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CCNA Practical Studies | Chapter 2. Cisco Router Review | InformIT
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CCNA Practical Studies
By Gary Heap and Lynn Maynes
Safari Books Online
Chapter 2. Cisco Router Review
This chapter reviews the following key topics about router components: Memory Interfaces and ports The command-line interface (CLI) The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief review of Cisco's Internetwork Operating System (IOS) software and show how to use the command-line interface (CLI) to configure and manage a Cisco router. These skills are an essential part of successfully completing the lab scenarios. A thorough understanding of router hardware components and how Cisco IOS software controls these components is necessary to effectively configure, manage, and troubleshoot Cisco routers. If you already have training or experience with Cisco routers, much of the following information might be second nature. If not, a brief review follows to provide the general concepts necessary to understand the configuration process used during the lab scenarios. This chapter begins by discussing the various memory types in a router, as well as the functions that each provides. Next, you will review interfaces and ports and their purpose within the router. Finally, you will review the CLI and how to navigate the CLI to configure and manage a Cisco router.
Table of Contents Copyright About the Authors Acknowledgments Foreword Introduction I. Basic Router Configuration Chapter 1. Practical Lab Methodology and Equipment Chapter 2. Cisco Router Review Router Components Summary Chapter 3. Lab Environment Chapter 4. Gaining Access to the Routers and Switches Chapter 5. Bridging and Switching Chapter 6. General Router Configurations Chapter 7. Router Interface Configuration Methodology II. Configuring Routing Protocols, ISDN, and IPX Chapter 8. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Chapter 9. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Chapter 10. Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol (EIGRP) Chapter 11. Route Redistribution Chapter 12. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Chapter 13. IPX Chapter 14. Routing IPX III. Access Lists, Cisco IOS Software Operations, and Troubleshooting Chapter 15. Standard and Extended Access Lists Chapter 16. Cisco Router Operations Chapter 17. Troubleshooting IV. Appendixes A. Master Lab Configurations and Lab Diagrams
Cisco routers have various components that are controlled by the Cisco IOS. These components include such things as memory, interfaces, and ports. Each component has a purpose that provides added functionality to a router. A review of these components will be useful in understanding each of their roles within a router.
A router contains different types of memory, where it can store images, configuration files, and microcode. The types of memory and their purposes are as follows: RAM— Often referred to as dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). RAM is the working area of memory storage used by the CPU to execute Cisco IOS software and to hold the running configuration file, routing tables, and ARP cache. The running configuration file (running-config) contains the current configuration of the software. Information in RAM is cleared when the router is power-cycled or reloaded. ROM— Sometimes referred to as erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). ROM is hard-wired read-only memory in the router. ROM contains power-on self-test (POST) diagnostics and the bootstrap or boot-loader software. This code allows the router to boot from ROM when it cannot find a valid Cisco IOS software image. This is known as ROM Monitor mode. This is a diagnostic mode that provides a user interface when the router cannot find a valid image. Flash— Available as EPROMs, single in-line memory modules (SIMMs), or PCMCIA cards. Flash is the default location where a router finds and boots its IOS image. On some platforms, additional configuration files or boot images can be stored in Flash. The contents of Flash are retained when the router is power-cycled or reloaded. NVRAM— Nonvolatile random-access memory. NVRAM stores the startup configuration file (startup-config), which is used during system startup to configure the software. In addition, NVRAM contains the software configuration register, a configurable setting in Cisco IOS software that determines which image to use when booting the router. The contents of NVRAM are retained when the router is power-cycled or reloaded. Table 2-1 provides a summary of these memory types, their function, and useful Cisco IOS software commands when managing these different types of memory.
