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LIQUID DESICCANT AIR CONDITIONING

Saves energy, Controls humidity, Cleans air

JOSE M ESPINOSA Sales Director, Latin America Email: @advantixsystems.com

Winner of AHRs Most Innovative Cooling Product, 2011 0

Air conditioning as weve known it

mold & bacteria

freezing conditions

high electric bills

musty odors

maintenance issues

2 Winner of AHRs Most Innovative Cooling Product, 2011

Humidity: The Hidden Cost Driver

Conventional A/C Process Temperature

Typical Building Design Load


Sensible (temperature reduction) 60-80%

Reduced directly by absorbing heat into the refrigerant

Humidity Removal

Humidity

30-50% of energy costs 40-60% of up-front costs

Latent (humidity removal) 20-40%

Reduced indirectly by overcooling air to condensation point

Winner of AHRs Most Innovative Cooling Product, 2011 2

RULES For all coils that cool and dehumidify:

I
When plotted on a psychometric chart, the extension of the line joining the air entering and leaving conditions MUST intersect the saturation line. This intersection is known as T the Average Coil Surface Temperature( ), s Apparatus Dew Point or Coil Dew Point.
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2004 ASHRAE HANDBOOK


Performance of Dehumidifying Coils - Pag. 21.12

Cooling coil process Saturation line

Entering condition

Ts
Leaving condition

Dehumidifying

Average Coil Surface Temperature (Apparatus Dew Point - ADP)

Cooling

Dehumidifying Capacity Required


(1000 CFM of Outdoor Ventilation Air)

Supply Air: 75F DB

Higher OA Humidity

6 Tons

80F OAWB

4 2 40 28.3

75F OAWB 70F OAWB 45 50 55 60 65 Room Relative Humidity (%) 22.0 16.5 13.5 Reheat Capacity Required (MBH)

TRADITIONAL HVAC SYSTEM O.A.

R.A. T

Conditioned Space

The HVAC system is expected to pull triple duty: ventilation, humidity and temperature control
DOAS
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DOAS CONCEPT
O.A.

DOAS
Dedicated Outdoor Air System
R.A. T

Conditioned Space

STCS
Space Temperature Control System
DOAS
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CAUTION The outdoor ventilation air must be cooled to a condition below the room dew point in order to control the humidity in the room. Besides neutralizing the room latent load it will also make a contribution to offset the room sensible load.

If the sensible contribution of the DOAS to the room sensible cooling capacity is higher than the minimum room sensible load the ventilation air must be reheated to avoid overcooling the space.

DOAS

Example
Room condition: 75F/55%RH

/71gr/lb
155

Humidity ratio of supply ventilation air to offset the guest room latent load:

G =

= 8 gr/lb

30 x 0.69

Humidity ratio of incoming O.A. = 71 8 = 63 gr/lb Approx. coil leaving DB/WB: 55.0F/54.7F

Contribution of the DOAS ventilation air to the room sensible cooling requirements (neglecting supply and fan heat gains):

30 x 1.10 x (75 55) = 660 BTUH


DOAS
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DOAS OPTIONS WITH REHEAT


Cooling coil
O.A. Fan

Filters

Reheat coil

CONVENTIONAL REHEAT

DOAS

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Ventilation Air

Operating Cost

Consider

HEAT RECOVERY
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DOAS c/ Reheat
Panama, Panama:
T

86oFDB 158Gr/lb d.a. 81.7oFWB

55oFDB 55oFWB 65Gr/lb d.a.

72oFDB 65Gr/lb d.a. 61.3oFWB

Cooling Coil
10,000 CFM 83.6 Tons

Reheat Coil
189 MBH

To Guest rooms

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h=45.5BTU/lb
Panama, Panama

h=41.3BTU/lb

4.2BTU/lb

O.A.

