Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide Version 1

Estimating Technique Guide - Draft

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Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide
Table of Contents Introduction_____________________________________________________________4 Estimating Approaches ____________________________________________________4
Top-Down Estimating Approach ________________________________________________5 Bottom-Up Estimating Approach ________________________________________________5 Estimating Approach Comparison_______________________________________________6

Estimating Techniques ____________________________________________________6
Ballpark Estimating___________________________________________________________6 Proportional Percentage Estimating______________________________________________7 Comparative_________________________________________________________________8 Expert Judgment______________________________________________________________8 Proportional Estimating________________________________________________________8 Widget Counting______________________________________________________________8 Function Point Analysis________________________________________________________9 Feature Points_______________________________________________________________10 Technique Comparison________________________________________________________11 Estimating Technique Comparison______________________________________________12 Managing Multiple Estimates__________________________________________________12
Wideband Delphi Technique__________________________________________________________12 Weighted or Average Estimate________________________________________________________13

Commercially Available Estimating Tools____________________________________13
CHECKPOINT/KnowledgePLAN______________________________________________13
Overview_________________________________________________________________________13

Estimating Templates____________________________________________________14
General Purpose Templates____________________________________________________14
Staff and Duration Estimating Template...........................................................................................14 Travel Expenses Template.................................................................................................................14 Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template......................................................14

ASPIRE Phase Templates_____________________________________________________14
Vision and Strategy_________________________________________________________________14 Business Area Architecture___________________________________________________________14 Development______________________________________________________________________14 Integration________________________________________________________________________14 Deployment_______________________________________________________________________15

Specialty Area Templates______________________________________________________15
Development______________________________________________________________________15 Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template...............................................................15 Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template......................................15 Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template...............................................15 Organizational Change______________________________________________________________15

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Estimating Technique Guide
Communication Event Estimating Template.....................................................................................15 Stakeholder Group Estimating Template...........................................................................................15 Technical Infrastructure_____________________________________________________________16 Facilities Infrastructure______________________________________________________________16

Estimating Guidelines____________________________________________________17
Project-Wide Guidelines_______________________________________________________17 ASPIRE Phase Guidelines_____________________________________________________19
Vision and Strategy (ETP)___________________________________________________________19 Business Area Architecture (Requirements/BAA)_________________________________________20 Development______________________________________________________________________21 Integration________________________________________________________________________21 Deployment_______________________________________________________________________21

Specialty Areas______________________________________________________________22
Development______________________________________________________________________22 Package Based Development (PBD)..................................................................................................22 Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) Sub-Phase.........................................................................24 Iterative Custom Development (ICD)................................................................................................26 Accelerated Application Development (X/AD).................................................................................33 Organizational Change______________________________________________________________36 Technical Infrastructure_____________________________________________________________38 Critical Computer Resources and Facilities Infrastructure__________________________________38

Management and Coordination_________________________________________________39

Appendices_____________________________________________________________40
Estimating Templates_________________________________________________________40 Estimating Template User Guides_______________________________________________40
Staff and Duration Estimating Templates_______________________________________________40 Travel Expenses Template___________________________________________________________40 Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template______________________________40 Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template__________________________________41 Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template______________________42 Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template__________________________44 Communication Event Estimating Template_____________________________________________45 Stakeholder Group Estimating Template________________________________________________46

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Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide Introduction
Company Management has stated that there has been some history of Significant Project Cost and Schedule Overruns. Issues identified included:  Many project over-runs are attributed to poor estimates. Current estimating techniques are perceived to be inconsistent, baseless, and inaccurate.  There is a tremendous financial risk associated with poor estimating techniques. High estimates can result in lost business opportunities. Low estimates increase the risk of project over-runs.  There is an inconsistent use of a disciplined estimating process. This problem occurs in the sales process and in estimating subsequent phases in an ongoing project.  There is disagreement and no general consensus on the best techniques for system development estimates.  There is little or no guidance for estimating Accelerated application, package-based system development, Non-traditional system development such as object-oriented development or Internet / Intranet development, Non-system development projects such as Performance Improvement Initiatives, Vision and Strategy, Business Architecture, IT Re-engineering, and Organization Change.  Few tools exist to support estimating and the usability and validity of these tools is not universally accepted. The purpose of this Estimating Technique Guide, along with the Estimating Process Guide, is to begin to address several of these issues. It will not resolve all of these issues. However, it can be an effective vehicle that allows us to share our collective experiences. Although the targeted audience of this guide is IT Services Consulting and Systems Integration, our goal is to utilize and share knowledge and experiences across all of IT Service’s divisions. Specific goals for this guide include:  Identifying estimating approaches, techniques, models and tools that have been used on prior IT Services engagements. There are a number of techniques, models and tools that are being used across the division. There are probably an equal number of opinions on which ones are the most effective. This guide identifies some of the most common techniques, models, and tools. It does not try to cover all of them; nor does it attempt to single out which technique, model and tool is the most effective. In reality, there is no “universal” technique that applies to all types of projects; each technique is valuable when used for the appropriate type of project. The key is to have an awareness of what techniques, models, and tools are available so that you apply the best set of techniques, models, and tools for your specific project.  Sharing information on the techniques, models, and metrics that have been used for various project phases. Many of the metrics defined are rules of thumb that have come from specific projects. Many of these have not been confirmed or compared against other projects so you will need to apply your judgment accordingly. This guide also includes some “gotchas” that were identified from past experiences; hopefully these will help you to avoid similar pit-falls as you develop your estimates.  Fostering communication regarding estimating and metrics between project team members, projects, business units, regions, and divisions. This guide, in and of itself, will not make us better estimators. All of us need to experiment and communicate our experiences with these techniques, models, and tools so that we can further define and refine them.

Estimating Approaches
There are two basic approaches for determining the estimates for a given component of a project, topdown and bottom-up. IT Services highly recommends that you estimate a project using both of these approaches. A top-down estimating approach takes an estimate for an entire project and breaks it down

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printers. installation fees. your prior project experience. Because of the level of detail required. if the client has a fixed budget. The total estimate is apportioned among the components. Since this approach looks at the entire project from a fairly high-level view. A bottom-up estimating approach breaks the project into pieces. For example. development software. Examples include preparing for or documenting workshops or interviews. Estimating Technique Guide . you can repeat this process to arrive at estimates for lower-level tasks. pagers. and assembles all of the pieces and their estimates to come up with the overall project estimate. The starting point is an estimate of the size. your bottom-up estimate is generally more accurate than your top-down estimate.000 hours. lower-level components. Since this approach examines the project in much greater detail. and creating a detail project plan for a subsequent project phase. (Note: This is risky and not generally recommended.Estimating Technique Guide into lower-level components. The definition of a low-level component can vary widely and is very dependent on the type of the project. this estimating approach could be used to identify the level of work that could be delivered for that budget. Depending on the size and complexity of the project.) Disadvantages of this approach include:  You could miss low-level technical issues or special components of the system. If any of the lower-level task estimates is too low you must adjust the top level estimate upward or change the scope of the project. code and test the maintain customer address window. estimate each of these components. After completing the top down estimates for the lower-level tasks you must validate your estimate by checking to make sure that each of the lower-level estimates makes sense. or tasks that make up the project. examines each piece at a detail level. Examples of a low-level component include:  The effort to produce an intermediate product or deliverable. according to a predefined formula as well as taking into account experience from similar projects and any known external dependencies that may act as constraints. Bottom-Up Estimating Approach Using this approach you first identify the low-level components of the project.Draft 5 2/26/2013 .  A non-labor item such as a product or service. and travel related expenses. and then total the individual estimates to produce the overall project estimate. total effort. or the time required to perform a project. You should ensure that all of your low-level components are identified in or mapped to a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) or Statement of Work to ensure that you have accounted for all of the project’s components. you may have determined that the total effort for a Requirements/BAA phase is 1. For example. or the project team’s expertise. Examples include PCs.  The effort to develop a specific function of the completed software system. You can than use an estimating model such as Project Bridge Modeler to apportion the 1.  There is a tendency to define the scope in terms of the resources allocated rather than in terms of the activities or deliverables. For example. You can also adjust the hours per activity or task based on the required deliverables. You should also use other estimating methods to cross-validate your results. training.  This approach offers little or no basis for the cost justification of subsequent estimating iterations.000 hours across the various activities and tasks that comprise a Requirements/BAA.  You need some basis for apportioning the overall project estimate across the various subcomponents. This estimating approach is helpful when you have relatively little knowledge of the project requirements or when the project is strictly limited by resources. developing an integration or application test plan. it requires more project related information and takes a longer time to develop the estimate. Top-Down Estimating Approach Using this approach you divide an overall estimate into separate. you can develop a top-down estimate in a relatively short period of time and with a minimal amount of project related information.

Disadvantages of this approach include:  You may overlook system-level costs such as integration or training. It can be used early in the lifecycle and when no historical information is available. This technique can be used at any point in the lifecycle. you need to decide which technique is appropriate and what adjustments. Ballpark Estimating With this estimating technique you use a combination of time. it can yield a more accurate estimate than a top-down approach. and derived from the QSM SLIM completed projects database.) Estimating Approach Comparison The following diagram illustrates a high-level comparison between these two estimating approaches. each has its own strengths and weaknesses. Estimation Approach Strengths Top-Down • Particularly relevant if project is strictly limited by resources. a comparative estimate can be Estimating Technique Guide . • Tendency to define scope in terms of resources allocated rather than in terms of activities or deliverables.Draft 6 2/26/2013 .  Activities such as management and development coordination cannot be estimated until the underlying task estimates are complete. • Often requires more information than is available at time of estimate.Estimating Technique Guide One advantage of this approach is that it requires a relatively thorough analysis before you begin estimating. • Identifies uncertainties in developers’ knowledge of system requirements or proposed solution. No one estimating technique is ideal for all situations. are needed. peak staff. These uncertainties will often result in assumptions in the estimate and the project’s Statement of Work. training.  It requires a significant effort to produce the estimate. When estimating a project. • May overlook system-level costs such as integration. provided you haven’t forgotten anything. • Has little or no basis for the cost justification of subsequent estimating iterations. • Relatively little knowledge of proposed system required. Once the estimate is developed. Bottom-Up • Enforces relatively thorough analysis before estimation. This approach also helps to identify uncertainties regarding the project requirements or proposed solution. if any. Since you need have a more detailed view of the project requirements when using this approach. Weaknesses • May miss low-level technical issues. • Requires significant effort to produce • Activities such as management and coordination cannot be estimated until underlying task estimates are complete. Each row represents a consistent set of estimates that may be determined based on any one of the variables estimated using expert judgment. effort. • Need basis for proportioning estimates across project sub-components. (These tasks are generally estimated based on the duration of the project or as a percentage of the underlying tasks.  It often requires more information than what is typically available at the time the estimate is required. Estimating Techniques The following estimating techniques fit into either the top-down or bottom-up approach. • May omit special components of software system.

