Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide Version 1

Estimating Technique Guide - Draft

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2/26/2013

Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide
Table of Contents Introduction_____________________________________________________________4 Estimating Approaches ____________________________________________________4
Top-Down Estimating Approach ________________________________________________5 Bottom-Up Estimating Approach ________________________________________________5 Estimating Approach Comparison_______________________________________________6

Estimating Techniques ____________________________________________________6
Ballpark Estimating___________________________________________________________6 Proportional Percentage Estimating______________________________________________7 Comparative_________________________________________________________________8 Expert Judgment______________________________________________________________8 Proportional Estimating________________________________________________________8 Widget Counting______________________________________________________________8 Function Point Analysis________________________________________________________9 Feature Points_______________________________________________________________10 Technique Comparison________________________________________________________11 Estimating Technique Comparison______________________________________________12 Managing Multiple Estimates__________________________________________________12
Wideband Delphi Technique__________________________________________________________12 Weighted or Average Estimate________________________________________________________13

Commercially Available Estimating Tools____________________________________13
CHECKPOINT/KnowledgePLAN______________________________________________13
Overview_________________________________________________________________________13

Estimating Templates____________________________________________________14
General Purpose Templates____________________________________________________14
Staff and Duration Estimating Template...........................................................................................14 Travel Expenses Template.................................................................................................................14 Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template......................................................14

ASPIRE Phase Templates_____________________________________________________14
Vision and Strategy_________________________________________________________________14 Business Area Architecture___________________________________________________________14 Development______________________________________________________________________14 Integration________________________________________________________________________14 Deployment_______________________________________________________________________15

Specialty Area Templates______________________________________________________15
Development______________________________________________________________________15 Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template...............................................................15 Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template......................................15 Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template...............................................15 Organizational Change______________________________________________________________15

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Estimating Technique Guide
Communication Event Estimating Template.....................................................................................15 Stakeholder Group Estimating Template...........................................................................................15 Technical Infrastructure_____________________________________________________________16 Facilities Infrastructure______________________________________________________________16

Estimating Guidelines____________________________________________________17
Project-Wide Guidelines_______________________________________________________17 ASPIRE Phase Guidelines_____________________________________________________19
Vision and Strategy (ETP)___________________________________________________________19 Business Area Architecture (Requirements/BAA)_________________________________________20 Development______________________________________________________________________21 Integration________________________________________________________________________21 Deployment_______________________________________________________________________21

Specialty Areas______________________________________________________________22
Development______________________________________________________________________22 Package Based Development (PBD)..................................................................................................22 Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) Sub-Phase.........................................................................24 Iterative Custom Development (ICD)................................................................................................26 Accelerated Application Development (X/AD).................................................................................33 Organizational Change______________________________________________________________36 Technical Infrastructure_____________________________________________________________38 Critical Computer Resources and Facilities Infrastructure__________________________________38

Management and Coordination_________________________________________________39

Appendices_____________________________________________________________40
Estimating Templates_________________________________________________________40 Estimating Template User Guides_______________________________________________40
Staff and Duration Estimating Templates_______________________________________________40 Travel Expenses Template___________________________________________________________40 Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template______________________________40 Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template__________________________________41 Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template______________________42 Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template__________________________44 Communication Event Estimating Template_____________________________________________45 Stakeholder Group Estimating Template________________________________________________46

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Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide Introduction
Company Management has stated that there has been some history of Significant Project Cost and Schedule Overruns. Issues identified included:  Many project over-runs are attributed to poor estimates. Current estimating techniques are perceived to be inconsistent, baseless, and inaccurate.  There is a tremendous financial risk associated with poor estimating techniques. High estimates can result in lost business opportunities. Low estimates increase the risk of project over-runs.  There is an inconsistent use of a disciplined estimating process. This problem occurs in the sales process and in estimating subsequent phases in an ongoing project.  There is disagreement and no general consensus on the best techniques for system development estimates.  There is little or no guidance for estimating Accelerated application, package-based system development, Non-traditional system development such as object-oriented development or Internet / Intranet development, Non-system development projects such as Performance Improvement Initiatives, Vision and Strategy, Business Architecture, IT Re-engineering, and Organization Change.  Few tools exist to support estimating and the usability and validity of these tools is not universally accepted. The purpose of this Estimating Technique Guide, along with the Estimating Process Guide, is to begin to address several of these issues. It will not resolve all of these issues. However, it can be an effective vehicle that allows us to share our collective experiences. Although the targeted audience of this guide is IT Services Consulting and Systems Integration, our goal is to utilize and share knowledge and experiences across all of IT Service’s divisions. Specific goals for this guide include:  Identifying estimating approaches, techniques, models and tools that have been used on prior IT Services engagements. There are a number of techniques, models and tools that are being used across the division. There are probably an equal number of opinions on which ones are the most effective. This guide identifies some of the most common techniques, models, and tools. It does not try to cover all of them; nor does it attempt to single out which technique, model and tool is the most effective. In reality, there is no “universal” technique that applies to all types of projects; each technique is valuable when used for the appropriate type of project. The key is to have an awareness of what techniques, models, and tools are available so that you apply the best set of techniques, models, and tools for your specific project.  Sharing information on the techniques, models, and metrics that have been used for various project phases. Many of the metrics defined are rules of thumb that have come from specific projects. Many of these have not been confirmed or compared against other projects so you will need to apply your judgment accordingly. This guide also includes some “gotchas” that were identified from past experiences; hopefully these will help you to avoid similar pit-falls as you develop your estimates.  Fostering communication regarding estimating and metrics between project team members, projects, business units, regions, and divisions. This guide, in and of itself, will not make us better estimators. All of us need to experiment and communicate our experiences with these techniques, models, and tools so that we can further define and refine them.

Estimating Approaches
There are two basic approaches for determining the estimates for a given component of a project, topdown and bottom-up. IT Services highly recommends that you estimate a project using both of these approaches. A top-down estimating approach takes an estimate for an entire project and breaks it down

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Bottom-Up Estimating Approach Using this approach you first identify the low-level components of the project. installation fees. and travel related expenses. development software. Because of the level of detail required.000 hours across the various activities and tasks that comprise a Requirements/BAA. Estimating Technique Guide . your prior project experience. The starting point is an estimate of the size. and assembles all of the pieces and their estimates to come up with the overall project estimate. or tasks that make up the project.  There is a tendency to define the scope in terms of the resources allocated rather than in terms of the activities or deliverables. and then total the individual estimates to produce the overall project estimate. Examples of a low-level component include:  The effort to produce an intermediate product or deliverable. developing an integration or application test plan. This estimating approach is helpful when you have relatively little knowledge of the project requirements or when the project is strictly limited by resources. training. examines each piece at a detail level.Estimating Technique Guide into lower-level components. and creating a detail project plan for a subsequent project phase. For example. code and test the maintain customer address window. Top-Down Estimating Approach Using this approach you divide an overall estimate into separate. you may have determined that the total effort for a Requirements/BAA phase is 1. Examples include PCs.  The effort to develop a specific function of the completed software system. this estimating approach could be used to identify the level of work that could be delivered for that budget. total effort.000 hours. The definition of a low-level component can vary widely and is very dependent on the type of the project. You can than use an estimating model such as Project Bridge Modeler to apportion the 1. The total estimate is apportioned among the components. You should ensure that all of your low-level components are identified in or mapped to a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) or Statement of Work to ensure that you have accounted for all of the project’s components. pagers. If any of the lower-level task estimates is too low you must adjust the top level estimate upward or change the scope of the project. Examples include preparing for or documenting workshops or interviews. Since this approach examines the project in much greater detail. printers. it requires more project related information and takes a longer time to develop the estimate. Since this approach looks at the entire project from a fairly high-level view.  A non-labor item such as a product or service. or the project team’s expertise.Draft 5 2/26/2013 .  You need some basis for apportioning the overall project estimate across the various subcomponents. you can develop a top-down estimate in a relatively short period of time and with a minimal amount of project related information. For example. estimate each of these components. A bottom-up estimating approach breaks the project into pieces. or the time required to perform a project. lower-level components. You can also adjust the hours per activity or task based on the required deliverables. if the client has a fixed budget. After completing the top down estimates for the lower-level tasks you must validate your estimate by checking to make sure that each of the lower-level estimates makes sense. Depending on the size and complexity of the project. your bottom-up estimate is generally more accurate than your top-down estimate. according to a predefined formula as well as taking into account experience from similar projects and any known external dependencies that may act as constraints. You should also use other estimating methods to cross-validate your results.) Disadvantages of this approach include:  You could miss low-level technical issues or special components of the system.  This approach offers little or no basis for the cost justification of subsequent estimating iterations. (Note: This is risky and not generally recommended. you can repeat this process to arrive at estimates for lower-level tasks. For example.

