odern aerospace began with Sir George Cayley in 1799.

Cayley proposed an aircraft with a "fixed wing and a horizontal and vertical tail," defining characteristics of the modern airplane.[1] The 19th century saw the creation of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, the American Rocketry Society, and the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences , all of which made aeronautics a more serious scientific discipline.[1] Airmen like Otto Lilienthal, who introduced cambered airfoils in 1891, used gliders to analyze aerodynamic forces.[1]The Wright brothers were interested in Lilianthal's work and read several of his publications.[1]They also found inspiration in Octave Chanute, an airman and the author of Progress in Flying Machines (1894).[1]It was the preliminary work of Cayley, Lilienthal, Chanute, and other early aerospace engineers that brought about the first powered sustained flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903, by the Wright brothers. War and science fiction inspired great minds like Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Werner von Braun to achieve flight beyond the atmosphere. The launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957 started the Space Age, and on July 20th,1969 Apollo 11 achieved the first manned moon landing.[1]In 1981, the space shuttle "Columbia" launched, the start of regular manned access to orbital space. A sustained human presence in orbital space started with "Mir" in 1986 and is continued by the "International Space Station".[1] Space commercialization and space tourism are more recent focuses in aerospace.

Main article: Aerospace manufacturer Aerospace manufacturing is a high technology industry that produces "aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, and related parts".[2] Most of the industry is geared toward governmental work. For each Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), the US government has assigned a CAGE code. These codes help to identify each manufacturer, repair facilities, and other critical aftermarket vendors in the aerospace industry. In the United States, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are the two largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. Others include the very large airline industry. The aerospace industry employed 472,000 wage and salary workers in 2006.[3] Most of those jobs were in Washington state and in California, with Missouri and Texas also important. The leading aerospace manufacturers in the U.S. are Boeing, United Technologies Corporation, and Lockheed Martin. These manufacturers are facing an increasing labor shortage as skilled U.S. workers age and retire. Apprenticeship programs such as the Aerospace Joint Apprenticeship Council (AJAC) work in collaboration with Washington state aerospace employers and community colleges to train new manufacturing employees to keep the industry supplied. Important locations of the civilian aerospace industry worldwide include Washington state (Boeing), California (Boeing, Lockheed Martin, etc.); Montreal, Canada (Bombardier, Pratt & Whitney Canada); Toulouse, France (Airbus/EADS); and Hamburg, Germany (Airbus/EADS); as well as São José dos Campos, where the Brazilian Embraer company is based. In the European Union, aerospace companies such as EADS, BAE Systems, Thales, Dassault, Saab AB and Finmeccanica account for a large share of the global aerospace industry and research effort, with the European Space Agency as one of the largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. In India, Bangalore is a major center of the aerospace industry, where Hindustan Aeronautics

Canada has formerly manufactured some of its own designs for jet warplanes. and Raytheon acquired Hughes Aircraft for 9. Between 1988 and 2011. MFI-395. a subsidiary of General Electric. too. Chengdu. .Limited. supplying fully assembled aircraft. Sukhoi. In Russia.9 bil. China is still developing its civil aerospace industry. the part that the airline requires to get the plane back into service becomes invaluable.[5] Allied Signal merged with Honeywell in a stock swap valued 15. but it has largely turned its lot over to cooperative efforts with continental companies. Pakistan is also undertaking advancements in the field of aerospace engineering. In the aerospaces & defense industry. USD in 1997. Pakistan is one of the Largest Aircraft Manufacturing facility in Pakistan. Inc. Within the United States there is a specific process that parts brokers or resellers must follow. Ilyushin. The historic Soviet Union was also the home of a very major aerospace industry.g.The Pakistan Aeronautical Complex in Kamra. or else to import them from the United States. it has relied on imports from the United States to fill these needs. The United Kingdom formerly attempted to maintain its own large aerospace industry. and Irkut which includes Beriev) are among the major global players in this industry. However. from countries such the United States. a lot of consolidation has appeared over the last couple of decades. However Canada still manufactures some military planes although they are generally not combat or fighter planes. This can drive the market for specific parts.2 bil.) Other European countries either team up in making fighters (such as the Panavia Tornado and the Eurofighter Typhoon). and Sweden continues to make its own warplanes for the Swedish Air Force—especially in support of its position as a neutral country. aircraft components. (See Saab AB. Shenyang and Nanchang are major research and manufacture centers of the aerospace industry. Once a part is overhauled its value is determined from the supply and demand of the aerospace market. Tupolev.http://tcetc. Yakovlev. was acquired by British Aerospace for 12. JF-17 Thunder. Despite the cancellation in 1983 of the experimental Shanghai Y-10. the National Aerospace Laboratories and the Indian Space Research Organisation are headquartered.068 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of 678 bil.com (Top Canadian Enterprise. test and produce military aircraft. but for some decades.) France has continued to make its own warplanes for its air force and navy. USD in 1999. USD in 2011. large aerospace companies like Oboronprom and the United Aircraft Building Corporation (encompassing Mikoyan.[7] Marconi Electronic Systems. making its own airliners and warplanes. Beijing. Chandrayaan-1. the CF-100 fighter). USD have been announced. BAE Systems.5 bil. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) launched India's first Moon orbiter. China has developed an extensive capability to design. In the People's Republic of China. There are several online marketplaces that assist with the commodity selling of aircraft parts. The aircraft parts industry was born out of the sale of second-hand or used aircraft parts from the aerospace manufacture sector. the UK has a very active aerospace sector. When an airline has an aircraft on the ground. and it has turned into a large import customer. including the largest defence contractor in the world. K-8 and many unmanned aerial vehicles are being manufactured at PAC.6 bil. in October 2008. This certification guarantees that a part was repaired or overhauled to meet OEM specifications. MFI-17.4 bil. It is now fulfilling its needs in the guided missile technology. both in Europe and all over the world. (e.[4] The largest transactions have been: the acquisition of Goodrich Corporation by United Technologies Corporation for 16. This includes leveraging a certified repair station to overhaul and "tag" a part. subassemblies and sub-systems to other manufacturers. After the establishment of the Institute of Space Technology. USD in 1996. [6] the merger of Boeing with McDonnell valued at 13. Shanghai. etc. worldwide more than 6. USD in 1999[8] (now called: BAE Systems). missiles and space vehicles. Xian.

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