and Testing/Pilot 33% of Requirements effort. This technique is very effective when used appropriately. If any portion of the labor distribution is estimated. it can be used to expand the known portion into a total estimate. Proportional Percentage Estimating With this estimating technique you use the size of one component to proportionally estimate the size of another. The group total can then be used for a single estimate for size (ESLOC). Estimates are developed using the Peak Staff. Construction 45% of Requirements effort. After all Configuration Items are estimated. Using the Business Case documentation. manage. The final estimates can be compared to other estimates for analysis. the Design effort might be estimated as 22% of the Requirements effort.00% Maintenance 12. There are different proportional models for different types of life cycles. At the same time the Category with Size can be determined. and using expert judgment. and Effort in Hours columns for guidance in determining each size estimate. they may be numbered. manage. The total of the group can be used to create one estimate for the group using the top down factors table to locate the total. For example: Labor Distribution Standard for "Development / Enhancement" Work Types Project Management (start-up. Consideration needs to be given to whether the current estimate is for an effort that is more like a Development/Enhancement effort or a Maintenance effort.00% 8.Development/Enhancement Quality Assurance Reviews Development / Enhancement Analysis (Requirements) [Solution Definition] Development / Enhancement External Design Development / Enhancement Internal Design Development / Enhancement Procedures and Training Development / Enhancement Construction (Code/Unit Test) [Solution Generation] Development / Enhancement Test [Solution Validation] Development / Enhancement Implementation [Solution Deployment] Labor Distribution Standard for "Maintenance" Work Types Project Management (start-up.00% 9.00% Estimating Technique Guide . Configuration Items. when the estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor.Estimating Technique Guide developed using a proportional technique.00% 13. If there are logical groupings of configuration items.Development/Enhancement Quality Assurance Reviews Maintenance Analysis (Requirements) [Solution Definition] Development/ Enhancement 15. Time in Months.Draft 7 2/26/2013 . close) . The ESLOC estimate is based on 100 Lines of Code per Function Point. with a productivity index assumed to be slightly less than the average productivity of companies in the SLIM database having a SEI CMM Level 2 productivity index. the table is completed by locating the effort hours and ESLOC in the top down factors table and entering them into the Effort Estimate and ESLOC columns in the Top Down Estimate by CI worksheet. The groupings can then be used to combine individual configuration items into packages of work for estimation by group.00% 6. For example.00% 15. the Modules. The list of configuration items can be sorted by group and combined into a single estimate. or Programs in the visualized solution can be identified and entered into Top Down Estimate by CI worksheet. which must be considered in developing proportional estimates.00% 12. a size can be determined between Very Very Small and Very Large. Using the size and category within size.00% 27. Interfaces. Using the factors table.00% 9. a proposed solution is visualized. the totals can be calculated. close) .00% 5.00% 18.

estimate the effort for each type of widget. It differs from the comparative technique in that the reference projects are not explicitly identified. the design effort might be estimated as 40% of the coding effort. For example. Quality Assurance might be estimated as 3% of the total project effort. You can use this technique for lower-level tasks such as developing a reporting sub-system or a customer maintenance window.Draft 8 2/26/2013 . processor capacity.00% 5. the target project. The comparison is normally performed at a high-level with little reference to detail. you compare the project at hand. This technique also requires some type of historical data to compare against. it should not be used as a crutch to pass the estimating responsibility on to some other component. it should be used only if time is limited or a relatively large uncertainty in the estimate can be tolerated. You also happen to know of a similar type of project that was also custom developed. Therefore. you could develop a comparative estimate for the new telecommunications systems by doubling the actual effort from your reference project. you identify project characteristics that can be counted and that are performed on a recurring basis (the “widget”). This technique is very effective when used appropriately. The comparison does not have to be at a project or phase level.00% 40.00% Comparative Using this estimating technique. Using this technique will magnify estimating errors being made elsewhere. System and Integration Testing.00% 18. Proportional estimates can be used in combination with other estimating techniques. The major weakness of this technique is that a project is not thoroughly assessed. Typical widgets may be Estimating Technique Guide . and determine the total effort by applying these estimates against the total number of widgets. Widget Counting Using this estimating technique. and Deployment phases of the project. or programming a specific system component. It can also be useful for estimating low-level components such as documentation. Expert Judgment This technique relies on the extensive experience and judgment of the estimator to compare the requirements for the component being estimated against all projects in his/her previous experience. after using widget counting to derive the estimate for the Requirements phase of a project and then used proportional factors to estimate the Design. when the estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor. However.00% 15. This technique is useful as a “sanity check” for an estimate produced by another method. printer volume. This technique relies heavily on the experience of the estimators and their ability to gauge the target project in relation to the comparative data available. with other projects similar in scope and type to produce an estimate.Estimating Technique Guide Maintenance External Design Maintenance Internal Design Maintenance Procedures and Training Maintenance Construction (Code/Unit Test) [Solution Generation] Maintenance Test [Solution Validation] Maintenance Implementation [Solution Deployment] 9. Since this reference project covered roughly 50% of the functionality needed by the new system. Implementation. For example you have been asked to estimate the custom development for a new telecommunications system.00% 4. You could even add an additional percentage of effort to account for some of the unknowns in the new system. the number of printers might be estimated as one for every 6 users. Proportional Estimating With this estimating technique you use the size of one component to proportionally estimate the size of another. Code/Unit Test. For example. Previous personal experience or estimating guidelines can help provide these proportionality factors.

This provides for a level of independence from the specific hardware platform.Estimating Technique Guide menu choices. maintenance.  The effort to develop or complete the project must be reasonably proportional to the number of widgets. languages. A logical file may span many physical files (e. Translating the function point count to an effort estimate based on a function point delivery rate. An input can originate directly from the user or from user-generated transactions from an intermediary system. However.  Logical Internal File—Any logical group of data held by the system.) Function points are viewed from the perspective of the system boundary and are comprised of the following types:  Input—Any data or control information provided by the user that adds or changes data held by the system. database fields. This includes database tables and records on physical files describing a single logical object. Decomposing the project or application into a defined set of function types. complex) and weight the effort accordingly. and the organization’s line of business. medium. reports. that is. Assigning a complexity to each of these function types. Tallying the function types and applying pre-defined weighting factors to these totals to drive a single unadjusted function point count. files. index. output display screens. Adjusting this function point count based on the overall project complexity. output. An inquiry is distinct from an output in that it is not procedurally generated. This is typically done by using the comparative approach based on historical metrics data or by prototyping the implementation of one of the widgets. 2.  Output—Any unique unit of data or control information that is procedurally generated by the system for the benefit of the user. in which the online user defines an inquiry as input and the system responds immediately with an output. Function Point Analysis is the basis for several automated estimating tools. even though the project is not necessarily made up purely of widgets. Use the following criteria when determining whether you should be using this estimating technique:  There must be enough detail information to allow you to identify and count the widgets. it is treated as a single logical internal file for sizing purposes. with low algorithmic processing complexity. and inquiry. and messages. Advantages for using Function Point Analysis include:   The project is viewed from the perspective of the user rather than the developer. The result of an inquiry may be a display/report or a transaction file that is accessible by the user.  Inquiry—Each unique input/output combination. database entities. Estimating Technique Guide . Inputs exclude transactions or files that enter the system as a result of an independent process. requirement specifications. audit trails. Function Point Analysis This estimating technique is suited for projects that are based on straightforward database input.Draft 9 2/26/2013 . The estimates can be developed from knowledge of the requirements without a detailed design solution being known. and overflow). You may assign complexity factors to each type of widget (simple. in terms of user functions rather than programs.  You must be able to produce an estimate for the effort of each widget type. pages of documentation. (This is probably the most difficult step. This would include logical units forming part of printed reports.g. or objects. screens. developer’s skill level. windows.. 3.  External Interface File—Each logical group of data that is input to or output from the system boundary to share that data with another system. The basic steps involved in this estimating technique include: 1. 5. 4. data. described below. and test cases.

function points. there is little difference in the results between Function Points and Feature Points. Disadvantages for using this estimating approach include:     This approach does not accurately estimate systems that are largely algorithmic such as military systems. International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG). variations of Function Point Analysis are being developed to address the newer technologies and development approaches. The use of function points is not widely accepted within IT Services. robotics. The Function Point count for such systems totals only 60 to 80 percent of the Feature Point count.Draft 10 2/26/2013 . For real-time or highly algorithmic systems. There is also a users group. Function Points can be complicated to administer. As a result. both techniques result in nearly the same number of “points”. Feature Points This estimating technique is an extension to the function point analysis technique. Note: Before using this estimating technique. however. which has established standards to help encourage consistency in counting function points. it is not certain how well this concept applies to newer technologies and development approaches such as object-oriented development. we have not gathered any estimating guidelines or metrics for function point estimating. you should read one of the published books on this subject. process control. space systems. and middleware. and therefore track. Since the concept of Function Point Analysis was developed with older technologies and development approaches. For typical management information systems. the results can be significantly different between these two techniques. It involves adding a number of algorithms with an average complexity weight and changing the function point weighting in other areas. However.Estimating Technique Guide  The use of Function Point Analysis is accepted internationally. Formal training is needed before you can consistently count. Estimating Technique Guide .

