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Embroidered in Linen Coverlet. Silks. English late 17th Century.
OR THE CRAFT OF THE NEEDLE' JT *
Plant and Floral Studies,"
WITH PREFACE BY WALTER CRANE
CONTAINING 86 ILLUSTRATIONS
TRUSLOVE & HANSON,
ITUNTED AND BOUND JJY HAZKLL, WATSON AND VINEY, LD. LONDON' AND AYLKSBl'RY.
which has. and presents abundant scope both for design and craftsmanship. curiously enough. the craft of the needle. represented by such designs as those of to the simplest and most ornamental is hem upon of its a child's The true order rather development.PREFACE. that most domestic. holds a very distinct position.Jones reserved frock. IN that remarkable revival of the arts and handicrafts of design. from the highly imaginative kind Burne. frock indeed. delicate. and charming of them all. In covers its various an applications needlework extensive field. perhaps. characterised the close of a century of extraordinary mechanical invention and commercial development. from the child's to the imaginative tapestry-like hanging from the embroidered smock of the peasant to the splendour of regal V and ecclesiastical 286007 .
vi Preface. in that of all art. just as the illuminated initials. which is due to the enthusiasm. but also to ordinary conditions not requiring special workshop or expensive plant for its production has contributed to the success of its revived practice. decorative value the work of the needle within its own limits. perhaps. taste. at certainly It enters in every design. and this. all important in needlework. as an art of expression above. with all their pomp of heraldry and symbolism. not only to daily domestic use and adornment. robes. and . although of course never its Even considered over and dissociated from. no less than one may follow the course of human decorative history upon which it is the commentary and accompaniment. borders. and. in planning appropriate stage in choice of scale. and miniatures are the artist's commentary on the books of the Middle Ages. In the history of needlework. Embroidery essentially a personal art. in choice of all. in addition to the fact of its adaptability. If taste can be said to be of more importit is ance in one art than another. and patience of our countrywomen. materials. above is of colour.
Paulson Townsend deals with the subject mainly from the practical point of view. and in view of the great interest . being capable of being rendered by the needle with a beauty and truth beyond the ordinary range of pictorial art.Preface. G. such as the plumage of birds and the its own . among her sister Embroidery. needlework. vii by special means and materials. which to house the Royal School in its new de- new velopment. should have an important future before it. as an art. likely to hold her place. just been laid of The foundation-stone has the is building in Exhibition Road. then. crafts of design. In the retinue of beauty. has certain textures and quite a distinct value surfaces. W. important schools. although not unmindful of the historic side . colour and surfaces of flowers. Mr. and under such able instructors and lecturers as the author of this work. have since been founded for the study and practice of the art. seems Revived at first by a few ladies of taste and skill. such as the Royal School of Art Needlework. the subject being now included in their list by the Technical Education Board of the London County Council.
Kensington. with reproductions of existing examples and its practical diagrams of stitches. now taken and its its many fol- lowers. 1899.viii Preface. such a work. will be both timely and useful. . in the craft. WALTER CRANE. June 29th.
I . 69 and 70. 64. For the practical Plates No. 63. IN response to the inquiries repeatedly received from students for a handbook on embroidery. Pickering for the practical notes on gold embroidery.EXTRACTS FROM AUTHOR'S PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. I am indebted to Miss Louisa F. Pesel. 23 and 24 on Plate No. them the following have endeavoured to place hints and suggesto supply a want. 61. I have also to thank Miss C. 65. My first duty and pleasure is to thank Mr. and 67. L. 62. Perhaps it is hardly necessary to refer to the source of each item of information. and for Plates No. and for valuable help in numerous other ways. also for figs. and fill a space at I present unoccupied. 59. for description to same. 58. Walter Crane for the Preface which he has kindly written. 66. before tions .
. 26. " OrnaMr. 23. Selwyn Image for Plate No. and 26 and the South Kensington Museum Autho- Royal School of Art . 8 the . rities for the assistance given in reproducing the examples from the National Collection also to Mr. . I have to thank the Right Hon. Miss " . 1899. Alan Cole's Murdock Smith " Mr. Drake for altar-frontal. the preparation of this book. PAULSON TOWNSEND. both by Sir G. Mrs. the Viscount Falkland for kindly allowing me to reproduce the pillow case. 24. Strickland's Queens England and the writings of Messrs. 25 Mr. Plate No. Textile South Kensington Handbooks. Audsley. Walter Crane for Plates No. Rock's ' have used the Dr. 25. June. Plate No. Walter ment in European Silks Fabrics . 30 Sir W. 27 . . 23. to First Edition. Crane's " Bases " of " Design of . Thomson for his help in . A. Plate No. W. W. Needlework for to Plates No. Pesel for pillow case. Birdwood and Sir R. and 41 Mr. .x Author s Preface freely " . 24. 3. G. South Kensington. G. .
handbook was published at a time when no text-book of recent production on the subject of embroidery was to be had. but I have reason to believe that first THE edition of this this revised edition will not unacceptable work. There is ample scope for the art in the adornment of costumes . 70 and 71 may be looked upon as the seamstress's early steps in decorative needlework.AUTHOR'S PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. in a modest . several excellent books on needlework have appeared. The two English smocks illustrated on Plates No. on the heels of which it follows so closely. and. Some of to those be altogether interested in the the best stitches used in embroidery serve a practical purpose in plain sewing. Since then. It is the duty of every woman to learn how to sew. and decorative needlework appears to be the natural outcome of the practical occupation of the needle.
P. W. T. description of the work Needlework Association . To Miss Dorothy Lane my thanks due for preparing the coloured are drawing for the frontispiece. If they only make the embroideress stop to think a little about the pattern before she commences to embroider. 70 and 71.xii Authors Preface for to Second Edition. the beautifying household It is hoped that the notes on design will be of some assistance to those who have had no practice in this branch of the subject. linen. also for the drawings of subjects on page 4 and Plate No. Ella M. . Carr for the examples of lacis work to Miss Mildred in Plates No. of way. 1907. and for to the Fine permission to illustrate the two English smocks on Plates No. 71 to Miss . October. 45 and 47 " Statham for the illustrations on Bargello " and for help with the practical work . G. these notes will at least have served one good purpose.
.. APPLIANCES. ..... 235 STITCHES 240 .. DESCRIPTION OF DESIGNS ILLUSTRATED .. 219 ECCLESIASTICAL AND HERALDIC NEEDLE- WORK VII... . AND MATERIALS USED VI. . . ADAPTATION .. METHOD AND MATERIAL SYMBOLISM III..CONTENTS.. 22 36 54 IV.. IN EMBROIDERY . IMPLEMENTS... CHAP. V.. INTRODUCTION I. PAGE i DESIGN AS APPLIED TO EMBROIDERY UTILITY 7 II. .
[261 1880. V. M.] page 66 No.] . English. II. page 63 Leaf in Coloured Wools. Frontispiece. about 1550 [248 1880. English. seventeenth century. small flowers. . . Embroidered in coloured wools with leaf forms."& A. drawing of prepared Reproduced from a by Dorothy Line Cut. III. page 69 Victoria and Albert Museum xv . . seventeenth century [1392. page 4 PLATE NO. * V. 47 Bedspread. 6. in the Style of English SevenEmbroidered at teenth-century Crewel Work.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Orphrey. and birds page 60 Detail of Cotton Hanging. I.. . Fragment Tapestry and Needlework. M. Quilted Linen Coverlet. 5. 2. English. seventeenth Embroidered in coloured wools century. Spanish. from a Linen Hanging. . Spanish. . English. V. M. & A. . 1. . V.] page 69 No. Orphrey. & A. 7. the Royal School of Art Needlework page 56 Cotton Hanging. M. & A. 3. late seventeenth century [532 1897.*]. " page 69 No. A. fourth to sixth centuries. Orphrey. Spanish. Christian Coptic.] . V. water-colour Lane. & A. embroidered with Coloured Silks. sixteenth century . about 15 30 [246 1880. page 41 Symbolical Signs (Crosses) Sacred Monograms and Symbolical Signs . M. Modern.
teenth century [841 1847. . V. & A. V. Persian.] page 83 Patchwork Inlay Panel. 1876. Gold Embroidery. M. .] [1162 . ornamented . sixteenth . page 1 13 22. M. German.] page 78 Hanging of Silk and Velvet Patchwork. & A. List of Illustrations.. V. White Satin. 13. V. Spanish.] page 103 Portion of an Orphrey from the Premonstratensian Abbey of Tronchiennes. Patchwork Applique. early eighteenth . middle of . V. M. six- 11. English. Spanish. V. . date about 1250 [831864. Applique. seventeenth century [342 1885. with Groups" of Pearls for the Flowers page 100 Figure from an Orphrey. 8. & A. 14. . fourteenth century [V. sixteenth century [266 A. V. Green Silk. V. sixteenth 1877. page 116 "Spring. & Spanish.. Screen Panel. century page 93 Coronation Robe of His Majesty King Edward VII. M. M. 12.. date about 1250 [83 & A. & A. . 1880. V. Applique. & A.xvi PLATE NO. . Applique Pattern.] page 90 Altar-frontal. English. . & A. . Drake Border of Blue Satin. the fifteenth century 19. embroidered in Coloured Silks and Gold Threads. . [86701863. embroidered in Coloured Silks and Gold Threads. Spanish. M. Portion of a Carpet.. 1864. 1 8. 21. .] . 15. . page 96 Letter-bag. 17. page 81 Portion of a Hanging.. page 72 century page 75 10.] page 109 English. century." Designed by Walter Crane. M. eighteenth [858 1892. & A. Spanish.. Altar-frontal. sixteenth The property of Sir W. 1 6. M. & A. Detail from the Syon Cope. near Ghent.] 23. . . Earlysixteenth century page 106 20.. century. page 87 Part of a Hanging of Linen embroidered with Coloured Silks. . with an 9.] .] century. M. Wall or Pilaster Hanging. . . . [859 The Syon Cope. Persian. Italian. M.
29. eighteenth 35. sixteenth century [863 1897. V. V. 31. sixteenth century. six. embroidered on Linen in Red . .. Italian. V. M. 32. Swiss. . . and Tasting. late sixteenth 1890. The property of Mrs.] page 136 Embroidered Pillow-case. . M. & A. . . " The Seven Ages of Man. Turco-Greek . embroidered in Coloured Silks and Silver Threads.] page 145 33. V. & A.] page 148 34. M. teenth century page 133 Corner of a Linen Coverlet. . and worked at the Royal School of Art Needlework page 119 Screen Panels. 38. page 151 eighteenth page 154 (?). 143 Cross-stitch Border. Silk. Altar-frontal.. 27. . 37. second half sixteenth century [3261898. Corner of a Linen Coverlet." worked at the Royal School of Art Needlework page 122 125 Designed by Selwyn Image .] page 157 Border of Cut Linen." Hearing. 26.. . Italian. Border of a Petticoat. .List of Illustrations. . [9501889. 36.. PLATE NO. 30. English. 28. . 25.." Portion of a Frieze... English. Four Figures representing the " Senses: "Seeing. embroidered with Coloured .. M. and worked at the Royal School of Art Needlework page 127 Linen Pillow-case." "Smelling. Designed by Walter Crane. (?).. & A. Pesel page 139 Borders for Edgings of Costumes. dated 1580 [851 1884. 24.. V. century [2048 1876] Border of a Petticoat. & A... embroidered with Coloured Threads. Turco-Greek .] century [225 page 160 Detail of Cut Linen. Portuguese. M. . the Viscount Falkland page 130 Embroidery from a Linen Jacket. The property of the Right Hon. century [2084 1876] Persian... & A.." and " Designed by Walter Crane. . eighteenth century Carpet (Prayer). From the neighbourhood of Trieste. .
Example of Lacis Work on a Mesh of Linen . Square-meshed. & .] page 175 Silk Net. M. . Italian. . sixteenth century. [531898. V. . M. Embroidery on Brown 1891. seven48. Ella Carr page 184 46.. seventeenth century [573 1894." Italian. Border for a Chair Back. . & A. Door-hanging.] page 199 51. . French. Gold and Silver Threads.] page 178 Black. V & A. A. . Cream-coloured Silk. V. Detail 50.. V. teenth century [631 44. embroidered with Silk. by M.] page 193 from a Muslin Collar in Drawn Work and White Embroidery.] page 181 on a Netted & A. seventeenth century 39. Child's Linen Cap. M. M. early eighteenth century [701 V.] [58 page 169 " Pomona. late six1893. 1891. Embroidered Panel. and worked at the Royal School of Art Needlework page 172 42. M. M. M.. & . & A. Italian. Italian. late Sir E.] page 166 Italian.] page 196 century [547 Leaf and Flower Forms from Embroidered Apron. Back of a Chasuble. & A. . late sixteenth century [100 1891..xviii PLATE NO. A. V. Silks List of Illustrations." Designed by the 41. 45. V.] page 163 Saracenic. M. . century [686 43. & A. Portion of a Curtain. . late [5064-1859. & A. V. V. English. broidered with Coloured Italian. and Silver-gilt and Silver Threads. . embroidered seventeenth with Coloured Silks. V. emSilks. " Reticella. Lacis Work Foundation. Burne-Jones and William Morris. .] page 175 Border of Brown Square-meshed Net. 49. Italian. & A. early nineteenth 1903. 2or . . Enlarged Detail of Lacis Work on a Netted Foundation page 187 190 47.. 1902. Corner of a Chalice Veil. M.. M. seventeenth century 40. Flower from English Eighteenth Century . teenth century [7522 1861.
Rose in Cover Satin Stitch. . Cut. 52. eighteenth century [639A 55.. Bullion Knot. Embroidery Stitch. M. PLATE NO. Cut. . .. Back Rose Stitch . ... seventeenth century page 207 Portion of a Coat.. page 233 Stitch. Bead-edging Darning page 261 Cable Stitch. Leaf outlined 59. V. Single Coral. 1898..221 222 Tambour Frame Drawn Thread Border. . From a . . 247 249 252 254 Cut. Cut.. thread Border 57. 54. Stitch. Chain Stitch. .. French. Italian. French Knots. . ... .. duction by the Fine Needlework Association page 213 An Old Oxfordshire Smock.. from an Old Egyptian Example page 232 Stitches for working the Edge of the Drawn. Long-and-short or Feather Stitch (Opus Plumarium) page 266 Stitch. ... Embroidery Frame . French Knots . Cut. Satin Stitch page 255 . From reproduction by the Fine Needlework Association page 217 Cut. Chinese Silk 60. . 61. Tailor's Buttonhole Stitch in Cut. (sometimes called seventeenth century page 203 Example of Bargello Work in Cushion and Satin Stitches. Chain Stitch. second half of the of Bargello "). .... . & A. Tied Coral. Square Chain (Open and Closed). Split Stitch.. Tent Stitch (Opus Pulvinarium).. From 56... Work Florentine Italian. Fancy Stitches and veined in Cut. . . . .. Cross Stitch page 244 Cut. Cable Stitch with Knot.List of Illustrations. Overlapping Herring-bone.246 . page 259 or Braid . Herring-bone.] page 210 repro- An Old Nottinghamshire Smock. xix Example " 53. Snail-trail. Stitches : Stem Rope Buttonhole Stitch... . 58. .
. . Forms of Brick Stitch . on Plate No. 274 Fancy Stitches Fancy Stitches . A Variety of Stitches. Gold carried over String. 65 A.278 . PLATE NO. Different 64. 65. 33 page 268 from Portuguese Piece.. 67. Cut. 303 Purl. . . A Variety of Borders in Counterchange . Background Japanese Stitch.. . Leaf in Gold Thread . Plain Couching. . 71. . Examples from Chinese work 68. . ..xx List of Illustrations.. . Examples in Tambour Gold over Cardboard the Use of Purl page 299 . Cut.. . 63. and Basket Stitch page 291 69. Tambour Gold and Stitch. and Fancy Diapers for page 305 .. . Four Borders in Gold Passing 296 also 70.281 . Burden . . 66.. . The Seamstress's Feather Stitch 62. Cushion Stitch. . 285 288 Diaper Couching. given page 270 . . Fig. .
say the art its of is though position which has beaten a retreat. WE may lives.EMBROIDERY. To-day it is treated more as a and graceful diversion or accomplishment. We have begun to see the uselessness and ugliness B . is embroidery still that of an art Its sphere of a cramped one. INTRODUCTION. and there employment is little likelihood of its ever regaining sway now filling those serious and responsible functions which were once the very essence of its being. promising feature of the ing the The most movement is the very common-sense view adopted. of turn- work to practical purposes. and there is little or no diligence in the pursuit of it as a great art. although in the present revival of the artistic handicrafts there is a serious attempt to reanimate the long- neglected art of embroidery.
flowers. and if by the result of such occupation something that is already useful is beautified and made inlieve teresting. figures. symbols. such as fruit. one of is fully repaid for the time so spent.. at the its expression of use same time not deprived and comfort.2 of the Embroidery. " stuff " has no organic serving as foundation . it might justly be called a gratuitous addition to it. This book may be of some assistance to those who be- whatever is worth doing at all is worth any pains to do well. so-called " fancy work. and other objects of ecclesiastical use. etc. Needlework takes precedence of painting. One's fingers had far better be employed than idle. variously tinted threads take the place of pigment some kind of decoration." first The dis- covery of an ugliness crude colours is the ungainly forms and step towards a proper appreciation of beauty. It on an its connection with the already existent material. needle Embroidery which is the art of working with the and replaces the pencil. were from the first days when such articles were . Sacerdotal vestments. as the earliest method of representing figures and ornament was by the needle depicted upon canvas.
produced figured cloths by the needle and the loom. and maintained the honour up to the first century of the Christian era. and practised the To judge from galleys art of introducing gold wire into their work. xxvii. with ornament in a . a passage in Ezek. In the centre on a white ground is a purple amphora-shaped vase. in Upper Egypt. prepared from a fragment of woven tapestry and needlework found in the ancient tombs of AkhmimPanopolis.Introduction. Originally it formed part of an octagonal panel in coloured for a tunic. and from whom the Jews are supposed to have derived their skill in needlework. 7." was that which thou spreadest forth to be thy The reproduction on page 4. is believed to be Christian Coptic. with whom the art of embroidery was general. 3 employed with for religious service embroidered symbolical and scriptural subjects. The Egyptians. sails they even embroidered the " of their : which they exported to Tyre Fine linen with broidered work from Egypt sail. and executed at some period between the fourth and the sixth centuries. Babylon was renowned for its craft of the needle. It is worked wools and flax threads.