156
Humidity Ratio

Cooling Coil
h=27.4BTU/lb h=23.2BTU/lb

18.1BTU/lb

4.2BTU/lb

65 Reheat Coil

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72 78.1 Dry Bulb Temperature

86
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Heat Recovery
Panama, Panama 189.0MBH 814.5MBH 189.0MBH

10000CFM 86.0oFBS 81.7oFWB

78.1oFBS 77.8oFWB

55.0oFBS 55.0oFWB

72.0oFDB 61.3oFWB Reheat

Precooling Chilled Water or DX

Pump-Around
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Heat Recovery Heat Pipe


Cooling coil
Heat Pipe

Outdoor Air

To rooms
Cooling coil Fan

U Shape Arrangement
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DOAS w/ HEAT RECOVERY WHEEL TOTAL AND SENSIBLE

EXHAUST

Fan

E.A.

O.A.

Fan

TO SPACE

Total H.R.wheel

Cooling coil

Sensible H.R.wheel

DOAS

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Standard approaches to dealing with humidity:


Off-the-Shelf Overcools the air using traditional vapor-compression equipment

Dedicated Systems / DOAS Overcools as above, with larger coil and refrigeration capacity, often reheats to achieve comfortable conditions

Solid Desiccant

Extracts humidity through chemical absorption and heat, requires post-cooling of overheated air

4 Winner of AHRs Most Innovative Cooling Product, 2011

Welcome to our World! Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning


Cool, dehumidify and clean air

Jose M Espinosa - jose.espinosa@advantixsystems.com Sales Director Latin America

Introducing Advantix Systems liquid desiccant air conditioning

Winner of AHRs Most Innovative Cooling Product, 2011 19

Historical Perspective
The DuCool system operates on the principle of chemical absorption of water vapor from the air and uses a desiccant solution of water and Lithium Chloride salt. This solution is highly stable, non-toxic, not vaporizing and not degraded by common airborne contaminants. The technologys developers have successfully registered it under globally recognized numerous patents. In another field of use (water production) the technology received awards such as The invention of the year by Times magazine and the Silver medallion in technology by the Wall Street Journal. . Rebranded in 2010 to Advantix Systems and moved HQ to Miami

Winner of AHRs Most innovative Cooling Product Award, 2011

ACHR News Product of the Week award, 2010


All rights reserved Milestones

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The Revolution of Liquid Desiccant Climate Control


Standard Air Conditioning
Controls
Powered by

Liquid Desiccant
Temperature and Humidity
Renewable/waste energy

Temperature
Electric energy

Power per Ton of cooling (kW)


Air Quality

1.0 -1.3

0.3-0.8

Air is forced through a wet coil. Potential health hazard


DuCool Value Proposition

Scrubs air eliminating bacteria and particles

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More efficient.
Our thermodynamic shortcut takes you directly to the Comfort Zone, cutting air conditioning workloads by half or more.

Liquid desiccant Standard air conditioning

Avoids rework of conventional systems Eliminates condensation no costly maintenance

Comfort Zone

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Winner of AHRs Most Innovative Cooling Product, 2011

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Cost savings.
Energy costs (operating expenses)

30-50% lower energy consumption by avoiding rework of conventional systems

First costs (upfront capital)

Systems sized more efficiently by handling more latent cooling than conventional units Smaller capacity compressor, heat exchanger, etc. reduces equipment cost Zero-down, shared energy savings payment option

Maintenance costs

Eliminates intensive maintenance - no air filters, evaporator coil, pans, condensate removal systems)

Winner of AHRs Most Innovative Cooling Product, 2011 24

Better performance.
Improved comfort Humidity control Indoor air quality

Avoids freezing or muggy ambient conditions

Reduces mold / mildew damage to buildings and furnishings Protects sensitive processes and equipment Enables more fresh air intake Disinfectants air Captures allergens and particulates Reduces odors Improves surface drying (e.g., floors, counters); reduces exposure to slip & falls

Safety

Winner of AHRs Most Innovative Cooling Product, 2011 25

DuCools Technology

The basic DuCool unit consists of 5 major sections.

