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(b) What is the temperature in degrees Celsius of a person with a fever of 104F? 5.2. (I) (a) Room temperatures are kept at 68F in the winter to conserve energy. What is this in degrees Celsius? (b) On a summer day the air conditioner is set to come on when the temperature rises above 27C. How hot is this in degrees Fahrenheit? 5.3. (I) What Fahrenheit temperature corresponds to absolute zero? 5.4. (I) One of the properties that makes tungsten a good material for light bulb laments is its high melting point of 3410C. What temperature is this on the Fahrenheit scale? 5.5. (I) Frozen alcohol makes as good a candle as wax, with one signicant disadvantage: Alcohol melts at -114C. What Fahrenheit temperature is this? 5.6. (I) The temperature of the surface of the sun is about 8000F. What is this temperature on the Celsius and Kelvin scales? 5.7. (II) At what temperature do the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales have the same numerical value? 5.8. (I) A gap must be left between steel railroad rails to allow for thermal expansion. How large a gap is needed if the maximum temperature reached is 50C more than the temperature at which the rails were laid? The length of a rail is 10 m. Refer to table 5.1 for the coefcient of linear expansion of steal. 5.9 (I) The Golden Gate Bridge has an overall length of approximately 2800 m. If the bridge experiences temperature extremes from -20 to +40C, what will its change in length be? The bridge is made primarily of steel. Refer to table 5.1 for the coefcient of linear expansion of steal.

5.10. (I) The Great Pyramid of Cheops is 145 m high on a cold winter day when its temperature is 5C. How high is it in the summer when its temperature is 20C? (Because of its size the pyramid warms and cools slowly and does not reach the temperature extremes of the area.) You may assume that the coefcient of expansion is the same as that for concrete. 5.11. (II) A man's height is measured by his standing next to a device made of aluminum, and he is found to be 1.80 m tall. If the original measurement was made at a temperature of 18C, what height would be measured for the same man on a day when the temperature is 35C? Is this difference enough to be of any concern? Note that the man's temperature doesn't change, but that of the measuring device does. 5.12. (III) If you have a one liter glass bottle full of water at 20C, how much water will overow the bottle if the temperature increases to 30C? You may assume that the bottle is a cube 10 cm on a side. Sections 5.2 and 5.3 5.13. (I) How many calories of heat would be required to raise the temperature of a 45-kg person by 2.0C? How many food calories is this? From table 5.3 we know calories that the specic heat capacity of a human is 0.83 . giC 5.14. (I) When a scalpel is sterilized, its temperature may rise to 150C. Calculate the amount of heat in calories that must be removed from a 30-g steel scalpel to reduce its temperature from 150 to 20C. 5.15. (I) How many calories of heat are needed to thaw out a 0.30-kg package of frozen vegetables originally at 0C, assuming the heat of fusion is the same as that of water? 5.16. (I) A large power plant converts 1000 kg of water to steam every second to run its generators. (a) Calculate the amount of heat needed each second just to vaporize the water, assuming this is done at 100C. (b) What is the power input in megawatts for this purpose?

5.17. (I) A burn produced by live steam at 100C is more severe than one produced by the same amount of water at 100C. To verify this, (a) calculate the heat that must be removed from 5.0 g of water at 100C to lower its temperature to 34C (skin temperature); (b) calculate the heat that must be removed from 5.0 g of steam at 100C to condense it and then lower its temperature to 34C, and compare this with the answer to part (a). 5.18. (II) Suppose that 4.0 kg of shaved ice is needed to keep medication cold in a room that has no refrigerator. (a) What amount of heat must be removed from 4.0 kg of water to make ice once the water has reached 0C? (b) How long will it be before all 4.0 kg of ice melts if heat enters it at the rate of 25 cal/sec? 5.19 (II) On a summer day sunlight may put 100 million calories into an 80,000liter swimming pool. (a) What temperature rise occurs if no other heat enters or leaves the pool? (b) How many liters of water would have to evaporate from the pool to keep its temperature constant? 5.20. (II) A 0.50-kg block of material is heated from 20 to 35C by the addition of 420 cal of heat. Calculate the specic heat of the block and identify the substance of which it is composed, assuming that it is made of a pure substance. 5.21. (II) (a) How much heat is needed to raise the temperature of a 1.0-kg steel pot containing 2.0 kg of water from 25C to the boiling point and then to boil away 0.50 kg of the water? (b) If heat is supplied to the pot of water at the rate of 125 cal/sec, how long will this take? 5.22. (II) Following strenuous exercise a person has a temperature of 40C and is giving off heat at the rate of 50 cal/sec. (a) What is the rate of heat loss in watts? (b) How long will it take for this person's temperature to return to 37C if his mass is 90 kg? 5.23. (II) If a 30-g lead bullet with a speed of 600 m/sec strikes a practice target and half of the thermal energy generated is absorbed by the bullet, what is the temperature increase of the bullet?