4th to 6th Centuries. We read that in Greece the art was held . Christian patterned fabric produced by the needle and the loom it is of very great interest. from which springs a conventional plant with balanced foliage.4 Embroidery. The embroidery is is simply in hem stitch. partly As an early example of encircling a bird. and employed to define the weaving in places. white outline. Fragment of Tapestry and Needlework. Coptic.
Pope Paschal (fifth century). the most dangerous of all evils." and the it Romans are said to have known It is said by no other name." decorated with Phrygian embroidery. on an amber ground.Introduction. abbesses Belgium. of Valentina in imposing needlework upon the inmates of their convent as a prevention of idleness. in In all on another. worked the gorgeous colours of its . " toga picta. plumage. and its invention ascribed to Minerva. made many splendid donations to the churches. times spinning and emfrom the palace to the cloister. On one of his vestments were pictured the wise ardent lover virgins. wonderfully a peacock. Roman games. gen- and by the their consuls when " they celebrated Em- broidery itself is therefore termed in Latin Phrygian. In the eighth century two sisters. Phrygia became cele- The brated for the beauty of its needlework. was worn by the erals at their triumphs. an of needlework. in 5 the greatest honour. became renowned for their excellence in all feminine pursuits. . and a sharp strife for superiority existed in mediaeval the production of sacerdotal vestments. broidery. were the occupations of women of all ranks.
whose weary hours were beguiled by work with her needle. Penshurst. truly where many things abound. garden of delights for us a never-failing spring. having noticed that the ecclesiastical ornaments of some Englishmen. and there. are and numerous other English palaces filled with similar souvenirs of royal and noble ladies. England. such as mitres and chorister copes. Hatfield. was in her day a famous embroideress also Scotland's queen'. were embroidered in gold thread in a very manner. and received as answer. Long before the Conquest English were ladies much skilled with the needle. it is surely a." is Then said the Pope. An anecdote related by Mathew of Paris is a proof of the excellence of English work. The Countess . . He tells us. Knole. " England .6 Embroidery." may be as of Shrewsbury. about this time (1246) the Lord Pope (Innocent IV. much extorted. asked where these works pleasing " In were made. better known Bess of Hardwick.).
DESIGN AS APPLIED TO EMBROIDERY. To embroider pattern to is kind of an to apply some already existent material. and it is the business of the worker to so arrange the stitches as to indicate by their direction the fibrous growth of the plant. The stitch method must not be con- . to express form by stitches. Material and method of production only separate them. technical line is.(7) CHAPTER I. ALL branches of artistic handicrafts are closely linked together in the arts of design. and the varieties of the surface of the objects represented. very subtle indeed. although there in parts. in The of demarcation is between distinct. and then the division some instances. tapestry weaving and embroidery With lace and embroidery is it is not so de- a great difference between embroidery and the fine kinds of lace these crafts do considerably overlap nned.
The tameness tires one. There is an embroidery machine invented of a most ingenious kind. with some modifications. which enables one person to embroider a repeating design with eighty machine hundred and forty needles. on specially prepared canvas with certain fixed colours. cealed or disguised. is of its appearance when finished the very smoothness and regularity Such work should be left to the a defect. which can- not be separated from the art of embroidery. and Paisley. and up to one .8 Embroidery. in Manchester. but acknowledged and accepted as the principal factor. The designer for embroidery has a comparatively free hand compared with the one who designs patterns for woven fabrics to be executed by the modern power-loom. Those Bradford. He for is evidently working in the wrong direc- tion when he attempts to produce designs hand work which can easily be imitated the effect and obtained by mechanical means. to produce. Germany. no longer satisfies the intelligent worker. and Switzerland. The monotonous filling of little squares and geometrical forms in repeat. Glasgow. and. Several of these machines are now mounted in France.
The embroideress of the early days was doubtless the designer of her work as well. 9 control the work for machines awake to the commercial value of machine-made embroidery that closely imiare wide tates who hand-wrought needlework. and by degrees .Design as applied persons to Embroidery. it is all-powerful for their suppression. carefully observing that such change and variety does not destroy the sense of repose or in any way a assertive. has sufficient self-restraint for the production of works of art. She had no portfolio of designs to draw upon. Unconsciously principles of order. It is there- fore desirable that the designer for hand- work should defy the machine by varying the detail in his design. to be superseded by machinery and while machinery has not tendency. Not being hampered by whims and fashions as in the present day. in make the work Handwork to-day departments of human labour. balance. get a sound knowledge of plants and flowers. and construction were followed. but diligently studied the book of nature for her material. all . The first thing we of to-day have to do is to learn to see and appreciate the beauties of nature. her taste was original and pure.
Comparatively few modern embroideresses difficult to design their patterns. There is no denying the fact they fail to some knowledge and practice needed of the principles of design are in order to ensure success in the work. etc. The embroideress ought. at least. to make herself acquainted with the common-sense conditions which govern the making of good ornament in order to be better able to render by the needle the ideas of the person It is ing . Our taste has to some extent been handicapped by our association with badly designed patterns. But possibly indicated. They are freto select a design that has quently obliged little interest for themselves. She may be scared if she is asked to make a design. we shall begin to see the beauties of art. furniture.i o Embroidery. not a very great and serious undertakthe worker is merely asked to learn a few elementary principles. and it is avoid being brought into contact with these things in our daily journey ings. The advantage offered by our museums . even the after a little intelligent study in the direction making of a design will be found comparatively easy.. and conse- own quently that produce work that interests others. who prepared the pattern.
sound design. the individuality and to get design expressed by the worker or adaptation. There is of collecting fragments of ornament from trying all periods and into them together is one bad. and the student is warned against blindly copying embroidery merely because it another danger. is . and that to stick is is old.Design as applied of being able to to Embroidery. 1 1 examine old specimens of embroidery the is not sufficiently appreciated modern needleworker. colour scheme and embroidery from the same hand and brain . scheme. we can also see what to avoid. ideal condition in the production of artistic handicrafts is that each article The should be conceived and carried out by the same person. Moreover. The adapting of a beautiful piece of decoration may prove a more compensating occupation than to spend time in making new ornament which might be only of moderate merit. Embroidery is a very personal art. This practice obviously There no reason why an ancient pattern should not be adapted to modern requirements it is the mixing of material that is to be condemned. its charm lies in . From these by masterpieces we can learn all that is required to make good.
The first thing necessary to be taught is to see.pro' : . while the strongest are allowed to run wild for want of proper guidance and control. of excellence is ensures a certain unity. Unfortunately. there evidence of the application of the mind to the material." be made to see beauty The sooner the worker can how wrong it is to try to imitate the natural appearances of flDwers and plants in embroidery. The late William Morris said. whatever the grade may be. the sight of which will please themselves and their neighbours. the better. ducing matters. The of is height the ambition of many needle- workers reached when they are able to render pictorial representations of flowers. an expression of the worker's interest and intelligence. Furthermore. and the people that come after them to train them. endless scope Embroidery offers and freedom to every degree of imagination.1 2 Embroidery. . There are two things to be done by the seers for the non-seers the first is to show them what is to be seen on the earth the next is to give them opportunities for . in the observation of and incident. the purest fancies often die unexpressed for want of the right kind of help and appreciation. in short.
Such work does very little more than betray a desire to show off dexterity and ingenuity which may have been acquired at the expense of everything else. Vulgarity and bad taste in this form exist among all classes it is favoured by the so. If should she will be content with a hint from nature rather than a photographic fact. To decorate or ornament an object is to enrich the surface with forms and colour. where one would least expect to find it. she will possibly be able to invest her work with a little of the spontaneous simplicity and free- dom of the earlier work. and thus to give the thing decorated a new beauty while adhering strictly to its original shape . called educated.Design as applied to Embroidery. There is a natural convention which appears to be part of the process of adapting flower forms to embroidery. The worker aim at simplicity in representing plant form. Let us commence with the intention of beautifying what is already useful. 13 by forcing the light and shade in such a manner as to make the flower resemble a natural one resting on the surface of the material. There is no necessity to sacrifice any of the beauty of the natural object.
coral stitch. will not in any way deprive the object of its expression and comfort. as shown in the example on Plates tiful results work pure and simple. The ornament. (2) That expressed stitch. of work is the most popular giving every facility for offers equal facility for bad. satin . in flat tones. We may divide ornament as applied to embroidery into three classes (i) That expressed simply in outline. work That expressed by shading. or with bold. or long-arid-short stitch. as in laid work. as in ordinary embroidery stitch. confident lining in conjunction with line fillings. if it is the right kind. " " lacis darning. cushion stitch. of use : chain stitch. and in cords. cable stitch. and properly applied. as in stem stitch. and character. . rope stitch. good work. cross . as in also patchwork or applique. breaking up the surface and suggesting relief. it It has been said we look for colour in mass rather than for line work in embroidery. (3) stitch The last-named method . but too few the use of line Spirited and beauhave been obtained by the employment of delicate line work. Colour and texture undoubtedly are charming qualities in while people really appreciate needlework.r 4 Embroidery.
the masses of colour are effected satins." by Edward Burne. and back- (Plate No. arcading In the sixteenth-century Spanish border. The drapery of the figure and the small flowers are in embroidery or long-and-short stitch. tone and line. 41). by coloured and these are nicely connected In this example the cord plays a very important part. entirely in outline a slight tone is produced by open darning.Jones. reproduced on Plate No. The panel the late Sir Pomona. been more effective run in double lines pieces of if it in . etc. This character in its place work would be perfectly on mantelpiece borders. " ground ornament by the late William Morris. For other illustrations of solid shaded . 24 and 26) are also worked . 9. bedspreads. 27 and 29. the portion of to Embroidery. 15 Crane (Plates in the The four screen panels and a frieze from designs by Walter No. and for church work. is an example of the third class of work. the result of extremely good. and the big leaves in laid work with gradual blends of colour. had been made to joining up the main ornament is the whole of however. the combination of classes (i) in the frieze and (2). curtain borders.Design as applied No. is shown . applied. and it could have with cord.
and very bad art. corner of a chalice veil. The worker is warned much relief shading not to suggest so as to lose the sense of flatness on in . and the specimens of crewel work. it is with placing of the silk. embroidery the reader is referred to Plates No. back of a chasuble. These will serve to show that very the range of choice in treatment is extensive in this class of needlework. often with one or two shades. are wrong. try by means of laborious shading in silk or relief in wools to produce an appearance of needlework. a characteristically flat surface it should be quite clear that such methods. 40. purely through their skill in placing the stitches. they work for a pleasant play of light and shade. They are very fond of voiding that is. Constantly changing the direction. It is a poor to sort of deception at best. 42. acquired by the different If they shade. leaving the . to any one who stops to think.1 6 Embroidery. the definite intention of showing where one shade ends and the other begins. They are supreme in the way which they produce their effects in embroidery. 43. 44 and 45. v The reader cannot do better than look at the Chinese and Japanese needlework. for good flat treatment of plant forms.
plants. 67). aesthetic The best conven- tional aster.Design as applied to Embroidery. embodied with vigorous life and beauty. The old designers pillaged the gardens and vineyards. for To indebted of material nature's category. right Every embroideress should be able to draw. and olives. and. they introkept duced them into their designs. that this method has crept into their emstencil. and though the process of acquiring the power of drawing is slow and tedious to c . with the plunder of pome- granates. fulfilling as the Egyptian sunflower (the lotus). full of vitality. broidery (see Plate No. and fruits we are more and suggestions in design than any other source in the whole flowers. the forms of which they simplified with perception of what detail must be and what can be left out. the Persian the Greek honeysuckle or anthemion. lemons. apples. \ J ground to show between the petals of the flowers and leaves in a manner which is rather similar to the use of ties in stencilling. It is probably because of their love for the and their skill in its manipulation. while combining the main and best qualities of plant-growth. and ornament. vines. are ornament their various places and uses.
Learn the characteristics of the plant first the joints of leaves and flowers are of vital : importance note the way they spring from the stem and draw carefully the calyx of the flower. There are instances where the embroideress who confesses that she is and the construction quite ignorant of design of pattern. and the buds in their . buds. In order to become a proficient designer it will be necessary to make careful studies from nature of flowers. when she has had nothing to do with the transferring and just as a school-child forgets its copy. leaves. and every line becomes a caricature of its predecessor. many. etc. . so the poor design gets knocked out of shape by the number of hands it goes through. the number of times it is used. . the student is.* and the most stupid mistakes * The transferer is very often one employed to put the designs on the material. as no embroidery can be perfectly satisfactory without good drawing. that the spirit has quite left it by the time the work is finished. . various stages of opening. and that she has never studied plant form^-has been afraid to add a stem and connect the leaves which had been omitted by the transferer.i8 Embroidery. well repaid for the time and trouble bestowed in the practice of this branch of her work. not the designer the embroideress merely embroiders what is marked on the stuff.
with a few hours' study. The detail is the next to consider. At the same time the embroideress would take infinitely more pleasure in her work if she \vould take a common-sense view of the subject. where the masses that are shall be they nicely over the surface you have to cover. and complete not look like a piece of ornament that might the go on for yards indefinitely. 19 which could.Design as applied occur. commence the planning of the work by selecting the positions for the chief features in the debilities signs. have large stems and branches coming from smaller ones. each branch throwing off smaller ones the further it Never goes. If an altar-frontal or any work to be placed at a . In a panel that is not to be used in association with other panels in itself and see placed. distributed in other words. . The masses should be connected by harmonious lines insist on simple. if it is complete design should be in the space it has to fill. always bearing in mind the principle of exhaustion the vigour with which your plant grows from the root. straightforward growth. to Embroidery. After learning the plant and its possias a motif of design. be prevented.
if it is . does not destroy the sense of rein Recurrence is art expresses repose. The rendering of the plant must always be truthful to nature's principle. or anything to be viewed closely. as in a border framing a panel or a curtain. so let Simplicity in last . to get as The flowers may be turned about interest out of much variety and as possible. Very few workers appear to realise the added sense of and completeness given by a border. and distance. the treatment will be broad . if a table cover. although the masses may be repeated. the framing be subordinate. even though it may be only a few nicely spaced lines. change of and detail should be made. is very ciate is perhaps the even the educated apprething ornament as a rule the most florid and com- It is a good plicated patterns please best. the details must be treated with greater delicacy. Usually the simpler the border the more effective.2o Embroidery. plan for the designer to put a piece of tracing-paper over the drawing. frequently required. In designing for embroidery them when colour repetition is demanded. Always remember it it of your work. book cover. hem simple of a garment. proit vided pose.
to know the value of a space. that they may try to make designs for their own needlework. is of the pattern can be disThe highest art is that which simplest the power of restraint. little better to put too ornament than too much. .Design as applied becoming with see to Embroidery. are most desirable Always remember that it is qualities. to and more especially in stimulate those who take up embroidery the hope as a useful accomplishment. pensed with. These hints and suggestions on design as applied to embroidery are merely intended to assist those who have had no practice in this branch of the subject. or 2 i at all crowded overloaded detail. and how much . trace the best parts only.
METHOD AND MATERIAL. could not rest against it with any degree of comfort. We should seize upon points their interest of construction and heighten by suitable decoration. a firmer grip as well also. A good example of utility in decoration is the use of the herring-bone stitch. by which . by the notching of his not only ornamented it but ensured paddle. the . a design in raised bullion on a example.(22) CHAPTER UTILITY II. by the roughening of the sword-hilt with a relief pattern. same result is obtained. many cases was actually adopted to increase the usefulness of the the savage. The aim of the embroideress should be to make a decoration that does not in any way take away from the usefulness of the cushion. in EARLY decoration object . one cushion is essentially out of place . The ornament must not be an encumbrance to For the object it is supposed to adorn.
At first the frayed ends were tied into bunches. Many beautiful quilted patterns are to be seen in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The first duty of quilting is to and the keep the padding in its place . They are now successfully used purely as ornaments suggested in the tooling of leather. and by degrees these regular tyings became elaborated patterns. and now these are considered indispensable as decorafringes into handsome tion. edge. and in embroidered book . and perhaps the most serviceable pattern is the one employed on the subject which forms the frontispiece to this book. of the They are very useful in finishing an The worker can either fray the edge material and knot the ends. simplest. or make the fringe separately and attach it to the material.Utility Method and Material. covers. 23 over an ugly seam the adding of this stitch renders the junction of the two edges of cloth more secure and less unsightly. The use of the buttonhole stitch likewise serves a as practical well. and an ornamental purpose Fringes arose out of the ravelling of the edge of fabrics. The ornamenting of book covers by clasps and corner plates was done to strengthen and protect them.
and . that is what happens in the production of much of the modern emto broidery. are all. serviceable are not of the drawing-room class of needlework. on account of the diffitrying to sell : culties which arose to compelled in producing it. Our "best" intended pillow cases be used and table cloths. considered loo good to use and then to fold up and . There gets are many examples to of mis-applied ornament. for this reason : When we is it it some people that one person suggests makes it. speak of applied ornament. In many cases the diffi- culties referred to. often misunderstood. Salesmen are occasionally heard to advance this argument as a reason for the high price of some over-decorated article he is that. to some extent. it Unfortunately. put away. is it cost a lot. are caused by the maker trying to imitate some other material. which is made only to show. they are ask such an unusual price for the article.24 Embroidery. The fact is. and that why it is prized. on high-days and . One thing we do know. and. and another sticks it on. they holidays. at least. a great deal of stuck on in the wrong place. most of this work is so ornamented that it is quite impossible to use.
so to speak. it is bear in mind APPLIQUE. Plate No. which gives us the lead in decoration. Counterchange ornament is often used applique work. other kinds mark . 66). the material. For this purpose the design must be so constructed that both the in device and the ground are identical in shape and area (see figs. 44 and 46. An economical and effective method of applique decoration is that illustrated on Plate No. with tacks * or : * Those that have been tinned are best the material. For applique of almost all kinds it is well to back the material. The pattern is designed so that the material ornament taken from the panel on the left-hand side of the plate is used to form the dark pattern in the panel on the right- hand little side. The pattern in one appears a smaller than in the other. 10. This has been caused partly by the corded outline being in both cases light in colour. 25 frequently something not suitable for the We must always functions of the article. . and it is only right for us to follow that lead.Utility Method and Material. which is done in the following manner Stretch tightly on a board.
a piece of thin cotton or linen fabric. and leave until dry. drawing-pins. a couching of silk is . It out pieces must go to be embroidered. thoroughly. On the foundation material. is ensured. applique at right angles Then. linen. serge. satin. if cut applied. indicating where the "cutPin the applique pieces into their places and then paste again. draw the design. press firmly. These pieces should be securely tacked into their positions before the embroidery is actually commenced. on the wrong (linen) side. wrong side down. and any parts that have must the first be stitched to the ground with small stitches taken from the ground into to the edge. Paste this all over with a thin layer of paste (Higgins's paste can be used with the very best results) smoothly and completely put the velvet. a sharper and cleaner edge . There are a variety of ways of treating applique. sharp scissors from the backing. or whatever is to be used in the work. . Then. mark the whole design. which has been previously stretched in a frame. and see that no air bubbles or lumps remain and leave it to dry over night if possible.26 Embroidery. and cut out carefully the parts to be . with short.