Process Section Air Treatment Section Regeneration Section Moisture Removal Section Common Sump - Contains the LiCl desiccant solution Middle (Pumps) Section Mechanism Section Controller Automatic control of the unit operation

Winner of AHRs Most Innovative Cooling Product, 2011

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Product lines: thermal energy can be derived from many sources

Powered by

Energy Savings
30 50% 40 60%

DT DH DB

Electricity only Electricity and external hot/cold water (waste heat)


Electricity and renewable power

50 80%

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The DuTreat (DT) Family


DuTreat Series Basic Models: The unit model designation is determined by the combination of the Treated Air Volume (CFM) and the Compressor size (HP), as follows:
Small Units Treated Air Volume Compressor Size 2.5 HP 4.0 HP 6.0 HP 5.0 HP 7.0 HP 9.0 HP DT-300/2.5 DT-500/2.5 DT-500/4 DT-800/4 DT-800/6 DT-1400/5 DT-1400/7 DT-1400/9 DT-2400/5 DT-2400/7 DT-2400/9 DT-3400/5 DT-3400/7 DT-3400/9 300 CFM (510 M/h) 500 CFM (850 M/h) 800 CFM (1360 M/h) 1400 CFM (2380 M/h) Large Units 2400 CFM (4080 M/h) 3400 CFM (5780 M/h)

For treating greater air volume, 2 (or more) units will be installed
or connected in parallel. For deeper dehumidification, 2 units will be connected in series. DuCool Product Families

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DuTreat Unit Assembly view

Pump Compartment Cover Post Cooling / Reheat Hx

Inlet Regeneration Fan

Inlet Process Fan


Hx - Regenerations Compressor Accumulator Hx - Process Main Electrical Cabinet

DuTreat Unit Main Components

Pre Heating Hx

Liquid Gateway
Post Cooling / Reheat Hx

Inlet Regeneration Fan

Pre Cooling Hx

Hx - Regenerations

Inlet Process Fan Accumulator Solution Pump - Regeneration Solution Pump - Process Compressor Hx - Process Main Electrical Cabinet

How it works

Conditioner Section close-up


Liquid desiccant in @ 60F Supply air out @ 72F, 43% RH

Desiccant T = 15F

Corrugated Material

Latent heat absorbed Sensible heat absorbed

Air T = -11F W = -84 gr/lb

Liquid desiccant out @ 75F

Supply air in @ 83F, 78% RH

Note: incoming air conditions based on ASHRAE humidity load design point for Washington DC

DuCool One system combining


Air Conditioning Dehumidification Air cleaner

+
=

Energy reduction Main contributors


Efficient Dehumidification and Cooling Shorter energy path to the comfort zone

Shifting position in the Comfort Zone


Increase temperature and reduce humidity

+
Utilization of Renewable Energy Operating
by the cheapest energy source available
DuCool Technology 34

The Thermodynamic Advantage


No need for overcooling
All rights reserved Energy Saving
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ENERGY Thermodynamic MANAGEMENT advantage

Efficiency

Indoor Air Quality

Dehumidification

Environmental Protection

DuCool A Different Approach


Standard A/C System (yellow line) Cools the air to, and then along the dew point line with ~100% relative humidity. Then sometimes needs to heat the air back to reach the comfort zone. DuCool System (Blue lines) Removes humidity and cool the air at the same time, reaching the comfort zone using onsiderably less energy then the other systems.

Less Energy with Higher Efficiency


36 All rights reserved for Cooling & Dehumidification Energy Saving

Thermodynamic advantage

Efficiency

Indoor Air Quality

Dehumidification

Environmental Protection

Example Air Flow 5,900 CFM


420,000 Btu/Hr 304,000 Btu/Hr

A
- 25 %
Fresh Air
86F , 60% RH

51.8C , 100% RH

Design
71.6C , 50% RH

IN OUT SHR

T RH 60% 86 71.6 50% 30%

Latent KBtu/Hr DUCOOL AC 215 215

Sensible KBtu/Hr 89 205

Total Reheat KBtu/Hr KBtu/Hr 304 420 -25% 123


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DuCool Overview All rights reserved 37and Proposition Value % Difference in Cooling capacity required Energy Saving

Thermodynamic Thermodynamic advantage Advantage

Efficiency Efficiency

Indoor Air Quality Indoor Air Quality

Dehumidification Dehumidification

Environmental Applications Protection

Comfort Zone
73 F , 80% RH

79 F , 57% RH

The ability to control Relative Humidity enables to increase temperature in the room and keep comfort conditions
In an application without reheat the only way to control RH is by decreasing the set point.