 Assumes effort to develop system is proportional to number of widgets. space systems. perspective (e. or CASE tool environments.  Consistency encouraged through established international standards for function point counting.  Single data point.  Provides independence from hardware platform.  Often difficult to find comparable projects.  Must be verified by another method.  Weaknesses Historical data repository required. quality assurance.  Does not accurately estimate systems that are largely algorithmic such as military systems.   Proportional Effective when estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor (e.  Can be complicated to administer. robotics.  Does not have overall acceptance within IT Services. especially those using 4GL.  Project viewed from user.  Identifies requirements tradeoffs.  Magnifies size errors if widget effort estimates are incorrect.. with added benefit of accounting for algorithms and internal processing complexity.  Expert Judgment Estimate can be extremely accurate. not developer.g.  Estimating Technique Guide .  Can magnify estimating errors made in other areas.  Can be complicated to administer. Identifies areas where requirements clarification is needed.  Requires formal training.Draft 11 2/26/2013 . developers’ skill at code efficiency.  High risk.  Does not yet have overall acceptance.g. even though system is not necessarily made up purely of widgets. configuration management).. files).  Same strengths as Function Point Analysis.  Requires previous personal experience or experience-based guideline metrics for proportionality factors. software management. and process control.  Widget Counting Effective for systems that can be characterized by widgets  Function Point Analysis Feature Point Well suited for standard Management Information System projects with little internal processing complexity. languages. report writer. business of organization.  Estimates can be developed from knowledge of requirements without a detailed design solution being known.Estimating Technique Guide Technique Comparison The following table highlights the strengths and weaknesses of these estimating techniques: Estimation Technique Comparative Strengths Estimate can be very accurate if a suitable analogy can be identified. may not be repeatable by anyone other than the “expert”. user functions rather than programs.  Requires formal training.

The lead estimator calls a group meeting in which the experts discuss estimation issues. Vision & Stategy.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Technique Comparison The following diagram illustrates the recommended estimating techniques for the various ASPIRE project phases.Draft 12 2/26/2013 . and management and coordination activities. 3. Wideband Delphi Technique When several estimators are estimating the same project or component. specialty areas. or when you have multiple estimators. & ETP Business Area Architecture Development Integration Deployment Development Organizational Change Technical Infrastructure Facilities Infrastructue Year 2000 Development Coordination Project Management Program Management Not Recommended Recommended Optional/ Sanity Check Managing Multiple Estimates The following techniques can be used to manage multiple estimates. The basic goal of this technique is to achieve a more accurate and reliable composite estimate. The experts independently develop estimates and give them to the coordinator. thereby reducing the impact of individual biases. This can occur when you have used different techniques to estimate a project or component. Estimating Techniques Comparative Proportional Expert Judgement Widget Counting Function Point Analysis Feature Point Analysis Specialty Areas Project Phases Mgmt and Coord. you have various degrees of confidence. misunderstandings. 2. The lead estimator presents the same specification to each expert. This technique consists of the following steps: 1. the Wideband Delphi technique is useful to enforce convergence of the different estimates. Estimating Technique Guide . and incomplete knowledge.

Experts review estimates. Estimating Technique Guide . In most of these tools. is a knowledge-based software management tool that can analyze.. scheduling. 6. quality estimating. quality. Although these tools have generally been calibrated using a wide range of historical project data at other companies within the industry.700 software projects. realistic. focusing on where estimates vary widely. and technology assessment. value analysis. and store data about your development projects. The lead estimator calls a group meeting to discuss estimates. It offers the capability to:  Predict source code size. this formula will result in an estimate very close to the “realistic estimate”.  Perform side-by-side comparisons of project versions. your optimistic estimate will be your aggressive estimate. languages. Typically. they have not been calibrated against IT Services projects so you need to apply some judgment when using these tools. but excluding rationale. and steps 4–6 are repeated until a consensus is reached. Commercially Available Estimating Tools There are a number of automated estimating tools available to support estimating efforts. measurement. number of required personnel resources). skills. EV = (1{O} + 4{R} + 1{P}) / 6 where: EV = Estimate Value O = Optimistic Estimate R = Realistic Estimate P = Pessimistic Estimate Note: The definition of optimistic. In general. CHECKPOINT integrates sizing. different projects. The lead estimator analyzes the estimates and distributes a summary containing the estimates with their medians. an algorithm is applied to the basic measure of size to produce an estimate of effort (e. CHECKPOINT/KnowledgePLAN Overview CHECKPOINT. evaluate.  Measure all aspects of a software project at a user-defined level of granularity. from Software Productivity Research Inc. and productivity.  Estimate projects using a knowledge-base of over 4. schedules.  Perform what-if analysis for a variety of variables including CASE tools. risk analysis. 5.g. or a project against other established benchmarks.  Assess a wide range of software attributes against industry standards for cost.  Aggregate data across selected projects. and pessimistic is up to the individual(s) developing the estimate. Weighted or Average Estimate The technique uses the following formula to derive an average estimate.. estimating.  Estimate the cost of developing systems as well as the cost of developing specifications and user documentation. your realistic estimate will be what you feel is the most likely estimate. planning. and your pessimistic estimate will be your conservative estimate. and methodologies.Estimating Technique Guide 4.Draft 13 2/26/2013 .

provide two staff and duration estimating templates. General Purpose Templates Staff and Duration Estimating Template This template provides a simple spreadsheet to compute the total hours and cost based on the anticipated level of staffing and length of the project. such as the project team. Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template This template allows you to do a simple projection of the remainder of a project based on the actuals from the Requirements/BAA phase. The template assumes a custom (ICD) development approach. One template allows for a single resource group. created. Detailed instructions for using these spreadsheets are located in the appendix. Estimating Technique Guide . contained in the file attachments. Please refer to the Development estimating templates for a complete list. ASPIRE Phase Templates Vision and Strategy The Estimating and Metrics team currently does not have any templates specific to this ASPIRE phase. Development A number of estimating templates have been collected that support the Development phase of ASPIRE. you can specify that there are 40 hours per week. and computes an average billing rate.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Templates There are a variety of estimating templates or spreadsheets being used throughout the organization to assist with our project estimating efforts. or modified.5%. Travel Expenses Template This template provides you with two options for estimating traveling expenses. if you are counting weeks in your duration. The various Development estimating templates generally use a proportional estimating factor for this phase. Business Area Architecture The Estimating and Metrics team currently does not have any templates specific to this ASPIRE phase. The spreadsheet calculates the total hours and cost for each role. The generic Staff and Duration template could be used for this type of an engagement. and 10% scenarios. For example. You can modify these factors or add additional scenarios. provides grand totals for staff count. You simply enter the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA and the spreadsheet projects the remaining project effort based on 7%. It is based on the assumption that a Requirements/BAA accounts for 7% to 10% of the total project effort. such as IT Services and the client staff. The second option allows you to specify estimated travel expenses on an individual by individual basis. The estimating templates. The generic Staff and Duration template could be used for this type of an engagement. Integration Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this phase. and specify the duration and hourly billing rate for this role. and cost. The first option allows you to estimate these expenses as an average for the entire team. The template allows you to define a project role. 8. hours. Following is a high-level summary of the templates that the Estimating and Metrics team have obtained. identify how many individuals will fill this role (fractional values are valid). The template also allows you to specify a duration to hour conversion factor so that the total hours and cost are calculated on a per hour basis. The actual spreadsheets have been attached as separate files.Draft 14 2/26/2013 . the other template allows for two resource groups. The general Staff and Duration estimating template can also be applied to this phase.

these guidelines are provided later in this document. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. The various Development estimating templates generally use a proportional estimating factor for this phase. you can specify the number of units. Two estimating templates are provided. or by using a proportional level of effort. Stakeholder Group Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the number of stakeholder groups based on either the project team’s size or the overall size of the client. or by using a proportional level of effort. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. or by using a proportional level of effort. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the XAD sub-phases. and common objects. reports. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. Specialty Area Templates Development Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided.Estimating Technique Guide Deployment Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this phase. included in the spreadsheet. included in the spreadsheet. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort for each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. one supports a single XAD application. conversions. the second supports multiple applications.Draft 15 2/26/2013 . the number of staff working on each activity or work product. Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. The spreadsheet accumulates totals for each type of widget and links these totals to a summary worksheet to provide a high-level summary of your estimates. and any estimating assumptions or comments. These widgets can include items such as menus. one supports a single iterative custom-developed application. you can specify the number of units. the estimated effort for each unit. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. integration and deployment phases. For each activity or work product. and any estimating assumptions or comments. the second supports multiple applications. Two estimating options are included in this template. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the package-based sub-phases. Organizational Change Communication Event Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the effort to design and deliver communication events using the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. As you define each of these widgets. the second supports multiple applications. This template uses the calculations described in the Estimating Technique Guide . one supports a single package-based application. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the business system design. Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template This estimating template allows you to build a bottom-up estimate based on the number of “widgets” being developed. included in the spreadsheet. interfaces. The general Staff and Duration estimating template can also be applied to this phase. you can rate the complexity of each on a scale from 1 to 10. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. the estimated effort for each unit. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort for each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. windows. application development completion. servers. The detail matrix worksheet references additional look-up tables that contain the appropriate estimate based on the type of widget and its complexity. For each activity or work product.

Estimating Technique Guide . these guidelines are provided later in this document.Estimating Technique Guide Organizational Change estimating guidelines. To estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the overall client size.Draft 16 2/26/2013 . To estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the project team size. Technical Infrastructure Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this specialty area. you need to select the appropriate client size and percentage of organizational impact from the respective tables. Facilities Infrastructure Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this specialty area except for Critical Computer Resources. simply enter the size of the project team in full-time equivalents.

and management and coordination activities.Estimating Technique Guide ASPIRE Methodology Comparison The following diagram illustrates how the various estimating templates support the ASPIRE project phases. estimating approaches or techniques when estimating your project. you will often need to make assumptions to “fill the gaps” in the information needed to create the estimate. Specialty Areas. you should take into account the effort to produce the final deliverables as well as the workshops. and delivery assurance. Although these are often done concurrently. an initial draft of your Statement of Work. and Management and Coordination Activities Organizational Change Technical Infrastructure Facilities Infrastructure Development Staff and Duration Travel Expenses Estimating Templates: Requirements/Proportional Package Based Dev Iterative Custom Dev Accelerated Application Dev Ballpark Estimating Proportional Percentage .. requirements. you need to understand the scope. Refer to the Estimating Process Guide for additional guidelines.. For example. and the approach. interviews. and preferably three. (Note: In most cases you will be developing the Statement of Work at the same time you are developing your estimates. will be a valuable source of input for your estimating process. Using multiple approaches will help ensure a higher level of confidence in the final estimates.) Estimating Technique Guide . TBD .Draft 17 Development Coordination Business Architecture Project Management Deployment Program Management Integration Process Initiative 2/26/2013 . or risks that you identify during this process in the Estimating Notebook.. ASPIRE Phases. project management time. if you are trying to estimate an Enterprise Transformation Plan. Vision and Strategy Recommended Optional / Sanity Check Not Recommended Estimating Guidelines Project-Wide Guidelines The following estimating guidelines can be applied across all phases of a project. travel. constraints.  To estimate effectively. These should be documented in your Statement of Work. specialty areas. especially the scope and approach sections. You will also need to identify any of the surrounding activities or components. These items must also be incorporated into the project’s Statement of Work.  Use at least two. There will be cases where your estimating process requires that you update your Statement of Work and visaversa. Be sure to document any assumptions. Your estimate should include at least one top-down and one bottom-up approach..  On larger scale estimating efforts.

business function. and the number of staff over some fixed duration of time. Estimating Technique Guide . number of windows being developed. • For each project evaluation: 1 hour to write and 1 hour for both individuals to review and discuss.  When appropriate.Draft 18 2/26/2013 .Estimating Technique Guide  Breakdown the project deliverables and work products into more manageable pieces by creating a work breakdown structure (WBS) that contains all of the components of the proposed solution. and ½ hour for both individuals (manager and project team member) to review and discuss. number of packages being evaluated. • Allow for 1 project evaluation for each team member every four months.  Use the following guidelines when estimating for project expectations and reviews: • For each project expectation: ½ hour to write.  Include the effort for conducting architecture. All too often we try to develop an estimate with a maximum price tag in mind and we let the “price” drive the “estimate”.  Try to separate the “pricing” from the “estimate”. design. One rule of thumb is to allow for 4 FTEs for 5 days every quarter. Document these quantifiable units of measure in the Statement of Work and Estimating Notebook. and development reviews in your estimates. evaluate and approve estimates from sub-contractors.  Base your estimates on some quantifiable unit of measure. Examples include the number of workshops being conducted.