Table 2-1. Memory Types
Memory Type Contents RAM Running configuration file Routing tables ARP cache Working memory ROM POST Bootstrap ROM Monitor mode Locate and load IOS Flash IOS show flash Useful Cisco IOS Software Commands show running-config show ip route show arp show memory —
Frame Relay Switch Configuration C. Privileged EXEC mode is composed of various configuration modes: www. user EXEC level and privileged EXEC level. the router prompts you for it. When you enter the correct enable password. You can connect either a terminal (DTE) or a modem (DCE) to these ports. Each level provides a different amount of access to the commands within the IOS.aspx?b=CCNA_Practical_Studies&seqNum=11 2/5 . Password protection to the privileged EXEC level is highly recommended to prevent unauthorized configuration changes from being made to the router. Ports on the router enable a user to connect to the router for management and configuration purposes. or Telnet connection. a user is placed in user EXEC mode. provide management access to the router. Interface types are added as new technologies evolve and methods are needed to interconnect and integrate network devices. Passwords can be configured on each vty line to secure access to the router. Interfaces and Ports Routers contain different types of interfaces and ports. such as configuration and management settings. Using the enable secret command ensures that the password is not displayed as clear text in the running configuration file. Ports. the prompt changes from Router> to Router#. and troubleshoot Cisco devices. This indicates that you have successfully entered into privileged EXEC mode. type in the command enable. however. Cisco IOS software offers another option—encrypt the enable password using the enable secret command. as shown: Rue>eal otr nbe Pswr:[nbepswr] asod eal asod If an enable password has been set. Privileged EXEC level allows access to all router commands. Some of the common ports are: Console Auxiliary (AUX) The console and auxiliary ports are physical ports on the router that provide management access to the router. If this is undesirable for your environment. ISDN Simulator Configuration and Setup NVRAM CCNA Practical Studies | Chapter 2. as shown: Rue> otr Pswr:[nbepswr] asod eal asod Rue# otr TIP Enable passwords show up as clear text in the running configuration file. allowing five simultaneous Telnet sessions to the router. An example of this is the voice interface available in the Cisco 2600 series that connects to a private branch exchange (PBX) or standard analog phone. The default vty configuration is vty lines 0 through 4. CLI is the primary interface used to configure. IOS CLI Hierarchy Cisco IOS software is structured in a hierarchical manner. Upon initiating an EXEC session on the router. on the other hand. User EXEC provides access to a limited number of commands that allow basic troubleshooting and monitoring of the router. there are two EXEC modes: user EXEC and privileged EXEC. and it can be accessed through a console. As mentioned previously. Cisco Router Review | InformIT Additional configuration files Additional IOS images Startup configuration file Configuration register show startup-config show version An understanding of the different types of memory and their function within the router helps not only clarify where the IOS image and configuration files are stored.2/26/13 B. Self-Study Lab D. manage. but also proves useful by allowing the user to manipulate these configuration files during the configuration process and understand what area of memory is being changed. and they provide a connection point to different types of transmission media. EXEC Levels or Modes Two different EXEC sessions exist. This is denoted in the router with the > prompt—for example: Rue> otr To change to the privileged EXEC level.com/library/content. interface types are in no way static. Some common interface types are as follows: Serial Ethernet Token Ring Asynchronous FDDI The preceding types of interfaces are some of the most common.informit. modem. Interfaces assist the router in routing packets and bridging frames between network segments. there are also vty lines. This user interface enables you to directly execute IOS commands. In addition to these. which are software-defined lines that allow Telnet access to the router. Access by any of these methods is generally referred to as an EXEC session. It is important to understand this structure to successfully navigate within Cisco IOS software. Command-Line Interface CLI is the acronym used by Cisco to denote the command-line interface of the IOS.