5.24. (II) A 1000-kg car rolls down a hill starting from rest and loses 100 meters in altitude before braking to a stop. If half the thermal energy generated in the brakes calories is absorbed by 20 kg of material having a specic heat of 0.30 , what is giC the temperature increase of the affected material? Assume that friction other than that of the brakes is negligible. 5.25. (III) A 0.20-kg aluminum bowl containing 0.75 kg of soup at 20C is put into a freezer. If the freezer removes 80,000 cal from the bowl of soup, what is the nal temperature? Assume that the soup has the same thermal properties as water. 5.26. (III) Warming cold hands by rubbing them together is a time-honored art. If a woman rubs her hands back and forth for a total of 20 rubs, calculate the temperature increase of her hands given the following information: The force exerted in each of the 20 rubs is 40 N, the distance moved in each rub is 0.075 m, and the total mass of the hands is 1.5 kg. 5.27. (III) An ice cube having a mass of 50 g and an initial temperature of - 20C is placed in 400 g of 30C water. What is the nal temperature of the mixture if the effects of the container can be neglected? 5.28. (III) Five grams of 20C water is poured onto a 600-g block of ice that has an initial temperature of -15C. What is the nal temperature if the effect of the surroundings can be neglected? 5.29. (III) The formation of condensation on a cold glass of water will cause it to warm up faster than it would have otherwise. If 8.0 g of water condenses on a 100-g glass containing 300 g of water at 5. OC, what will be the nal temperature? Ignore the effect of the surroundings. 5.30 (I) What is the relative humidity on a day when the temperature is 25C and the air contains 20.0 g/m3 of water vapor? See table 5.5 concerning the saturation density of water.

5.31. (I) What is the density of water vapor in grams per cubic meter in the desert when relative humidity is 10% and air temperature is 40C? 5.32. (II) If the relative humidity is 75% on a summer morning when the air temperature is 20C, what will it be later in the day when the temperature reaches 30C? Assume that the water-vapor content of the air is constant. 5.33. (II) The relative humidity is 40% late in the day when the air temperature is 20C. What will it be later that night when the temperature drops to 10C? You may assume that the vapor content of the air is constant. 5.34. (III) What is the dew point on a day when the relative humidity is 39% and the temperature is 20C? 5.35. (III) One day the relative humidity is 90% and the temperature is 25C. (a) How many grams of water will condense out of each cubic meter of air if the temperature drops to 15C? (b) How much energy does the condensation from each cubic meter release? Section 5.4 5.36 (I) Calculate the rate of heat conduction in watts out of an animal with 3.0cm thick fur. The surface area of the animal is 1.5 m2, its skin tempera e is 35C, and the temperature of the surrounding air is 0C. Heat losses due to convection and conduction can be neglected, and the thermal conductivity of the fur can be assumed to be the same as that for air. Note that this is not much different than for a human in a warm room, as seen in Example 5.8. 5.37. (I) Calculate the rate of heat conduction through the walls of a house if they are 8.0 cm thick and have twice the thermal conductivity as glass wool. The total area of the walls is 120 m2 and the inside temperature is 20C, while the outside temperature is 5C. Note that this is only conduction through the walls and does not include conduction through the windows or ceiling.

Section 5.4 continued 5.38. (I) If a small iceberg with a mass of 20 million kg moves south from the Arctic, how much heat is required to melt the iceberg? Note that this amount of energy was released earlier at the origin of the iceberg. 5.39. (I) What is the rate of heat loss by radiation from a man completely clothed in white (head to foot) if his skin temperature is 34C and the surrounding temperature is 10C? His surface area is 1.4 m2 and the emissivity of the clothing is 0.2. 5.40. (I) What is the rate of heat loss by radiation from a black roof of area 250 m2 if its temperature is 20C and that of the surroundings is l0C? The emissivity of the roof is 0.95. 5.41 (I) Glowing embers in a replace have a temperature of 850C, an emissivity of 0.98, and a surface area of 0.15 m2. If the temperature of the surroundings is 23C and 50% of the radiation from the re enters the room, what is the rate of heat transfer into the room in kilowatts? 5.42. (II) Compare the rate of heat conduction through an 8.0-cm-thick wall of area 10 m2 with that through a 0.75-cm-thick window of area 2.0 m2, for the same temperature difference across each. The thermal conductivity of the wall can be assumed to be twice that of glass wool. 5.43. (II) It is usually cold next to a window on a winter day because heat conduction through the window is rapid enough to cool the air next to it. To see just how large the rate of heat conduction through a glass window is, calculate it for a window of area 3.0 m2 and thickness 0.80 cm if the temperatures at the outer and inner surfaces are 5.0 and l0C respectively. 5.44. (II) If 5.0 g of water evaporate from 150 g of 90C coffee, what will the nal temperature of the coffee be? Assume the styrofoam cup is such a good insulator that all other forms of heat transfer can be ignored. Note that the "steam" above the coffee is really condensed water vapor droplets.