The total cost for an ETP seems to be in the $50. Assuming a $200/hr billing rate this would translate to 250 to 1.) Following are some rules of thumb that have been used on prior projects. Tools. 1996. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. If expectations are not properly managed. A good client relationship person is key.750 hours. significant cost overruns and loss of credibility are likely. None of the estimating tools that we have used address this phase of a project. If expectations are not properly managed. The primary deliverable is a prioritized listing of future steps to achieve the Vision set by the study. Review these and adjust your estimates. The only estimating template that we currently have available for an ETP is the general staff and duration estimating template. Manage client expectations on the length of the document to be presented and the depth to which it will extend. client expectations must be carefully managed as to the level of detail that will be provided as a result of the study. prior experiences. The time to develop this plan is often underestimated. as well as one or two solid Business Analysts and a good Technical Architect who can take a pragmatic approach and make fact-based recommendations.000 to $350.    It takes four people approximately six weeks to complete an ETP study. You can also use a proportional or widget counting technique to get an alternative estimate.    Estimating Technique Guide . Estimating Techniques. and from our various field visits.Draft 19 2/26/2013 . and Templates Recommended estimating techniques include comparative and expert judgment.000 range. The answer usually does not "fall out" from the work done during the study.  At the outset of the project. even for a relatively small project such as an ETP. even for a relatively small project such as an ETP. significant cost overruns and loss of credibility are likely.Estimating Technique Guide ASPIRE Phase Guidelines Vision and Strategy (ETP) General Information Several interviews with project teams indicate that the "soft deliverables" associated with an ETP allow a fair amount of flexibility in the duration of the study. we must realize that IT Services will need to be prepared to do the work for those estimates. Another critical success factor is the staffing. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your ETP estimates. or risk factors accordingly. Plan on one to two days per page for preparing the final documentation. Client expectations must be carefully managed as to the level of detail that will be provided as a result of the study. A plan that we cannot live with surely is one the client cannot live with. assumptions. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. Will we estimate IT Services involvement or leave the numbers "generic"? Will dollars be associated with the estimates? Will the estimates be considered "IT Service’s bid" for the work? In the likely event that the plans for the future studies become budgeted numbers for the client.

You can also use a proportional or widget counting technique to get an alternative estimate. how many customers. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. I/S or the business users? How many individuals will be reviewing or approving deliverables? Will you need to create a business case for action? Will the client be using a value discipline? Has this already been established? How many alternative architectures is the client expecting? Estimating Techniques. multidivisional. 1996. QSM Slim. especially if you are going to use a bottom-up estimating approach. centralized. you will need to adjust your estimates based your specific project.Draft 20 2/26/2013 . or competitors will be targeted? Do we have already identified an industry or business best practice for this type of client? Will there be a final presentation? Who will do the final sign-off. prior experiences. and Proportional Percentage. and Templates Recommended estimating techniques include comparative and expert judgment.                   How many user representatives will be involved with the Requirements/BAA effort? How many representatives will be providing requirements? How many interviews will you conduct? Include interviews at the executive level as well as firstlevel management. The following staff size/ project duration have been used on prior Requirements/BAA efforts:  Six people for five months Estimating Technique Guide . Tools. Since the scope and depth of the final deliverable for a Requirements/BAA can vary significantly from project to project. The only estimating template we currently have available for a Requirements//BAA is the general staff and duration estimating template. or competitor surveys be conducted? And if so. Possible estimating tools include Ballpark. and from our various field visits.) Following are some rules of thumb that have been used on prior projects. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. How many departments or locations will be involved? What is the client’s overall organizational structure? For example is the client’s organization largely regulatory. or decentralized? What is the scope baseline as defined by each of the six domains of change? What deliverables is the client expecting to be delivered? What is the expected level of detail for these deliverables? How many process threads will you be addressing? Is the client looking for a business process redesign or a business process improvement? How many conceptual data entities are expected to be involved? How many workshops are you expecting to conduct? How many individuals will be attending these workshops? What are the time box assumptions for each workshop? How many best practice interviews are you expecting to conduct? How many legacy systems are involved? Will customer. supplier. suppliers. multinational.Estimating Technique Guide Business Area Architecture (Requirements/BAA) General Information The following questions can assist you in sizing the Requirements/BAA effort.

Data modeling metrics:  Four hours per entity using workshops.  The overall client culture could increase the time and effort to resolve issues. focused on data not processes)  Six people for three and a half months. Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes that are 4 to 5 times as much during program construction. Workshops seemed to be the most efficient method. or risk factors accordingly. This will increase time frames. During our field support visits. Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes 2 to 3 times as much during the BSD phase. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your Requirements/BAA estimates. Other estimating options include using a staff and duration model or basing the estimates on the number of deployment sites.  Three people for three months. be sure to include the potential estimate adjustment for later phases as well. we generally used a proportional factor for this phase. we generally used a proportional factor for this phase. This will help the client in understanding the full impact of the change request. Integration Specific estimating guidelines have not been developed for this phase at this time. During our field support visits. reducing the potential “sticker shock” of subsequent phases. Note: If you have already provided estimates for subsequent phases. or nearly completed.  The Requirements/BAA effort generally involves intense senior business level participation. there tends to be more committee decision making versus individual decision making. These hours are for the data modeler only. Your estimate and schedule should reflect this effort. Req /BAA: BSD: ADP: INT: Scope changes are generally 1 to 1.Estimating Technique Guide  Four people for two months (Decision Support System. The Requirements/BAA was for a small division and included all the processes for this division. knowing the estimating drivers that were used for these later phases will also help you to identify the overall impact of the scope changes. resist the need for producing downstream estimates for BSD and Development until the Requirements/BAA has been completed.  When possible. Deployment Specific estimating guidelines have not been developed for this phase at this time. Estimating Technique Guide . Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes that are up to 10 times as much during integration testing.Draft 21 2/26/2013 . Following are some general metrics regarding the impacts on subsequent project phases.  During the Requirements/BAA phase. Development Refer to the Development estimating guidelines for each of the specific Development paths. Review these and adjust your estimates. When applicable. Accurate estimates are very difficult to produce during the early phases of a project. assumptions.  Changes in scope during the Requirements/BAA will impact later phases of the project. Other estimating options include using a staff and duration model or basing the estimates on the number of test scenarios that need to be executed.

Tools. however. is the client expecting a process improvement or a reengineering of its business processes?  Is a Technical Infrastructure included?  Will the project include PSD through implementation? Does the project scope include any production support? Any Training?  What is the messaging infrastructure (mainframe component)?  Does the project scope include data mapping?  Does the project scope include Organizational change for IS or the business community?  Does the project scope include a gap analysis? What percentage of change is the client expecting?  Will the project team have direct or intermediary contact with the users and decision makers?  How involved will the user community be?  Will IT Services have overall project control or will we be shadow-managing?  Does the project scope include a pilot? Does it include a roll-out?  What other tools (IT or project management) will be required for this project?  How much experience does the client have with the proposed platform? How sophisticated is the client with this platform? Additional support. An enhancement involves making a fix using the tools provided by the vendor. CA-Estimacs contains a packaged-based lifecycle model. and a modification. a configuration. and procedures may be required. Checkpoint applies mainly to any proposed enhancements and is not recommended for a package-based development effort. As a general rule. expert judgment. A configuration involves setting a software parameter as intended. Estimating Technique Guide .Draft 22 2/26/2013 . policies.  Have a clear definition of an enhancement. A modification is a change to the core software code.  How will the application or data be distributed across locations? Will the application or data be distributed over time?  Who (IT Services or client) will be responsible for managing the software vendor? Estimating Techniques. All of the estimating tools discussed in the prior section provide some level of support for a package-based development approach. we have had minimal success with using CA-Estimacs to estimate this type of a project. More specific estimating guidelines have also been included for the Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) sub-phase.Estimating Technique Guide Specialty Areas Development Package Based Development (PBD) General Information The following estimating guidelines apply to the entire PBD specialty area. and Templates Estimating techniques that apply to a PBD effort include comparative. Do Not Make Modifications!  Does the package include any modules that are provided by ancillary vendors?  Will the project include a Requirements/BAA? What is the extent will the business processes change. The following questions can help you to size your overall PBD effort. We have developed a package-based estimating template that can support a single or multiple applications. and widget counting.