debug. and configuration commands High-level configuration or global configuration changes Interface-specific commands Routing engine commands Router(config)# Configuration mode From Router#. the router prompt changes to reflect your current position within the CLI hierarchy.com/library/content. type enable Description Limited inspection of router information Detailed inspection. Ethernet0 Router (config. When the number of commands available exceed that which can be displayed on the screen. you can see a list of which commands are available. type config terminal Router (config.9 A oncin pn ig Sn eh msae ed co esgs pp p SatIT Pitt-on Pooo (P) tr EF on-oPit rtcl PP -Mr-oe- Example 2-1 displays the commands available for execution from user EXEC mode. vty 0 4 Line-configuration commands Context-Sensitive Help In both user and privileged EXEC modes. Example 2-2. certain commands are available for execution. igrp.9 A oncin pn ig Sn eh msae ed co esgs pp p SatIT Pitt-on Pooo (P) tr EF on-oPit rtcl PP rsm eue Rsm a atv ntokcneto eue n cie ewr oncin roi lgn Oe a roi cneto pn n lgn oncin so hw So rnigsse ifrain hw unn ytm nomto si lp SatSra-ieI (LP tr eilln P SI) ssa ytt Dslyifrainaottria lns ipa nomto bu emnl ie tle ent Oe atle cneto pn ent oncin tria emnl Sttria ln prmtr e emnl ie aaees t37 n20 Oe at37 cneto pn n20 oncin taeot rcrue Taeruet dsiain rc ot o etnto www. Example 2-1 shows context-sensitive help from user EXEC mode.Routing engine level router)# (submenu of configuration mode) Router (config. rip.until all remaining commands are displayed and you're returned to the Router> prompt.informit.prompt. and so forth From Router(config)#. the IOS displays the --More-.2/26/13 CCNA Practical Studies | Chapter 2. you can see a listing of available commands by typing a question mark (?) at the Router> or Router# prompts. testing. Table 2-2 summarizes the main command prompts within the CLI hierarchy. CLI Command Prompts by Mode Command Prompt Router> Router # Mode User EXEC mode Privileged EXEC mode IOS Command to Enter Command Mode Default mode upon login From Router>. often followed by another --More-. Cisco Router Review | InformIT Global configuration mode Interface configuration mode Router configuration mode Line configuration mode Figure 2-1 provides a visual breakdown of the configuration modes. type router [routing protocol]—for example. While navigating the CLI. This is referred to as context-sensitive help. Pressing the Spacebar presents the next page of commands. aux0. Using the context-sensitive help. Figure 2-1 Cisco Software Hierarchy Within each mode. Example 2-1. Context-Sensitive Help from User EXEC Mode Rue> otr? Ee cmad: xc omns <-9 19> acs-nbe ceseal cer la cnet onc dsbe ial dsonc icnet eal nbe ei xt hl ep lt a lc ok lgn oi lgu oot mif rno Ssinnme t rsm eso ubr o eue Cet atmoayAcs-itety rae eprr cesLs nr Rstfntos ee ucin Oe atria cneto pn emnl oncin Tr ofpiiee cmad un f rvlgd omns Dsonc a eitn ntokcneto icnet n xsig ewr oncin Tr o piiee cmad un n rvlgd omns Ei fo teEE xt rm h XC Dsrpino teitrciehl sse ecito f h neatv ep ytm Oe altcneto pn a oncin Lc tetria ok h emnl Lgi a apriua ue o n s atclr sr Ei fo teEE xt rm h XC Rqetniho advrinifrainfo amliat eus egbr n eso nomto rm utcs rue otr mtt sa So saitc atrmlil mliattaeots hw ttsis fe utpe utcs rcrue mrc tae Taervremliatpt fo dsiaint suc rc ees utcs ah rm etnto o ore nm-oncin Nm a eitn ntokcneto aecneto ae n xsig ewr oncin pd a Oe aX2 PDcneto pn .Interface level (submenu of From Router(config)#.Line level (submenu of line)# configuration mode) From Router(config)#. as demonstrated in Example 2-2.aspx?b=CCNA_Practical_Studies&seqNum=11 3/5 . Hitting the Spacebar Continues the Context-Sensitive Help Listing and Returns You to the User EXEC Mode Prompt Lgu oot mif rno Ei fo teEE xt rm h XC Rqetniho advrinifrainfo amliat eus egbr n eso nomto rm utcs rue otr mtt sa So saitc atrmlil mliattaeots hw ttsis fe utpe utcs rcrue mrc tae Taervremliatpt fo dsiaint suc rc ees utcs ah rm etnto o ore nm-oncin Nm a eitn ntokcneto aecneto ae n xsig ewr oncin pd a Oe aX2 PDcneto pn . Table 2-2. console0. type line [port]—for example. type interface if)# configuration mode) [interface name]—for example.