(These tasks are generally estimated based on the duration of the project or as a percentage of the underlying tasks. are needed. These uncertainties will often result in assumptions in the estimate and the project’s Statement of Work. • Has little or no basis for the cost justification of subsequent estimating iterations. Since you need have a more detailed view of the project requirements when using this approach.) Estimating Approach Comparison The following diagram illustrates a high-level comparison between these two estimating approaches. • Requires significant effort to produce • Activities such as management and coordination cannot be estimated until underlying task estimates are complete. Once the estimate is developed. Disadvantages of this approach include:  You may overlook system-level costs such as integration or training. Estimation Approach Strengths Top-Down • Particularly relevant if project is strictly limited by resources. and derived from the QSM SLIM completed projects database. Bottom-Up • Enforces relatively thorough analysis before estimation. Ballpark Estimating With this estimating technique you use a combination of time. It can be used early in the lifecycle and when no historical information is available. When estimating a project. This technique can be used at any point in the lifecycle.Estimating Technique Guide One advantage of this approach is that it requires a relatively thorough analysis before you begin estimating. • Relatively little knowledge of proposed system required. a comparative estimate can be Estimating Technique Guide . you need to decide which technique is appropriate and what adjustments. • Need basis for proportioning estimates across project sub-components. each has its own strengths and weaknesses.  It requires a significant effort to produce the estimate. it can yield a more accurate estimate than a top-down approach. • Identifies uncertainties in developers’ knowledge of system requirements or proposed solution. training. effort. provided you haven’t forgotten anything. • May overlook system-level costs such as integration. • Often requires more information than is available at time of estimate. • May omit special components of software system.  It often requires more information than what is typically available at the time the estimate is required. This approach also helps to identify uncertainties regarding the project requirements or proposed solution. Weaknesses • May miss low-level technical issues. Each row represents a consistent set of estimates that may be determined based on any one of the variables estimated using expert judgment.Draft 6 2/26/2013 . No one estimating technique is ideal for all situations.  Activities such as management and development coordination cannot be estimated until the underlying task estimates are complete. Estimating Techniques The following estimating techniques fit into either the top-down or bottom-up approach. • Tendency to define scope in terms of resources allocated rather than in terms of activities or deliverables. peak staff. if any.

Construction 45% of Requirements effort. with a productivity index assumed to be slightly less than the average productivity of companies in the SLIM database having a SEI CMM Level 2 productivity index. Consideration needs to be given to whether the current estimate is for an effort that is more like a Development/Enhancement effort or a Maintenance effort. close) .00% 8. If there are logical groupings of configuration items. and using expert judgment. and Testing/Pilot 33% of Requirements effort. After all Configuration Items are estimated.00% 13.00% 15.00% 9. Using the size and category within size. it can be used to expand the known portion into a total estimate. If any portion of the labor distribution is estimated. the Modules. This technique is very effective when used appropriately.00% 27.00% 6. Interfaces. The total of the group can be used to create one estimate for the group using the top down factors table to locate the total. The ESLOC estimate is based on 100 Lines of Code per Function Point. Using the Business Case documentation. Configuration Items.00% 18. they may be numbered.Draft 7 2/26/2013 . The final estimates can be compared to other estimates for analysis. a proposed solution is visualized.00% 12.00% 9.Development/Enhancement Quality Assurance Reviews Maintenance Analysis (Requirements) [Solution Definition] Development/ Enhancement 15.Development/Enhancement Quality Assurance Reviews Development / Enhancement Analysis (Requirements) [Solution Definition] Development / Enhancement External Design Development / Enhancement Internal Design Development / Enhancement Procedures and Training Development / Enhancement Construction (Code/Unit Test) [Solution Generation] Development / Enhancement Test [Solution Validation] Development / Enhancement Implementation [Solution Deployment] Labor Distribution Standard for "Maintenance" Work Types Project Management (start-up. The groupings can then be used to combine individual configuration items into packages of work for estimation by group.00% Estimating Technique Guide . There are different proportional models for different types of life cycles. The list of configuration items can be sorted by group and combined into a single estimate. the Design effort might be estimated as 22% of the Requirements effort. the totals can be calculated. and Effort in Hours columns for guidance in determining each size estimate. For example. manage. the table is completed by locating the effort hours and ESLOC in the top down factors table and entering them into the Effort Estimate and ESLOC columns in the Top Down Estimate by CI worksheet. manage. The group total can then be used for a single estimate for size (ESLOC). or Programs in the visualized solution can be identified and entered into Top Down Estimate by CI worksheet.00% 5. a size can be determined between Very Very Small and Very Large. close) . Using the factors table.Estimating Technique Guide developed using a proportional technique. which must be considered in developing proportional estimates. Proportional Percentage Estimating With this estimating technique you use the size of one component to proportionally estimate the size of another. when the estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor. Time in Months. At the same time the Category with Size can be determined. For example: Labor Distribution Standard for "Development / Enhancement" Work Types Project Management (start-up. Estimates are developed using the Peak Staff.00% Maintenance 12.

Using this technique will magnify estimating errors being made elsewhere. Implementation. For example. Therefore. you could develop a comparative estimate for the new telecommunications systems by doubling the actual effort from your reference project. This technique is very effective when used appropriately.00% Comparative Using this estimating technique. with other projects similar in scope and type to produce an estimate. printer volume. Expert Judgment This technique relies on the extensive experience and judgment of the estimator to compare the requirements for the component being estimated against all projects in his/her previous experience. estimate the effort for each type of widget. Proportional Estimating With this estimating technique you use the size of one component to proportionally estimate the size of another.Estimating Technique Guide Maintenance External Design Maintenance Internal Design Maintenance Procedures and Training Maintenance Construction (Code/Unit Test) [Solution Generation] Maintenance Test [Solution Validation] Maintenance Implementation [Solution Deployment] 9.00% 15. and Deployment phases of the project. It differs from the comparative technique in that the reference projects are not explicitly identified. the target project. However.00% 40. For example. you identify project characteristics that can be counted and that are performed on a recurring basis (the “widget”). Quality Assurance might be estimated as 3% of the total project effort. the number of printers might be estimated as one for every 6 users.00% 5. Typical widgets may be Estimating Technique Guide . For example you have been asked to estimate the custom development for a new telecommunications system. after using widget counting to derive the estimate for the Requirements phase of a project and then used proportional factors to estimate the Design. You also happen to know of a similar type of project that was also custom developed. The comparison is normally performed at a high-level with little reference to detail. System and Integration Testing. you compare the project at hand. Proportional estimates can be used in combination with other estimating techniques. You could even add an additional percentage of effort to account for some of the unknowns in the new system. This technique relies heavily on the experience of the estimators and their ability to gauge the target project in relation to the comparative data available. You can use this technique for lower-level tasks such as developing a reporting sub-system or a customer maintenance window. it should not be used as a crutch to pass the estimating responsibility on to some other component. and determine the total effort by applying these estimates against the total number of widgets. The comparison does not have to be at a project or phase level. This technique also requires some type of historical data to compare against. Widget Counting Using this estimating technique. The major weakness of this technique is that a project is not thoroughly assessed. Code/Unit Test.Draft 8 2/26/2013 . the design effort might be estimated as 40% of the coding effort. when the estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor. This technique is useful as a “sanity check” for an estimate produced by another method.00% 4. Previous personal experience or estimating guidelines can help provide these proportionality factors. Since this reference project covered roughly 50% of the functionality needed by the new system. processor capacity. It can also be useful for estimating low-level components such as documentation. it should be used only if time is limited or a relatively large uncertainty in the estimate can be tolerated.00% 18. or programming a specific system component.

reports. Estimating Technique Guide . database entities. Function Point Analysis This estimating technique is suited for projects that are based on straightforward database input. Adjusting this function point count based on the overall project complexity. medium. Translating the function point count to an effort estimate based on a function point delivery rate. This would include logical units forming part of printed reports.  Logical Internal File—Any logical group of data held by the system. 3. 4. The basic steps involved in this estimating technique include: 1. 2. maintenance. Tallying the function types and applying pre-defined weighting factors to these totals to drive a single unadjusted function point count. You may assign complexity factors to each type of widget (simple.. it is treated as a single logical internal file for sizing purposes. audit trails. in terms of user functions rather than programs.g. that is. files.Estimating Technique Guide menu choices. languages. in which the online user defines an inquiry as input and the system responds immediately with an output. data. with low algorithmic processing complexity. This is typically done by using the comparative approach based on historical metrics data or by prototyping the implementation of one of the widgets. pages of documentation.  Inquiry—Each unique input/output combination. The result of an inquiry may be a display/report or a transaction file that is accessible by the user. output display screens. The estimates can be developed from knowledge of the requirements without a detailed design solution being known. A logical file may span many physical files (e. index. even though the project is not necessarily made up purely of widgets.  You must be able to produce an estimate for the effort of each widget type. (This is probably the most difficult step. Function Point Analysis is the basis for several automated estimating tools. and overflow). output. database fields.Draft 9 2/26/2013 . Assigning a complexity to each of these function types. screens. Inputs exclude transactions or files that enter the system as a result of an independent process.  External Interface File—Each logical group of data that is input to or output from the system boundary to share that data with another system. However. 5. complex) and weight the effort accordingly. This provides for a level of independence from the specific hardware platform. This includes database tables and records on physical files describing a single logical object. or objects. and messages. Advantages for using Function Point Analysis include:   The project is viewed from the perspective of the user rather than the developer. described below. and test cases. and the organization’s line of business.  Output—Any unique unit of data or control information that is procedurally generated by the system for the benefit of the user. windows. Use the following criteria when determining whether you should be using this estimating technique:  There must be enough detail information to allow you to identify and count the widgets.  The effort to develop or complete the project must be reasonably proportional to the number of widgets.) Function points are viewed from the perspective of the system boundary and are comprised of the following types:  Input—Any data or control information provided by the user that adds or changes data held by the system. requirement specifications. Decomposing the project or application into a defined set of function types. An inquiry is distinct from an output in that it is not procedurally generated. developer’s skill level. An input can originate directly from the user or from user-generated transactions from an intermediary system. and inquiry.

