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PICTORIAL SKETCHING

Pictorial sketching is widely used in industry because this type of sketching is easy to read and understand, Figure 7–1. It is also a quick and easy means of communicating technical ideas. Isometric sketching, one of several types of pictorial drawing, is the most frequently used. With the use of pictorial grid sheets and ellipse templates, pictorial drawings can be sketched quickly and accurately. angle of 30° from the horizon, for width and depth. The three faces seen in the isometric view are the same faces that would be seen in the normal orthographic views: top, front, and side, as shown in Figure 7–3(A). Figure 7–3(B) shows the selection of

Viewing Direction

The pictorial sketch may be drawn so the part is viewed from above (bird’s eye view), or from below (worm’s eye view), Figure 7–2. The part features you wish to show normally govern the viewing direction selected.

ISOMETRIC SKETCHING

All isometric sketches are started by constructing the isometric axes, which includes a vertical line for height and isometric lines to the left and right, at an

(A) BIRD’S EYE VIEW

RUDDER/SPEED BRAKE

D LOA FT PAYAY 60 B 18 M

ORBITAL PROPULSION AFT REACTION CONTROL ENGINES MAIN ENGINES (3) BODY FLAP

STAR TRACKER PANEL

LAUNCH UMBILICAL PANEL ELEVONS MAIN LANDING GEAR UMBILICAL PANEL LENGTH: 122 FT WINGSPAN: 78 FT WEIGHT: 150,000 LBS HEIGHT: 57 FT

SIDE HATCH

FORWARD ENGINES NOSE LANDING GEAR

SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER

(B) WORM’S EYE VIEW

FIGURE 7–1

■

Application of a pictorial sketch.

FIGURE 7–2

■

Viewing direction.

59

25 .50 . No units of measure are shown on these sheets. which is further subdivided into 10 equal grids of 1 mm.60 ■ Interpreting Engineering Drawings 120º 30º TOP TOP A A A FRONT SIDE FRONT SIDE 120º 120º A 30º A (B) ISOMETRIC AXIS 30º (A) ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS (C) ISOMETRIC SKETCH FIGURE 7–3 ■ Isometric axes and projection the front corner “A” and the construction of the isometric axes.25 . are joined with a straight line. as shown in Figure 7–5. The most commonly used grids are the inch. Markings on the ellipse coincide with the center lines of the holes.25 . and the centimeter. their endpoints.38 . which is further subdivided into either 4 or 10 equal grids. The template shown in Basic Steps to Follow for Isometric Sketching To save time and to make a more accurate and neater-looking sketch. Practically all circles and arcs shown on isometric sketches are made with the use of an isometric ellipse template.38 Isometric Grid Sheets This type of isometric sketching paper has evenly spaced lines running in three directions. In isometric drawings. speeding up the drawing of circles and arcs.38 .50 . as in Figure 7–2. measured along the isometric axes.38 . . EXAMPLE A EXAMPLE B FIGURE 7–4 ■ Construction of nonisometric lines. and angles.25 . Two sets of lines are sloped in the direction of the isometric axes. . The third set of lines is vertical and passes through the intersection of the sloping lines.38 Inclined Surfaces Many objects have inclined surfaces that are represented by sloping lines in orthographic views. sloping surfaces appear as nonisometric lines. Figure 7–4 shows how to construct nonisometric lines. . use an isometric ellipse template for drawing arcs and circles and a straightedge for drawing long lines. and hidden lines are usually omitted.38 . therefore the spaces could represent any convenient unit of size. Circles and Arcs A circle on the three faces of an object drawn in isometric has the shape of an ellipse. scales. To create them. Figure 7–5 combines ellipses. Figure 7–3(C) shows the completed isometric view.38 .38 . which are found on the ends of isometric lines. All lines are drawn to their true length.