12 18 months is a more realistic minimum timeframe.  A SAP R3 implementation can be 10 times or more higher than the retail software price. 1996. SAP Implementation:  A general rule of thumb is $1 million for an SAP implementation.  Best of breed solutions often require multiple vendors.  Although the minimum timeframe for an Oracle implementation can be as short as 6 .  EDI capabilities are non-existent within the Oracle suite of applications. General:  We typically under-estimate the development. and a 1. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. conversion. however. and from our various field visits. Oracle:  Oracle may not be considered true client server. Oracle.  A minimum client PC requirement is a Pentium processor with 24 meg of memory.  We often underestimate vendor and subcontractor efforts.  An Oracle 2 implementation can be 3 times or more higher than the retail software price. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your PBD estimates. the average minimum timeframe for a generic implementation is 9 .) Following are some suggested rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your estimate. prior experiences. if it does not have a distributed data architecture. you can usually distribute module specific information. Review these and adjust your estimates.  Software vendors are generally unwilling to modify their software.12 months. or risk factors accordingly. You will need to adjust your estimates based on your specific project.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April.  Although the minimum timeframe for an SAP implementation can be a short as 6 months. SAP:  SAP does not have a distributed data architecture. and PowerSoft: Inflate server requirements 4 times the vendor statements.Draft 23 2/26/2013 . assumptions. Estimating Technique Guide .8 months. Oracle Implementation:  A typical Oracle implementation costs approximately $10 million.  Earlier software versions are generally prone to bugs and poor software performance.2 gig hard drive.  Multiple database and application software vendors add to the overall risk and complexity. An SAP implementation is often 2 times longer than an Oracle implementation.  Clients often fail to provide full-time business resources. and interface efforts.  For SAP.

 Does the client have a current or prior relationship with potential vendors? Are there any political issues that you need to be aware of?  How many functions or process threads is the new package going to address? How does this compare to the current system?  Does the client have a list of requirements?  Are there any unique functions specific to the client’s industry or the client’s company? Is the client considering being an industry center of excellence?  How many interfaces are you anticipating? Are there multiple systems or platforms?  Will the packaged solution be an enterprise-wide solution?  What is the client’s guiding principle towards business process change. to what extent? If not. you may need to estimate all of the related equipment costs.Draft 24 2/26/2013 . These items should be addressed in the project’s Statement of Work. are they willing to change their business process for the package or visa versa.  Will IT Services be managing the project or only assisting the client in managing this effort?  What will be the client’s involvement in the PES? What is the client’s experience level with PES?  What is the scope of the end package. for example.  Is contract negotiation part of the project scope?  Does the project scope include the Technical Infrastructure Acquisition (TIA)? If so. platform. or technical requirements been identified? Estimating Technique Guide .  Has a vision and strategy (ETP) been conducted? If so. will part of the PES need to address the vision and strategy?  Does PES also include the relevant activities of the Requirements/BAA or is this being estimated separately?  Will the PES selection process result in vendor’s submitting a response to either a Request For Proposal (RFP) or a Request For Solution (RFS)? An RFS will involve more effort.  What is the I/S strategy for or their view towards the package or the package’s architecture? Is the package’s architecture in alignment with current I/S strategy? Will it be accepted by the I/S organization?  Have the equipment. Following is a list of scope questions that should be considered. will it be used solely for AR or will it also be used for order management?  Is the client looking for an integrated packaged solution or is the client looking for a best of breed solution?  What are the client’s budget thresholds?  What are the business drivers behind this initiative?  How many packages are you planning on evaluating? What is your evaluation approach for the top packages?  What is the client’s timeframe for choosing and installing the packaged solution?  What is the acceptance process? What is the acceptance criteria? These should be identified in the project’s Statement of Work.Estimating Technique Guide Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) Sub-Phase General Information Understanding the scope of the PES is a critical factor when deriving your estimate.

This time does not include the SDL. ERP/ MRPII has 15 major modules: General Ledger.  Multi-lingual. Master Scheduling. For example. The staff should be experienced.  Consider the vendor’s location. Shop Floor Control. You should try to compare their definition with an APICS reference. and from our various field visits. multinational.  When selecting the final package. Bill of Material.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Techniques. You will need to adjust your estimates based on your specific project.  Level of organizational change required versus planned. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your PES estimates. and Standard Costing. distribution.  Be sure to validate a vendor’s integrity through references. accessibility. Accounts Payable.  When estimating the selection process. Hackett Group.  The minimum cost for a PES is $100K. 1996. Human Resources. or risk factors accordingly.  Each major module will cost $25k or higher. manufacturing.  Vendor meetings with the client. or HRSP. and logistics for distributing and receiving RFP or RFS responses. Review these and adjust your estimates.  Confusion or misinterpretation of the client’s definition of specified business processes. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. assumptions. prior experiences. Purchasing. tools. allow for 20 days or more for each major module.  Ensure that there is a real business value. Order Entry. and multicultural capabilities or requirements.  Interfaces with other systems or packages.Draft 25 2/26/2013 . A major module is defined as a major functional subsystem. Estimating Technique Guide . Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. AICPA. Payroll. and Templates The same techniques. avoid a weighted point system as the ultimate decision maker.  A PES project should be staffed with one person per functional area such as financial.) Following are some rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your estimate. Tools. and project management. MPS. The minimum duration of 3 months elapsed time is needed to accommodate scheduling issues.  Client’s expectations of IT Services developing a vendor short list. and templates identified for a package-based development effort also apply to the PES sub-phase. technical. Accounts Receivable. MRP. WIP. Inventory.

1996. and from our various field visits.  Following are some general metrics for additional “support” staff. approved prototype.4 boxes. If the team leader is monitoring up to 6 developers.Draft 26 2/26/2013 .Estimating Technique Guide Iterative Custom Development (ICD) General Information Estimating Techniques. There can be a simple query done in this window that does a select from a single table. Additional Managers: Consider adding one additional FTE for every 15 -16 team members. application architect.  Following are some general metrics for interfaces. programming.32 hours 40 . then 100% of the individual’s time needs to be allocated to team leader activities. the team leader activities are additional hours.88+ hours Note: Simple Window: Contains 1-2 simple objects such as a drop down data window or single line edits. Note: If you are using Widget Counting to estimate the development effort. 50% of this individual’s time can be allocated for team leader activities and the other 50% to development activities. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. and Templates All of the estimating techniques and tools discussed in prior sections provide some level of support for an iterative custom development effort. you will need to adjust these for more complex 3-tier applications. networks. Estimating Technique Guide . system architect. Tools.48 hours 80 . and test coordinator. Many of the data maintenance windows fall into this category.) Following are some rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your ICD estimate. These hours include technical design. Simple: Medium: Complex: 24 . prior experiences. servers. or databases. The matrix based ICD estimating template is also an effective tool for this type of project. and unit testing of one program: Simple (Extract and Post): Medium: Complex (multiple systems or conversions): 80 hours 160 hours 240 hours  Following are some general PowerBuilder/ PowerTools metrics. DBA. These hours are for coding and unit testing 2-tier applications. Team Leaders: When a team lead is monitoring 3 or less developers. try to breakdown into simpler tasks in order to accurately estimate the progress of this task. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. For estimates in excess of 88 hours. Technical Support: Consider adding one additional FTE for every 3 . These individuals are in addition to a full-time project manager. These estimates are based on an existing. You should adjust your estimates based on your specific project.

simple updates or deletes from the database. inserts.  Following are some general metrics for stored procedures. updates and deletes from the database. complex data manipulation. simple cursor manipulation.Draft 27 2/26/2013 . simple logic within the stored procedure. Medium Procedure: Contains 1-2 transactions. There can be a simple query done in this function that does a select from a single table. Complex Function: Contains data manipulation. The project team’s System Architect needs to be familiar with the stored procedure functionality and know when is it beneficial to use a stored procedure versus a C function or visa versa. multiple table (4 or more) joins in the logic. inserts. you need to break these down into simpler tasks.120+ hours Note: Simple Procedure: Contains a single simple query. simple exception handling. Medium Function: A more complex function that has data manipulation.  Following are some general ANSI “C” coding and unit testing metrics. Performance considerations are critical in this window and extra effort should be taken to make sure that this window is as efficient as possible. multiple table (4 or more) joins in the SQL. such as sub-functions within the main business process.6 data windows with multiple objects on the window.Estimating Technique Guide Medium Window: Contains several simple data objects or 1-2 complex data windows that have SQL selects with multiple table joins. If these are greater than 120 hours. Simple: Medium: Complex: 10 hours 20 hours 40+ hours 40 hours 80 hours 80 . Note: The hour estimates for the complex functions are in excess of 80 hours. multiple table (2-4) joins in the SQL. Complex data queries. Simple: Medium: Complex: Note: Simple Function: Does not contain a lot of complex computation or data manipulation . code. updates. updates and deletes from the database. and unit testing. inserts and deletes across multiple data tables. Note: These estimates were based on Oracle stored procedures. and complex exception handling. and has multiple cursor management with in the stored procedure. and has cursor management within the function. These hours are for design. Estimating Technique Guide . A complex C function can also contain complex queries. Complex Procedure: Contains complex program logic. This stored procedure can have multiple transactions processing within the procedure. and has multiple cursor management within the function. Complex Window: Contains 3 . complex queries. Does not contain any logic. dynamic memory allocation for structures in support of complex data manipulation.

Medium-Complex Conversion: Expect to have approximately 20 . and list values contained in the window. Estimating Technique Guide . The average is approximately 3 hours per table. Estimates do not include performance turning. Note: Estimates are based on creating a physical build with a first cut at optimization. These following estimates are for Forms 4. (If the form was created manually. Expect that less than 10% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. Simple: A simple form is one that contains only one block and requires few edits or validations. Simple (less than 25 tables): Medium (less than 70 tables): Complex (greater than 70 tables): 80 hours 160 hours 240 hours  The following metrics can be used to determine the effort for creating a logical data model: Four attributes per hour Five relationships per hour One entity per hour  Following are some general conversion metrics.Draft 28 2/26/2013 .0 and they assume that the form has been generated through Designer/2000. Simple-Medium Conversion: Expect approximately 10% of the conversion programs to be classified in the category. The actual conversion effort is not included.20% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. average database size. Complex Conversion: Expect to have over 50% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. fields.50% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. single database and location with primary indices. code. Simple: Simple-Medium: Medium: Medium-Complex: Complex: 120 hours 160 hours 200 hours 280 hours 400 hours Note: Simple Conversion: A simple extract and post program. canvases.) Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 24 hours 40 hours 64 hours 104 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these forms or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. and unit testing for each conversion program.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Forms.Estimating Technique Guide  Following are some general metrics for creating a database. and additional 12 to 20 hours should be added to the estimates depending on the number of blocks. These estimates include the design. Medium Conversion: Expect to have approximately 10 .