As a result. The use of function points is not widely accepted within IT Services. both techniques result in nearly the same number of “points”. we have not gathered any estimating guidelines or metrics for function point estimating. Estimating Technique Guide . The Function Point count for such systems totals only 60 to 80 percent of the Feature Point count. it is not certain how well this concept applies to newer technologies and development approaches such as object-oriented development. However. function points. It involves adding a number of algorithms with an average complexity weight and changing the function point weighting in other areas. Since the concept of Function Point Analysis was developed with older technologies and development approaches.Draft 10 2/26/2013 . Formal training is needed before you can consistently count. however. Function Points can be complicated to administer. you should read one of the published books on this subject. process control. For typical management information systems. There is also a users group. robotics. Feature Points This estimating technique is an extension to the function point analysis technique. For real-time or highly algorithmic systems. which has established standards to help encourage consistency in counting function points. and middleware. there is little difference in the results between Function Points and Feature Points. and therefore track. International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG). Note: Before using this estimating technique. Disadvantages for using this estimating approach include:     This approach does not accurately estimate systems that are largely algorithmic such as military systems. space systems. variations of Function Point Analysis are being developed to address the newer technologies and development approaches.Estimating Technique Guide  The use of Function Point Analysis is accepted internationally. the results can be significantly different between these two techniques.

 Single data point.g. not developer..Draft 11 2/26/2013 .  Requires formal training. perspective (e.  Consistency encouraged through established international standards for function point counting.  Weaknesses Historical data repository required.  Often difficult to find comparable projects.Estimating Technique Guide Technique Comparison The following table highlights the strengths and weaknesses of these estimating techniques: Estimation Technique Comparative Strengths Estimate can be very accurate if a suitable analogy can be identified.  Does not accurately estimate systems that are largely algorithmic such as military systems. files).  Assumes effort to develop system is proportional to number of widgets.  Provides independence from hardware platform.g. report writer.  Can magnify estimating errors made in other areas. developers’ skill at code efficiency. robotics. languages.  Magnifies size errors if widget effort estimates are incorrect.  Estimating Technique Guide .   Proportional Effective when estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor (e.  Can be complicated to administer.  Does not yet have overall acceptance.  Does not have overall acceptance within IT Services. user functions rather than programs.  Project viewed from user. may not be repeatable by anyone other than the “expert”. and process control. Identifies areas where requirements clarification is needed.  Requires previous personal experience or experience-based guideline metrics for proportionality factors. business of organization.  Identifies requirements tradeoffs.  Expert Judgment Estimate can be extremely accurate.  Requires formal training.  Must be verified by another method. or CASE tool environments.  Can be complicated to administer.  Estimates can be developed from knowledge of requirements without a detailed design solution being known. configuration management).  High risk. especially those using 4GL. even though system is not necessarily made up purely of widgets. software management. space systems. quality assurance. with added benefit of accounting for algorithms and internal processing complexity.  Widget Counting Effective for systems that can be characterized by widgets  Function Point Analysis Feature Point Well suited for standard Management Information System projects with little internal processing complexity.  Same strengths as Function Point Analysis..

Estimating Techniques Comparative Proportional Expert Judgement Widget Counting Function Point Analysis Feature Point Analysis Specialty Areas Project Phases Mgmt and Coord. 2. & ETP Business Area Architecture Development Integration Deployment Development Organizational Change Technical Infrastructure Facilities Infrastructue Year 2000 Development Coordination Project Management Program Management Not Recommended Recommended Optional/ Sanity Check Managing Multiple Estimates The following techniques can be used to manage multiple estimates. misunderstandings. Wideband Delphi Technique When several estimators are estimating the same project or component. The basic goal of this technique is to achieve a more accurate and reliable composite estimate. the Wideband Delphi technique is useful to enforce convergence of the different estimates. thereby reducing the impact of individual biases. The experts independently develop estimates and give them to the coordinator. Estimating Technique Guide . and management and coordination activities.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Technique Comparison The following diagram illustrates the recommended estimating techniques for the various ASPIRE project phases. The lead estimator presents the same specification to each expert. or when you have multiple estimators. 3. This technique consists of the following steps: 1. and incomplete knowledge.Draft 12 2/26/2013 . This can occur when you have used different techniques to estimate a project or component. Vision & Stategy. The lead estimator calls a group meeting in which the experts discuss estimation issues. specialty areas. you have various degrees of confidence.

an algorithm is applied to the basic measure of size to produce an estimate of effort (e. Although these tools have generally been calibrated using a wide range of historical project data at other companies within the industry.  Estimate the cost of developing systems as well as the cost of developing specifications and user documentation. CHECKPOINT integrates sizing. but excluding rationale. scheduling. 5.  Perform side-by-side comparisons of project versions.  Perform what-if analysis for a variety of variables including CASE tools.  Measure all aspects of a software project at a user-defined level of granularity. In most of these tools.Draft 13 2/26/2013 . and store data about your development projects. they have not been calibrated against IT Services projects so you need to apply some judgment when using these tools. skills. focusing on where estimates vary widely. planning.Estimating Technique Guide 4. value analysis. and your pessimistic estimate will be your conservative estimate. and steps 4–6 are repeated until a consensus is reached. EV = (1{O} + 4{R} + 1{P}) / 6 where: EV = Estimate Value O = Optimistic Estimate R = Realistic Estimate P = Pessimistic Estimate Note: The definition of optimistic. different projects.  Assess a wide range of software attributes against industry standards for cost. languages. number of required personnel resources). schedules. It offers the capability to:  Predict source code size.700 software projects. and technology assessment. your optimistic estimate will be your aggressive estimate. and productivity. and methodologies. or a project against other established benchmarks. estimating. CHECKPOINT/KnowledgePLAN Overview CHECKPOINT. your realistic estimate will be what you feel is the most likely estimate.. quality. The lead estimator analyzes the estimates and distributes a summary containing the estimates with their medians. Estimating Technique Guide . is a knowledge-based software management tool that can analyze. In general.  Aggregate data across selected projects. Commercially Available Estimating Tools There are a number of automated estimating tools available to support estimating efforts. evaluate. and pessimistic is up to the individual(s) developing the estimate. Experts review estimates. this formula will result in an estimate very close to the “realistic estimate”. quality estimating. Weighted or Average Estimate The technique uses the following formula to derive an average estimate. from Software Productivity Research Inc. Typically.g. risk analysis. The lead estimator calls a group meeting to discuss estimates. realistic.  Estimate projects using a knowledge-base of over 4. measurement. 6..

The first option allows you to estimate these expenses as an average for the entire team. The second option allows you to specify estimated travel expenses on an individual by individual basis. Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template This template allows you to do a simple projection of the remainder of a project based on the actuals from the Requirements/BAA phase. such as IT Services and the client staff. Development A number of estimating templates have been collected that support the Development phase of ASPIRE. contained in the file attachments. created. hours. The estimating templates. and 10% scenarios. Travel Expenses Template This template provides you with two options for estimating traveling expenses. The general Staff and Duration estimating template can also be applied to this phase. and specify the duration and hourly billing rate for this role. Please refer to the Development estimating templates for a complete list. the other template allows for two resource groups.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Templates There are a variety of estimating templates or spreadsheets being used throughout the organization to assist with our project estimating efforts. Business Area Architecture The Estimating and Metrics team currently does not have any templates specific to this ASPIRE phase. such as the project team. provide two staff and duration estimating templates. 8. Integration Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this phase. The template allows you to define a project role. You can modify these factors or add additional scenarios. you can specify that there are 40 hours per week. identify how many individuals will fill this role (fractional values are valid). The template assumes a custom (ICD) development approach. The template also allows you to specify a duration to hour conversion factor so that the total hours and cost are calculated on a per hour basis. General Purpose Templates Staff and Duration Estimating Template This template provides a simple spreadsheet to compute the total hours and cost based on the anticipated level of staffing and length of the project.5%. if you are counting weeks in your duration. provides grand totals for staff count. The generic Staff and Duration template could be used for this type of an engagement. Following is a high-level summary of the templates that the Estimating and Metrics team have obtained. One template allows for a single resource group. It is based on the assumption that a Requirements/BAA accounts for 7% to 10% of the total project effort. The spreadsheet calculates the total hours and cost for each role. Detailed instructions for using these spreadsheets are located in the appendix.Draft 14 2/26/2013 . or modified. The various Development estimating templates generally use a proportional estimating factor for this phase. You simply enter the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA and the spreadsheet projects the remaining project effort based on 7%. and cost. For example. The generic Staff and Duration template could be used for this type of an engagement. Estimating Technique Guide . The actual spreadsheets have been attached as separate files. and computes an average billing rate. ASPIRE Phase Templates Vision and Strategy The Estimating and Metrics team currently does not have any templates specific to this ASPIRE phase.

integration and deployment phases. the second supports multiple applications. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. these guidelines are provided later in this document. Two estimating options are included in this template. windows.Estimating Technique Guide Deployment Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this phase. Specialty Area Templates Development Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. or by using a proportional level of effort. The spreadsheet accumulates totals for each type of widget and links these totals to a summary worksheet to provide a high-level summary of your estimates. you can rate the complexity of each on a scale from 1 to 10. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. the second supports multiple applications. the estimated effort for each unit. you can specify the number of units. included in the spreadsheet. you can specify the number of units. the second supports multiple applications. included in the spreadsheet.Draft 15 2/26/2013 . and any estimating assumptions or comments. or by using a proportional level of effort. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the package-based sub-phases. the estimated effort for each unit. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort for each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. Two estimating templates are provided. The general Staff and Duration estimating template can also be applied to this phase. reports. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. servers. These widgets can include items such as menus. For each activity or work product. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort for each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. conversions. interfaces. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. and any estimating assumptions or comments. or by using a proportional level of effort. Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. Organizational Change Communication Event Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the effort to design and deliver communication events using the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. Stakeholder Group Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the number of stakeholder groups based on either the project team’s size or the overall size of the client. and common objects. This template uses the calculations described in the Estimating Technique Guide . included in the spreadsheet. one supports a single iterative custom-developed application. For each activity or work product. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. one supports a single XAD application. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the business system design. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the XAD sub-phases. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. one supports a single package-based application. Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template This estimating template allows you to build a bottom-up estimate based on the number of “widgets” being developed. As you define each of these widgets. The detail matrix worksheet references additional look-up tables that contain the appropriate estimate based on the type of widget and its complexity. application development completion. The various Development estimating templates generally use a proportional estimating factor for this phase.

To estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the project team size. Facilities Infrastructure Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this specialty area except for Critical Computer Resources. Technical Infrastructure Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this specialty area.Draft 16 2/26/2013 . you need to select the appropriate client size and percentage of organizational impact from the respective tables. these guidelines are provided later in this document. To estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the overall client size. simply enter the size of the project team in full-time equivalents.Estimating Technique Guide Organizational Change estimating guidelines. Estimating Technique Guide .

 On larger scale estimating efforts. you will often need to make assumptions to “fill the gaps” in the information needed to create the estimate.) Estimating Technique Guide . project management time. and preferably three. or risks that you identify during this process in the Estimating Notebook.  Use at least two. and Management and Coordination Activities Organizational Change Technical Infrastructure Facilities Infrastructure Development Staff and Duration Travel Expenses Estimating Templates: Requirements/Proportional Package Based Dev Iterative Custom Dev Accelerated Application Dev Ballpark Estimating Proportional Percentage . estimating approaches or techniques when estimating your project. you need to understand the scope. Your estimate should include at least one top-down and one bottom-up approach. if you are trying to estimate an Enterprise Transformation Plan. Although these are often done concurrently. will be a valuable source of input for your estimating process. (Note: In most cases you will be developing the Statement of Work at the same time you are developing your estimates. Using multiple approaches will help ensure a higher level of confidence in the final estimates. ASPIRE Phases. Specialty Areas. TBD . an initial draft of your Statement of Work. and management and coordination activities..Draft 17 Development Coordination Business Architecture Project Management Deployment Program Management Integration Process Initiative 2/26/2013 . There will be cases where your estimating process requires that you update your Statement of Work and visaversa. especially the scope and approach sections. requirements. You will also need to identify any of the surrounding activities or components. Be sure to document any assumptions. These items must also be incorporated into the project’s Statement of Work.  To estimate effectively.. travel. Refer to the Estimating Process Guide for additional guidelines.Estimating Technique Guide ASPIRE Methodology Comparison The following diagram illustrates how the various estimating templates support the ASPIRE project phases. you should take into account the effort to produce the final deliverables as well as the workshops. interviews. These should be documented in your Statement of Work. For example. and the approach.. specialty areas. Vision and Strategy Recommended Optional / Sanity Check Not Recommended Estimating Guidelines Project-Wide Guidelines The following estimating guidelines can be applied across all phases of a project. and delivery assurance.. constraints.

• For each project evaluation: 1 hour to write and 1 hour for both individuals to review and discuss.  Include the effort for conducting architecture. Estimating Technique Guide . number of windows being developed.  When appropriate. Examples include the number of workshops being conducted.Draft 18 2/26/2013 .  Try to separate the “pricing” from the “estimate”. and ½ hour for both individuals (manager and project team member) to review and discuss. design.  Base your estimates on some quantifiable unit of measure. evaluate and approve estimates from sub-contractors.Estimating Technique Guide  Breakdown the project deliverables and work products into more manageable pieces by creating a work breakdown structure (WBS) that contains all of the components of the proposed solution. and the number of staff over some fixed duration of time. All too often we try to develop an estimate with a maximum price tag in mind and we let the “price” drive the “estimate”. • Allow for 1 project evaluation for each team member every four months. number of packages being evaluated. and development reviews in your estimates.  Use the following guidelines when estimating for project expectations and reviews: • For each project expectation: ½ hour to write. Document these quantifiable units of measure in the Statement of Work and Estimating Notebook. business function. One rule of thumb is to allow for 4 FTEs for 5 days every quarter.

 At the outset of the project. The only estimating template that we currently have available for an ETP is the general staff and duration estimating template. Plan on one to two days per page for preparing the final documentation. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April.000 range. Another critical success factor is the staffing. and from our various field visits. Review these and adjust your estimates. as well as one or two solid Business Analysts and a good Technical Architect who can take a pragmatic approach and make fact-based recommendations. and Templates Recommended estimating techniques include comparative and expert judgment. or risk factors accordingly.Draft 19 2/26/2013 . Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your ETP estimates.000 to $350. even for a relatively small project such as an ETP.750 hours. The total cost for an ETP seems to be in the $50. Tools. even for a relatively small project such as an ETP. Assuming a $200/hr billing rate this would translate to 250 to 1. A good client relationship person is key.) Following are some rules of thumb that have been used on prior projects. Client expectations must be carefully managed as to the level of detail that will be provided as a result of the study. significant cost overruns and loss of credibility are likely. The time to develop this plan is often underestimated. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. A plan that we cannot live with surely is one the client cannot live with. The primary deliverable is a prioritized listing of future steps to achieve the Vision set by the study. If expectations are not properly managed. You can also use a proportional or widget counting technique to get an alternative estimate. assumptions. None of the estimating tools that we have used address this phase of a project. prior experiences. Estimating Techniques.Estimating Technique Guide ASPIRE Phase Guidelines Vision and Strategy (ETP) General Information Several interviews with project teams indicate that the "soft deliverables" associated with an ETP allow a fair amount of flexibility in the duration of the study. we must realize that IT Services will need to be prepared to do the work for those estimates. The answer usually does not "fall out" from the work done during the study. If expectations are not properly managed. significant cost overruns and loss of credibility are likely.    Estimating Technique Guide . Will we estimate IT Services involvement or leave the numbers "generic"? Will dollars be associated with the estimates? Will the estimates be considered "IT Service’s bid" for the work? In the likely event that the plans for the future studies become budgeted numbers for the client. Manage client expectations on the length of the document to be presented and the depth to which it will extend.    It takes four people approximately six weeks to complete an ETP study. client expectations must be carefully managed as to the level of detail that will be provided as a result of the study. 1996.

1996.Estimating Technique Guide Business Area Architecture (Requirements/BAA) General Information The following questions can assist you in sizing the Requirements/BAA effort.                   How many user representatives will be involved with the Requirements/BAA effort? How many representatives will be providing requirements? How many interviews will you conduct? Include interviews at the executive level as well as firstlevel management. and Templates Recommended estimating techniques include comparative and expert judgment. multinational. suppliers. Tools. multidivisional. The following staff size/ project duration have been used on prior Requirements/BAA efforts:  Six people for five months Estimating Technique Guide . supplier. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. I/S or the business users? How many individuals will be reviewing or approving deliverables? Will you need to create a business case for action? Will the client be using a value discipline? Has this already been established? How many alternative architectures is the client expecting? Estimating Techniques. and from our various field visits. Since the scope and depth of the final deliverable for a Requirements/BAA can vary significantly from project to project. How many departments or locations will be involved? What is the client’s overall organizational structure? For example is the client’s organization largely regulatory. centralized. especially if you are going to use a bottom-up estimating approach. You can also use a proportional or widget counting technique to get an alternative estimate.) Following are some rules of thumb that have been used on prior projects. Possible estimating tools include Ballpark. prior experiences. or competitors will be targeted? Do we have already identified an industry or business best practice for this type of client? Will there be a final presentation? Who will do the final sign-off. or decentralized? What is the scope baseline as defined by each of the six domains of change? What deliverables is the client expecting to be delivered? What is the expected level of detail for these deliverables? How many process threads will you be addressing? Is the client looking for a business process redesign or a business process improvement? How many conceptual data entities are expected to be involved? How many workshops are you expecting to conduct? How many individuals will be attending these workshops? What are the time box assumptions for each workshop? How many best practice interviews are you expecting to conduct? How many legacy systems are involved? Will customer. how many customers.Draft 20 2/26/2013 . The only estimating template we currently have available for a Requirements//BAA is the general staff and duration estimating template. and Proportional Percentage. you will need to adjust your estimates based your specific project. QSM Slim. or competitor surveys be conducted? And if so.

 The Requirements/BAA effort generally involves intense senior business level participation. resist the need for producing downstream estimates for BSD and Development until the Requirements/BAA has been completed. reducing the potential “sticker shock” of subsequent phases.  During the Requirements/BAA phase. be sure to include the potential estimate adjustment for later phases as well.  Three people for three months. Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes that are 4 to 5 times as much during program construction. During our field support visits. Review these and adjust your estimates.Draft 21 2/26/2013 . we generally used a proportional factor for this phase.Estimating Technique Guide  Four people for two months (Decision Support System. Deployment Specific estimating guidelines have not been developed for this phase at this time. Development Refer to the Development estimating guidelines for each of the specific Development paths. During our field support visits. Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes that are up to 10 times as much during integration testing.  When possible. or risk factors accordingly. Your estimate and schedule should reflect this effort. This will increase time frames. or nearly completed. assumptions. These hours are for the data modeler only. Workshops seemed to be the most efficient method. Data modeling metrics:  Four hours per entity using workshops. Note: If you have already provided estimates for subsequent phases. focused on data not processes)  Six people for three and a half months. Integration Specific estimating guidelines have not been developed for this phase at this time. The Requirements/BAA was for a small division and included all the processes for this division. Other estimating options include using a staff and duration model or basing the estimates on the number of test scenarios that need to be executed. When applicable.  The overall client culture could increase the time and effort to resolve issues. Following are some general metrics regarding the impacts on subsequent project phases. Other estimating options include using a staff and duration model or basing the estimates on the number of deployment sites. there tends to be more committee decision making versus individual decision making.  Changes in scope during the Requirements/BAA will impact later phases of the project. This will help the client in understanding the full impact of the change request. knowing the estimating drivers that were used for these later phases will also help you to identify the overall impact of the scope changes. Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes 2 to 3 times as much during the BSD phase. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your Requirements/BAA estimates. Req /BAA: BSD: ADP: INT: Scope changes are generally 1 to 1. Estimating Technique Guide . Accurate estimates are very difficult to produce during the early phases of a project. we generally used a proportional factor for this phase.