74 F , 25% RH

81 F, 20% RH

7.2F increase of the temp. set point can reduce energy All rights reserved consumption by more than 20% Energy Saving
38 DuCool Overview and Proposition Value
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Thermodynamic Advantage

Efficiency

Indoor Air Quality

Dehumidification

Environmental Protection

Increase Chillers efficiency


Standard chilled water air condition system use condensation on the fan coils to remove moisture from the air. In order to enable efficient cooling and moisture removal the leaving water of chillers are set to 7C and lower.

When the DuCool units are combined with a chiller system the humidity is absorbed by the DuCool units and the chillers leaving water temperature can be increased to 18 F.

50 F

42 F
= Chiller COP increase = 16.3 % % EER = 16.3%

An increase of 7.6C of chillers leaving water temperature All rights reserved increases the chillers C.O.P with approximately 10%-15% Energy Saving
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DuCool Ltd. All rights reserved

Standard AC with DuCool

A DuCool system is added to an existing HVAC rooftop. The result is increased comfort and a 30-35% reduction in energy consumption. A conventional HVAC system will create conditions of 68-70 F (20-21 C) and 60-65% R.H. With DuCool the conditions will be 77 F (25 C) & 45% R.H. which are perfect conditions according to all industry standards.
Note: Reduction in energy costs assumes installation in weather conditions similar to Miami Florida.

DT Unit Chiller

DuCool Value Proposition

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Thermodynamic Thermodynamic advantage Advantage

Efficiency Efficiency

Indoor Air Quality Indoor Air Quality

Dehumidification Dehumidification

Environmental Applications Protection

Utilizing Low Grade Heat

131F to 194 F

14 F to 95F

Can make use of desiccant solution as energy storage

Humidity is absorbed by the desiccant solution. Cold Water at Relatively low Hot Water temperature can be used enabling usage of various sources relatively high temperature can be used for cooling
All rights reserved Proposition Value 41 DuCool Overview and Energy Saving
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Dehumidification

Thermodynamic Thermodynamic advantage Advantage

Efficiency Efficiency

Indoor Air Quality Indoor Air Quality

Dehumidification Dehumidification

Environmental Applications Protection

Air Dehumidification Methods


Mechanical Dehumidification Increased size of cooling coil to enlarge condensation surface Use of reheat (hot gas or hot water) to reach desired conditions Requires more energy and costly Solid Desiccant Technology Requires high temperatures heat for regeneration (gas, electric). Supplied air is dry but hot and additional cooling energy is required (desiccant converts latent load to sensible load). Solid systems can suffer from desiccant attrition and the cost of replacing the rotating wheel is approximately 60% of the total product. High initial costs, very high energy costs (regeneration + additional cooling capacity)

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General Comparison
Standard A/C system - (yellow line) Cools the air to, and then along the dew point line with ~100% relative humidity. Then needs to heat the air back to reach the comfort zone. Desiccant Wheel ( White Line) Removing humidity but at the same time heating the air. Therefore requires additional energy to cool the air for reaching the comfort zone. DuCool System (Blue lines) Removes humidity and cool the air at the same time, reaching the comfort zone using considerably less energy then the other systems. Less Energy with Higher Efficiency for Cooling & Dehumidification
DuCool Technology 44

Thermodynamic Thermodynamic t advantage Advantage

Efficiency Efficiency

Indoor Air Quality Indoor Air Quality

Dehumidification Dehumidification

Environmental Applications Protection

Combined Waste Heat Application


69% of Cooling capacity ( Latent ) is powered mainly by waste heat , only 31% by AC system (3.87 btu/lb)
12.5 Btu/lb
Latent load

9.3 Btu/lb

Sensible load

Fresh Air
86F , 60% RH

3.87 Btu/lb

DuCool

52F , 100% RH

Design

71.6F , 50% RH

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Thermodynamic Thermodynamic advantage Advantage