execute an automatic query at the destination. Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 16 hours 32 hours 56 hours 80+ hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these zooms or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. or update data either the source or destination location.) Note: Zooms are commonly used with Oracle’s character-based version.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Zooms. (For example. Medium: A medium zoom is one that may have only one zoom event but several soom steps or have some effect on the zoom-to location.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Reports. Estimating Technique Guide . Medium: A medium report is one that contains two or three queries and a moderate amount of formatting. Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 8 hours 16 hours 32 hours 48 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these reports or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. (This is similar in concept to a “hot key”. Complex: A complex report is one that contains two or more queries and requires a substantial amount of formatting. The following estimates cover any custom zooms written to allow users to jump from one application form to another with the possibility of performing some processing once the user arrives at the new application form.Estimating Technique Guide Medium: A medium form is one that contains two or three blocks and a moderate amount of additional processing logic.Draft 29 2/26/2013 . They are not commonly used (might not be supported) in their GUI version. Complex: A complex zoom is one that has several zoom events each with several zoom steps that perform some function in the zoom-to location. Complex: A complex form is one that contains two or more blocks and requires a substantial amount of additional processing logic. Simple: A simple zoom is one that only has one zoom event and few zoom steps and has little or no effect on the zoom-to location. copy data from source to destination.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Alerts. except that the additional processing logic itself is complex. Very Complex: A very complex form is similar to a complex form. Simple: A simple report is one that contains only one query and requires little formatting. Very Complex: A very complex report is one that contains two or more queries and requires a significant amount of formatting.) Very Complex: A very complex zoom is one where significant actions take place at both the source and destination locations using combinations of queries and triggers in multiple steps in each event.

unit test. prototyping.Draft 30 2/26/2013 . Complex: A complex alert is one that might require several elegantly formatted detailed and summary actions in response to an event. Also it is uncertain at this time whether unit testing is covered in the “coding” or “testing” phase. database activities.Estimating Technique Guide Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 8 hours 16 hours 32 hours 48 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these alerts or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. There numbers were based on a small sampling of projects and should be adjusted based on the knowledge of the specific project environment. performance engineering. code. or other support activities. They do not account for 4GL tools. Simple: A simple alert is one that incorporates simple SQL code to respond to well defined events or to perform very routine actions such as cleaning obsolete data out of a table. Simple Design Code Test Total: Note: These numbers seem to be on the low side when compared to other metrics provided above. the following percentages can be used to break-down an estimate: Review Specification: Code Program: Compile Program: Code Review: Create Test Plan: Review Test Plan: Unit Test Program: Obtain Program Sign-off: 5% 15% 15% 5% 15% 5% 35% 5% Estimating Technique Guide .  Medium 17 40 8 65 Complex 34 80 16 130 10 24 4 38 For completing a program.  Estimate 40 hours of effort to develop one hour for hands-on (classroom-type) training with labs. report is one that contains only one query and requires little formatting.5 x 11) of user documentation. The total hours cover design.  Estimate 8 hours of effort to develop one page (8. The metrics assume that the development is client/ server using C++ or Visual Basic. team leadership. Very Complex: A very complex alert is one that requires interaction with the operating system in conjunction with detailed actions.  Following are some generic custom development metrics. Medium: A medium alert is one that incorporates more detailed actions in response to events and contain more complex SQL. and limited application/ integration testing.

 Being forced to estimate the entire project up-front. all software documentation has been completed. (Calculate each phase separately.  Remember to make allowances for computer operations. One definition of done: A developer is done with a module when all coding has been completed.  Testing and Pilot includes: • String and Integration Testing: 40% of effort • User Acceptance Testing: 40% of effort • Performance Testing: 20% of effort As a reasonable sanity check for these phases.  Failure to distinguish between the various components of the application architecture: e. allow the Application staff to build the procedures and have the DBA staff review them. especially if the Requirements/BAA has not been completed. application architect (business analyst). Try to avoid estimating forward from the Requirements/BAA. C.  Include time to account for miscellaneous development problem solving.  Failure to include time for all levels of testing. This individual will need time to understand the project-specific business requirements.  System complexity can have a huge multiplier effect on your estimates.  It is essential to have a frozen architecture before you begin development. and software documentation have been completed. Note: you can never bring in the test coordinator too soon. and peer (or management) reviews of the code.  It is essential for the development staff to understand what “done” means before program development begins. especially system and performance testing.  The DBA staff being expected to build all stored procedures.  3-Tier environments add an additional layer of complexity. test coordinator.  Allocate time for project manager. project managers. team leaders) when we adjust end dates due to schedule slips.g. test plan and results. and DBA roles. and stored procedures. Review these and adjust your estimates. These individuals should be allocated for the entire ICD phase. the unit test plan has been completed and executed.Draft 31 2/26/2013 . the code has been desk checked. calculate the effort based on the anticipated staff count and duration.) Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your ICD estimates. system architect (technical analyst).Estimating Technique Guide  Following is a proportional percentage by project phase: Requirements /BAA: BSD: Construction: Testing/ Pilot: 10% 20% 40% 30% Notes:  Construction includes unit testing. You will need them for critical items such as network support. Consider conducting regular meetings with key staff to look forward for unplanned tasks and potential workarounds. Estimating Technique Guide . PowerBuilder. or risk factors accordingly. Adjust your estimates accordingly. assumptions. These are generally unanticipated problems. Instead. and DASD management. Try to place these resources on non-critical paths.  Be sure to anticipate an lower level of utilization for client staff. backups.  We occasionally forget to account for fixed support staff (architects.

Estimating Technique Guide  Avoid being too aggressive with complexity ratings.  Be sure to identify and inventory interfaces and conversion programs. purchasing.  Conduct pre-development walkthroughs to identify potential performance problems before the application is built. Adjust your estimates accordingly. interface testing.  Need to estimate the performance testing architecture and infrastructure. Data quality will be low and you could expect to have to cleanse 75% of the data.  A mix of application languages will impact the level of effort.  Hint: Simulate an realistic system loading during user acceptance testing. This will slow down performance during early user acceptance testing so the client does not develop unrealistic expectations for the system’s final response time. and legacy system testing.  The time required to select a vendor. Estimating Technique Guide .  Need to have target performance levels from the client. or implement hardware or software components can impact the project schedule. We generally rate programs as easy when they really have a medium complexity.  We typically under-estimate or forget to estimate the effort needed to create a physical data design and to physically place the data on the server. and training in the use of performance tools.  We typically under-estimate the number of interfaces.  We also need to differentiate between benchmarking and performance testing. legacy system modifications. Try to allow for these potential schedule delays. The performance levels should focus on business functionality not screen or program response.  We should determine if legacy system retirement is within the scope of the project.  Performance Testing:  We typically under-estimate or forget to estimate stress and performance testing efforts. You may want to consider timeboxing manual data conversions.Draft 32 2/26/2013 . The effort to completely retire a legacy system is much more than just developing a new one.  We typically under-estimate conversions and the effort to cleanse the data.  Need to estimate the effort for selecting . New systems rarely map directly to the systems that they are replacing. purchase hardware or software components.

Data Modeler. and development estimating. discussed in the prior section.Estimating Technique Guide Accelerated Application Development (X/AD) General Information The following guidelines are based on two X/AD client/server projects. and to design the architecture of the application. We have developed two XAD estimating templates. for estimating an XAD engagement. prototype development. We have not tried to use any of the estimating tools.Draft 33 2/26/2013 . and widget counting. and a 2-teir client/server design. Team Leads. Estimating Technique Guide . The phase was broken down as follows:  Six weeks for business process design. C for the server development. development environment setup.  Six weeks for application architecture design. The technology employed on these projects was PowerBuilder for the GUI development. and data design. design the business processes. and Templates Estimating techniques that apply to an XAD effort include comparative. they provide a high-level structure for composing a project plan. and a DBA. Estimating Techniques. The BSD phase was staffed with a Project Manager. one that supports a single application and one that supports multiple applications. Estimating Rules of Thumb BSD Estimating Guidelines: The goal of the BSD phase was to develop a proof of concept prototype of the application. Tools. database creation. common object definition. Systems Architect. expert judgment. The BSD was completed in 12 weeks. Both of these projects were 1 year in duration. define the logical database design. a UNIX database server.

Their time is consumed by managing the developers. This timebox was used to complete user change requests. and business site preparation. During the application architecture design in BSD. one additional timebox was added to the schedule. an integration testing phase was completed. There was also a full-time DBA.Draft 34 2/26/2013 . planning the next timebox. The project team consisted of one or more team leads.Estimating Technique Guide Timebox Estimating Guidelines: The duration of each timebox was 5-6 weeks. full-time systems architect. Estimating Technique Guide . this phase should be equal to three timeboxes (15-18 weeks.  Having a prototype to show the user community the proof of concept and then get sign-off on the prototype. the users were completing acceptance testing for the previous timebox. After the timeboxes for new development were defined. Each timebox contained a mixture of simple and complex tasks based on the level of experience of the staff. helps to better estimate the size of the project. A project should assign as many development teams (1 team lead with 3-4 developers) as the project needs. the number of timeboxes for applications development was defined. While the development for a timebox was underway. and fulltime test coordinator. so that you are testing the application from the end user’s perspective and not the developer’s perspective. enhancements. They are testing the deliverable from the previous timebox. each with 3-4 developers. This phase was used for performance tuning. and assisting the users in acceptance testing.) The project staff consisted of: Project Manager System Architect All the team leads Half of the development staff DBA Success Factors  It is critical to have a test coordinator on staff as soon as possible so that he or she understands the business rules of the application. and any schedule overruns. (Note: If four or fewer timeboxes were used. user training. The application estimates were prepared using ICD estimating guidelines. final user acceptance. If more than four timeboxes were used. bug fixes. Integration Testing Estimating Guidelines: After completing all of the timeboxes. Common objects and application frameworks were developed in the first timebox.  The users are completing acceptance testing concurrent with development. part-time logical data modeler. full-time project manager. four weeks for development and 1-2 weeks for testing and delivery to the users for acceptance testing. the integration testing phase should be equal to two timeboxes (10-12 weeks). Subsequent timeboxes contained the development work in a logical sequence based on the work to be done. data conversion. This is not to say there won’t be any changes to the data model along the way. A team lead is NOT responsible for any development.  Having the data model defined ahead of development helped out greatly. but it avoids slowing down development while the data model is created. Note: No developer should have a task that lasts more than two weeks. The user test plans should be business rule based.