a configuration. Checkpoint applies mainly to any proposed enhancements and is not recommended for a package-based development effort. A configuration involves setting a software parameter as intended. and widget counting. More specific estimating guidelines have also been included for the Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) sub-phase. CA-Estimacs contains a packaged-based lifecycle model. The following questions can help you to size your overall PBD effort.  Have a clear definition of an enhancement. expert judgment. All of the estimating tools discussed in the prior section provide some level of support for a package-based development approach. As a general rule. and procedures may be required.  How will the application or data be distributed across locations? Will the application or data be distributed over time?  Who (IT Services or client) will be responsible for managing the software vendor? Estimating Techniques. however. policies. An enhancement involves making a fix using the tools provided by the vendor. and a modification.Draft 22 2/26/2013 . Estimating Technique Guide . We have developed a package-based estimating template that can support a single or multiple applications. A modification is a change to the core software code.Estimating Technique Guide Specialty Areas Development Package Based Development (PBD) General Information The following estimating guidelines apply to the entire PBD specialty area. and Templates Estimating techniques that apply to a PBD effort include comparative. Do Not Make Modifications!  Does the package include any modules that are provided by ancillary vendors?  Will the project include a Requirements/BAA? What is the extent will the business processes change. we have had minimal success with using CA-Estimacs to estimate this type of a project. Tools. is the client expecting a process improvement or a reengineering of its business processes?  Is a Technical Infrastructure included?  Will the project include PSD through implementation? Does the project scope include any production support? Any Training?  What is the messaging infrastructure (mainframe component)?  Does the project scope include data mapping?  Does the project scope include Organizational change for IS or the business community?  Does the project scope include a gap analysis? What percentage of change is the client expecting?  Will the project team have direct or intermediary contact with the users and decision makers?  How involved will the user community be?  Will IT Services have overall project control or will we be shadow-managing?  Does the project scope include a pilot? Does it include a roll-out?  What other tools (IT or project management) will be required for this project?  How much experience does the client have with the proposed platform? How sophisticated is the client with this platform? Additional support.

Draft 23 2/26/2013 .Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. and a 1.  A SAP R3 implementation can be 10 times or more higher than the retail software price. you can usually distribute module specific information.  Multiple database and application software vendors add to the overall risk and complexity.  A minimum client PC requirement is a Pentium processor with 24 meg of memory. An SAP implementation is often 2 times longer than an Oracle implementation.  Clients often fail to provide full-time business resources. however. and interface efforts.  EDI capabilities are non-existent within the Oracle suite of applications.12 months.  Earlier software versions are generally prone to bugs and poor software performance.  Best of breed solutions often require multiple vendors. prior experiences. You will need to adjust your estimates based on your specific project. Oracle. and PowerSoft: Inflate server requirements 4 times the vendor statements. Oracle Implementation:  A typical Oracle implementation costs approximately $10 million.2 gig hard drive.  Although the minimum timeframe for an Oracle implementation can be as short as 6 . Estimating Technique Guide . 12 18 months is a more realistic minimum timeframe. the average minimum timeframe for a generic implementation is 9 . Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. General:  We typically under-estimate the development. SAP:  SAP does not have a distributed data architecture. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your PBD estimates. and from our various field visits.  For SAP. assumptions. 1996.  Although the minimum timeframe for an SAP implementation can be a short as 6 months.  An Oracle 2 implementation can be 3 times or more higher than the retail software price. conversion.) Following are some suggested rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your estimate.  We often underestimate vendor and subcontractor efforts. SAP Implementation:  A general rule of thumb is $1 million for an SAP implementation.  Software vendors are generally unwilling to modify their software.8 months. or risk factors accordingly. Review these and adjust your estimates. Oracle:  Oracle may not be considered true client server. if it does not have a distributed data architecture.

will it be used solely for AR or will it also be used for order management?  Is the client looking for an integrated packaged solution or is the client looking for a best of breed solution?  What are the client’s budget thresholds?  What are the business drivers behind this initiative?  How many packages are you planning on evaluating? What is your evaluation approach for the top packages?  What is the client’s timeframe for choosing and installing the packaged solution?  What is the acceptance process? What is the acceptance criteria? These should be identified in the project’s Statement of Work. are they willing to change their business process for the package or visa versa. These items should be addressed in the project’s Statement of Work.  Does the client have a current or prior relationship with potential vendors? Are there any political issues that you need to be aware of?  How many functions or process threads is the new package going to address? How does this compare to the current system?  Does the client have a list of requirements?  Are there any unique functions specific to the client’s industry or the client’s company? Is the client considering being an industry center of excellence?  How many interfaces are you anticipating? Are there multiple systems or platforms?  Will the packaged solution be an enterprise-wide solution?  What is the client’s guiding principle towards business process change.  What is the I/S strategy for or their view towards the package or the package’s architecture? Is the package’s architecture in alignment with current I/S strategy? Will it be accepted by the I/S organization?  Have the equipment. or technical requirements been identified? Estimating Technique Guide .Draft 24 2/26/2013 . for example. you may need to estimate all of the related equipment costs. will part of the PES need to address the vision and strategy?  Does PES also include the relevant activities of the Requirements/BAA or is this being estimated separately?  Will the PES selection process result in vendor’s submitting a response to either a Request For Proposal (RFP) or a Request For Solution (RFS)? An RFS will involve more effort.  Is contract negotiation part of the project scope?  Does the project scope include the Technical Infrastructure Acquisition (TIA)? If so. to what extent? If not.Estimating Technique Guide Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) Sub-Phase General Information Understanding the scope of the PES is a critical factor when deriving your estimate. Following is a list of scope questions that should be considered.  Will IT Services be managing the project or only assisting the client in managing this effort?  What will be the client’s involvement in the PES? What is the client’s experience level with PES?  What is the scope of the end package.  Has a vision and strategy (ETP) been conducted? If so. platform.

 Multi-lingual. Bill of Material. and logistics for distributing and receiving RFP or RFS responses. Master Scheduling. You will need to adjust your estimates based on your specific project. prior experiences. ERP/ MRPII has 15 major modules: General Ledger.  Interfaces with other systems or packages. multinational. MRP. This time does not include the SDL. Purchasing. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated.  Each major module will cost $25k or higher. and Templates The same techniques.  Ensure that there is a real business value. tools. A major module is defined as a major functional subsystem. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. Estimating Technique Guide .  Level of organizational change required versus planned. Inventory. distribution.  Client’s expectations of IT Services developing a vendor short list.  When estimating the selection process. Accounts Payable. WIP. assumptions. or HRSP.  Consider the vendor’s location.Draft 25 2/26/2013 . Accounts Receivable. accessibility.  Vendor meetings with the client. or risk factors accordingly. manufacturing.  Confusion or misinterpretation of the client’s definition of specified business processes.  Be sure to validate a vendor’s integrity through references. and multicultural capabilities or requirements. For example. Tools. Hackett Group. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your PES estimates. Shop Floor Control. and templates identified for a package-based development effort also apply to the PES sub-phase. technical.) Following are some rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your estimate. Human Resources. AICPA. avoid a weighted point system as the ultimate decision maker.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Techniques. You should try to compare their definition with an APICS reference. The staff should be experienced. Order Entry. 1996. allow for 20 days or more for each major module. and from our various field visits.  The minimum cost for a PES is $100K. Payroll. Review these and adjust your estimates. and Standard Costing.  When selecting the final package. The minimum duration of 3 months elapsed time is needed to accommodate scheduling issues. and project management.  A PES project should be staffed with one person per functional area such as financial. MPS.

Team Leaders: When a team lead is monitoring 3 or less developers. Additional Managers: Consider adding one additional FTE for every 15 -16 team members. application architect. then 100% of the individual’s time needs to be allocated to team leader activities.88+ hours Note: Simple Window: Contains 1-2 simple objects such as a drop down data window or single line edits.  Following are some general metrics for additional “support” staff. or databases. system architect. approved prototype. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. 1996. If the team leader is monitoring up to 6 developers. and from our various field visits. Tools. DBA.) Following are some rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your ICD estimate. 50% of this individual’s time can be allocated for team leader activities and the other 50% to development activities. and Templates All of the estimating techniques and tools discussed in prior sections provide some level of support for an iterative custom development effort. programming. You should adjust your estimates based on your specific project. There can be a simple query done in this window that does a select from a single table. For estimates in excess of 88 hours. The matrix based ICD estimating template is also an effective tool for this type of project. try to breakdown into simpler tasks in order to accurately estimate the progress of this task. These hours include technical design. Many of the data maintenance windows fall into this category.4 boxes. you will need to adjust these for more complex 3-tier applications.Draft 26 2/26/2013 . Technical Support: Consider adding one additional FTE for every 3 . These individuals are in addition to a full-time project manager. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. Simple: Medium: Complex: 24 . prior experiences.32 hours 40 . networks. These hours are for coding and unit testing 2-tier applications.48 hours 80 . and test coordinator.Estimating Technique Guide Iterative Custom Development (ICD) General Information Estimating Techniques.  Following are some general metrics for interfaces. Estimating Technique Guide . Note: If you are using Widget Counting to estimate the development effort. and unit testing of one program: Simple (Extract and Post): Medium: Complex (multiple systems or conversions): 80 hours 160 hours 240 hours  Following are some general PowerBuilder/ PowerTools metrics. These estimates are based on an existing. the team leader activities are additional hours. servers.