horizontal. Figure 7–8. Using a soft lead pencil. Build a Frame. the lines on the receding axis are shortened by one-half their true length to compensate for distortion and to approximate more closely what the human eye would see. are removed. and 30°. . and depth of the object. darken in the visible object lines. Darken the Lines. 45°. Lightly sketch the shapes of the details using construction lines. to left or right. For this reason. at any convenient angle. Add the Details. Step 2.UNIT 7 POSITION OF ISOMETRIC ELLIPSE TEMPLATE FOR DRAWING CIRCLES AND ARCS ON THE TOP VIEW ■ 61 CIRCLES TOUCH SQUARES AT MID-POINT OF EACH SIDE TOP PLANE SIDE PLANE FRONT PLANE POSITION OF ISOMETRIC ELLIPSE TEMPLATE FOR DRAWING CIRCLES AND ARCS ON THE SIDE VIEW POSITION OF ISOMETRIC ELLIPSE TEMPLATE FOR DRAWING CIRCLES AND ARCS ON THE FRONT VIEW FIGURE 7–5 ■ Using the isometric ellipse template for drawing circles and arcs. In cabinet oblique. and then the parts of the box. OBLIQUE SKETCHING This method of pictorial drawing is based on the procedure of placing the object with one face parallel to the frontal plane and placing the other two faces on oblique (or receding) planes. It is drawn with construction lines. or the face with the longest dimension faces the front. The face with the greatest irregularity of outline or contour. the face with the greatest number of circular features. In cavalier oblique. Figure 7–9 shows a comparison of cavalier and cabinet oblique. and receding. The frame (or box) is the overall size of the part to be drawn. Block in the Overall Sizes for Each Detail. They are drawn with construction lines. especially when circles and arcs are to be drawn. Note that hidden lines are omitted unless required for clarity. Figure 7–6. A commonly used technique for sketching is to sketch a box having the maximum height. and because of the simplicity of projection. leaving the parts that form the total object. Step 1. cabinet oblique is a commonly used form of pictorial representation. The three axes of projection are vertical. which are not part of the object. Step 4. For circles. This form of projection has the advantage of showing one face of the object without distortion. draw squares equal to the size of the diameter. Also sketch in the lines to represent the center lines of the circle. Two types of oblique projection are used extensively. Step 3. top or bottom. all lines are made to their true length. Figure 7–7 illustrates a cube drawn in typical positions with the receding axes at 60°. These subblocks or frames enclose each detail. measured on the axes of the projection. width. Most of the drawing techniques for isometric projection apply to oblique projection.

As there are no units of measurements shown on these sheets. the spaces can represent any convenient unit of length. 30º 45º 60º 60º 45º 30º FIGURE 7–7 ■ Typical positions of receding axes for oblique projection. . which pass through the intersecting horizontal and vertical lines. Figure 7–10. Oblique Grid Sheets This type of sketching paper is similar to the twodimensional sketching paper except that 45° lines. which is subdivided into smaller evenly spaced grids. The most commonly used grids are the inch.62 ■ Interpreting Engineering Drawings (A) THE PART STEP 1 BUILD THE FRAME STEP 2 BLOCK IN THE DETAILS STEP 3 ADD THE DETAILS STEP 4 DARKEN THE LINES (B) BASIC SKETCHING STEPS FIGURE 7–6 ■ Basic steps to follow for isometric sketching. are added in either one or both directions. and the centimeter.

dark lines (object lines). L L L — 2 CAVALIER PROJECTION CABINET PROJECTION FIGURE 7–9 ■ Types of oblique projection. select an ellipse that fits within the square and touches the sides of the square at its midpoints. If an ellipse template is available. as shown by the construction lines. Using thick. the angle is laid off by measurement parallel to the oblique axes. thin lines. Build a Frame. Figure 7–12(B). FIGURE 7–8 ■ Two general rules for oblique projection. In each case. Using object lines. so that such circles or arcs can be easily drawn in their true shape. the following method is recommended. draw the oblique circle (ellipse). Figure 7–12. is drawn in cabinet oblique. The frame or box is the overall size of the part to be drawn. An oblique drawing with the angles parallel to the picture plane is shown in Figure 7–11(B). Blocking in the circle first also helps to get the proper size and shape of the ellipse. the receding lines are shortened by one-half their true length. For circles. These subblocks or frames enclose each detail. It is drawn with light. A part with notched corners is shown in Figure 7–11(A). ■ Basic Steps to Follow for Oblique Sketching (Figure 7–13) Step 1. lightly sketch an ellipse within this square with the circumference of the ellipse making contact with the square at its midpoints. Other angles can be laid off by locating the ends of the inclined line. darken the oblique circle. Inclined Surfaces Angles that are parallel to the picture plane are drawn as their true size. Because the part. draw squares equal to the diameter size. in each case. . In Figure 7–11(C) the angles are parallel to the profile plane. Figure 7–12(C). If an ellipse template is not available. the face of the object having circles or arcs should be selected as the front face. With reference to Figure 7–12(B): ■ ACCEPTABLE NOT ACCEPTABLE PART A ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE PART B NOT ACCEPTABLE ■ Block off an oblique square with center lines equal to the diameter of the circle required. Figure 7–12(C). Step 2. When circles or arcs must be drawn on one of the oblique faces. Block in the Overall Size of Each Detail.UNIT 7 ■ 63 Circles and Arcs Whenever possible.