Another method is that in which the edge has either a strand of silk or very narrow ribbon couched down instead of the cord or. the edges can be worked over in satin stitch.* is is worked needed in the hand. etc. being much easier for them to handle. . this backing is not desirable. . a . cannot be conveniently done in a frame while at the same time for laid work. buttonholing. or rather avoid elaborate serrated leaves and * With reference to the contention as to the rival merits of frame versus hand work. again. or buttonhole stitch with a strand of silk under. or anything where softness in hanging is reWhen quired. etc. darning. As a general rule amateurs much prefer to do their embroidery out of the frame.. etc. 27 often necessary to cover the edges before the cord is sewn down. whilst professionals put almost all work into a frame.. the in order to keep it quite In applique patterns keep to simple forms. all together in a firm manner.Utility Method and Material. If the work is to be strained for framed panels. the applique greatest care flat. a piece of holland pasted over the back is a good preservative it holds it .. Admirable effects are of satin stitch or buttonhole stitch to obtained by the use bind the edges. oriental. For curtains. A frame is absolutely essential. variety of fancy stitches. chain.
says. .. 7. and where fine work cannot be properly seen or is too good for rough usage.28 Embroidery. the brightest. stems. his more often than Murdock Smith. perhaps. The Persians use actual applique. A peculiar kind of embroidery and patch-work combined is largely made at Resht (see Plate No. " Art. in South Kensington Handbook on Persian inlay Sir R. centres of flowers. n. at the present day. Applique is eminently suitable for positions where broad effects are wanted. of interchange pattern A is beautiful illustrated example on Plate No. of 8. worked in silk the applied work. and other good types applique work are shown on Plates No. 13). should not be in conjunction with stitching There is thin ornament. 9 and 10. the general effect is. It consists of of minute pieces of broad-cloth the seams and some other portions of which are then covered with needlework also variously coloured. no reason why thin etc. The colours being of patchwork different of colours. the whole forming a combination of geometric and floral ornament. INLAID WORK. and to some extent in Ispahan.
are mostly used by the Persians for saddle-cloths and showy horse-clothing. where intercourse with Europeans has introduced such articles of furniture. gaudy. a loosely woven stuff is liable to fray- and tacked in positon on the hol- land . and chair covers. for which they are not inappropriate." and The effects produced by the applique and In inlay the inlay methods are very similar. sofa. in fact. Then the materials are cut closely textured materials are necessary for this process. then the overcasting of the edge com- . They also serve for Sarandaz Kenarch covers. first. by any in similar outlines to those em- ployed applique work. the pattern and made secure by The stuffs are fitted together into the foundation an overcast stitch round the edge of each form this edge is then finished by chain or a cord or strands of silk couched stitch. 29 somewhat These " Gul-Duzi-i- Resht. It is usual." as they are called. applied material is laid into the foundation stuff. and nowadays for tables. .Utility Method and Material. which is cut away to receive the pieces of coloured material used to make the pattern. to stretch a piece of holland in an em- broidery frame to serve as a temporary backing.
are the method of stitching give great interest and delicacy. collar The detail from a muslin will give the shown on Plate No. is white Most especially suitable. the light lines are rendered stitch. Thin ornamental forms are not suitable for inlay stems and connecting lines must be embroidered. is obtained by the use of French knots. beautiful pieces of dress decoration in white work are to be seen in the Victoria and embroidery Albert Museum. For articles appertaining to dress. placed close together. if needed. reader some idea of the scope of treatment in this The little piercings immensely valuable in lightening the effect and the varying tones suggested by . or it can be allowed to remain. The backing should be removed when the work is finished. by rows of chain WHITE WORK. 49 branch of work. and the flat tone. Parts are slightly padded. ferred to. . for strengthening the work. menced.30 Embroidery. in the banded form which connects the groups. In the Resht example re.
" evidently meaning that the stuff was wrought on both sides alike. In celebrating the triumph of " Sisera. From Persia we get some geometrical designs worked in white on a white ground of cambric. It is said that the exactly the same. For white work the ordinary stitches are field employed. Occasionally one sees a nicely worked monogram on the corner of a pocket handkerchief. reverse side most cases there is no to the work both sides are In . or toile dree. open for good lettering.Utility Method and Material. his mother is made to say that he has a prey of divers colours of needlework on both sides. 31 In a half-hearted way white embroidery has always been brought into service for marking linen. This kind of work at the present day is often effectively used to decorate the edges and network visicrcs of ladies' veils. during the is process of working. the chief embroiderer. Much of it is executed in the hand.* * In Exodus we read that Aholiab. . a style of embroidery exhibiting a degree of patience and skill only practised by the nations of the East. and the material to be marked is often tacked on American cloth. A tambour frame sometimes utilised for the purpose. but in all branches of embroidery. not only in white work. is specially appointed to assist in the decoration of the tabernacle. but generally the There is a great lettering is poor in form.
embroidery of this kind is executed by two persons, one on either side of the material working simultaneously with one
rather scoffed at,
for the simple reason there are not
people at the present time
who can handle
them properly for furniture coverings and curtains they could be used with greater advantage. The use of a poorer material
on a richer one appears to be wrong. We do not feel inclined to use wools on silk, but do not hesitate to use silks on linen. Let us
never forget that we are enriching a material when we embroider.
much more economical
than by work-
In laid work ing the design in satin stitch. all the silk is on the surface of the material,
the term implies,
while satin stitch
taken under and over, and there is as much on one side as the other but a richer effect
got from the silk worked in satin stitch, as the run of the silk is in one direction, and
thus gives a brighter appearance.
Method and Material.
The material on which gold embroidery worked should be herring-boned very evenly and firmly on to a backing of linen (never cotton), and stretched in an embroidery frame. Sometimes the gold embroidery is worked on a strong linen, cut out and applied in the same way you do applique.
69, 70 required to prevent gold and silver threads from turning a bad colour. When applying these metals do
not handle the threads more than can be
Cover the work as far as possible
with unbleached backing as each piece is completed, and take every precaution to
of the gold
painted on thinly
preserves the colour of the metal.
The highly padded work, and particularly the raised figures, are very unsatisfactory,
and silk, the drawn flowers and
appropriate. For raised gold work, yellow soft cotton is used for the padding, grey and white for
work, and strings and linen threads for both metals. See Plates No. 68, 69, 70
In the early work they had no resource for obtaining effects which might be considered to be foreign to straightforward and Later, in the fifteenth bond-fide needlework.
century, relief effects were then attempted and obtained in much of the gold thread
work, and an early indication of the departure from flat simplicity of earlier work is given in the modelled feather of the fifteenth
century of angels' wings. The modelling or padding out of needlework is more pro-
sixteenth-century still further
in coats-of-arms of the seventeenth-century *
new grounds, and then
The best method
S. Cole, C.B.,
Method and Material.
edges is to work in silk carefully matched in colour to the old embroidery sometimes
cords or hanks of silks couched are
for finishing the edges.
used These methods are
expensive but not satisfactory. It is easy to perceive by this treatment that the work has been transferred, which is not
Cords, gimps, braids, hanks of floss silk in the sixteeenth century, and
spangles, beetle-wings, tinsel, and jewels in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
results can thus be accombut one must, however, be very
and discreet in handling the four last-named embellishments.
actual systems of building pattern,
of pattern forms,
methods of drawing and and various handicrafts
have been discovered long ago, but it is in their re-combination and adaptation our and use of them and in the interpretation power of variation and expression, that
modern invention and predilection tell." * The embroideress is continually being
upon to adapt or modify the designs
the study of
design has not been neglected, for it must form part of the education of the earnest
she will find plenty of scope for her
adapting design the faculty of invention
planning and and she may also find that
was only dormant, and needed some such stimulus to awaken and develop it.
Walter Crane, "Bases of Design,"
Natural forms must be conventionalised
in order to
suitable for the purIf
and throw life-like reprethem on a surface, and then
exactly like the natural object, or as much we are obviously working like it as we can
wrong direction, practising the art of deception and sacrificing our ability as needleworkers on work that can at its best be but tasteless and vulgar. Natural forms must be adapted to the materials used. For example, a briar rose is beautiful in form and colour in the garden, and if handled by
a skilful designer
and adapted to a
quite beautiful when flat surface for
Moreover, this modification of
measure, demanded by the nature of the materials and method of proIn every way needlework should be adapted to the materials. Photographic
imitations in form and colour of
must be abandoned, and
only those aspects of the plant that are
represented be attempted. The observant student will see that plants
38 illustrate Embroidery. tributed. not demanding that brilliancy which the Orientals distinguish and insist on. we must do our best to find the reason for it. art The circumstances under which works of are created must be considered. which may be overlooked when the mariner has learned to sound for himself. the and natural surroundings of practical needs their existence. In the East they crave for colour. . magnificent colour in a more sober sense. We how variously the gifts are dissay. Even members . we may how we the differ in the handling of the gifts. Some of the rules in ornamental design might be compared to the buoys round shoaly coasts. Principles are the consideration of things which underlie the laws or rules. to the standard examples of art. while we appreciate observe by studying works of art how differently we are endowed with the sense of colour. intensified and glorified with the rainbow hues of life. most laid of the in guiding principles r which are If down ornamental design. w e can satisfy ourselves that the principles ob- we go served in nature are usually followed in the when there is examples we are studying any departure from those principles. or.
of our 39 own family and in their likes dislikes are frequently at variance the difference of . the general surroundings. It may spoil a good. like taste. as the case may be. Colour in embroidery is a matter of very great importance. and in harmony colour with. according to. Almost religious all art in the early days expressed of thoughts by means symbols. The colour in nature must be taken as a suggestive guide. temper and perception has a great deal to do with one's sense of form and colour.Adaptation. We all know that certain forms and colours give us more pleasure than others. well-formed design. SYMBOLISM. and modified or intensified. or shades of golden brown. Great care is needed in arranging contrasting colours to ensure harmony. Colour. ful while others must is be educated to appreciate that which accepted as beauti- and harmonious. Beautiful work can be done in one key of as several shades of blue. is instinctive with some. . A mere copy of the colour in the natural object is not required.
on Roman and in our cathedrals. It common emblem in all countries. Celtic. communicate ideas To by emblematical the desire of It is signs in this way has been man from the crete earliest times. Many to signify are constructed upon patterns . but in Scandinavian. a more con- method figures of expression than that which real- can be conveyed by the picturing of istic and scenes. The Egyptians used the zigzag water. which is supposed to indicate the axial volution of the heavens round the Pole Star benedictory sign or for not only is it . As a rule the'se signs and at- tributes are very simple The and severe. in form.4O Embroidery. later it was used as a mark of good luck. Symbols were frequently introduced into tapestries and embroideries containing sacred figures. signified their originally supreme god when used by them as a cross the lateral flanges added .study of in her Christian symbolism a very great help to her work. altars and Anglo-Saxon work. i is believed to fylfot It be the oldest Aryan symbol. to the ends of the cross gave it the optical indication of revolving. and the embroideress will find the . shown on Plate No. became a seen on the relics of the early races of mankind.
Plate No. TYPE EMSLE-f^l "f k. THE. THt e wt^ srtr is cn^iiy MI^Lt STEP STEP is F(\|in . L<\TIN i\S THE. i. ITY.
As a forerunner directly after the subsidence of of their harvest. Its conventional form was changed as other plants. Perhaps next to the lotus in importance palm surrounded by the sacred horn." It was the date from which inebriating drink was first palm made by the Aryans. it occupied a prominent place in Scandinavian decoration and in Romanesque architecture.Symbolism. In later times. The symbolising new birth and resurrection. It is found in Babylonian. is globe. so frequently used in symbolical of the sun. in On Plate No. i it is given lotus. and it is believed that it was thus used to interpret another meaning. Indian. as it appeared previous to the springing of the crops. " tree of life. tree is life The winged Egyptian art. Greek. containing what appeared to be the " The sacred horn or holy spirit of life/' is the called the believed to represent the tree of spoken of as growing in Paradise. 43 zigzag lines in Polynesian ornament. there was every reason for them to worship it. and the outspreading wings the overshadowing . was also sacred as the type of coming plenty. by fermentation. combination with the lotus. Persian. and Roman art. as an ornament. and the Nile. came to the front.
perfect specimens of severe and beautiful design. The numerous em- blems they used were. to Not that she is advised merely to re- produce the designs. Christ is at times imaged by the Cross alone. the dove. in themselves. The same . prin- ciples can.44 of Providence. and those laws of fitness and limitations observed which make the design suitable for the highest purposes to which such embroideries can be devoted. where God the Father is depicted as a man and the Holy Spirit as a dove. The Latin cross represents the actual . Ancient Egyptian art was a symbolic language. the lamb. especially if she is called upon to undertake church work. and it is the duty of the modern embroideress to become ac- quainted with these masterpieces. Christ In Christian art the cross as a symbol of is acknowledged to be equal in im- portance to His other symbol. be applied tened reserve. the chashowever. Embroidery. as they are not suited modern requirements. Our museums and cathedrals contain many examples in is of ecclesiastical needlework thought which the expression revealed of religious by symbols. or In the symbol of the Holy Ghost. representations of the Trinity.
Symbolism. the cross fleurie. the cross . The lowest step. it was frequently shown placed on three steps. the patee. potent cross we pommee. which rests firmly upon the earth. the cross moline. Christian vir. the Good * See Plate No. the oross patonce. is poses. Charity. and made it more suitable in shape for ornamental pur- emblem of Christianity. -is Faith. the greatest of tues the middle step is . i for illustrations of crosses. in which the cross on the Greek and Latin types. cross its . . the cross botonee. and the cross crosslet. cross is the acknowledged mark or sign of the Christian faith throughout the In Christian art the image of the lamb. the symbol of our Saviour. as the When the Latin type was employed and which will be seen all is the largest. Hope and the is firmly upper embedded. Although nearly all based St.* The Greeks rather departed from the original cross. unadorned shape is usually called the Calvary Cross. 45 on which our Saviour suffered and in simple. The world. the cross of Anthony in heraldry is termed the cross also get the Maltese cross. the cross potent rebated. The forms which the cross assumes are almost countless.
The most frequent symbol is a fish. three in fishes are repre- a triangular fashion. Luke. entwined tians. are the four winged creatures viz. Mark. is Embroidery. We find abundant symbolism in the various emblems and attributes of the The mystic apostles. often portrayed on the tombs of departed Chris- Sometimes sented. held in great favour and respect by the designer for ecclesiastical work. . symbols of the four Evangelists.46 Shepherd. saints. Matthew. and frequently represented there are various passages both in the Old and New which refer to Christ Testan^it under the image of the Lamb. symbolising the Divine Trinity. and the eagle for St. Mark is supposed to have been buried in the great church in Venice dedicated to his name. the winged ox for St. and the winged lion has become the distinguishing badge of that city. the winged man for St. John. In the Catacombs we find the Holy Sacrament of Baptism symbolically represented. the winged lion for St. St. 2 the emblem of the Holy Trinity in Also on the three different forms is given. On Plate No. and martyrs. same plate a number of monograms are .
SM EMBLEM OF TRINITY THPsEE THE. EXPRESSING XRISTOS N03TEK ' BAPT. 2.Plate No. SYMBOL OF THE HOLY J GHOST MONOORAM FROM WINCHESTER TAPESTRY. IN ETERNAL BEINGS UNITY .
On the back a broad : orphrey containing four quatrefoil panels in these are the Crucifixion of our Lord. and elephants appeared plentifully on chasubles and copes. Stephen. St. lions. purple for the sea. unicorns. There is in the Victoria and Albert Museum a remarkable chasuble of blue satin. This is the earliest example of English needlework in the collection in which animals are re- presented. Paul. The following are the meanings attached : to the chief colours found in Christian art . scarlet for the blaze of fire. It is said to be thirteenth-cenis tury English work. In the ninth century symbolical renderings of griffins. on the front of which are em- broidered in gold threads and coloured silks a number of lions and griffins enclosed by scroll work. eagles. Peter and St. In Babylonian embroideries we are told that very fine materials were symbolical. the Virgin and Child. 49 shown.Symbolism. and stood for the elements of the world fine flax for the earth. and the Stoning of St. and blue for the firma- mental azure. which were devised by early Christian artists to express the sacred names of our Saviour.
and many workers The lily is the acknowledged sign of purity. green. sincerity. sorrow. called canonical colours. frequently Black despair. Red is emblematical of the passion of our Lord. Yellow or gold signifies brightness goodness of God. darkness. and black are White. the oak of strength. faith and fruitfulness.50 White is Embroidery. Violet signifies passion. the sufferings and the martyrdom of His Saints. is symbolical of death. and mourning. . the honeysuckle of enduring faith. light. and prosperity. the olive branch of reconciliation and the palm. violet. red. godliness. mirth. life. It sig- nifies piety. faith. humility. and divine and contemplation. and truth. deep love. hope. innocence. It bountifulness. know their various attributes. youth. Blue is emblematical of heaven. joy. suffering. the emblem and of purity. Much has been of plants written on the symbolism and flowers. Martyrs are clad in violet or purple garments. as the symbol of martyrdom. and peace. Green is used by the Church on ordinary Sundays signifies and ferials (week-days).
is the symbol of the Holy Ghost when used alone. it is the emblem of meekness and purity when with an olive branch in its beak. and patience also the arrow. The evil. and Of the less Christian art. The apple is an emblem of the original sin as it alludes to the fall of man. is the emblem of eternity. is griffin. in the cause of Christ. firmness. Plate No. or ring. burst open and displaying its seeds. an emblem of martyrdom. it is the emblem of peace. was accepted in early times as the emblem of future life and of hope in immortality. 5 1 belongs to all those saints who suffered death The pomegranate. The dove. . (See the centre of altarfrontal.) The circle. 15. when accompanied by the nimbus. and devotion in trial. important emblems found in the anchor might be named as . A heart depicted pierced with an arrow symbolises contrition. with bird's claws for lion's This creature. deep repentance. the symbol of hope. and represented to them the divine. life-giving earth-spirit continually renewing itself bringing joy to men. winged.Symbolism. The vine with the Greeks was sacred to Dionysos. . representing its hind for its fore feet . feet and paws the .