Note: The hour estimates for the complex functions are in excess of 80 hours. such as sub-functions within the main business process. multiple table (4 or more) joins in the SQL. Estimating Technique Guide . Complex Window: Contains 3 . simple updates or deletes from the database. A complex C function can also contain complex queries. Note: These estimates were based on Oracle stored procedures. Medium Function: A more complex function that has data manipulation. Does not contain any logic. inserts and deletes across multiple data tables. updates. and has cursor management within the function. There can be a simple query done in this function that does a select from a single table. These hours are for design. Complex data queries.  Following are some general metrics for stored procedures. complex data manipulation. code. Complex Procedure: Contains complex program logic. and has multiple cursor management within the function. inserts. complex queries.Estimating Technique Guide Medium Window: Contains several simple data objects or 1-2 complex data windows that have SQL selects with multiple table joins. updates and deletes from the database. multiple table (4 or more) joins in the logic. and unit testing. If these are greater than 120 hours.120+ hours Note: Simple Procedure: Contains a single simple query. and has multiple cursor management with in the stored procedure. and complex exception handling. simple cursor manipulation. multiple table (2-4) joins in the SQL. updates and deletes from the database. you need to break these down into simpler tasks. The project team’s System Architect needs to be familiar with the stored procedure functionality and know when is it beneficial to use a stored procedure versus a C function or visa versa. Complex Function: Contains data manipulation. dynamic memory allocation for structures in support of complex data manipulation. This stored procedure can have multiple transactions processing within the procedure. Simple: Medium: Complex: Note: Simple Function: Does not contain a lot of complex computation or data manipulation .Draft 27 2/26/2013 . Simple: Medium: Complex: 10 hours 20 hours 40+ hours 40 hours 80 hours 80 . Medium Procedure: Contains 1-2 transactions. Performance considerations are critical in this window and extra effort should be taken to make sure that this window is as efficient as possible.6 data windows with multiple objects on the window. inserts.  Following are some general ANSI “C” coding and unit testing metrics. simple logic within the stored procedure. simple exception handling.

The actual conversion effort is not included. The average is approximately 3 hours per table. and unit testing for each conversion program. fields. Estimates do not include performance turning. and list values contained in the window. single database and location with primary indices. Note: Estimates are based on creating a physical build with a first cut at optimization.0 and they assume that the form has been generated through Designer/2000. Simple-Medium Conversion: Expect approximately 10% of the conversion programs to be classified in the category. Complex Conversion: Expect to have over 50% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category.Estimating Technique Guide  Following are some general metrics for creating a database. Estimating Technique Guide . Expect that less than 10% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. (If the form was created manually. code. Medium-Complex Conversion: Expect to have approximately 20 . canvases. These following estimates are for Forms 4.50% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. Simple: Simple-Medium: Medium: Medium-Complex: Complex: 120 hours 160 hours 200 hours 280 hours 400 hours Note: Simple Conversion: A simple extract and post program.20% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. Simple: A simple form is one that contains only one block and requires few edits or validations. Medium Conversion: Expect to have approximately 10 .  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Forms. average database size.Draft 28 2/26/2013 . Simple (less than 25 tables): Medium (less than 70 tables): Complex (greater than 70 tables): 80 hours 160 hours 240 hours  The following metrics can be used to determine the effort for creating a logical data model: Four attributes per hour Five relationships per hour One entity per hour  Following are some general conversion metrics. and additional 12 to 20 hours should be added to the estimates depending on the number of blocks.) Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 24 hours 40 hours 64 hours 104 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these forms or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. These estimates include the design.

Medium: A medium report is one that contains two or three queries and a moderate amount of formatting. Simple: A simple zoom is one that only has one zoom event and few zoom steps and has little or no effect on the zoom-to location.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Alerts.) Note: Zooms are commonly used with Oracle’s character-based version. Very Complex: A very complex report is one that contains two or more queries and requires a significant amount of formatting. copy data from source to destination.Estimating Technique Guide Medium: A medium form is one that contains two or three blocks and a moderate amount of additional processing logic. or update data either the source or destination location. Medium: A medium zoom is one that may have only one zoom event but several soom steps or have some effect on the zoom-to location.) Very Complex: A very complex zoom is one where significant actions take place at both the source and destination locations using combinations of queries and triggers in multiple steps in each event. except that the additional processing logic itself is complex. Simple: A simple report is one that contains only one query and requires little formatting. They are not commonly used (might not be supported) in their GUI version.Draft 29 2/26/2013 . Complex: A complex zoom is one that has several zoom events each with several zoom steps that perform some function in the zoom-to location. Complex: A complex report is one that contains two or more queries and requires a substantial amount of formatting. Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 8 hours 16 hours 32 hours 48 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these reports or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. (This is similar in concept to a “hot key”.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Reports. execute an automatic query at the destination.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Zooms. The following estimates cover any custom zooms written to allow users to jump from one application form to another with the possibility of performing some processing once the user arrives at the new application form. Complex: A complex form is one that contains two or more blocks and requires a substantial amount of additional processing logic. (For example. Very Complex: A very complex form is similar to a complex form. Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 16 hours 32 hours 56 hours 80+ hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these zooms or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. Estimating Technique Guide .

Simple: A simple alert is one that incorporates simple SQL code to respond to well defined events or to perform very routine actions such as cleaning obsolete data out of a table.  Following are some generic custom development metrics. They do not account for 4GL tools. unit test.  Estimate 40 hours of effort to develop one hour for hands-on (classroom-type) training with labs. Very Complex: A very complex alert is one that requires interaction with the operating system in conjunction with detailed actions. Medium: A medium alert is one that incorporates more detailed actions in response to events and contain more complex SQL.5 x 11) of user documentation. Simple Design Code Test Total: Note: These numbers seem to be on the low side when compared to other metrics provided above. or other support activities.  Medium 17 40 8 65 Complex 34 80 16 130 10 24 4 38 For completing a program. database activities. report is one that contains only one query and requires little formatting. code. Complex: A complex alert is one that might require several elegantly formatted detailed and summary actions in response to an event. team leadership. prototyping. performance engineering. The metrics assume that the development is client/ server using C++ or Visual Basic.Estimating Technique Guide Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 8 hours 16 hours 32 hours 48 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these alerts or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. The total hours cover design. There numbers were based on a small sampling of projects and should be adjusted based on the knowledge of the specific project environment. Also it is uncertain at this time whether unit testing is covered in the “coding” or “testing” phase.Draft 30 2/26/2013 . and limited application/ integration testing. the following percentages can be used to break-down an estimate: Review Specification: Code Program: Compile Program: Code Review: Create Test Plan: Review Test Plan: Unit Test Program: Obtain Program Sign-off: 5% 15% 15% 5% 15% 5% 35% 5% Estimating Technique Guide .  Estimate 8 hours of effort to develop one page (8.

and DASD management. and software documentation have been completed. One definition of done: A developer is done with a module when all coding has been completed. all software documentation has been completed. the unit test plan has been completed and executed. the code has been desk checked. test plan and results. assumptions. You will need them for critical items such as network support. especially system and performance testing. Try to avoid estimating forward from the Requirements/BAA.  Be sure to anticipate an lower level of utilization for client staff.Draft 31 2/26/2013 . Review these and adjust your estimates.  It is essential to have a frozen architecture before you begin development. team leaders) when we adjust end dates due to schedule slips. or risk factors accordingly.  Testing and Pilot includes: • String and Integration Testing: 40% of effort • User Acceptance Testing: 40% of effort • Performance Testing: 20% of effort As a reasonable sanity check for these phases.  The DBA staff being expected to build all stored procedures. PowerBuilder. project managers. These are generally unanticipated problems. and peer (or management) reviews of the code. C. Try to place these resources on non-critical paths.g.  Failure to include time for all levels of testing. These individuals should be allocated for the entire ICD phase.  Remember to make allowances for computer operations. application architect (business analyst). especially if the Requirements/BAA has not been completed. This individual will need time to understand the project-specific business requirements.  System complexity can have a huge multiplier effect on your estimates.Estimating Technique Guide  Following is a proportional percentage by project phase: Requirements /BAA: BSD: Construction: Testing/ Pilot: 10% 20% 40% 30% Notes:  Construction includes unit testing. test coordinator. Estimating Technique Guide .  3-Tier environments add an additional layer of complexity. system architect (technical analyst). Instead.  Failure to distinguish between the various components of the application architecture: e. allow the Application staff to build the procedures and have the DBA staff review them.  Being forced to estimate the entire project up-front. Consider conducting regular meetings with key staff to look forward for unplanned tasks and potential workarounds. and stored procedures. Note: you can never bring in the test coordinator too soon. calculate the effort based on the anticipated staff count and duration. Adjust your estimates accordingly. (Calculate each phase separately.) Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your ICD estimates. and DBA roles.  We occasionally forget to account for fixed support staff (architects.  Include time to account for miscellaneous development problem solving.  Allocate time for project manager. backups.  It is essential for the development staff to understand what “done” means before program development begins.