Estimating Technique Guide .Estimating Technique Guide  It is critical to have a System Architect during the design phases and then guide the development team to make sure the entire application works together. The System Architect should be on the project until the system is deployed.Draft 35 2/26/2013 . Cautions None have been identified. and usability. adherence to standards. This person should review all developed software for consistency.

appear to address organizational change activities. You will need to adjust these estimates based on your project and team-related experience. and widget counting.  The number of stages of acceptance is 5.  Communication Plans: The following formula can be used to estimate the effort to design and deliver communication events.  1. ETP and Requirements/BAA equals two phases) J = Judgment factor (use 5 for low-end. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April.Draft 36 2/26/2013 . and deploy the communication.15% of the overall effort. and from our various field visits. These guidelines include planning. This formula guideline includes the time required ( in days) to plan. Expect the Subject Matter Expert to spend most of his or her time during the phase transitions (beginning and end of each phase. discussed in the prior section. and Templates The current estimating techniques being used for estimating organizational change include comparative. Organizational Change as an overall level of effort:  One person. design. 2. Estimating Techniques. use a proportional estimate of 10% . The complexity of the engagement.Estimating Technique Guide Organizational Change General Information The following estimating guidelines were collected during one of our field visits. and execute an event. and 15 for high-end complexity) Estimating Technique Guide . the types of communication vehicles. You will need to adjust these to fit your specific project environment.) An average of 4 to 20 hours per change enabling communication event. developing.) The following guidelines are intended to provide a high-level idea of the amount of time required. and a second that can be used to estimate the number of stakeholder groups. expert judgment. (This does not apply to a very sophisticated event such as a video component. proportional. None of the estimating tools. We have developed two estimating templates. and deploying the communication event. design. draft. Tools. One that can help estimate the effort to design and deliver communication events. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. Two days to plan. approve. For a systems integration project. 1996. and the length of the engagement are all factors that can influence this estimate. prior experiences.  Two guidelines have been given for estimating the hours per event. 10 for average. the general readiness for change.) A minimum of 5% of the overall effort to a maximum of 40% of selected project phases. for the duration of the project. (Effort = F * S * P * J) where: F = Complexity factor as calculated below S = Number of stakeholder groups P = Number of project phases (example. (# of stakeholder groups * # of project phases * # of hours per event * # of stages of acceptance) Notes: Estimating the number of stakeholder groups is discussed later in this section. approving. designing. 50% of time. Another formula for estimating the amount of time required for change enabling communication follows.

project management.2 Some Resistance 1.0 Anticipated Change 1.000 9    Percent of Organization Impacted by Change PO factor 10 to 30% 2 For example: Your client has approximately 5.0 Moderate 1.95 x 12 x 1 x 10 = 475) Stakeholder Groups: The following guidelines have been defined for estimating the number of stakeholder groups. and organization as a whole.1. anticipated resistance. project management. and 7 stakeholder groups are involved -. Multiply the factor for each category to determine the complexity factor. Assume the change is major. we could estimate the effort during a Requirements/BAA to equal about 100 days. Using this factor.000 total employees.000 6 50.25 groups 1.the complexity factor (F) would be 1.or -. for a tactical change. project team. and 12 stakeholder groups have been identified -. ((project team FTEs / 2) + 4) To estimate the number of stakeholder groups bases on the company size and percent of employees impacted by the change use the following tables to multiply the size (CS) factor by the percent of organizational change (PO) factor: Company Size CS factor 100 2 500 3 1.4 Strategic (organization) 1.4 Much Resistance 1.4 x 1.2 Major 1.4 Example 1: Assume the change is minor.2 = 3. extended project team. subject matter experts.4 x 1. (CS (5) * PO (2) = 10) Estimating Technique Guide .95.9 stakeholder groups 1.44.0 1 .) Minimum number of stakeholder groups for an enterprise-wide engagement is 6 (executive sponsors.44 x 7 x 1 x 10 = 100) Example 2.2 x 1. Degree of Change Anticipated Resistance Type of Change Number of Stakeholder Groups Minor 1.   Minimum number of stakeholder groups for a small engagement is 4 (executive sponsors. and impacted business unit. (Effort = F x S x P x J -. with much resistance anticipated.4 More than 25 groups 1.Estimating Technique Guide To compute the Complexity Factor (F). which accounts for 20% of the company.000 8 50 to 100% 4 500.) To calculate the lower boundary of the number of stakeholder groups: divide the number of fulltime project team members (FTEs including client staff) by four and add two. The project is expected to only impact the corporate office. project team.2 x 1. Using this factor.or -. ((project team FTEs / 4) + 2) To calculate the upper boundary of the number of stakeholder groups: divide the number of fulltime project team members by two and add four.000 7 25 to 80% 3 100. with some resistance anticipated.0 x 1.0 = 1. for a strategic change. The estimated number of stakeholder groups is 10.000 5 10. use the following table to categorize the degree of change.2 10 .2 Tactical (business unit) 1.0 No Resistance 1.3. we could estimate the effort during a Requirements/BAA to equal about 475 days.the complexity factor (F) would be 1.Draft 37 2/26/2013 . type of change and number of stakeholder groups.4 x 1. (Effort = F x S x P x J -.000 4 Up to 10% 1 5.

The planning and estimation for production or development hardware platforms will be developed in accordance with hardware feasibility and sizing studies that are included in task performance criteria. implementation. task order and computer resource planning. and deployment. word processing. directs correlating staff duties and skills and computer resource use. Review and analysis are dictated by the types of activities (e. This could range as high as 80 hours of development time per hour of delivery for world-class instructor script and participant guides. database. In Estimating Technique Guide . Cautions None have been identified. The hardware acquisition will be a part of the project. and use one monitored in project startup and performance tracking activities. At project start up. In addition. This can range from as low as 2 hours to as high as 12 hours per role.Draft 38 2/26/2013 . use 4 hours per role as a guideline. The planning and analysis of computer resource use should be conducted monthly as an integral part of the project performance and exercised in conjunction with ongoing project tracking and oversight.Estimating Technique Guide Roles and Responsibilities: Assuming that your are creating a role (job description) from scratch and have some starting material. 2. 3. financial spread sheets). The review considers the type of equipment for all personnel and the peak periods of performance for all devices or units. use a guideline of 10 hours of development time for each hour of delivery. acquisition. the task order team and contract staffing (if applicable) consider the work allocation and equipment needs that were planned into the task order performance. The equipment is then listed in direct relationship to the staff and contract performance. The prime objective is to develop a plan for estimating and acquiring computer resources and then to analyze the use so that hardware requirements are satisfied. Critical Computer Resources and Facilities Infrastructure No specific estimating guidelines have been identified at this time. Each section manager identifies their staff’s roles and responsibilities. Critical Computer Resources may be estimated Critical Computer resource planning and estimating is an on-going activity. Training and Education Assuming the forum will be traditional. It is accomplished in conjunction with preparing and updating of the Project Management Plan and the Software Development Plan. standard contract and task order negotiation (if applicable). terminal access. instructor-led training. The attendees review the estimated resource use and the responsibilities for all technical and administrative personnel. the PM conducts a meeting with all section managers of all key activities. conducted at startup.. testing.g. all documents and planning materials developed in previous stages are used for project. If a new project or new task order requires new hardware. Steps for Planning/Estimating are: 1. Computer resources planning. Technical Infrastructure No specific estimating guidelines have been identified at this time.

a current hardware configuration from a system specification and a current hardware use report from the Operations and Maintenance Team may be used. adjustments are made to the acquisition plans. project management. In general. The plan is used to update the planned hardware expenditure for the contract. the total management and coordination effort should be approximately 15% to 20% of the total project effort. we generally used a staff and duration model to estimate development coordination. and device capacity. The timeline developed and provided to the section managers for review. usage of network. 4. The project/task order plan is then used to update the contract and site plans for hardware acquisition. be sure to include them here. and changes are proposed to the client. The Analysis and Design Manager maps the acquisition strategy against the staffing profile or an existing plan to develop a new resource acquisition plan and budget. 6. During our field support visits. channel capacity. Estimating Technique Guide . Management and Coordination Specific estimating guidelines have not be developed for this phase at this time. 7. The Analysis and Design Team manager maps the acquisition strategy on a timeline. The Project Manager and the section managers review the use report to analyze use of memory and the storage. a simpler update is developed for the task or contract budget.Estimating Technique Guide addition.Draft 39 2/26/2013 . 5. and program management. The Analysis and Design Manager review the plan with the PM and the accounting and finance personnel. The computer resources acquisition plans for a task order is built to reflect any required increase in current or planned contract hardware capabilities. 8. The system administrators monitor the use of critical computer resources and report the use to the PM monthly as the project progresses. A common guideline is to use a 1 to 6 ratio. If the team lead activities have not been included in the other project phases. The current Hardware Acquisition Plan from the Software Development Plan and project/ontract budget provide insight to the equipment that is available and what new equipment is planned for the future. The current use of resources is compared to acquisition of future resources.

the length of duration. allows you to identify the project’s duration (in weeks). and 10% scenarios. 2. The template assumes a custom (ICD) development approach. these are calculated based on the weekly expense amount. Staff and Duration Estimating Templates Two estimating spreadsheets have been provided. Either of these worksheets can be easily customized to meet your specific project requirements. It also provides totals for each expense category . Potential customization options include:   Modifying the IT Services and Client spreadsheet to represent billable and non-billable effort. Estimating Technique Guide . Estimating Template User Guides The following user guides provide some general directions on how to use each of the estimating templates. parking. allows you to specify the above expense categories and project duration on an individual by individual basis. cab/ auto. The first worksheet. A grand total is also provided. please contact any of the Estimating and Metrics team members. Totals are provided of each category. Option 1. and cost. One allows for a single resource group. The second allows for two resource groups. or development build. It is based on the assumption that a Requirements/BAA accounts for 7% to 10% of the total project effort. hours. meals. so the duration to hour conversion factor has been set to 40 hours. If you did not receive these file attachments or if you have any questions on how to use these spreadsheets. The user defined fields are in “blue”.Draft 40 2/26/2013 . To use these spreadsheets: 1. such as IT Services and the client staff. and computes an average weekly travel expense based on the total project expenses and the total number of weeks. timebox. Add or delete roles as needed. the overall project.5%. and miscellaneous expenses. and team size. The spreadsheet that allows for two groups of resources provides sub-totals for each group along with aggregated totals. release. For each unique project role. This worksheet provides total weekly and project expenses by individual. Each spreadsheet calculates the total hours and cost for each role. Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template This spreadsheet projects the hours for the remaining phases of a project based on the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA phase. and the estimated expenses for: airfare. and computes an average billing rate. Enter the duration to hour conversion factor. This cell is used to calculate hours based on the duration that you have entered.Estimating Technique Guide Appendices Estimating Templates Please refer to the additional file attachments for these spreadsheets. Option 2. provides grand totals for staff count. project duration. Modifying either spreadsheet to specify hours and costs by project phase. You can modify the proportional factors or add additional scenarios. Simply enter the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA and the spreadsheet projects the remaining project effort based on 7%. The duration used in the template is weeks. Travel Expenses Template This spreadsheet provides you with two options for estimating travel related expenses. The second worksheet. the number of resources (count). team size. and the hourly billing rate for this role. Each spreadsheet allows you to compute the total hours and cost by project team role. enter a role description. such as the entire project team. lodging. Either of these spreadsheets can be tailored to your specific estimating needs. 8.