The only difference is that more commands are available within privileged EXEC mode. Using Word Help to Find the Exact Syntax of a Command Rue#? otrc cer cok cniue cnet cp la lc ofgr onc oy As more letters are added to the command you need help for. you would type configure ?.2/26/13 tne unl wee hr x 3 xeoe rmt Rue> otr CCNA Practical Studies | Chapter 2. but not the exact syntax. aaees n A EtrXeoemd ne Rmt oe You can repeat the same process to get a list of available commands from privileged EXEC mode.informit. CLI Hot Keys for Cisco IOS Software Command Editing Functions Key Sequence Ctrl-A Ctrl-R Ctrl-U Ctrl-W Ctrl-Z Description Moves the cursor to the beginning of the current line Redisplays a line Erases a line Erases a word Ends configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode www. Example 2-8. as well as prompt you when more specific command arguments are needed. When a more specific command argument is needed to distinguish among multiple possibilities. Example 2-4. Command help is available to list arguments that are available with a given command by typing the command. as demonstrated in Example 2-5. Example 2-6. you would type the letter c immediately followed by a ?. This is referred to as word help. Entering Characters in a Command Followed by ? Helps You Find the Exact Syntax of a Command Rue#ofgr ? otrcniue mmr eoy ntok ewr oewientok vrrt-ewr tria emnl <r c> Cniuefo N mmr ofgr rm V eoy Cniuefo aTT ntokhs ofgr rm FP ewr ot OewieN mmr fo TT ntokhs vrrt V eoy rm FP ewr ot Cniuefo tetria ofgr rm h emnl Finally. Adding Characters in a Command Immediately Followed by a ? Helps You Narrow Your Command Search Rue#? otrc cer cok cniue cnet cp la lc ofgr onc oy Rue#o otrc? cniue cnet cp ofgr onc oy Rue#o? otrcn cniue cnet ofgr onc Suppose that you need more information on the syntax of the configure command. the help feature returns %Ambiguous command:.aspx?b=CCNA_Practical_Studies&seqNum=11 4/5 . and it is useful when you know what the command begins with. For example. Table 2-3. as shown in Example 2-8. Example 2-4 demonstrates what you would see if you narrowed your search by adding additional letters such as co? or con?. Entering an Erroneous Command Generates a Message to Indicate the Syntax Error Rue#hwrnn-ofg otrso nigcni ^ %Ivldiptdtce a ''mre. if you want to find out what commands were available to use with the configure command. Example 2-3. To find out what commands are available that begin with the letter c. the help feature returns the output shown in Example 2-6. Example 2-3 demonstrates this concept. Hot Keys The CLI also provides hot keys for easier navigation within the IOS and provide shortcuts for editing functions. Entering a Command Requiring More Specific Parameters Generates an Ambiguous Command Message Rue#hwacs otrso ces %Abgoscmad "hwacs" miuu omn: so ces This is easily corrected by typing more of the command so that multiple possibilities no longer exist.com/library/content. Table 2-3 provides a list of shortcuts that are available. followed by a space and a ?. nai nu eetd t ^ akr The ^ marker indicates where the error in the syntax occurred. Entering a Command with the Required Arguments to Eliminate the Ambiguous Command Error Rue#hwacs-it otrso ceslss Sadr I acs ls 1 tnad P ces it pri ay emt n Each of these context-sensitive help features is useful in helping you determine whether the command syntax is incorrect. When an erroneous command is entered. Example 2-5. as shown in Example 2-7. the context-sensitive help feature narrows down the available commands to choose from. Cisco Router Review | InformIT Oe atne cneto pn unl oncin Ls atv cnetos it cie oncin StX3prmtr o PD e . Example 2-7. the command parser has the capability to distinguish erroneous commands that are entered incorrectly.
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