 We also need to differentiate between benchmarking and performance testing. or implement hardware or software components can impact the project schedule. The performance levels should focus on business functionality not screen or program response. We generally rate programs as easy when they really have a medium complexity.  We typically under-estimate or forget to estimate the effort needed to create a physical data design and to physically place the data on the server.  We typically under-estimate the number of interfaces. legacy system modifications.  Hint: Simulate an realistic system loading during user acceptance testing. purchase hardware or software components. and training in the use of performance tools.  We typically under-estimate conversions and the effort to cleanse the data. Data quality will be low and you could expect to have to cleanse 75% of the data.Estimating Technique Guide  Avoid being too aggressive with complexity ratings.  The time required to select a vendor.Draft 32 2/26/2013 . Try to allow for these potential schedule delays. You may want to consider timeboxing manual data conversions.  Performance Testing:  We typically under-estimate or forget to estimate stress and performance testing efforts. This will slow down performance during early user acceptance testing so the client does not develop unrealistic expectations for the system’s final response time.  Need to estimate the performance testing architecture and infrastructure. Estimating Technique Guide . Adjust your estimates accordingly. purchasing.  We should determine if legacy system retirement is within the scope of the project. and legacy system testing. New systems rarely map directly to the systems that they are replacing.  Need to have target performance levels from the client.  Be sure to identify and inventory interfaces and conversion programs.  A mix of application languages will impact the level of effort.  Need to estimate the effort for selecting .  Conduct pre-development walkthroughs to identify potential performance problems before the application is built. interface testing. The effort to completely retire a legacy system is much more than just developing a new one.

they provide a high-level structure for composing a project plan. a UNIX database server. discussed in the prior section. design the business processes. development environment setup. and development estimating. one that supports a single application and one that supports multiple applications. Data Modeler. and data design.Estimating Technique Guide Accelerated Application Development (X/AD) General Information The following guidelines are based on two X/AD client/server projects. Team Leads. define the logical database design. Both of these projects were 1 year in duration. prototype development. and a 2-teir client/server design. Systems Architect. Estimating Rules of Thumb BSD Estimating Guidelines: The goal of the BSD phase was to develop a proof of concept prototype of the application. The BSD phase was staffed with a Project Manager.  Six weeks for application architecture design. Tools. for estimating an XAD engagement. and Templates Estimating techniques that apply to an XAD effort include comparative.Draft 33 2/26/2013 . C for the server development. expert judgment. common object definition. and widget counting. Estimating Techniques. We have not tried to use any of the estimating tools. and a DBA. Estimating Technique Guide . database creation. and to design the architecture of the application. The technology employed on these projects was PowerBuilder for the GUI development. The phase was broken down as follows:  Six weeks for business process design. The BSD was completed in 12 weeks. We have developed two XAD estimating templates.

full-time project manager. While the development for a timebox was underway. part-time logical data modeler.Estimating Technique Guide Timebox Estimating Guidelines: The duration of each timebox was 5-6 weeks. Common objects and application frameworks were developed in the first timebox. helps to better estimate the size of the project. data conversion. one additional timebox was added to the schedule. so that you are testing the application from the end user’s perspective and not the developer’s perspective. Estimating Technique Guide . This timebox was used to complete user change requests.) The project staff consisted of: Project Manager System Architect All the team leads Half of the development staff DBA Success Factors  It is critical to have a test coordinator on staff as soon as possible so that he or she understands the business rules of the application. but it avoids slowing down development while the data model is created. This phase was used for performance tuning. and any schedule overruns. The application estimates were prepared using ICD estimating guidelines.  The users are completing acceptance testing concurrent with development. bug fixes. There was also a full-time DBA. Subsequent timeboxes contained the development work in a logical sequence based on the work to be done. Each timebox contained a mixture of simple and complex tasks based on the level of experience of the staff. If more than four timeboxes were used. During the application architecture design in BSD. the number of timeboxes for applications development was defined. They are testing the deliverable from the previous timebox. A project should assign as many development teams (1 team lead with 3-4 developers) as the project needs.  Having a prototype to show the user community the proof of concept and then get sign-off on the prototype. The project team consisted of one or more team leads. an integration testing phase was completed. The user test plans should be business rule based. full-time systems architect. and fulltime test coordinator. (Note: If four or fewer timeboxes were used. the integration testing phase should be equal to two timeboxes (10-12 weeks). each with 3-4 developers.  Having the data model defined ahead of development helped out greatly. planning the next timebox. A team lead is NOT responsible for any development. the users were completing acceptance testing for the previous timebox. Note: No developer should have a task that lasts more than two weeks. user training. four weeks for development and 1-2 weeks for testing and delivery to the users for acceptance testing. enhancements. this phase should be equal to three timeboxes (15-18 weeks.Draft 34 2/26/2013 . Their time is consumed by managing the developers. and business site preparation. Integration Testing Estimating Guidelines: After completing all of the timeboxes. This is not to say there won’t be any changes to the data model along the way. and assisting the users in acceptance testing. final user acceptance. After the timeboxes for new development were defined.

This person should review all developed software for consistency. Estimating Technique Guide . adherence to standards.Estimating Technique Guide  It is critical to have a System Architect during the design phases and then guide the development team to make sure the entire application works together. Cautions None have been identified.Draft 35 2/26/2013 . The System Architect should be on the project until the system is deployed. and usability.

Expect the Subject Matter Expert to spend most of his or her time during the phase transitions (beginning and end of each phase. This formula guideline includes the time required ( in days) to plan. and Templates The current estimating techniques being used for estimating organizational change include comparative. Organizational Change as an overall level of effort:  One person. Two days to plan. 10 for average. Tools. and the length of the engagement are all factors that can influence this estimate.Estimating Technique Guide Organizational Change General Information The following estimating guidelines were collected during one of our field visits. the general readiness for change. design. (Effort = F * S * P * J) where: F = Complexity factor as calculated below S = Number of stakeholder groups P = Number of project phases (example.) An average of 4 to 20 hours per change enabling communication event.) A minimum of 5% of the overall effort to a maximum of 40% of selected project phases. draft. designing. You will need to adjust these estimates based on your project and team-related experience. and execute an event. and 15 for high-end complexity) Estimating Technique Guide . discussed in the prior section. None of the estimating tools. prior experiences. For a systems integration project. the types of communication vehicles. These guidelines include planning.15% of the overall effort.  The number of stages of acceptance is 5. use a proportional estimate of 10% . (This does not apply to a very sophisticated event such as a video component. and deploy the communication. and from our various field visits.Draft 36 2/26/2013 . Another formula for estimating the amount of time required for change enabling communication follows. and deploying the communication event. We have developed two estimating templates.) The following guidelines are intended to provide a high-level idea of the amount of time required. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. proportional. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. for the duration of the project. One that can help estimate the effort to design and deliver communication events. 1996. design. and widget counting. Estimating Techniques.  Two guidelines have been given for estimating the hours per event. approving. expert judgment.  1. approve. developing. and a second that can be used to estimate the number of stakeholder groups. The complexity of the engagement.  Communication Plans: The following formula can be used to estimate the effort to design and deliver communication events. 50% of time. appear to address organizational change activities. ETP and Requirements/BAA equals two phases) J = Judgment factor (use 5 for low-end. 2. (# of stakeholder groups * # of project phases * # of hours per event * # of stages of acceptance) Notes: Estimating the number of stakeholder groups is discussed later in this section. You will need to adjust these to fit your specific project environment.

000 7 25 to 80% 3 100.0 x 1.2 10 . (CS (5) * PO (2) = 10) Estimating Technique Guide .Draft 37 2/26/2013 .the complexity factor (F) would be 1.000 8 50 to 100% 4 500.9 stakeholder groups 1.the complexity factor (F) would be 1.or -.Estimating Technique Guide To compute the Complexity Factor (F).) Minimum number of stakeholder groups for an enterprise-wide engagement is 6 (executive sponsors. extended project team. and 12 stakeholder groups have been identified -. The project is expected to only impact the corporate office. and organization as a whole.4 More than 25 groups 1. Using this factor. for a tactical change.44 x 7 x 1 x 10 = 100) Example 2.0 No Resistance 1.2 Some Resistance 1.25 groups 1. project team.95 x 12 x 1 x 10 = 475) Stakeholder Groups: The following guidelines have been defined for estimating the number of stakeholder groups.4 x 1. project management.4 x 1. and impacted business unit.2 x 1. Degree of Change Anticipated Resistance Type of Change Number of Stakeholder Groups Minor 1.3.2 = 3.) To calculate the lower boundary of the number of stakeholder groups: divide the number of fulltime project team members (FTEs including client staff) by four and add two. (Effort = F x S x P x J -. we could estimate the effort during a Requirements/BAA to equal about 475 days.95.44. project management.4 Much Resistance 1.000 4 Up to 10% 1 5.0 Moderate 1.4 Example 1: Assume the change is minor.000 5 10.2 Major 1. Multiply the factor for each category to determine the complexity factor. and 7 stakeholder groups are involved -.or -. Using this factor. use the following table to categorize the degree of change.000 total employees. project team. with much resistance anticipated.000 6 50. The estimated number of stakeholder groups is 10. ((project team FTEs / 4) + 2) To calculate the upper boundary of the number of stakeholder groups: divide the number of fulltime project team members by two and add four. Assume the change is major.0 Anticipated Change 1.2 Tactical (business unit) 1. ((project team FTEs / 2) + 4) To estimate the number of stakeholder groups bases on the company size and percent of employees impacted by the change use the following tables to multiply the size (CS) factor by the percent of organizational change (PO) factor: Company Size CS factor 100 2 500 3 1.1.2 x 1.4 x 1. which accounts for 20% of the company. we could estimate the effort during a Requirements/BAA to equal about 100 days. anticipated resistance. subject matter experts. (Effort = F x S x P x J -.4 Strategic (organization) 1.000 9    Percent of Organization Impacted by Change PO factor 10 to 30% 2 For example: Your client has approximately 5.0 1 . with some resistance anticipated.0 = 1. for a strategic change.   Minimum number of stakeholder groups for a small engagement is 4 (executive sponsors. type of change and number of stakeholder groups.