The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. The estimated effort to complete each unit. number of staff. enter a description. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the package-based sub-phases. Complete the PBD Details worksheet: a) Enter the estimating details on the PBD Details worksheet. you can specify the number of units. The summary contains both hours and a percentage of the total effort. 3.Draft 41 2/26/2013 . timebox. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. or package. For each activity or work product. b) For the team leadership activity. and comments for each activity. and duration. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. 2. 1. To use this estimating template: 1. and displays the total estimated hours. such as a workshop. Both estimating templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. Estimating Technique Guide . Mgmt. The other supports multiple applications. Modify these activities to meet your specific project requirements. included in the spreadsheet. These hour totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. For each role. deliverables. • The average number of staff involved in completing the activity. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate.) c) The worksheet will calculate sub-totals for each sub-phase and provide an overall summary at the bottom of the worksheet. contains all of the estimating details by sub-phase. estimating drivers. PBD Details. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains three worksheets. Est Ttl. The management and development coordination worksheet. • • The number of units. one supports a single package-based application. business function. estimating drivers. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. Define the key deliverables. The package-based development detail worksheet. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. or by using a proportional level of effort. enter the number of staff being managed and the percentage of team lead responsibility. and comments for each sub-phase. 2.Estimating Technique Guide Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. the second supports multiple applications. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. the estimated effort for each unit. (Note: Another option would be to include the team lead activities in the management and development coordination worksheet. The estimate total worksheet. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. One spreadsheet supports a single package-based application. Use this worksheet to enter the key activities. and any estimating assumptions or comments. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. The estimating drivers should include: • The unit of measure. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort of each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each subphase and an overall estimate. summarizes the project sub-phases. The user defined fields are in “blue”. The template contains some general activities for each of the package-based development sub-phases.

provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. integration and deployment phases. The other supports multiple applications. This additional worksheet. Oracle forms. Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same three worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus an additional summary worksheet. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. Estimating Technique Guide . The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. The template currently allows for 3 application areas. common objects. windows. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. 1. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate. These widgets can include menus. The template currently allows for menus. defines and categories all of the widgets that need to be developed. and displays the total estimated hours. PBD Summary. conversions. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. application development completion. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the business system design. or by using a proportional level of effort. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. included in the spreadsheet. adjust this factor accordingly. c) As a option. The only difference is in the PBD Details worksheet. The spreadsheet accumulates totals for each type of widget and links these totals to a summary worksheet to provide a high-level summary of your estimates. You can adjust the Est Ttl. You can adjust these look-up tables to reflect your specific project environment. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. PBD Summary. conversions. To do this. servers. and PBD Detail worksheets to add or subtract application areas. PGM Matrix. the second supports multiple applications. enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. interfaces. Tuxedo services. you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. 3. The program matrix worksheet. The detail matrix worksheet references additional look-up tables that contain the appropriate estimates based on the type of widget and its complexity. This worksheet allows you to enter detailed estimating information for each application area. and common functions. windows. one supports a single iterative custom-developed application. b) Enter the proportional factors for Integration and Deployment. Both templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains four worksheets. cell P3.Draft 42 2/26/2013 . Est Ttl. you can rate the complexity of each widget on a scale from 1 to 10. C functions.Estimating Technique Guide b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. The estimate total worksheet. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. The user defined fields are in “blue”. interfaces. The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each category and an overall total. One spreadsheet supports a single custom-developed application. reports. summarizes the project sub-phases. As you define each of these widgets. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. To use this estimating template. 2. Both templates allow you to build a bottom-up estimate based on the number of “widgets” being developed. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. reports. Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates provided. Use this worksheet to enter the widgets that need to be developed for each category.

This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. (Caution: The per unit estimate column in this worksheet is extremely sensitive with the row and column coordinates within the estimate matrices worksheet. For each type or category of widget this worksheet contains estimates for 10 levels of complexity. The management and development coordination worksheet. The estimate matrices worksheet.Draft 43 2/26/2013 . Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. ADC. Estimating Technique Guide . compute a total hour and day estimate based on the number of units specified. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. adjust this factor accordingly. 3. b) The categories contained on this template can be modified to meet your specific project. the number of units. Mgmt. Complete the PGM Matrix worksheet: a) Enter the widgets that need to be developed into the appropriate categories. and its level of complexity on a scale of 1 to 10. b) Enter the proportional factors for the BSD. enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. cell P3. EST Matrices. corresponding changes will also need to be made to the other worksheets. They have not been accounted for in the prior worksheet.) b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. cross-reference information.Estimating Technique Guide 3. For each entry you can specify the name of the widget. If you do modify or add additional categories. if you enter a PowerBuilder window with a complexity level of 5 on the program matrix worksheet. that worksheet will reference the PowerBuilder estimate matrix and retrieve the per unit estimate for a level 5 complexity window. To do this. For each role. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. and calculate totals. Additional categories can also be created if needed. Be careful that you have defined the correct row and column coordinates when modifying this column. (Note: Be sure to include the team lead activities in this worksheet. contains estimating matrices for a variety of different types of widgets. 4. you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. and Deployment phases. To use this estimating template: 1. and duration. Integration. level 1 being the simplest and level 10 being the most complicated. Category and overall totals are provided. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate. c) As a option. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. number of staff.) 2. For example. The program matrix worksheet uses these estimate matrices as a look-up table. enter a description. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. The worksheet will retrieve the per unit estimate from the estimate matrices worksheet. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years.

Both estimating templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the XAD-based sub-phases. XAD Details. The XAD-based development detail worksheet. You can adjust the spreadsheet to add more application areas. deliverables. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. The user defined fields are in “blue”. contains all of the estimating details by sub-phase.Estimating Technique Guide Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus two additional worksheets: 1. 1. and any estimating assumptions or comments. Use this worksheet to enter the key activities. and displays the total estimated hours. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. the second supports multiple applications. To use this estimating template. The estimate total worksheet. An ICD Summary worksheet that provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. Repeat the ICD Matrix steps for each application area. Est Ttl. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates.Draft 44 2/26/2013 . use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. included in the spreadsheet. one supports a single XAD-based application. 3. One spreadsheet supports a single XAD-based application. 2. the estimated effort for each unit. For each activity or work product. An additional ICD Matrix worksheet for a second application area. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort of each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. estimating drivers. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. you can specify the number of units. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. and comments for each sub-phase. summarizes the project sub-phases. The management and development coordination worksheet. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. The other supports multiple applications. Mgmt. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. The template currently allows for 2 application areas. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. 2. Estimating Technique Guide . The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each subphase and an overall estimate. or by using a proportional level of effort. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains three worksheets.

The template currently allows for 3 application areas. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. Define the key deliverables.) c) The worksheet will calculate sub-totals for each sub-phase and provide an overall summary at the bottom of the worksheet. and XAD Detail worksheets to add or subtract application areas. To use this estimating template. such as a prototype set. adjust this factor accordingly. The spreadsheet contains two worksheets. Communication Event Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the effort to design and deliver communication events. or entities. cell P3. The first worksheet. c) As a option. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. b) Enter the proportional factors for Integration and Deployment. XAD Summary. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. For each role. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. estimating drivers. enter a description. number of staff. To do this. These hour totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. and the number of stages Estimating Technique Guide . (Note: Another option would be to include the team lead activities in the management and development coordination worksheet. • • The number of units. Complete the XAD Details worksheet: a) Enter the estimating details on the XAD Details worksheet. provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same three worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus an additional summary worksheet. each represents an estimating option. The summary contains both hours and a percentage of the total effort. allows you to estimate the hours needed to design and deliver communication events based on the number of stakeholder groups. the estimated hours per event. The estimating drivers should include: • The unit of measure. The estimated effort to complete each unit. The only difference is in the XAD Details worksheet. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate.Draft 45 2/26/2013 . • The average number of staff involved in completing the activity. and comments for each activity. This additional worksheet. XAD Summary. b) For the team leadership activity. You can adjust the Est Ttl. Option 1. The template contains some general activities for each of the package-based development sub-phases. Modify these activities to meet your specific project requirements. 3. and duration. This worksheet allows you to enter detail estimating information for each application area. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. 2. business function. b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. enter the number of staff being managed and the percentage of team lead responsibility.Estimating Technique Guide To use this estimating template: 1. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. number of project phases.

the number of stakeholder groups (within a range). The worksheet will calculate the estimated hours for designing and delivering communication events based on the calculations described in Organizational Change estimating guidelines.Estimating Technique Guide of acceptance. Estimating Technique Guide . number of project phases. Team Size. and a judgment factor. To use this worksheet. The second worksheet. Stakeholder Group Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the number of stakeholder groups. The worksheet will compute the estimated number of stakeholder groups based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. To use this worksheet.Draft 46 2/26/2013 . select the desired values from each of the four complexity factor tables. simply enter the correct values. and average estimated number of stakeholder groups based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. These tables are used to categorize the degree of change. You can only make one selection. Fractional sizes are permitted. Next enter the actual number of stakeholder groups. The spreadsheet contains two worksheets. allows you to estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the size of the project team. the number of project phases. and a judgment factor. and the type of change. The estimated effort in is hours and is based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. allows you to estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the overall size of the client and the percentage of organizational impact. Client Size. Option 2. allows you to estimate the effort based on four complexity factors. This worksheet will provide a low-end. The second worksheet. high-end. Again. the level of anticipated change. To use this spreadsheet. Next select the percentage of organizational impact by entering a “1” in the correct category. The first worksheet. simply select the appropriate client size by entering a “1” in the correct category. you can only select one category. number of stakeholder groups. To use this worksheet. simply enter the project team size in full-time equivalents.

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