachel Rosen. male college graduates from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.” Ibid. though previous research by one of the authors indicated that the effect was similar for less attached workers.census.

Reproduced upon request by Mitra Toosi.” Adrienne L.gov/ pdf/300006-000CBJ_2012_final.pdf.The Long-Term Youth Jobs Gap And What It Means to America End Notes 16. gov/defbudget/fy2013/FY2013_Budget_Request_ Overview_Book. 22. FY 13 request for Operation Enduring Freedom. available at http://www. “Congressional Budget Request Fiscal Year 2013” (2012). the most recent year for which the full number of service positions is available. Corporation for National and Community Service. Corporation for National and Community Service. “Congressional Budget Request Fiscal Year 2013” (2012).pdf.defense.html. “Current Population Survey. 24. 19.gov/ pdf/300006-000CBJ_2012_final. Ibid. Fernandes-Alcantara. together.census.” available at http:// www. 17.nationalservice. Ibid.” Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)/Chief Financial Officer (2013). 23. “Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Request. Census Bureau Data. 20. invincible 17 . 21.pdf. see Appendix 4. For more information on the methodology used to calculate the cost of the AmeriCorps programs. 2010. Analysis of U.” Congressional Research Survey Report for Congress May 10. These figures are for Fiscal Year 2011. Analysis of BLS Employment Projections. available at http://comptroller. United States Department of Defense. Bureau of Labor Statistics.nationalservice. “National Population Projections (released 2008). Labor Force 2008-2018 (2009). 18.” (2012). Figure 6. “Youth and the Labor Force: Background and Trends.1.S.gov/population/www/projections/downloadablefiles. Voices For National Service “AmeriCorps Members by the Numbers. available at http://www. 25.

DC 20009 younginvincibles.c/o Center for Community Change 1536 U St. NW Washington.org .

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