2). The nimbus. clinging to it and appearing as a fringe of light. as they express nothing when used by the is alone. beak a combinais strong and eagle-like tion suggestive of terror and power. and glory signs cannot properly be called symbols. . . aureole. and it disappeared altogether in the seventeenth cenFrom the earliest times the nimbus tury.52 Embro idery . The nimbus was adopted . the Holy Scriptures (Rev. and during the following two hundred years the disc was replaced by an unadorned circlet. as far or ring. encircled the head like a disc or plate behind the head until the fifteenth century. The Devil has also been symbolised 9 also xx. dating back as the fourth century. The dragon is the symbol of the Evil Spirit. found Christians at a very early period it in the catacombs of Rome. hovering over the head. They are really attributes. or it may be removed a short distance from the body. by the serpent. and in this case. the luminous rays do not closely follow the form of the figure. times it takes the form of the body. and with direct authority of xii. The aureole encircles the whole bodyand Some- while the nimbus encircles the head envelops it in a field of radiance.
The aureole is the attribute power and divine omnipotence.
is used to express the combination glory of the nimbus and the aureole.
church embroideress engaged on needlework may find these notes on symas they are, of some help to do nothing more, they will serve they to warn her against some of the mistakes which frequently occur. Symbols are very often wrongly used, and emblems of the
and most holy signs occupy positions, places where they are knelt upon and sometimes stood upon. The bonds of symbolism, rules of colour, and laws of fitness should aid rather than hinder the designer and
CHAPTER IV. DESCRIPTION OF DESIGNS
THE coloured frontispiece represents the centre portion of a quilted linen coverlet, embroidered with coloured silks. English,
During I7th century [532 1897]. the latter part of the seventeenth century much of the design for English embroidery was influenced by Oriental work. The elements in this example have evidently
gaily coloured bird is specially characteristic. Similar birds appear in the crewel-work
hanging given on Plate No.
for the quilted coverlet
The design 4. not intended to
be seriously discussed it is slight, delicate, and perhaps a little absurd, at the same time The stitches interesting and instructive.
employed in the work are long-and-short, and stem stitches, with chain stitch Plates No. i and 2 confor the quilting. tain symbolical signs (see chapter commencing on page 36).
Description of Designs Illustrated.
Bedspread, modern, in the style of English Emwork. seventeenth-century crewel
broidered at the Royal School of Art Needlework. Excellent needlework was produced
in England in the seventeenth century, and some of the best examples in crewel work
have been copied by the Royal School of Art Needlework in fact, the revival of this kind of embroidery is entirely due to the efforts put forward by the School, where for many years they have been engaged in
making hangings, curtains, valances, bedspreads, and furniture covering, using the old
The subject of this plate is a characteristic all-over type. The idea of the spreading branches of trees, with various flowers, leaf
evenly distributed over the surface in this form, was, in the first place, borrowed from Oriental patterns.
usually along the bottom of the
design an indication of undulated ground
hillocks of soil, over
prance and caper.
which odd animals Practically no attention
given to the relative proportion of the creatures represented. The rabbit may be
size as the antelope and the the size of the elephant, all very squirrel
At regular irresponsible and indulgent. intervals sturdy tree stems spring from the
ground and meander upwards these have small branches which intertwine and carry boldly shaped leaves and flowers. The rest
of the surface
covered with small foliage,
and gaily coloured birds scattered among the branches. The large leaves are often filled
with diapers (darnings),
being worked solidly,
form of turnovers, in shades of green,. gradated from dark to light. Green is usually the most predominant colour, with touches of tawny yellow, reds, and rich browns to
complete the scheme.
the old examples
generally of linen, or a
mixture of linen and cotton. The one from which our plate is made is an ivory-coloured
twill of linen
iyth Century. . Small Flowers. 4 Cotton Hanging-.Plate No. Embroidered in Coloured Wools with Leaf Forms. English. and Birds.
61 PLATE No. is each inner leaf The edge of commenced by an outline 5. At the bottom of the design there is a conventional suggestion of earth. small flowers. century. from . light-coloured wool representing the rib.Description of Designs Illustrated. then a centre line. 4. seventeenth Embroidered with leaf forms. graduating dark to light until the space in colour is filled. Cotton hanging. point of curling spring the formal main stems leaves at The big over the solidly in make a . they are worked main stems rows of stem stitch (called crewel stitch when worked in this form). browns. is worked is in dark coloured wood . . arid old gold coloured the birds are worked in rather . from which long. English. and birds in various shades wools of olive-greens. as will be seen by the of detail on Plate No. regular intervals. then this followed by rows of stitches. brighter colours than those for the foliage. These leaf forms are really groups of small leaves taking the general shape of a single curling leaf.
PLATE No. 6. Plate No. 3. 4. The treat- ment may be considered a little heavy compared with the method of leaf filling shown on Plate No.62 Embroidery. 5. where a large number of the leaves are filled with diapers. also in the bedspread. illustrated Detail of cotton hanging. and the system adopted in the introduction of darker colours. This detail is given to show the direction of stitch on the leaves. from example on Plate No. .
Embroidered . in English. 5. Coloured Wools. ijth Century. Detail of Cotton Hanging-.Plate No.
.Plate No. English. ijth Century . from a Linen Hanging-. 6. Leaf in Coloured Wools.
Each fang made with three stitches which spread at the base and meet and enter the material . in blue wool. T_7th hanging. the same colour. is formed by a double row of satin stitch worked on the slant the small veining. This reproduction illustrates a light method of leaf treatment. This group is finished on the inside and outof side is by a tooth border in green.Description of Designs Illustrated." Then row very open herring-bone stitch in green. . The diaper of filling in green is made with loops wool held down (couched) by a stitch in the centre. in yellow'. The outer band of work is century . in . in green. is in herring-bone stitch. is an Oriental stitch one long stitch the width of the band crossed by The a short one in the centre ' . from a linen English. The stem and centre fibre of the leaf. Leaf in 6. at the point the space between each tooth or fang is about a quarter of an inch. in close herring-bone stitch. next. sometimes called follows a Roumanian stitch. coloured wools. 67 PLATE No. thus taking the shape of a horse- shoe.
altar-frontal. 7. Spanish. with alter- ornaments. or border to an orphrey Spanish. . or border. or altarfrontal. about 1550 [248 of 1880]. antependium. about 1530 [246 1880].68 Embroidery. outlined and veined with gold thread. No. III. " " in gold threads couched grams are . parts of the roundels are worked with layings of blue and white silk cords. I. Spanish. Orphrey. with conventional acanthus green scroll silk and other ornament cut out of yellow applied (applique). Orphrey of in gold and silver thread with coloured silk. outlined with pale blue silk cord and gold thread. PLATE No. repeating nated with roundels respectively containing cyphers cut out of yellow satin. and knitted gold fringe at the lower edge. Orphrey. Consists of foliated strap work. Ground of dark velvet. six- teenth century [261 1880]. No. Ground crimson velvet. ornamented II. No. and ap- conventional The monoplied (applique) to the ground.
II. Spanish. 1550 III. Orphrey. [248-1880]. Orphrey. Orphrey.Plate No. 7. about 1530 [246 1880]. Spanish. No. . Spanish. i6th Century [261-1880]. about No. No. I.
8. .Plate No.
Altar-frontal. surface. ornamented with sixteenth an applique pattern. 73 PLATE No. Drake. In this interesting example a number of strongly contrasting coloured materials have The property W. the stems being crossed at right angles with silk cord in pairs at regular been intervals of an inch. . forms are edged and fibred with strands of silk. The successfully brought together.Description of Designs Illustrated. of Sir century. value to the broader pieces. Spanish. ing up the by change of texture. couched. green silk 8. This method of breakgives.
9. are in yellow satin applied (applique) these are connected with a yellow silk cord. Border of blue century [1162 satin. . PLATE No. Spanish. The applied forms are enriched is by a couched utilised out- outline of orange silk. which runs through. The large details . which side the yellow silk cord. sixteenth 1877]. bands are treated silk in The marginal the same way. and completes the pattern. with threads laid in pairs at intervals of one inch.74 Embroidery.
9. .Plate No.
Plate Mo. Italian. . i6th Century . Applique. 10. Wall or Pilaster Hanging.
Wall 10. pilaster hanging. 79 PLATE No. The various forms are also outlined with yellow silk and silk gimp couched. pattern in red on a yellow ground. Of sixteenth century [841 Italian. . cut out and fitted together so as to form a repeating balanced pattern of scrolls and flowers in yellow upon a red ground. red velvet and yellow silk mounted on canvas. are In the example on the left-hand side various silk of plate.Description of Designs Illustrated. the forms silk outlined with yellow and gimp couched. The example on the right-hand side of this plate (dark ornament on light ground) is the portion cut away from the example on the left viz. 1847]. or applique.
of silk and velvet patchwork. This is an interchange pattern. velvet. and the other a green silk ground with the ornament in red velvet. PLATE No. Hanging applique. These bands alternate. White pieces or collars of silk are used for the berries. Spanish. and ties leaf throughout the whole of the design. centres of large forms. string-coloured cord. n.8o Embroidery. dark red of white silk. . one band having a red velvet ground with the ornament in green silk. outlined and small pieces with a pale. sixteenth century [266 Worked in grey-green silk. 1880].
ii. .Plate No.
i|th Century. Patchwork Applique. Portion of a Hanging. . 12.Plate No. English.
Description of Designs Illustrated. . In fact. of is patchwork applique in coloured cloths admirably suited to the rendering of broadly treated design of this character. This will enable the reader to form some idea of the scale of the work. The width of the lower panel in the illustration is 2 feet 6 inches. fourteenth century. and say it is English while others see no reason why it should not be . Portion of a hanging. Experts assign this specimen to the fourteenth century. The this piece on the right-hand it side of is repro- duction. of place . accepted as an example of French work of an earlier date. an old English romance written in the thirteenth century but the costumes here employed are . considerably later. 85 PLATE No. this latter was the view taken by the late Dr. Rock. obviously out was never intended to be so arranged. This method English. turned sideways. 12. patchwork applique. He intimates that the design mostly represents incidents corresponding Sir to those in the legend of Guy of Warwick.
At the bottom form of a con- a finial in the ventional flower springing from a shaped panel. silk.e. From . On eighteenth century [858 1892].86 Embroidery. cinnamon. with flowers and leaves. with a bird perched on one of the branches. The whole of the design is inlaid with the exception of the stems in crimson. Patchwork inlay panel. the stems have three rows of chain stitch side of the design is by side. this device is embroidered in gold and silver re- thread and coloured silks with forms in sembling peacocks' feathers. PLATE No. pink. turquoise. Persian. a ground of ivory -coloured cloth. Made at Resht. in chain stitch i. and sapphire coloured The outline and stems are executed cloths. 13. the eyes of the feather-like parts being worked this marigold and green panel spring branches. black. ending in birds' heads regardant .
i8th Century . . 13.Plate No. Patchwork Inlay Panel. Persian.
Description of Designs 'Illustrated.
Part of a hanging of linen, embroidered with coloured silks. Spanish, seventeenth
from roses, poppies, and holding branches of The scrolls are worked
edged with black
flowers are mostly in satin stitch the stems are in herring-bone stitch, the buds in chain stitch, and the birds are in em-
broidery, or long-and-short stitch.
White satin, embroidered and gold threads. Spanish, sixteenth century. The banded ornament, and heart pierced with an arrow (the emblem of contrition, deep repentance, and devotion in trial), worked in gold basket The foliage in coloured silk, and stitch. worked in stem stitch chiefly. Between
in coloured silks
each line of
silk the ground is clearly visible. All the lines radiate nicely from the centre fibre of the leaves to the outer edge. This open kind of stitchery is very effective
stitchery on all the light leaves. whole of the embroidery is outlined
Plate No. i,
Satin, embroidered in Coloured Silks and Gold Threads. Spanish, i6th Century.
16. Coronation Robe of His Majesty King Edward VII. .Plate No.
and a little coloured silk. George on a silver ground. silver. 97 PLATE No. composed of eagles in white silk H . 16. or stole. The imperial mantle is covered with silk ments are silver imperial eagles. The armilla. Between each thistles. is gold 3 inches wide 7 inches long. belt.Description of Designs Illustrated. band of cloth-ofand about 5 feet a and and purple green shamrocks. silver . and pink roses. and stole is cloth-of-gold. There is no embroidery on the belt. The whole foundation of the robe. emblem is a silver coronet at each end is a square panel with a blue and white torse above and below worked with a red cross of St. It is heavily embroidered with silver thread. The only ornament upon the supertunica or dalmatic is embroidered in old-gold-coloured silk with a dark brown outline. green. and consists of two bands of an interlacing pattern down the front. The centre ornament at the back is a pink rose with two leaves the remaining orna. sequins. with bullion fringe at each end. embroidery.
The mantle is lined throughout with deep rose-coloured silk.98 Embroidery. coronets in white outlined with purple. To the upper edge is attached a gold morse or clasp. purple and green with green leaves. outlined with purple. on which is embroidered an eagle and two roses. the latter symbolising Divine power. Tudor roses in red and white with green leaves. . green shamrocks. There is a pattern of branched laurel conventionally trailed around each emblem. and a light leaf ornament in gold purl with rubies introduced. and silk thistles white flowers with gold centres.
.Plate No. 17.
The flowers are worked with clusters of pearls in little . concave disks of the leaves are in raised bullion. Gold embroidery. Letter-bag. with groups of pearls for the flowers. which is continued round the leaves. and gold the stems in gold cord. .Description of Designs Illustrated. 17. i oi PLATE No. on a velvet foundation.
though somewhat restless. elaborate. Figure from an orphr^^Bfcbroidered with coloured silks and GergolJ^^Hfel. silk. dress. The is and crown are in gold thread. the wheel armed with knives. couched . must have been very rich. the halo. simple and dignified. of ground upon which she stands is in silver couched.e. Her cloak is embroidered in green silk in short stitch with dark blue silk lining. the effect. The background is thread.* IO2 'Embroidery. PLATE No. Catherine i. holds in the left hand the well-known emblem of St. The lozenge-shaped piece flatly. [8670 1863]. and when the gold was bright and new. The figure. middle of the nfteemh* century man. Catherine. On of a ground of red silk circles is a radiating in laid gold threads couched with red spirals. Upon this (worked on linen and applied) diaper pattern with a figure representing St.
Plate No. middle of the isth Century [8670-1863] . 18. embroidered in Coloured Silks and Gold Thread. Figure from an _Orphrey. German.
. Early i6th Century. Portion of Orphrey.Plate No. near Ghent. From the Premonstratensian Abbey of Tronchiennes. 19.
From the Pre- monstratensian Abbey of Tronchiennes. from the lives of saints The background ecclesiastical vestments. the water in gold passing. The framework is in gold basket-work. Portion of an orphrey. Early sixteenth century.Description of Designs Illustrated. . and from the waterline upwards is a diaper formed with string interlaced and worked over in gold passing. near Ghent. " In the * This example illustrates the passage midst of the sea." . tossed with waves for the wind : was contrary. One of worked with numerous legendary sub* portions of jects. 107 PLATE No. and framing to this subject is chiefly worked in bullion the figures and boat in silk. three . 19.
io8 Embroidery. which is now sometimes used for saddle-cloths and holster-covers. a carpet. early century in gold [859 Velvet. . Kakvin is noted by the Persians for this kind of embroidery. Gold and silver embroidery of kind does not. seem suitable for carpets. Portion eighteenth of 20. embroidered and silver. however. giving a slightly raised rich effect. This car- pet is beautifully worked in tambour gold and this silver thread. 1876]. PLATE No. Persian.
embroidered in Gold and Silver . Portion of a Carpet. Early i8th Century [859-1876].Plate No. 20. Persian. Velvet.
English. the Virgin Mary. in close-lying. standing on wheels in the intervening spaces. the interlacing barbed quatrefoils are bordered with gold thread worked in close-lying. and are occasionally stitched over with green and red silk passing through the intervening canvas. The ground filled in in the alternative quatrefoil is with green and faded crimson silks. and coloured draperies are worked with fine-coloured silks in small chain stitches. or red. The faces. PLATE No. or angels. or yellow. The Syon Cope. On examination with a microscope. worked in short stitches to form a close diaper of chevron pattern. * The gold embroidery is done short stitches. Textile Fabrics. short stitches. and the Apostles . and three rows of green. The quatrefoils enclose figures of our Lord. and so adding substance to the embroidery. date about Of canvas. . 275. See Dr. covered with embroidery of various classes . the fleshstitch appears rather like a fine split stitch worked close in circular lines. The orphrey. entirely 1250 [83 1864].* 21. Rock. On the inside of the embroidery hanks of loose thread have been laid. p. hands.ii2 Embroidery. and white silk in chain stitch. with winged cherubins.
Plate No.~2i > .
Plate No. 22 .