Efficiency Efficiency

Indoor Air Quality Indoor Air Quality

Dehumidification Dehumidification

Environmental Applications Protection

Example Air Flow 5,886 cfm


420,000 Btu/Hr 215,000 Btu/Hr

89,000 Btu/Hr

A
Fresh Air
86 F , 60% RH

-80%

51.8 F , 100% RH

Design
71.6 F , 50% RH

Combined System AC Advantix with Standard VC System capacity Standard AC

DUCOOL

Latent Sensible Total Reheat kBtu/Hr KBtu/Hr KBtu/Hr KBtu/Hr electricity 215 0 215 10 kW 0 89 89 304
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8.6 kW* 18.6 kW 123 41 kW**

-55%

215

205

420

Rule of thumb

DT800/6

DT1400/9 -65%

DT2400/9 -55%

DT3400/9 -45%

lb
Absolute

g > 20

-65%

g > 15
g > 10 g > 5 g < 2

-60%
-60% -50%

-60%
-60% -50%

-50%
-47% -40%

-42%
-40% -35%

Humidity

consult engineering

T (F)
Absolute Cooling

DT800/6
g > 20 g > 15 g > 10 19.8 21.6 23.4

DT1400/9
12.6 14.4 16.2

DT2400/9
10.8 12.6 14.4

DT3400/9
9 10.8 12.6

g > 5
g < 2

25.2

18

16.2

14.4

consult engineering
All rights reserved 47 Thumb Rule of

Liquid desiccant Vs. Solid Desiccant

Liquid Desiccant vs. Solid Desiccant


Advantix Systems Liquid desiccant Energy Approx. 50% less energy required than the solid desiccant No need to replace desiccant solution. Can be filtered and washed every few years in a simple procedure No performance degradation Solid desiccant High energy consumption for regeneration and post cooling Desiccant wheel needs to be replaced every few years The wheel cost is about 60%-70% of the product cost In time the wheel is damaged and the performance is degraded until wheel has to be replaced.

Maintenance

Performance Degradation

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Winner of AHRs Most Innovative Cooling Product, 2011

Winner of AHRs Most Innovative Cooling Product, 2011

Advantix Systems units also make a significant contribution to LEED certification


Does not take into account prerequisites that Advantix can help developer meet
60 50
1 3 0

Range Minimum

80

Advantixs potential contribution*

40
19 21

40

3
12 17

EA

IEQ

ID

WE

Total

LEED Certified

LEED Silver

LEED Gold

LEED Platinum

* Based on New Construction rating system 51

Technology Advantages

Produce Cool Dry Air by controlling both humidity and temperature independently, while supplying high quality cool and dehumidified air in quantities that can satisfy industrial, commercial and residential application. Disinfect Air - A standard HVAC system recycles the indoor air. No fresh air is provided o the cooled area. In the event that fresh air is needed additional energy is required to overcome the increased heat load of the fresh air. Moisture removal occurs at dew point conditions leaving the cooling coil continuously wet which is a perfect bedding ground for the growth of bacteria, mold and mildew.

the DuCool process kills up to 94% of viruses and bacteria in a single air pass
through the unit. For multiple passes, common in most applications, higher percentages can be achieved.
DuCool Technology 52

Technology Advantages

Filter Air Process removes 77% of particulates over 5 microns in size, removing allergens such as pollen and dust from the air. Deodorize Air odors such as chlorine and other chemicals are removed. Reduced Capital Cost significantly lower in comparison to standard solutions for industrial and commercial applications. DuCools systems integrated with other

renewable energy components qualify for Federal tax credits, State grants and
utility company rebates.

Improve Human Comfort achieve optimal temperature and humidity zone. Surpass Indoor Air Quality Standards DuCool products successfully address IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) by helping meet ASHRAE (62.2), ARI (940-98) and OSHA (29 CFR 1926.800(k) (2) standards and regulations regarding fresh air requirements. Expandable and Scalable DuCool systems are modular and can be sized according the specific needs of the customer.

DuCool Technology

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Energy Consumption- General Comparison


On the Y axis is total energy expressed in Tons of Refrigeration (TR).
160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
Load required Conventional AC SHR Outlet Standard AC system Desiccant wheel DuCool technologhy

Latent load

Sensible load

Latent converted to sensible


DuCool Technology 54