Section 5.4 continued 5.45. (III) What is the temperature difference across a double-paned window of area 3.0 m2 if each pane of glass is 1. 0 cm thick, as is the air gap between them, and the rate of heat conduction is 200 W. Hint: Calculate the temperature difference across each layer separately and add them together. You may assume that convection in the air gap is negligible. 5.46. (III) (a) A glass coffee pot has a bottom with an area of 400 cm2, and the coffee in the pot has a temperature of l00C. If the bottom is 0.75 cm thick, how hot must the underside be to conduct heat into the pot at the rate of 500 W? (b) How many grams of water boil away each second if convection plus boiling is the only method of energy transfer out of the pot? 5.47. (III) Considerable temperature decreases can occur when cold air blows through an open door. If 20 m3 of OC air enters a room, how much heat is required to warm it to 20C? Section 5.5 5.48 (I) How many calories of heat will a person lose by evaporating 1250 g of water and perspiration in a day? Use use the value of 580 cal/g. 5.49. (1) Calculate how many grams of perspiration a person must evaporate during physical exercise to get rid of 100,000 cal of heat. Use use the value of 580 cal/g. 5.50. (I) How many calories of heat would have to be put into the shoulder of a person receiving a heat treatment to raise the shoulder's temperature by 5C? The mass of the shoulder region is 5.0 kg, and the effect of circulation and other factors can be neglected. The specic heat capacity of a human is listed in table 5.3 as calories 0.83 . giC 5.51. (II) On a day when a man shows no visible perspiration he will still evaporate about 600 g of water from his lungs. (a) How many calories of heat are

removed by this evaporation? (b) What is the rate of heat loss in watts due to this process? Section 5.5 continued 5.52. (II) How many grams of perspiration must a 50-kg woman evaporate to reduce her temperature by 1. 5C? 5.53. (II) An average man may consume 3000 kcal per day. If he uses all these calories to perform work and produce heat (no storage of fat), how many grams of water and perspiration must he evaporate in order to get rid of half of the waste thermal energy, assuming his average efciency is 5.0% 5.54. (II) (a) Calculate the rate of heat loss by radiation from 10 cm2 of skin if the skin temperature is 33C and its emissivity is 0.97. (b) Compare this with the rate of heat loss if the skin temperature were 34C, and comment on the sensitivity needed in a thermograph to observe variations in temperature of 1.0C. 5.55. (II) One problem for astronauts is getting rid of waste body heat. If an astronaut is in a spacesuit in the vacuum of space and is awake but relaxed, calculate the temperature rise of her body in one hour assuming no heat escapes the suit. The total mass of the astronaut and suit is 100 kg, and the suit's specic heat is the same as her body's. 5.56. (III) An 80-kg patient is to be cooled to 29C for surgery by being placed in ice water. The power output of this patient is 60 W. It takes 20 min to bring his temperature down and the surgery lasts 2 hr, 40 min. How many kilograms of ice must melt to do this, assuming all other forms of heat transfer are negligible and that the ice water stays at 0C? 5.57. (III) During heavy exercise 2.0 liters of blood are pumped to the surface of a person per minute to carry away core heat. If the blood is cooled by 2.0C at the surface, what is the rate of heat transfer in watts due to blood ow (forced convection)? You may assume that the specic heat of blood is the same as that for water and that the density of blood is 1. 05 g/cm3. Note that although the core and skin normally differ in temperature by 3to 4C, the blood will not be cooled by that much. Skin temperature will rise during exercise, and the blood must have a

greater temperature than the skin in order to transfer heat to it through vessel walls (conduction). Section 5.5 continued 5.58. (III) Suppose a man is losing heat to the environment at the rate of 300 W. His body temperature is 2.0C below normal, and he begins to shiver. If his mass is 76 kg, how long will it take for his temperature to rise to normal?

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