1 1 7 morse. and hem are wrought with armorial bearings with coloured silks. for the human face. wide dimple in the throat. a play of light and shadow is brought out. that. after the middle had been made. Rock " We find that. iron rod. were pressed down those spots upon the faces worked in circular lines. and worked in circular or straight lines. By the hollows that are lastingly sunk. into which. at a short distance. Detail from the Syon Cope. says. gold and silver threads in small cross stitches. Dr. however. as well as that deep. then. slightly heated. PLATE No. and are of later date (about fifty years). . 288. lends to the portion so treated a look of being done in low relief/' * Textile Fabrics. especially of an aged person. p. they fell. ending in a small bulb or smooth knob. By looking closely into this fine specimen. and were so carried on through the rest After the whole figure had thus been wrought.* all over it. 22. with a little thin of the fleshes.Description of Designs Illustrated. the first stitches were commenced in the centre of the cheek.
" is Designed by a coarse linen Walter Crane. 23. with a brown outline to define the folds This method is also adopted . . the ground being utilised to represent the shading. Spring. The youth's smock is embroidered on the light parts only. in working the girl's costume her dress has but a few lines. of the garment. representing high lights. similar to that rendered by the process of stencilling. Screen " panel. It is about the nearest approach to outline embroidery that embroidered with could be without being actually accepted as such. The blossoms have a voiding * between each petal. is The ground silks. The design chiefly in stem and long and short stitches. * A narrow space round the form. The most solid work is bestowed upon the figures. PLATE No. and the drawing of the folds is given with the dark colour.1 1 8 Embroidery. of a low-toned oatmeal colour.
24. .Plate No.
" Designed by Worked entirely in outline on a deliSeeing." " Smelling. HearWalter Tasting. " 24.Description of Designs Illustrated. four figures representing the Senses" " ing. 123 PLATE No." cate coloured linen." and Crane. Screen panels. in stem stitch for the drapery and split stitch for the flesh. The whole is embroidered with two shades of brown silk. .
25. the fruit forms in with cross stitch. Design for an altar-frontal by Selwyn Image. "and worked at the Royal School of Art Needlework." Designed by Walter Crane. PLATE No. On a white ground all the figures are to be worked in strong outline . foliage in filled solid embroidery. Portion of a " frieze.124 Embroidery. PLATE No. It is executed in outline stem stitch with brown silk on a string-coloured linen ground. 26. . The Seven Ages of Man.
Plate No. 25 .
. 26.Plate No.
27.Plate No. .
geometric of the design appears to have formed part of a larger scheme of decoration. little Viscount Falkland. then . vine-leaves leaf Each is filled with a dainty diaper. consisting is well balanced. is in very closely worked and a ordinary chain . the design. cut by the border is not The embroidery is executed entirely in black silk on a very fine white linen ground. square the outline chain. . The centre portion which it is satisfactory. sixteenth cenHon. Linen pillow-case. of The fruit. The stitches used are buttonhole.Description of Designs Illustrated. and the manner in in character. tury. 1 3 1 PLATE No. The property and of the Right English. variety of filling-in stitches (darnings) are employed for the diapers of the leaves. a number of fancy stitches can be employed without but if a larger spoiling the unity of effect assortment of colours are introduced. 27. worked it is better not to use so many different kinds of stitches. When to be a design of this character in is chosen. . one or two colours.
The scrolls and stems are the leaves and executed in chain stitch blossoms are mostly worked on linen separand lace stitches ately in needlepoint .Embroidery. detail English. flowers. In this illustration honeysuckle and rose flowers and leaves are shown. alistic and in bearing a variety of leaves. sweet peas. This jacket. applied to the linen ground of the jacket. PLATE No. of em- broidery on linen with coloured silks has an all-over pattern of continuous scrolling stems. Strawberries. century. fruit devices somewhat natur- drawing. . oak and acorns appear in other parts of leaves. the design. Embroidery from a linen sixteenth 28.
Embroidery from a Linen Jacket. i6th Century. 28. English.Plate No. .
Swiss. Embroidered with Coloured Threads. 29. . / Corner of a Linen Coverlet. .Plate No. dated 1580 .
has beside her a boar which she is is with her music ." . with aparrot." smelling a flower. Olfactus. except for parts of the ladies' All the dresses. 29. the subject of this illustration. Embroidered with coloured threads. fillings consist of open diaper patterns. . There is Visus at . [851 coverlet five ladies representing the Senses are shown each figure is accompanied by an " " explanatory attribute. The figures are pleasantly seated ' among foliated are rather coarsely chiefly white and floral branches. with a dog sleeping beside her." with a plate of cakes and a monkey. which pecks at her finger in the " third corner Gustus. They worked in linen threads A on a soft pink linen ground. 1 37 PLATE No. Swiss. which have a blue line. her one corner. and " lastly. in the centre enchanting " Tactus. and an eagle beside " at another Auditus. with a mirror.Description of Designs Illustrated. is represented . tawny-coloured thread is employed for the outline. dated 1580 In the design of the complete 1884]. . Corner of a linen coverlet." playing a lute.
modest and naive in its aims. Embroidered pillow-case. worked in black silk. In the Vic- toria and Albert Museum there are examples which came from Abruzzi. PLATE No. forming as it does the basis of the simplest peasant embroidery of all times. and anything a naturalistic character should not be attempted in cross stitch. 30. in general use in most of the peasants' They are worked in black worsted cottages. The property of Mrs. it does an angular outline. In Ruthenian embroidery we find very narrow cross-stitch borders charming worked in pronounced red and blue wor- . very similar in effect to the one here illustrated.1 38 Embroidery. in cross stitch on white linen. Producing as moreover. from the neighbourhood of Trieste. It is the simplest and one of the most ancient stitches. Pesel. at one time. Severe and simple designs lend themselves to this of method of stitching. crossis stitch pattern it is always very distinctive . Pillow-cases of this kind were.
Plate No. 30. .
proportioned and built up on modest lines. with just enough Time should art to make them interesting. steds. collar bands. and cuff trim. . \ 4 i These borders make the most satisfactory kind of decoration for the edging of costumes. broidery can at best only satisfy the meGreek frets chanical mind. mings.Description of Designs Ilhistrated. They are well not be w asted r in producing in cross stitch and key patterns arranged as Such design in emall-over decoration.
might be used if larger. of the Ruthenian type. 32. size as the illustrations. The two lower borders shown on this plate are from PLATE No. stems. sixteenth century [863 The pattern of leaves and flowers springing from interlacing . Cross-stitch border. 31. Italian examples. from A (turns over) It is slightly repeats smaller in it the reproduction than in the original.142 Embroidery. they are very effective in cross stitch. but could be worked this size. The first three are If worked the same back stitch Several simple zigzag borders are given. . . PLATE No. in red silk. Embroidered on linen 1897]. Italian.
.INRED WOOLS BORDER IN BACK-STITCH. BORDER IN BACK-STITCH BORDLR " " " " IN CROSS-STITCH & BUTTON -HOLE -STITCH. BORDERS A. B RED C. H ni Hi BORDER IN SATIN-STITCH &< BACK-STITCH.Plate No.IN BLUE IN BACK-STITCH IN ^FRENCH BLUE KNOTS. 31. Borders for Edging of Costumes. This compilation © Phoenix E-Books UK . IN & D.
. 32.Plate No.
Second Half i6th Century [326-1898].Plate No. . Corner of a Linen Coverlet. Portuguese. 33.
inen The work consists principally of elaborate fancy stitches (many of them are given on Plates No. Portuguese. Corner of a linen coverlet. 149 PLATE No. and the cord a darker biscuit shade. . second half sixteenth century [326 1898]. 33. 62 and 63). which are The ground is a raised above the ground. The whole of the embroidery is executed with a very hard and tightly twisted cord.Description of Designs Illustrated. pale ecru linen.
which are very limited in number. and Oriental stitches teenth . Acquired (Turco-Greek ?). Most of the Cretan embroideries consist of borderings or banded designs for dresses. colour. and stitch. the design is frequently varied according to the taste of the worker. these groups repeated in alterna- on a geometrical basis formed with conventional leaves and flowers (carnation).1 50 Embroidery. peasant's work. above which are a series of scalloped-shaped groups of ornament. . in Crete Eighcentury [2048 1876]. embroidered with red silk in satin. tion with birds placed in every other shape. a twisted-chain. PLATE No. Border of a petticoat. Of coarse linen. and are made up of repeating ornament. the birds and figures being more These ornamental elements. 34. narrow band with scrolls and blossoms set between two horizontal lines. . but she is always faithful to the accepted traditional details in the way of form. The flower and leaf forms are severely conventional. are contheir arrangement in spicuously Oriental rudely drawn.
. 34.Plate No.
Plate No. 3S. mm .
and other branches fanciful cypress. in Crete The pattern consists of a lower stitches. 35. peasant's work. Of canvas. five . band containing conventional ornament. above which are figures of men and women. Acquired (Turco-Greek ?). . with head-dresses and varied costumes. set vertically between them. dancing in groups of carnation. Eighteenth century [2047 1876].Description of Designs Illustrated 155 PLATE No. embroidered with red silk in satin and chain Border of a petticoat.
is quilted with yellow silk. each with a red. main ground below the shape. Prayer carpet. of white linen. is niche. between which are leaves formally arranged in a pointed shape. 36. and the design embroidered in chain stitch with The whole Persian. or pointed a blossoming plant. PLATE No. the wavings. with evenly balanced bunches of flowers. continuous stem. which is The edged with acanthus-leaf devices. yellow. leafy waved. chiefly white. . green. coloured silks. eighteenth cenof the ground.156 Embroidery. tury [950 1889]. and set The border consists of a wide band between two narrow ones. with blossoms in Similar floral scrolling and stem ornament fills the space beyond the pointed shape at upper end.
i8th Century [950-1889]. Persian. 36. .Plate No. Carpet (Prayer).
. 37.Plate No.
with vertical stems between each pair of scrolls. 37. with a sort of Vandyke edging. the edges become frayed. The border is made up of a broad band of repeated and reversed leafy scrolls. Attached to this broad band is a narrow border. with pendant buds and blos- soms. arranged that no ground of either meshes or intervening ties are required.Description of Designs Illustrated. Border of cut late sixteenth linen. M . and bird forms are embroidered solidly with coloured silks in long and short stitches. fruit. The flowers. fastened with open button-hole stitches. beyond of silver this edging are occasional thread. with coloured silks tc the linen loops . and repeated alternations of triple stem devices. One method. which is is pro- bably the simplest. If the whole of the background is cut away before the embroidery is done. flowers. century [225 1890] . and birds. completing the edge of each form before cutting away the background. To execute such care is elaborately cut linen great required. 161 PLATE No. coloured silks and silver threads. embroidered with Italian. to embroider a small portion of the design at a time. The cut forms are edged with a silver thread.
embroidered with coloured threads. The leaves and flowers silks. forming loops to assist in uniting the whole pattern. Near the edge silver-gilt of the cut . PLATE No. This metal thread is passed from one portion of the de- sign to another. silks and silver-gilt and silver Italian. carried over the silver-gilt and secures them. late sixteenth [100 is 1891].62 Embroidery. are partially worked in coloured The reproduction is the exact size of the original specimen. while finishing the edge of the is ornament. threads. Detail of 38. cut linen. century forms a double thread then follows an edging The of green silk in button-hole stitch. stitch. .
Italian. late i6th Century . embroidered with Coloured Silks and Silver gilt and Silver Threads. Detail of Cut Linen. . 38.Plate No.
. Saracenic. i7th Century [53-1898].Plate No. 39. Door-hanging.
silks are deep indigo. These chiefly The design circular forms. Door-hanging. seventeenth coarse century linen. cut . is In brick-red composed of and the openings away. Saracenic. and a dull red silk on lining the reverse side. straw. \ 67 PLATE No. [53 1898]. bound with piece silk on the cross the edges have been turned in and hemmed. a light sage- There is an intergreen. 39. . pale blue.Description of Designs Illustrated. and buff. of thick canvas.
towards the two bottom of the chasuble. with flowers and leaves. 1891. flowers. . across various scrolling stems. ii in. and leaves. Italian. 2 ft. in the centre between the scrolls are two balanced groups . PLATE No. About the neck is a border with a wavy line of leaves. triple stems. 40. and from the neck downwards. linen founda- floss silks laid entirely covered with various coloured down and stitched over with long parallel silk threads (cauched).] The greatest length. [58 tion is 4f in.1 68 Embroidery. The of ground laid of the design is of white floss silk down and couched. 4 century. joined at their lower ends by a short stripe. design consists of The large corresponding leafy floral scrolls. each springing from a calyx or cup of acanthus leaf. ft. Back of a chasuble. are two parallel yellow stripes. seventeenth .
Plate No. 40. Back of a Chasuble.] . ijth Century [581891. Italian.
" Pomona. Worked at the Royal School of Art Needlework ." Designed by the late Sir E. Burne-Jones and William Morris.Embroidered Panel.
Description of Designs Illustrated. in the writer's opinion. 173 PLATE No. Embroidered panel. the late Sir Edward Burne. " Pomona.work. The face and hands were painted by . The grapes in the border In this reproduction the scroll are padded. and the background ornament by the William Morris. with dull pinkish red silks. and. The figure is worked in long and short stitch.Jones the large leafy scrolls are in laid. . For the small underlying flowers and foliage long and short stitch is employed. the scrolls are too large in relation to the figure." Figure Sir Edward Burne- Jones. designed by the late late 41. work is more predominant than in the actual work.
in split stitch. and green silks. 3. on a brown square-meshed net.T 74 Embroidery. teenth century [573 1894]. On a ground of cream-coloured silk. * Laid work. and radiate large tulips) towards the centre. Second example. PLATE No. and fig. embroidered in long and short stitches with coloured silks. and springing from each side of a central stem surmounted by a flower. red. . 1891]. see fig. seven- groups are in silver basket stitch. 57. The upper and lower edges are worked with coloured silks in repeating pointed tooth-shapes. in which is a small cross in gold basket stitch. Plate No. Corner of a chalice 42. seven- veil. The pattern. teenth century [686 Border. arranged horizontally. the design is embroidered in shades of yellow. The formal and scrolling bands connecting the Italian. laid * and stitched with silver down cord. The floral groups are leaves tied with ribbons in laid work. 50. 68. the stems to flowers. outlined and flowers (chiefly are in eight groups. Italian. blue. orange. Plate No. consists of continuous floral scrolls.
42. Italian. embroidered with Coloured Silks. Italian. Cream coloured Silk. Gold and Silver Threads. . Corner of a Chalice Veil. i 7 th Century . Border of Brown Square-meshed Net. ijth Century .Plate No. embroidered with Silk.
Embroidery on Brown Silk Net. late i6th Century . Italian. .
and consisting of a branch with stems and leaves. This pattern is very similar in style to those used on the dresses in the period of Henry Spain . The devices on the second row are placed the reverse way to those on the first and third rows.Description of Designs Illustrated. 1893] . Embroidery on a brown late sixteenth century [631 in 43.. separated by a.. . IV. label. Worked string-coloured linen thread with a re- peating design. silk net. and Philip IV. Louis XIII. of and also appear in the paintings by Cornelius de Vos (1620). Italian. arranged in straight rows. 1 79 PLATE No.
forms clothed with flowers and leaves.1 80 Embroidery. silks with a pattern comred flowers with green posed of white and leaves and stems arranged on a geometrical in satin stitch. Owing to the squareness of the mesh the design has a certain rigidity which is generally pleasant. PLATE No. slightly and figured with continuous stem scalloped. tipped with strong colours as in the flower " A " in the illustration the straight lines . produced are too pronounced. It has a narrow border. late Portion of curtain or hanging. Of black sixteenth century [5064 1859]. where the petals of the flowers are foundation. Italian. net embroidered wit h coloured square-meshed . 44. .
. embroidered with Italian.Plate No. i6th Coloured Silks. Black. Square-meshed Net. Pcrticn of a Curtain. 44. Century [5064-1859].
.. \ -r v . .. 45. ::::$?". J JssssssssiHJns '* * ?***.Plate No.
and no attempt should be made to disguise it. The design The darned in linen threads. 45. lacis work. which has a distinctive value. In one the pattern is darned on a netted foundation. . Border for a chair back. In this respect it is not so as the border on the preceding satisfactory plate. and in the other on a mesh of linen. Lacis work on a PLATE No.Description of Designs Illustrated. where the outline of thick linen thread is taken through the middle of the mesh when curved forms are required. The illustrations on Plates No. as in the enlarged detail on this plate. simply stepping outline gives a quaint. There are two kinds of 46. j 85 PLATE No. rigid character to the forms. netted foundation. The square mesh is recognised. 45 and 46 are is on hand-made net.
a and very sharp scissors is also much care and patience. wrong cut is easily made and not very For ordinary patterns cut easily rectified. first. for a needed. 47. A larger mesh may be required for bolder designs. the squares of the mesh will if not be true. which should be wider than the work by an inch and a half on both sides. PLATE No. for Great care is necessary in doing this. Draw the short threads out . When cutting the threads. two threads and leave two. the threads are not straight when they are drawn out. It is necessary to choose a fabric with an even warp and woof for such work. raising the threads about half an inch from where they pair of pointed have been cut to help in guiding the eye. and in those circumstances the judgment of the worker must be exercised as to the number of threads to cut and to leave.1 86 Embroidery. 190 is worked on home-spun linen. it is well then cut and draw the long ones not to have too long a piece in mesh before . which : is executed in the following Tack the linen firmly on to a piece manner of American cloth. The specimen reproduced on p.
iv" v ^f . 46.. t><^ 1' m **iS' V'4> A J0f ^.--*4 Enlarged Detail Lacis Work.* of **t^^H ^v*%k. ^aimiWmmm.U^^.Plate No. tf?Sijg.?sa .^pl|l|lsjf i '%*? ^-H.*** *':'. . . on a Netted Foundation. *^ ** tt tmt iim.\ . I __ .^*^1 '. . * ' r ( mmii$iilim * y 2 s^ - " iipr 2..