ASME Y14. Add the Details. Darken the Lines. OBLIQUE CIRCLES PASS THROUGH THESE LINE INTERSECTIONS D FOR CAVALIER D — FOR CABINET 2 D (A) ADDING OBLIQUE SQUARES AND CENTER LINES WHERE CIRCLES ARE REQUIRED (B) LIGHTLY SKETCHING IN THE SIZE AND LOCATION OF OBLIQUE CIRCLES (C) COMPLETING THE OBLIQUE CIRCLES FIGURE 7–12 ■ Sketching oblique circles.64 ■ Interpreting Engineering Drawings Also sketch the center lines. They are drawn using light. dark (visible object) lines. Use a soft lead pencil to darken the lines. thin lines. the arcs and circles are drawn using thick. If an oblique circle (ellipse) template is available. Step 4. Lightly sketch the shape of the details in each of their frames.4M-1989 (R1999) Pictorial Drawing C A B C E A B A E E C D B B F A C E F D F (A) THE PART D (B) D F (C) (D) PART SHOWN IN CABINET OBLIQUE PROJECTION FIGURE 7–11 ■ Drawing inclined surfaces. These details are drawn using light. REFERENCES FIGURE 7–10 ■ Oblique sketching paper. Step 3. . thin lines.

co. see: http://www. . For information on isometric and perspective drawings.UNIT 7 ■ 65 (A) THE PART STEP 1 BUILD THE FRAME STEP 2 BLOCK IN THE DETAILS STEP 3 ADD THE DETAILS STEP 4 DARKEN THE LINES (B) BASIC SKETCHING STEPS FIGURE 7–13 ■ Basic steps to follow for oblique sketching.uk. INTERNET RESOURCES Animated Worksheets.animatedworksheets.

50 ISOMETRIC LAYOUT .50 .50 ISOMETRIC LAYOUT .50 OBLIQUE LAYOUT BIRD’S EYE VIEW 1.00 . DO NOT DIMENSION.50 1.50 .50 .00 STIRRUP 2.50 6.50 1.50 5.00 BRACE 4.50 5.66 ■ Interpreting Engineering Drawings .50 IN.50 6. ONE SQUARE ON THE GRAPH PAPER REPRESENTS .50 7.50 1.00 OBLIQUE LAYOUT WORM’S EYE VIEW ASSIGNMENT: ON AN ISOMETRIC OR OBLIQUE GRID SHEET SKETCH A PICTORIAL DRAWING OF ONE OF THE PARTS SHOWN. PICTORIAL SKETCHING OF PARTS HAVING FLAT SURFACES USING DECIMAL-INCH DIMENSIONING A-23 .

ONE SQUARE ON THE GRAPH PAPER REPRESENTS 10 mm. DO NOT DIMENSION. METRIC DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETERS PICTORIAL SKETCHING OF PARTS HAVING FLAT SURFACES USING METRIC DIMENSIONING A-24M .UNIT 7 ■ 67 30 20 30º 10 15 75 20 20 25 60 20 35 140 35 ISOMETRIC LAYOUT 35 OBLIQUE LAYOUT BIRD’S EYE VIEW 20 RATCHET 90 15 20 10 15 60 60 25 15 140 40 8 30 ISOMETRIC LAYOUT 20 TABLET OBLIQUE LAYOUT WORM’S EYE VIEW ASSIGNMENT: ON AN ISOMETRIC OR OBLIQUE GRID SHEET SKETCH A PICTORIAL DRAWING OF ONE OF THE PARTS SHOWN.

50 Ø1.00 2.50 .50 R.50 1.00 2.75 ISOMETRIC LAYOUT R.50 SWIVEL HANGER ASSIGNMENT: ON AN ISOMETRIC OR OBLIQUE GRID SHEET SKETCH A PICTORIAL DRAWING OF ONE OF THE PARTS SHOWN.75 .50 2.25 ROD SPACER 1.25 IN. DO NOT DIMENSION.00 OBLIQUE LAYOUT WORM’S EYE VIEW R1.00 .68 ■ Interpreting Engineering Drawings .50 1.75 1. PICTORIAL SKETCHING OF PARTS HAVING CIRCULAR FEATURES USING DECIMAL-INCH DIMENSIONING A-25 .50 .25 . ONE SQUARE ON THE GRAPH PAPER REPRESENTS .75 4X Ø.50 4X Ø1.00 1.50 ISOMETRIC LAYOUT OBLIQUE LAYOUT BIRD’S EYE VIEW R1.75 Ø2.00 1.

ONE SQUARE ON THE GRAPH PAPER REPRESENTS 10 mm. DO NOT DIMENSION.UNIT 7 ■ 69 20 60 Ø100 Ø70 110 Ø40 ISOMETRIC LAYOUT OBLIQUE LAYOUT BIRD’S EYE VIEW BEARING 20 80 Ø140 200 100 R30 ISOMETRIC LAYOUT 2X Ø20 Ø100 BEARING SUPPORT OBLIQUE LAYOUT WORM’S EYE VIEW ASSIGNMENT: ON AN ISOMETRIC OR OBLIQUE GRID SHEET SKETCH A PICTORIAL DRAWING OF ONE OF THE PARTS SHOWN. METRIC DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETERS PICTORIAL SKETCHING OF PARTS HAVING CIRCULAR FEATURES USING METRIC DIMENSIONING A-26M .

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