MiftfVlMlfflB'** * ft*4>* .+ .. i^BiptV.?.. 47.'il w^Is!-!i fi*iii* ( ..*s.--.ft . i.* : *^ -.*.. .'T. ..!sr.iniii"f** .S.:.Plate No. * . g!BiS:. ..*** litf t.
making two twists round the threads each time. good work size. run the needle through the darning. pass the needle and thread through the overcasting suitable. To do the network. a very good effect is produced by twisting the net ground in unbleached thread or coloured silk. patterns taking into consideration as lacis work was very much used century. begin at the left-hand and work diagonally. With regard to designs. taking care that it is quite secure. patterns of that period seem the most suitable for the purpose. . as the network Nos. and in . when some of the pattern is worked. 1 9 1 drawing liable in the pattern. It No. For this use side a fine thread . the seventeenth .Description of Designs Illustrated. Darn in the pattern with a coarse thread 2 of and are Taylor's Mecklenburg thread the darning. many cross-stitch answer very that in well. 8 Taylor's thread is a is not necessary only to one colour sometimes a different coloured thread is run round the edge of the pattern. To begin to the nearest stitch . i is to get out of order.
Bone lace. Sometimes called work. [7522 to those found The designs are on some English Great samplers of the seventeenth century. and insertion of drawn-thread and needle-point " Reticella " stitches. Child's linen cap. care has been of bestowed upon the making the cap. .* Italian. net work. seventeenth century similar 1861]. 48. PLATE No. a net for the head. with bands of cut and drawn work.1 92 Embroidery . and it is in every way a very little dainty * head-dress.
Detail from a Muslin Collar. . 49.Plate No. French early igth Century [547-1903]. in Drawn and White Work Embroidery.
French work. The detail. in the Victorian and Albert Museum filled [701 1902]. illustration represent flowers.Description of Designs Illustrated. small leaves. of large leaves are raised. open-work fillings here given are from a cream-coloured silk apron. 1 97 PLATE No. The pattern in in drawn work and white embroidery cotton The dark parts in the the drawn work the . slightly smaller than the original in the Victorian and Albert Museum [547 is 1903]. It is early nineteenth is century threads. 49. The three examples of 50. X. English. from a muslin collar on this plate. These . This leaf form is with berries em- broidered in pink silk in satin stitch. eighteenth century. PLATE No. The rest of the fillings of the large leaves and the and centres banded form a fine is worked in satin-stitch outline French knots with which is also employed for the stems.
material. are connected with spiky stems in blue silk for the outline a green silk cord is used. flower has in the centre berries in plumcoloured silk in satin stitch. . darned the .198 Embroidery. . The lower part of the English flower contains a simple diaper. couched. This green silk for the outline. The leaf branches. with French knots in white silk. the leaves are in satin stitch . embroidered in satin stitch. as in useful for backgrounds. in the style of seventeenth-century examples of wool work. of an unusual flower form. Y. the upper part of the flower is in green silk and worked in embroidery and stem of stitches. have leaves in blue. with a cord Z. the treatwhich is very varied. is ment light. is a green the silk cord. and is a variety of darning very The outline. The stars are in blue silk the stitch employed sometimes called Leviathan stitch. and plumcoloured silks. scalloped form. white. which radiate from the centre. yielding a pleasing appearance. The is silk is merely crossed on the surface of the . other examples on this plate.
English.Plate No. early i8th Century . Z. Leaf and Flower Forms from Embroidered! Apron. 50. .
The original is embroidered in satin stitch with silks orange and red on a linen ground. 51. The dark lines indicate the red. 201 PLATE No. following which .Description of Designs Illustrated. is The flower given below of English an example eighteenth-century work.
53) these are often . seventeenth " " Bargello work is the name given century. and the work is executed on a canvas foundation with either in floss silks or in fine tapestry wools. Sometimes is coarse canvas used. 52. or they may be simply powderings (as in the example on Plate No.2O2 is Embroidery. which are filled in with geometrical designs. called Italian. The groups To is of stitches follow the outline in crescent fashion a good plan. must take a definite shape. and may be employed quite successfully for simpler forms than the flower here shown. upon the pattern selected to be worked. a form of tapestry a solid kind of embroidery Example " of " " with which the ground is entirely covered. the deep orange silk and then a paler shade It is a spirited and very effective of orange. (sometimes Bargello work Florentine "). Cushion stitch is chiefly employed. method of working. PLATE No. The original patterns are generally zigzag bands dividing the ground into spaces. . a blunt-pointed needle. but more often small It depends point or single thread canvas.
. i7th Century.Plate No. Example of Bargello Work " Florentine (sometimes called "). 52. Italian.
as a mistake in one stitch puts the whole pattern wrong. 205 outlined in black on a cream or white back- The pattern can be varied by over one or more threads at a time working the grounding is very often done in this way ground. Bargello work is quite straightforward and easy to copy from the old patterns. place not pulled crooked or out of and great care must be taken in copying to count the threads correctly. on to an ordinary drawing-slate frame. but the colours are often difficult to match. . One of the chief things to remember in working is to pass the thread from one stitch to the next underneath stitch in is such a manner that the first made . as to pin it must not be stretched tight. .Description of Designs Illustrated. A is simple it way of framing the canvas for working. which has been padded and bound over and over with calico to make a hold for the pins. in order to bring out the main lines of the design.
in cushion Example In is of Bargello work and satin stitches. seventeenth century.206 Embroidery. PLATE No. 53. Italian. this pattern the powdering of flowers in cushion stitch. and the background consists of a diaper in satin stitch. .
Italian. i7th Century. . 53. Example of Bargello Work.Plate No. in Cushion and Satin Stitches.
. French. Second Half of the i8th Century [639^ 1898].Plate No. Portion of a Coat. 54.
Those speciin mens executed in narrow ribbon. against using the wide material. as the illustration here given. Portion of a coat. of 54. are the most When the broad ribbon is satisfactory. employed.Description of Designs Illustrated. French. the work assumes a coarse and foolish fancy and the worker is warned . second half The eighteenth century [63QA 1898]. The best examples ship. The stem and centre fibre of leaves are em- broidered in silk threads. that of carrying the ribbon through the stuff is the best. Of the of working. is of velvet and the design is ground principally executed in very fine silk ribbon. two methods . are of French workman- Their ribbon work has a lightness and delicacy which we do not appear to be able to impart to our work. 2 1 1 PLATE No. Ribbon work has become a favourite form of decoration during the last few years.
Each English county had. or the deNo new sire or use for them is dying out. Apparently countrywomen have lost the art of making them. which is to be deplored. and Dorset especially but in others were comparatively simple . for lar style of many years. The smock is now almost entirely countryman's discarded by our villagers. and the characteristics lost. . Buckinghamshire. Such scarce.212 Embroidery. PLATE No. . Essex. Smocks were not only worn by men. a garment would be dangerous to wear by those tending machines. but by milkmaids. The stitchery on some was very elaborate. 55. and old ones are very old An Nottinghamshire Possibly the introduction of agricultural machinery has had something to do with the smock being cast aside. its own particu- smocking and method of decorating this very useful and picturesque garment. ones are to be found. smock. In some cases the style of work and patterns have been carried across the borders from one county to another.
Plate No. a . 55.
plainimprove upon the is arrangement. the The only variety occurs in The Oxfordshire smock has pockets with lappets. back. tawny colour. called by old country " folks pocket lids. wrists. is a good type. in some cases. well and very is distinctive. The thread for smocking and embroidery was like thick flax it might. There is nothing to be had quite like it now. it The reason difficult to for this would be detail. . The Nottinghamshire smock planned." All the embroidery is in feather stitch. This is rather simpler but none the less characteristic than the Nottinghamshire example. the front. they were decorated with well as the smocking on and be compared to carpet thread. embroidery. The emin broidery stitch. executed entirely feather PLATE No.Description of Designs Ilhtslrated. but sometimes a dark blue was used. An old Oxfordshire smock. 56. . mostly a pale. The treatment of the cuff and shoulder appears be pretty much the same in all to counties. every instance as 2 1 5 They were made of coarse linen.
2 1 6 Embroidery. and a very high standard has been attained by them art. the Fine Needlework Association the is To writer indebted for the loan of the two examples here illustrated. in this beautiful old English . This Association makes smocking a special feature of their work.
56. .Plate No.
obviously good tools are in ordinary circumstances. to obtain technical excellence. a the most ser- . necessary. It is a needle. IN all is artistic handicrafts ship good workmanan essential quality. latively larger than the silk.CHAPTER V. silk is and the shape each time then roughened and pulled out it is taken through the too-small hole. a thick twisted silk is is When needle with a roundish eye being used. APPLIANCES. The silk make of a sufficiently large hole in the material. AND MATERIALS USED IN EMBROIDERY. it does not Needles. IMPLEMENTS. and these should be the simplest and best that are made. and. The embroideress requires but few tools and appliances. mistake to use a very fine thread or crewel must pass Unless the eye is reloosely into the eye. name For general purposes needles known by the of long-eyed sharps are recommended.
a " " Thimbles. needles with blunt points are the best. The drawing given on page -221 common two round pieces type of frame. with holes pierced at regular intervals. frame two flat pieces For the of work kept tightly stretched by means of . viceable.22O Embroidery. and the width of the frame is adjusted and the . or vulcanite Workers usually prefer ivory thimbles. sharp. illustrates a sists of required. It conof wood. and finely pointed scissors are the best. frame work. they destroy the Two thimbles are employed for Short. extending the full length of the wood between the mortises to this wood. a fairly For cutting out work with one sharp and one large pair is rounded point Frames. For darned net work (lacis work) and canvas work. or worn smooth. Both steel and but unless they are well silver ones are used. which have Strips of a mortise at each end. For gold work the needle should have a long eye and a sharp point is useful for rug needle carrying cord through the material. sides of the webbing the work is sewn. made thread. webbing are securely nailed along these. Scissors. are used these pass through the mortises..
which are inserted in the holes by each mortise. Trestles . Embroidery Frame. There is another kind of frame. 22 1 metal pins. wooden screws fitted with movable nuts to in place of the flat laths adjust the width of the frame. Materials. but not always The worker can rest the frame necessary. which has. with metal pins. if she is not using a very large one. Appliances. against a table. String is laced through the material and round the flat side-pieces of wood to stretch the work in the opposite direction. they are very convenient. or on the back of a chair.Implements. A fixed stand for the frame is often used .
They must well there should be only just enough room for the The inner hoop to pass through the outer one. The frame must be wider than the emthe broidery by a few inches. all round work should never spread to the full width of . only a small piece being exposed at a time panel is for the A purpose of working. employed to support the frame for big work. ly of wood. stuff to be embroidered is placed over . or hoops. Occasionally are covered in this way. narrow being worked. usualTambour Frame.222 are Embroidery. the other. the embroidery is rolled on the round top and base of the frame. drawIt is formed two of rings. tambour frame is useful for small work (see ing). the webbing or the lacing. but times of iron. they must be covered with flannel or baize a strip wound is the wooden ones tightly round. If some- made to fit closely one inside metal hoops are used. but a only necessary when they become fit little loose. If a long.
ox-gall. which this process. Crewels. and a small roll of flannel (about 4 inches wide) to serve as a pad for pouncing. Appliances. a tube of flake white. and become frayed or knotted before you have . make floss silk lie and lie in some forms of couching to arrange the of the thread. to flat. a small sable brush. A screw sometimes used to fasten the hoops together and to fix the frame to a table. Piercers made of steel are used for piercing holes in the material for the passage of gold and all kinds of coarse threads. The broad end of this instrument can be used to place the gold in position.Implements. For transferring patterns to the material the following articles are needed Prickers. but liable to pull the work. it is not only wasteful. Chinese white. one of lamp black (oil colours). gum arabic. the 223 then is is small hoop . MATERIALS. Never take more than about half the length of a skein in your needle. the other one is pressed firmly stretched down over by the material. turpentine. a long needle for making the : pounce. Indian ink. If a long needleful is used. white chalk and charcoal pow- dered. Materials.
.C.224 used it all. and durable. and Peri-Lusta are all reliable.M.M. The Tapestry wool is more than twice the thickness of crewels. colours in the best quality crewels are perfectly reliable.C. and the D.* also useful for silk as well. provided no soda or strong soaps are used. Useful for bold designs. Arrasene.^ This is a production of comparatively recent date. It is made in but is inferior to the worsted. Crewels manufactured with a twist are considered unsuitable. but it tends to produce a hard appearance. is mostly used for is fine work. Barbour's linen thread f The D. This thread has almost driven the old-fashioned ingrained cottons out of the field. even. broad effects.\ untwisted * Faudel's floss. and in the an inexperienced worker the emrendered tight and severe by broidery of is hands its use. good in colour. Embroidery. " bobbin silk. .'s. Corticelli lists." an That known as Silks. flax threads. species of worsted chenille. No doubt a twisted crewel wears better. and will wash well. J See Maygrove & Co. Glace Chenille recommended for general embroidery. which is glossy. A Flax Threads.
as it has a slight twist and the gloss is very beautiful. Tussore. Raw or Spun Silk. . smooth thread. the answers that purpose well. the following embroidery calls for list may be of some assistance : Passing. less Can be and pr6duce3 the than half the price of of Italy. Japanese gold When the best gold is desired. cultivated silk China. The " silk for general embroidery silk. untwisted silk. Where a gold outline. George Kenning Q . Japan. kinds of work. it an inferior quality of silk can be used for many different .Implements. But when silk or satin grounds are employed. & Son's lists. the best silk. soft. and much used for ecclesiastical purposes. Gold and Silver Threads* etc. 225 Filo floss is easier to work. Materials. A cream-coloured." purposes is called Purse silk is a tightly twisted kind. excellent in quality. * See A bright. Filoselle is nevertheless. There thread " is a good deal of Japanese gold used both in ecclesiastical as well " as domestic silk work at the present time. always work with A for wild silk of India. Appliances.
beads. and fastened down as in bead work." wide." but finer. A flat gold about tV There are gold-twisted cords of various thicknesses. The " Letter-bag" shown on Plate No. Can be cut at the required lengths. 17 has clusters of pearls and concave of gold are skilfully used. Dull. The larger sizes of in. Bright. " Rough Purl Smooth Purl. Fine kind 'of threads. . Embroidery. and disks but great care and must be exercised in their applicajudgment tion. Plate. is a narrow. which pass Plate silver. is be either in gold or silver. In effect like small beads " purl. strung together. Bullion. Can either be used for and couched working through the material. or laid in the usual way. and is stitched to the material by threads of silk. Gold and Silver Passing and Tambour. over the metal. It made in a series of continuous rings rather Purl may like a corkscrew. threaded on the needle. Rough and sparkling.226 Tambour. Check Purl. pearls. Like passing. flat piece of gold or about TV inch wide. Precious stones. Pearl Purl.
as " flax The " is unsatis- known factory as a ground for needlework. Oatmeal Smock a strong. green fabric. carries well. conjunction with Spangles and Sequins. Sail-cloth is a stout. Serge. even. it When is dressing in the advisable to boil it well before finding there is all shades commencing bleached linen the embroidery. . is linen linen. 227 applied in disks of gold gold threads. and the " twilled linens. finer yellow-coloured and of a greyer tint than oatcake linen is linen. FABRICS USED AS GROUNDS FOR EMBROIDERY. the colours are good and in every way is admirable for embroidery purposes. as a rule. especially Kirriemuir twill. Among and the ordinary machine-made linens there no difficulty in qualities. Materials. gold. Sometimes There are a number of pure of various col- oured metal spangles and sequins. beautiful.Implements '. soft or super serge." are excellent for crewel work. Linen. embroidery Cricketing flannel is a fine creamy colour. linen. Appliances. Hand-made The textures are most linens are the best. and.
Silks in and satins are usually embroidered as " a frame. will only carry light embroidery. Can be Brocades are admirable for grounds. Velvet-face cloth is a rich plain cloth. curtains. Felt seldom. and is can easily be worked in the hand. Silk Sheeting. suitable etc. gives the embroidery. suitable for altar-cloths.228 soft. It should be with a cotton or linen lining if it is to be heavily embroidered.. for table linen. Embroidery. Tussore and Corah silk grounds are very delicate. charming and but they in silk. and which are called into service many kinds of embroidery. for Of good quality. used. piano coverings. Genoese velvet is very rich in colour and " " backed quality for grounds. Both are very beautiful ribbed backgrounds. and Utrecht at times for crewel or tapestry wool embroidery. but only very altar-cloths and curtains. The patterned surface. without gloss . a pleasant contrast if w ell r to chosen. . embroidered in the hand. panels. for Velveteen is employed velvet some purposes. particularly the patterned for silks. is Diagonal Cloth. for etc. occasionally chosen by workers.
First. wool. Gold and Silver. methods. That sort of costly cloth-ofgold which took its famous name from heraldic Baghdad. However. A name given to an inferior silk. making as . A six-thread silk stuff preciously interwoven with gold threads. There are several it is . Bandekin. Trace the design on a fairly tough piece of tracing-paper. Cloth and ecclesiastical embroidery. transferring of designs on to the material is at no time a very easy occupation. Materials. linen and gold in Flanders.Implements. kind of damask wrought of thread. there is the old and much- used pouncing method. end of the fifteenth for of Towards the it was used century Chiefly used much for church furniture. prefer is The and necessary and it should be done by the designer or embroiderer. TRANSFERRING DESIGNS. There are also a number of mixtures procurable which grounds for embroidery. certainly one which most people to have done for them. silk 229 and linen suitable are Dorneck. with place the tracing on a fold of flannel a needle prick out all the lines. Samit or Examitur. Appliances. .
and with the if dark. use sometimes flake lamp-black or Indian ink it . to use as a pouncer. as eighteen or twenty holes to each If the two halves of the design are it many inch. with a little gum arabic to make it stick. Then pin it out tightly and evenly on the material you are to embroider. using the small holes. and go over the lines with a drawing-pen or a brush. and a little ox-gall to make run smoothly. very tightly into a solid If cylindrical shape. roll a long strip of flannel. and prick both at once. but requires . and with a fine brush draw in the lines made by the powder. about 4 inches wide. in colour. thinned with a little turpentine. fold so down the centre. use fine French roll of flannel rub the Then powder through remove the tracing very carefully so as not to smudge the powder. with Indian ink or Chinese white. Chinese white.230 Embroidery. This method is not difficult. exactly alike. white or ivory black (oil colours) are used. If black is required. the material is light . Another method is that with tarlatan. Trace the design accurately on to rather fine tarlatan. use finely powdered charcoal chalk. Then place this pricked tracing on the material you are to embroider.
is the most modest For table forms of ornamental needlework. Some elaborate designs are produced in this class of needlework in fact. drawn thread work wears well. DRAWN THREAD WORK.Implements Appliances. '. and with a knitting-needle. The withdrawing of either the woof threads of a linen or cotton warp material within certain narrow bands or squares. pillow cases. or steel tracer. hard surface. provided simple and not particularly open patterns are used. go over the lines very evenly. towels linen. and gathering together in groups Stitches. and in this form it is frequently employed in the ornamentation of costumes. 231 infinite care. agate. on a firm. and suchlike articles of every-day use. it can be made as fine as delicate lace. fitness of this unaffected kind of decoration. third plan is to put transfer paper under your design. or the remaining threads by darning one of or with overcasting stitches. Materials. Drawn work. these un- pretentious little Apart from the patterns always seem right. See the tarlatan does not slip out of its The proper place. carried to a lace-like and dex- .
47 a similar piece of ornament is given.232 terous stage. Embroidery. lacis 45 a significant type of design work (suitable for drawn work) is shown. the the diagram of the greatest woven threads have been represented much more open than they are in the original the solid black . and the method of Of the working described on page 188. On Plate in No. parts indicate the piercings. is dealt with in handbooks specially devoted to the work. This interesting fragment is worked in . In order to make use to the worker. from an old Egyptian Example. on account of the unusual course adopted in edging the drawn work. banded or insertion group the one here shown claims the attention of the worker Drawn Thread Border. and on Plate No. The drawing has been prepared from an ancient Egyptian example in which the stitching is executed in two colours on a very loosely woven fabric.
accomd i apanying gram the cesses will show proi two wh c h Stitches for working the Edge of Drawn Thread Border. Four threads were taken upon it. is not shown in the diagram. counting from the right to left (stitch i). Having drawn the needle and thread through. pointing obliquely upward. be seen that the needle was inserted in drawn space. two rows of this appear. . the following 233 first manner. the ancient embroideress has divided and secured the edge threads by a stitch which combines the ' : hem " and "back" of stitches ordinary The \ fSTITCH. Appliances. This. worked one within the " " and forming a little brick pattern. counting upward. and where the hem stitch is introduced in the usual way. a horizontal stitch was made. form the It will stitch. For this the needle was inserted four threads to the right of its last point of exit. and four. plain sewing.Implements. Threads are removed to a depth of about J inch. and the brought up At the end stitching of the border to this point again (stitch 2). however. other. Materials.
Having secured the edges in this way. Once more the needle was passed to the middle. connecting the undarned half with two more groups. the worker darned the groups of threads in alternate masses of yellow and red. Starting at the edge of the border.234 Embroidery. and worked back again to the first edge. Halfway across she included a third group. and the unworked halves of the two last groups were darned together to the other edge. she darned two groups of four threads together. Then she passed her needle down the darning of the last group to the central point where it began. . and darned the three together to the other edge.
CHAPTER VI. ECCLESIASTICAL AND HERALDIC NEEDLEWORK. Cuthbert green. with gold threads ground. They bear inscriptions all which dispel doubt as to the date of the work. and definitely state that the order was given for Bishop Fridestan by Queen Aelfflaeda. but mostly such threads are employed in conjunction with coloured preserved specimens of needlework of this kind are to Anglo-Saxon be found in the library of Durham Cathedral. silks. In some instances the work is executed entirely in threads of precious metal. THE noblest and most perfect examples of ecclesiastical needlework produced in olden times reveal the decorative value of gold and silver threads. and purple silks. Another and more important . were taken from the tomb of 1826-7. on a linen The embroidery is in blue. The earliest They in consist of a stole and maniple which St. red.
piece of embroidery the dalmatic of Charle- magne. . gold cannot it domestic decoration For must be used with be beaten. can be ornamented entirely in gold on purple. which is considered to come first and rank highest among ecclesiastical needlework said to belong to the eighth century and is wrought mostly in gold. de Cantelupe (1236-66) belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Worcester. without the slightest fear As a medium of gaudiness or vulgarity. and of the skill bestowed upon this phase of the craft. is The designer for church and heraldic work called upon to treat his figures.236 Embroidery is . give further proof of the splendours and extravagance in ancient gold thread needlework. for bringing strong contrasting colours into harmony. blue. or vestment. The dalmatic. Fragments of gold thread terest embroidery of historical inwere found in the coffin of William de and some very elaborately executed gold work from a vestment believed to have been worn by Bishop Walter Blois (1218-36). scarlet. There is no question of the orna- mental value of gold and astical silver in ecclesi- and heraldic work. the greatest reticence. and the richest coloured fabrics. animals.
clearly severity. 21) of its ornamental beauty independent throws some light upon the early history vestment. The at once in a manner in bold outline frequently a To the necessary. Without these precious fibres heraldic embroidery would lose in much of its conveying its stately beauty. or unravel an entangled point in family history. The heraldic patterning on the orphrey of the Syon Cope (Plate No. practical artist in the different branches of ecclesiastical decoration. Heraldic signs are often the only clue to authorship . embroidered in front with the arms of England. 237 and symbolic ornament with objects must read firm and graphic rich. and fail meaning so forcibly.Ecclesiastical Work. a vestment We (probably a chasuble) of white silk that had been found in her wardrobe. they may furnish the lost link in a broken pedigree. by way of evidence against the aged Countess of Salisbury. an acquaintance with Christian symbolism is all important. of this remarkable read that " Cromwell produced in the House of Lords. In the most expressive periods of heraldic art gold thread was largely utilised in needlework. . surrounded with a wreath of pansies and mari- .
" p.238 golds. there is very good reason for her moving cautiously. nothing is left vague or indefinite. if well to secure the services of a student in the there is care signs * iii. . 68. Embroidery. must be exercised the slightest fear. Strickland's " Queens of England. for great in the using of these which convey so much meaning.* own The old heraldic designer emphasised the striking features of the objects he repre- sented . Miss A. The bold characteristics of the creatures he pictured have become signs of great historical importance. and condemned to death without the privilege of being heard in her defence. ponded with her absent son (Cardinal Pole). of heraldry with doubt and mis- and unless she has acquired some of the work. she was for no other crime attainted for high treason. The peers permitted the unprincipled minister to persuade them that it was a treasonable and as the countess had corresensign . The modern embroideress approaches the subject givings. and of the Host with five the name Jesus written in the midst. and on the back the representation of wounds of our Lord. It is knowledge art.
. and the qualities assigned to some of them. 239 The imaginative symbols of spiritual ideas.Ecclesiastical Work. are explained in the chapter commencing on page 36.
there a natural gift for the work. The step the stitches. STITCHES. Careful observaand if tion and experience are needed . When a certain stitch is called by two or three different names. to say just where the charm and interest produced by the texture in stitching rests and it is not easy to learn.(240) CHAPTER A GOOD design VII. But the worker can rest assured is that these qualities do not lie in the novelty and variety of the stitches employed. which are first to make a general survey of merely variations and elaborations of the simpler structural kinds. the all of writer has attempted to give them in . it is all the better. learn the ordinary straightforward kinds. may in lose and character. and the others. there is still great scope for the worker's choice of judgment and stitch and method is taste in the of execution. beauty embroidery. . by an in- much of its It is difficult judicious selection of stitches. while some of these answer certain purposes and those only. for the most common and simplest are the best and . will follow if the worker perseveres.
to draw many of the stitches with an appearance of greater openness than is evident in their actual state.Stitches. or they are taken from old in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Stitches (such as 28. 27. and 31) which depend partly for their charm on the twist of the knot or interlacement being seen. are best worked in some It has been necessary tightly twisted silk. so that the silk. much work 19. 26. R . that the eye of the needle is large enough to take the silk easily. figs. otherwise the silk or wool is rubbed and roughened in its passage backwards and forwards through the material. 23. the material must be held in a convex position over the fingers. 241 arisen the text. Never use very long needlefuls and see . But much confusion has distinguishing names which it is impossible to remedy. When the work is executed in the hand without the use of a frame. for otherwise the inter- lacing and position of the thread would not have been clearly visible. for we find accepted authorities referring to the same with regard to the stitch by his or her own special name. 20. The following stitches are all either in general use or recognised as good from experience. flax thread.
will aid in the pulling or puckering of the preventing hand. f are stem embroidery stitch. when she has become accustomed to its use. stitches which can stitch. buttonhole stitch. called t Also stitch. and designs. . border. the chain stitches.* stitch. The simplest types of be worked in the hand split stitch.242 Embroidery. if work. The frame should be used for laid work. will find. cross stitch. stitch blanket knotted knot. satin stitch. bullion couching. . wool. and. or French knots. tained by is more even effect is oband in the general way it working the whole range of After learning the outline. and darning. when the stitch is made. it is well to take to the frame and the worker utilised for stitches. all solidly stitched A much its use. long-and-short stitch and feather stitch. on the surface than the foundation material. generally to all These remarks apply embroideries worked in the carefully observed. plumage (Opus Plumarium). in the * frame than out of Also called crewel stitch. or other fibre with which the design is being embroidered shall be looser. and diaper groups of stitches in the hand. applique. she can do most of her work better it.
Plate No. 57. .
The first stitch It is usually taught to beginners. it is also known. the stitches number of lines placed close enough to cover the ground. although it is frequently used for gradated and flat fillings and especially for crewel " crewel stitch. i). but they must not overlap in any way. and then follow a few lines of each . simplest. Each stitch should follow on a line in a slanting direction a long stitch forward on the surface. Two or three rows of the lightest colour are sewn.Stitches. Whether used an in for covering a surface or as outline. the working exactly the same for in rows. When employed run solid work. like a each instance. 57. and a shorter one backwards on the underside of the fabric. Stem Stitch (fig. prominent place is given stem stitch as an outline stitch." by A work which is hence the name. 245 PLATE No. This stitch yields a very decorative effect when worked in gradated colours. and a most useful stitch for one of the work done in the hand.
The diagram ex- It will be seen that the plains the working. as the name implies. appears very is : much like a The working easy an ordinary stitch is taken on the is line required and the stitch. thread brought up through this which it splits in passing. is especially useful when a thin delicate line is required. given below). IA. . IA. and It in some instances the flesh as well. needle enters the material at the point where the last stitch finished and is brought through a it little beyond (not more than J inch) where came out in making the previous stitch. Back 2). sometimes for holding the place in laid of in work for solid work. Split Stitch (fig. fine chain. Also used for line silk in its work. order to the darkest one. See examples on Plates Nos. for line work.246 shade in Em b ro ide ry. 3). Back Stitch (fig. 4 and 5. Stitch. and occasionally In many historical examples needlework draperies are executed entirely split stitch. (see fig.
can also be varied in many ways two together. and bring closely worked. 5A. The working can be by is diagram.Stitches. as in fig. makes a good edging. Further. 247 Rope Stitch (fig. To make a solid bold line. an interesting border . Buttonhole Stitch (fig. stitches . where the point of the needle comes through. the loose thread passes under. 4). SB. rather open both open and closed it can be used tively. working one over the other. the edge of the it out on the . other edge in a slanting direction hold the thread down on the surface with the left hand. and. two stitches again falling alternately. then a space and Tailor's Buttonhole Stitch. raised line when line to Put the needle through on be worked. In the drawing it the represented . it is necessary that the needle should be put in as close as possible to the top of the preceding stitch.1 . Useful for giving a it is thick. 5) is familiar to clearly seen every one. by changing the direction and crossing the stitch. effec- The spacing .
the pulling. The stitches only enter the material in the first row and at the ends of each successive row. After the thread silk is brought through the material. page 247). making buttonhole in the stitch with is French Knots is (fig. flowers. Then put the needle in again near the point it came out first and draw the silk through. For open fillings of leaves. only releasing it with the left finger and thumb as it tightens in number of twists round varied . we and old English last in Spanish. 5B. and all kinds of spaces. on the boundary line The tailor's method of the form being filled. It is work. the it twisted twice round the needle. buttonhole stitch is very serviceable. \vhilst holding tightly with the left finger and thumb. favoured by Oriental find it Though much needle-workers. made. The the needle can be two turns are to usual. 6). A solid filling with this stitch is given by closely working each row into the heading of the previous one. Italian. Numerous effects are obtained by working the stitches in rows. employed in the named . This knotted stitch does not seem to be confined any country. of knot an extra and very deheading strong corative (see fig.248 is Embroidery.
A taken into the material the length the thread is then of the roll required twisted perhaps seven or eight or more times stitch is . Rose in French Knots. which is with . is 6A). Another variety resembles bullion of knotted stitch which Bullion Knot (fig. round the point of the needle. for the foliage trees and rose here illustrated (from Chinese embroidery) is entirely in French knots in three The shades of silk. 249 of rendering shrubs.Stitches.
In other words. Parisian. 6c). the worker stitches is forbidden to use either of the fine-textured on In making tent stitch on an open mesh. net. The cushion or canvas stitch group is rather stitch. Milanese.like cross stitch. the needle is taken over two threads each time instead of one. an open web. Gobelin. confusing with regard to the various names by which they are known. cross on the surface. Cashmere.250 Embroidery. usually worked upon coarse canvas but it .. first half of the cross stitch. the left thumb being placed lightly upon the coil during the process. Bargello. The needle is then inserted again in the place where it first entered the material. A regular and even Cross Stitch f (fig. vinarium). or does not follow that materials. canvas stitch. They are called Hungarian. canvas stitch and cushion stitch (Opus PulGobelin stitch is a variety of tent stitch. as in tent stitch. Irish. and Rococo. Holbein. or Indian. * Called Moorish. . Spanish. great care drawn through the coil made by the twists. 30 and 32. and cushion f Called mosaic stitch. purl. Florentine. 6B). you treat the thread in the same way is you would bullion or Tent Stitch* (fig. When worked on canvas. See Plates No. the needle is stepped diagonally from one thread It is the of the fabric to the next in a line.
58- .Plate No.
Figs. 7 to ii on this plate illustrate stitches which can be worked in the hand or the frame. when a braid-like sought. 7 from left finger to right. 1 1. Figs. the needle pointing from right to left downwards in a slanting direction and upwards alternately. 1 Also held towards the worker across the finger. openly to They can both be worked show the ground between the * stitches. the needle always pointing and 8 are worked along the downwards. Figs.Stitches. 58. They are all suitable for narrow effect is bands or borders. the needle always pointing on the slant towards the centre from the left and right alternately. Fig. Called Roumanian . 253 PLATE No. * Called plait or f Cretan stitch. 9 and 10 are worked across the finger. or closed. stitch.
59. PLATE No. There are a quantity of examples the Victoria and Albert amongst the Persian and Indian work in Museum. where the . Chain stitch Stitch (fig. and before the needle of the fabric. Chain stitch is found in drawn out Leaf outlined and veined in Chain Stitch. for all purposes. the earliest examples of ornamental needle- work. 12) is made by is taking a is downwards.254 Embroidery. It has been used at all times. the silk brought round towards the worker and under the point of the needle.
Plate No. 59. .
257 with chain stitch. and very easy to work. from one the needle is taken through to the other. 12. ground is filled in solidly In these embroideries the stitch has been executed on the tambour frame with a crochet-hook. as will be seen by the diagrams. principle. A good border is made by square chain. To commence these stitches two parallel and lines are marked on the material. as in figs.' the chain can be arranged as a zigzag. up and down. One link slants across and the other back. 15). When is demanded. 14. 13 and 14). A stitch well known to the seamstress. A regular and mechanical result is produced by this method. worked between two traced lines. Imagine two parallel lines marking the width of the space to be filled with the s . all are worked on the same variety in line Figs. which replaces the needle. the thread being looped under the point of the needle as it comes out of the fabric each time. worked openly or closed (see figs. but to be content with the needle for working this stitch.Stitches. Herring-bone (fig. 13. 13 and 14. and the worker will find it is more satisfactory not to use the crochet- hook.
but is really the quite one of the hardest to do well must be so accurate. This is apparently the most simple of stitches. The sketch represents an ordinary kind of . . (fig. through on one line. pass over to the opposite line. 17). once it has been mastered its charm is great. repeat the stitch farther along. and few stitches equal it for severity. Overlapping is Herring-bone lines. 16) is worked on the same made each time . and so on from On the back of the material is the effect that of two rows of back stitch. stitch. take up about an eighth an inch of the material. It shows to the best advantage the beauty of the silk and its gloss. The same amount of silk or crewel remains on both back and it is. However. longer stitch the method of over- A lapping is explained by the diagram. that it the patience of the worker.258 Embroidery. and the slope and its . not the front of the work most economical stitch. therefore. bring the needle pass over to the other line and insert the needle a little in advance of where it came out on the of first line. the stitches be edge made to lie so evenly. change of direction first taxes at be so gradual. draw the needle through. Satin Stitch (fig. and side to side.
of working if the surface to be covered way are with satin stitch is a large one. great care is in radiating the lines of the stitches. when dove-tailing several shades of silk have to a method of be used for the petal of a flower as in the or when rows of stitches rose here illustrated employed to suggest the overlapping of It is also necessary to adopt this petals. Rose in Satin Stitch.Stitches. When the space to be covered is tapering in form and the stitches are to be needed There directed towards the point. filling in 259 which the stitches run parallel to each other. From a Silk Cover. is also stitches. . Chinese.
19). Snail-trail as single coral. is Leave (^4) rather when (B) three-cornered knot. easiest and most straightforward kind of Darning (fig. is worked almost entirely on the surface. like figs. 21 A). Tied Coral loose. 18 and 19 both illustrate useful " snailstitches for line work. Single Coral (fig. These. -20). 18) with buttonhole each side makes a good narrow border. with " " as German trail (fig. are referred to " " " Knot workers. so that (fig. and by some Running Knot The sketches explain the working of each stitch. . slant.260 Embroidery. thick twisted silk it like in When is carried out in a very rich and braid- appearance. The same principle only worked more on the 21). is the ing openly worked. Ordinary plain darnas is here shown. pulled (A) makes a Bead-edging or Braid Stitch (fig. 60. the back in each case being very simple. Figs. 18 and 19. PLATE No. This. (fig. 21).
. 60.Plate No.
purpose of spacefilling, when a light effect is wanted, it is very valuable. Occasionally French knots are introduced between each row of stitches,
at times the darning is varied by using a long and a short stitch alternately. The lines of stitches can be taken in a vertical or
horizontal direction, or at an angle, or effectively worked with the rows slightly radiat-
When the stitches are carried across ing. in the form of a net, little additions to the
pattern are made by working a French knot in each square created by the crossing, or small stitches are taken diagonally across
the corners of the network squares. Two examples of fancy darning are given on
Plate No. 71, figs. 69 and 70. The best results are obtained when a fairly thin thread is
to be executed on a very difficult to adopt the
usual method of counting the threads for each stitch and space for these geometrical But it is well to count the threads patterns.
keep the pattern regular a few points for guidance in the by marking See that the marks are only in stitching.
possible, or to
places that will be covered by the stitches. The ingenious worker takes great pleasure
in creating delicate diapers and dexterous fillings in darning, and finds still greater
play for her taste in placing these patterns in their proper positions in her work. Contrast of texture and tone are all important
in the balancing of a design.
a small link
twisting the needle under and over from the right side, insert it into the stuff in front of
the large loop. Cable Stitch with Knot
It is old Portuguese piece (Plate No. 33). very like fig. 22, but with addition of the
is placed, as at (B), under the loop, and also under the loose thread from the left side, and pulled
left side of
which the ordinary large loop
a stitch found in several old
in the Victoria
and Albert Museum. It is useful when a band is wanted, which will cover well, and yet not be too solid. (.4), (B), and (C) for the
material, whilst (B)
passes through the (C) go under the
short Stitch, or Feather Stitch
So called from its supposed resemium). blance to the plumage of a bird. Long-andshort stitch and embroidery stitch are the terms commonly applied, and as it is the
most universal form of stitching in solid and particularly in shaded embroidery, there seems little reason to
with these which do serve names,
to distinguish the stitch satin ordinary
The system of working a long and a short
nately well in between
satin stitch proper. Long-and-short stitch is the most useful for shaded work it enables
the embroiderer to get delicate gradations of colour whereas in satin stitch a line of
made by each group
the dove-tail method
row of stitches does not do away with the marked dividing line. With respect to the other name,
breaking into the previous
These three also are taken from the example on Plate No. only the foundation stitch on and 28 are all worked. is worked PLATE No. and could be worked in a hard. Two of the bars are taken tothis stitch. as feather stitch. and through which long. It consists of Fig. It gether on which to make has the effect of long. Fig. " 27 is 1 feather stitch." this used by old writers in describing the stitch. They would be effective in purse silk.Stitches. 26. two rows of chain stitches. 33. smock of (Plates more commonly accepted To the seamstress this is On the two examples of No. the whole is the decoration outside the smocking in this stitch. the meshes of which are opposite to each other. strongly glazed thread. straight crossbars are worked. 26. whilst the thread is whipped . 55 and 56). An ad- mirable feathery quality can be produced by its use in fine silk. chain-like meshes down the centre. 25 is 62. 27. A drawing is given on page 268 of what very familiar. which figs.
goes backwards behind the large loop as soon as E is worked. A to G. and so on. and are worked up and then down the bars. or.272 round twice. . also These straight brick stitches are worked on the surface over the cords. 28. These stitches are on the slope. and which must not show when the whole is done. on each After the foundation has been made. thrice. if necessary. side. are worked on the surface. 27. Fig. all Embroidery. Fig. which the seems to be too evident. first behind two bars and then behind one then. Stitch A. behind two. but it is as well now and then to carry one through the material to keep them steady and straight. succeeding stitches. . to form the next group. behind one.
Plate No. . 63.
is taken from the example on Plate No. 275 PLATE No. like most of the Fig. the crossbars being used only to raise it and keep the stitches even. behind three. using the shades alternately. behind given. behind two. It stitches being only over the crossbars. then put the long . where both back and front are The thread goes behind two. to regain the lower line so as to be ready to go behind two. then the second all round. Also a form of bricking. 33. and so on. as will be seen by the enlarged diagram. following the outer shape. the stitches set is obliquely. 29. First attach the six or eight long threads at the top. the Fig. this last being one. others in two colours. 30 is again a brick stitch worked through the material. 31. and stitch down to the narrow places. done at once. It is done in two shades of thread.Stitches. behind one again. but the two rows are two rows of each . One shade carried all the way round. This stitch. 63. Fig. is worked in two colours.
whilst B only goes under the thread in both journeys. width of the border. pulling out the thread the second part of the to the full width knot. are really to raise the stitch. so as to have the thread in place below the line for the second knot. is to pull the knot over upon the top of the band. A and C go through the material. . stitch across the third time down makes . and 32 Figs. The the knot as at A then .276 Embroidery. at B. 33. though worked differently. Fig. the uprights hardly show when done. 32 and 33 are two rather similar In fig. as at B. the wide place. borders.
64. .Plate No.
Fig. bars to look round and . and towards the fig. 35. and not through are the ground.Stitches. This. can be padded underneath the raised. 64. whipped together with a contrasting colour. The needle always points towards the centre. put the needle behind two bars C. whilst fig. 37 is on upright bars. 36 . Two rows of chain stitch. which Fig. or in two shades of the same colour. worked parallel lines over is two all the silk and under on the surface. and bring it out in the up centre of the next loop. 279 PLATE No. 34 is herring-bone across on so that really a sort of Oriental or in alternate colours. The second colour or tint only passes under the inside of the meshes. and 37 are similar in effect but 36 is done on crossbars. and worked away from the worker. if worked with four or five loops only. loop fig. Figs. To produce different stitch. : colours 36 with alternate rows in after making a chain B over two bars. worker.
and in two hence the stitch B has to descend colours low enough to allow space for the second 39 is . 34 to 38 the silk is in every case of the material. 38. only that it is for a border.280 Fig. The two shades are worked in Fig. A goes owing to the interThree loops are done through the material. connects it with the next. This worked in two or more effective. 65. and also similar to fig. The stem 40. is outline to the border could be stitch or a fine cord. and then change. 38. colours very lacing of the threads. and at the same time mesh. Fig. stitch. ' formed by a Y "-shaped like fig. B must always alternate descending lines. 37. either Fig. n. Embroidery. shade. A makes the first half of the the second. . Two rows are B worked one colour. go in on the surface In Figs. in each colour. over one bar lower than A has done. in the centre of which the needle comes out. PLATE No.
Plate No. 65 .
left to the right. and goes under the silk only. the silk at A.Stitches. which passes only under the silk. and fig. 42 a stem stitch one. 41 the herring-bone is whipped with a second shade. in B but from the over and under the needle also. 283 whilst B is always looped through the previous one. which comes under knotting and over the needle. which the In fig. the needle always being at fig. starting from right to crossed left . 41 and 42 are both worked on an open herring-bone foundation. . 41 having a buttonhole edge. fig. 42 the knot is made round In portion of the herring-bone. In right angles to the long stitch under it has to pass. Figs.
and does blues. The introduction of the aluminium thread would give the effect of the silver. or some very smooth.wings in this border suggests possibilities with the use of and bottle-green silks. 66. They would all have to be the same relative weight of colour. and worked French of knots. not tarnish. seventeenth century. Fig. The small oblong disks could be worked in satin stitch. glossy. work in beetle's wings and silver thread. 43. Spanish.284 Embroidery. and untwisted silk. PLATE No. 45. sixteenth century. 46 is a example . The jewelled effect of beetle. From Mexico. in floss silk. fine silk gimp. 44 is a counter-change pattern from an old applique stole of crimson velvet and yellow satin outlined in gold. purples. Italian. Taken from a piece of Indian Fig. Fig. in satin stitch. but it is rather duller. very simple counter change ornaments. Details given of a border Fig.
66.Plate No. .
Plate No. . 67.
49 is given to show how the Chinese use the change of direction of their stitches in this block -shading to give variety also . Figs. 47." In it the stitches are all evenly lengthened beyond the amount visible in the finished work into the following row is then taken up the previous stitches (dove-tailed). U . 67. it will so cleverly managed as to no break through the whole Fig. so that a raised line (following the outline in . and. Fig.Stitches. 48 is an example of shading done entirely with French knots (on the same principle as the reproduction of the Chinese rose on page 249) the dotted lines show the . it is carefully followed. 289 PLATE No. which only on close examina- tion proves not to be corded underneath. " taken from rigid method of Fig 47 is termed encroaching shading. and show their shading in blocks. 48. area of each different colour. in fine gold. if The outline is be seen that necessitate flower. all and 49 are Chinese work. shape) is made.
when 50. not quite . from side to side The needle. however. it will not wear well. to last for a long time. well sewn. a beautifully . For getting the full 68. to emphasise the value of voiding that is. 42) that. it which proves can with care be " made Fig. leaving the ground to show all round each petal and mass in a manner which is rather similar to the use of ties in stencilling. and if the surface work cannot be beaten. one great drawback it is not very strong. broidery. This to be covered " by the work There is is large. after passing through the material at the edge or boundary of the leaf or flower form is brought up again. PLATE No.preserve^ example of laid work in the Victoria and Albert Museum (see reproduction of chalice veil on Plate No." laid emPlain couching on First lay the threads evenly of the space to be filled. value of the gloss and brilliancy of the silks the system adopted in " the working of what is known as laid form of embroidery has.290 Embroidery.
.Plate No. ARC HOT ON 1.^1 1>- WORK ii ii II II II II COUCHING STiTCH. 68. HKKftp COUCHtp.
Stitches. is narrow ribbon. As work opening a at one end and closing a the layer at is little at the other. 51. couched. threads are laid across and fairly regular intervals. lines of laid little the leaf or form curves your will gradually follow. 53*. Couching A thick strand of double crewel. second. stitches from the back (couched). or suggesting the growth (as in following this example). and couched on both sides of the string with Fig. thus laying the threads alternately first. or the worker may choose. 293 in- but at a distance to allow an termediate stitch being taken backwards. When complete. 52. third. in gold It Embroidery the to Phrygians. carried over string. tapestry wool. These threads are fixed pleasant down by applique. for outline or edging filoselle. close. was by the Romans attributed was therefore called Opus Phrygium. . and so on . Fig. fourth. in this way you get a better hold at each end of the line than when laid consecutively. Silk twist over string. Gold* coloured Fig. as laid on the surface at regular inter- of the material and stitched vals by threads it crossing at right angles and holding down. silk.
294 Em b ro ide ry twist is . Fig. which are stitched down over the padding usually two rows of these and securely fixed down. two at a time. In the illustration on . the next two rows are treated as brick Then stitch. string. It is very handsome and ornamental. silk cords. in the form of cotton. Disk of gold thread couched with Fig. or macrame string. Diaper Couching. Basket Stitch. Basket stitch is one of the most ancient methods of couching. red silk. cord. The and is laid down two strands together. 55. are first laid across the surface of the material Gold threads are then placed across them. stretched across on each side of the string. for stitching horse-tail down the gold. Gold. or stitchings. 54. purse silk. This makes a pleasing border. rubbed with beeswax. One is thicker than the other. for variety. and fastened exactly between the previous Strong silk must be used. By varying the position of the fastening stitches a number of simple patterns may be produced. The play of light on the gold when wound round in this fashion gives a jewellike appearance. or even untwisted silk may be used for laying down. Rows of padding. Fig. 56. (making four gold threads together).
69.Plate No. .
and in fig. as over string in the other figures. For figs. is 60 the design cut out in cardboard tacked down in its place and the gold laid across. and stitched firmly with waxed horse-tail fig. firmly along the lines of the design . For 59 the centres are padded with a soft cotton called stuffing cotton. 18 it will be is the whole of the background little patterned with disks of gold in spiral fashion. each side of the strings. 57. PLATE No. . 297 seen that Plate No. 57 and 58 macrame string is sewn 58. 59. The double passing is laid backwards and forwards the whole width of the border. 69. and stitched down on each side. the string must never cross. Figs.Stitches. and 60 represent four borders which are worked in gold passing. but be cut off and begun again.
is gold should be it is 61 and 6iA explain how tambour used over cardboard. piece of cloth. then cut out in cardboard. The design first drawn on the material. and stitch firmly with waxed horse-tail at each side of . 70 Figs.298 Embroidery. quite useless. Each shape must be rather smaller petal or to allow for the gold going over the card without enPlace the pieces of larging the design. cardboard within the the material lines of the design on and tack them firmly down. as stretched is is elastic. The pieces are then . it very carefully. like passing) backwards and forwards.the card the centre of this figure is filled in . and cut the required lengths must be handled and if once First lay it on a with short. with basket Fig. 62 purl. PLATE No. is stitch. lay the tambour (used double. sharp nail-scissors which meet well at the points. an example showing the use of of the finest gold wire twisted It Purl to is made form a round tube.
USED OVER PADDING. 70. CONJUNCTION Enl Flo.Plate No. vW\\PSiii I "Wi//////// TAMBOUR COLD OVER TAMBOUR GOLD OVER CARDBOARD WITH BASKET STITCH IN CARDBOARD. PURL.63. THE CROSSED LINES ARE IN HATETHE FLOWEK5 IN PURL . METHOD OF WORKING A FLOWER IN ROUGH PURL Fig. 62.
as in flowers in 62 and the It is quite simple to work. add more cotton. is more The simplest way of padding is a but that can single row of macrame string only be used when the lines of the design are . narrow and as in If fig. Purl embroidery over padding difficult. take the silk back close to where it came up. shown in flower. and a straight purl fills the centre of each petal. threaded like beads. the silk up at the base or edge of the Bring figure to be worked. and when the design cut becomes narrower. the design has lines very varying in width. Rough purl is used for the petals stitch of bright of the flower. and secure the loop with a stitch. letting the padding be highest in the middle and rounding down to the sides. fig. 62. thread on the needle a piece of purl the length required. and stitch over from side to side. fairly even in thickness all over. one thickness at a time (cut the ends slanting) . Lay as many thicknesses of the stuffing cotton as the design requires. . yellow stuffing cotton must be used. 63. one thickness at a time. 301 fig. as fig. 64. Do not grudge time and pains spent in padding. As the design widens. away the cotton slantwise.Stitches.
Rough and smooth together. and take the largely needle down at the opposite edge. as in or straight across. worked in a slanting direction.302 Embroidery. . embroidery depends for the success in purl upon the smoothness of the padding. the pieces surface. tion that The purl must you can pass your loosely on the be so firm in posifinger along without displacing them. one and two of the other alternately or for monograms. lay the padding as before deand cut the purl long enough to cover Horse-tail silk for the strings or padding. At first it is difficult to cut the purl exactly the right length. thread a piece of purl. Pearl purl is used for outlining purl emBasket stitch can be worked in i. little gaps are left lie at the sides . purl scribed. fig.e. giving the silk a firm pull so that the purl lies immov- able over the padding. may be rough and the other broidery. but If the pieces are that comes with practice. too short. and if too long. 63. one letter smooth. purl may be used two stitches of . It must look as though it has actually been taken through Purl may be the material like satin stitch. Bring the needle up on one side of the design.
they are continued through to the base of the form where the ends are buried beneath the stem. 6 5 A. break. and can be used with great worked in the same way as the effect. (over It Silk purl in a variety of colours wire). In this drawing of a leaf in gold threads A LITTLE OF THE COUCHING WITH RED SILK IS INDICATED AT A'. 65A) it will be seen that the threads are carried backwards and forwards without a (fig. 33 be well is purl embroidery should waxed. start A fresh with the thread is made for the stem . Fig.Stitches. IT IS CARRILD ALL ROUND THE LEAF & ALONG EACH LOOP. is made gold. Commencing with two threads at the point of the leaf.
The run of the thread can be easily followed in the diagram. 66 is called cushion stitch* or loosely It is worked on a * canvas woven Also canva. etc. are very effective for a circle. The used over cardboard or vellum. silk so thick as to form a red line of close stitches round the The it is middle of the figure Plate used. sometimes crimped before Alternate rows of crimped plate and fine gold cord. of PLATE No. In old embroideries crimped plate is laid backwards and forwards for the centres flowers and turnover of leaves. 71. the use of gold threads couched. nimbus. Fig. or passing used double. of the leaf. or rays. is is slightly raised (padded). is and centre vein used for couching The red leaf. Fig. ment of a 65 illustrates an interesting treatpomegranate in gold work.s stitch.304 Embroidery. . outside crescent forms are in tambour gold The threads are here represented more often than in the actual example in order to explain the workThe centre of the fruit is produced by ing.
67. . Fig. BURDEN STITCH JAPANL5E STITCH Fig.68. Fig 69. Fronl. Fig.Plate No. 70. USED OVER CARDBOARD OR Fig. Fronl HONEYCOMB DARNING.65! TAMBOUR GOLD VELLUM. FANCY DARNING. 71.
the needle is brought back each time within a short distance of the Their appearance should be starting-place. and used strictly for ecclesiastical purposes. deal for flesh work in the fourteenth. Usually the stitches make a pattern formed on zigzag or meandering is The effect when finished woven fabric. 21). even threads. that of even.and lines. parallel lines. scribed rather vaguely as English work. silk or crewel is on the surface. which " is referred to by Dr. Burden stitch was used a great Fig.Stitches* material. or Anglicanum. The same amount of silk appears on the back as on the surface of the material. and only a single thread of the ground is taken up each time. The foregoing typical stitches form the . This system of stitching is frequently found in old work. 67. Rock in his Catalogue on Textile Fabrics" as being the stitch " " (Plate chiefly used in the Syon Cope No. no doubt worked in a frame on a fabric of fine. 68. Fig. de- The Opus Anglicum. 307 and is inasmuch as all the similar to laid embroidery. Japanese stitch consists of long stitches of equal length. rather like a fifteenth-century embroideries. was introduced about the middle of the thirteenth century.
while others wrong side. In any circumstances see that your work is well finished at the back. H'atson & Viney. to broideresses avoid waste of material.. . London and Aylesbury. Stitches constantly vary in their application. basis of all embroidery. It is said by authorities there are only about seven or eight necessary stitches to learn in embroidery. and when if inventive. Printed and bound by Hazell.308 Embroidery. experienced emwork as much on the surface as do not trouble themselves about the quantity of material on the possible. On these numbers of others are constantly invented by in- genious workers. numerous others will small piece badly done at all follow. Ld. the worker has once mastered those. Never be afraid to unpick your work a the whole may spoil embroidery. . In some instances.
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