The review considers the type of equipment for all personnel and the peak periods of performance for all devices or units. and use one monitored in project startup and performance tracking activities. At project start up. use a guideline of 10 hours of development time for each hour of delivery. and deployment. the PM conducts a meeting with all section managers of all key activities. testing. instructor-led training. Each section manager identifies their staff’s roles and responsibilities. acquisition.Estimating Technique Guide Roles and Responsibilities: Assuming that your are creating a role (job description) from scratch and have some starting material. 2. Review and analysis are dictated by the types of activities (e. task order and computer resource planning. If a new project or new task order requires new hardware. Training and Education Assuming the forum will be traditional. The attendees review the estimated resource use and the responsibilities for all technical and administrative personnel. The planning and analysis of computer resource use should be conducted monthly as an integral part of the project performance and exercised in conjunction with ongoing project tracking and oversight. 3. It is accomplished in conjunction with preparing and updating of the Project Management Plan and the Software Development Plan. Critical Computer Resources and Facilities Infrastructure No specific estimating guidelines have been identified at this time. standard contract and task order negotiation (if applicable). terminal access. Steps for Planning/Estimating are: 1. database. the task order team and contract staffing (if applicable) consider the work allocation and equipment needs that were planned into the task order performance. implementation. all documents and planning materials developed in previous stages are used for project. directs correlating staff duties and skills and computer resource use. conducted at startup. word processing. The hardware acquisition will be a part of the project. The equipment is then listed in direct relationship to the staff and contract performance.. Computer resources planning.g. The planning and estimation for production or development hardware platforms will be developed in accordance with hardware feasibility and sizing studies that are included in task performance criteria. The prime objective is to develop a plan for estimating and acquiring computer resources and then to analyze the use so that hardware requirements are satisfied. Critical Computer Resources may be estimated Critical Computer resource planning and estimating is an on-going activity. This could range as high as 80 hours of development time per hour of delivery for world-class instructor script and participant guides. This can range from as low as 2 hours to as high as 12 hours per role. use 4 hours per role as a guideline. Cautions None have been identified. In Estimating Technique Guide .Draft 38 2/26/2013 . Technical Infrastructure No specific estimating guidelines have been identified at this time. In addition. financial spread sheets).

Draft 39 2/26/2013 . If the team lead activities have not been included in the other project phases. and device capacity. The timeline developed and provided to the section managers for review. a simpler update is developed for the task or contract budget.Estimating Technique Guide addition. Management and Coordination Specific estimating guidelines have not be developed for this phase at this time. the total management and coordination effort should be approximately 15% to 20% of the total project effort. The Analysis and Design Team manager maps the acquisition strategy on a timeline. The system administrators monitor the use of critical computer resources and report the use to the PM monthly as the project progresses. and program management. In general. The Analysis and Design Manager maps the acquisition strategy against the staffing profile or an existing plan to develop a new resource acquisition plan and budget. The project/task order plan is then used to update the contract and site plans for hardware acquisition. 4. The Project Manager and the section managers review the use report to analyze use of memory and the storage. The current Hardware Acquisition Plan from the Software Development Plan and project/ontract budget provide insight to the equipment that is available and what new equipment is planned for the future. A common guideline is to use a 1 to 6 ratio. The current use of resources is compared to acquisition of future resources. During our field support visits. adjustments are made to the acquisition plans. Estimating Technique Guide . project management. channel capacity. 8. a current hardware configuration from a system specification and a current hardware use report from the Operations and Maintenance Team may be used. be sure to include them here. usage of network. 6. we generally used a staff and duration model to estimate development coordination. The Analysis and Design Manager review the plan with the PM and the accounting and finance personnel. 5. The plan is used to update the planned hardware expenditure for the contract. The computer resources acquisition plans for a task order is built to reflect any required increase in current or planned contract hardware capabilities. 7. and changes are proposed to the client.

If you did not receive these file attachments or if you have any questions on how to use these spreadsheets. Each spreadsheet calculates the total hours and cost for each role. meals. release. You can modify the proportional factors or add additional scenarios. such as IT Services and the client staff. For each unique project role. The first worksheet. hours. the overall project. It also provides totals for each expense category . lodging. enter a role description. Estimating Technique Guide . and the estimated expenses for: airfare. these are calculated based on the weekly expense amount. The spreadsheet that allows for two groups of resources provides sub-totals for each group along with aggregated totals. Option 2. or development build. Totals are provided of each category. Either of these worksheets can be easily customized to meet your specific project requirements. One allows for a single resource group. The duration used in the template is weeks. the number of resources (count). Travel Expenses Template This spreadsheet provides you with two options for estimating travel related expenses. project duration. Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template This spreadsheet projects the hours for the remaining phases of a project based on the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA phase. and computes an average weekly travel expense based on the total project expenses and the total number of weeks. timebox.Estimating Technique Guide Appendices Estimating Templates Please refer to the additional file attachments for these spreadsheets. and cost. The second worksheet. The user defined fields are in “blue”. the length of duration. 2. Staff and Duration Estimating Templates Two estimating spreadsheets have been provided. It is based on the assumption that a Requirements/BAA accounts for 7% to 10% of the total project effort. The second allows for two resource groups.5%. allows you to identify the project’s duration (in weeks). To use these spreadsheets: 1. A grand total is also provided. Each spreadsheet allows you to compute the total hours and cost by project team role. and 10% scenarios. such as the entire project team. This cell is used to calculate hours based on the duration that you have entered. Either of these spreadsheets can be tailored to your specific estimating needs. team size. provides grand totals for staff count. This worksheet provides total weekly and project expenses by individual. cab/ auto. Simply enter the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA and the spreadsheet projects the remaining project effort based on 7%. and the hourly billing rate for this role. allows you to specify the above expense categories and project duration on an individual by individual basis. The template assumes a custom (ICD) development approach. Modifying either spreadsheet to specify hours and costs by project phase. and miscellaneous expenses. please contact any of the Estimating and Metrics team members. Enter the duration to hour conversion factor. and computes an average billing rate. 8. Potential customization options include:   Modifying the IT Services and Client spreadsheet to represent billable and non-billable effort. Add or delete roles as needed. parking. so the duration to hour conversion factor has been set to 40 hours. Option 1. and team size. Estimating Template User Guides The following user guides provide some general directions on how to use each of the estimating templates.Draft 40 2/26/2013 .

Estimating Technique Guide . The other supports multiple applications. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. Est Ttl. The estimating drivers should include: • The unit of measure. Complete the PBD Details worksheet: a) Enter the estimating details on the PBD Details worksheet. estimating drivers. and duration. business function. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. and displays the total estimated hours. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. included in the spreadsheet. or package. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains three worksheets.Draft 41 2/26/2013 . The package-based development detail worksheet. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort of each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks.Estimating Technique Guide Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. and comments for each activity. deliverables. Both estimating templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results.) c) The worksheet will calculate sub-totals for each sub-phase and provide an overall summary at the bottom of the worksheet. 2. (Note: Another option would be to include the team lead activities in the management and development coordination worksheet. The summary contains both hours and a percentage of the total effort. To use this estimating template: 1. • The average number of staff involved in completing the activity. The user defined fields are in “blue”. the estimated effort for each unit. contains all of the estimating details by sub-phase. the second supports multiple applications. For each role. 3. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. such as a workshop. and comments for each sub-phase. Mgmt. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. The estimated effort to complete each unit. timebox. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. For each activity or work product. PBD Details. you can specify the number of units. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. enter the number of staff being managed and the percentage of team lead responsibility. number of staff. Use this worksheet to enter the key activities. These hour totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each subphase and an overall estimate. The template contains some general activities for each of the package-based development sub-phases. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the package-based sub-phases. One spreadsheet supports a single package-based application. The estimate total worksheet. • • The number of units. The management and development coordination worksheet. 1. 2. Modify these activities to meet your specific project requirements. b) For the team leadership activity. summarizes the project sub-phases. and any estimating assumptions or comments. enter a description. or by using a proportional level of effort. one supports a single package-based application. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. Define the key deliverables. estimating drivers.

As you define each of these widgets. The user defined fields are in “blue”. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. The only difference is in the PBD Details worksheet. one supports a single iterative custom-developed application.Estimating Technique Guide b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. reports. Oracle forms. integration and deployment phases. conversions. The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each category and an overall total. The program matrix worksheet. summarizes the project sub-phases. Tuxedo services. The spreadsheet accumulates totals for each type of widget and links these totals to a summary worksheet to provide a high-level summary of your estimates. Est Ttl. 2. common objects. b) Enter the proportional factors for Integration and Deployment. The estimate total worksheet. c) As a option. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains four worksheets. Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates provided. This worksheet allows you to enter detailed estimating information for each application area. windows. One spreadsheet supports a single custom-developed application. Estimating Technique Guide . Both templates allow you to build a bottom-up estimate based on the number of “widgets” being developed. included in the spreadsheet. Use this worksheet to enter the widgets that need to be developed for each category. defines and categories all of the widgets that need to be developed. The detail matrix worksheet references additional look-up tables that contain the appropriate estimates based on the type of widget and its complexity. or by using a proportional level of effort. the second supports multiple applications. You can adjust the Est Ttl. Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same three worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus an additional summary worksheet. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the business system design. The template currently allows for menus. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. PGM Matrix. PBD Summary. adjust this factor accordingly. application development completion. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. conversions. Both templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. 3. you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. C functions. interfaces. windows. You can adjust these look-up tables to reflect your specific project environment. This additional worksheet. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. servers. provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. and displays the total estimated hours.Draft 42 2/26/2013 . PBD Summary. reports. and PBD Detail worksheets to add or subtract application areas. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate. and common functions. To do this. To use this estimating template. The template currently allows for 3 application areas. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. you can rate the complexity of each widget on a scale from 1 to 10. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. cell P3. These widgets can include menus. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. interfaces. The other supports multiple applications. enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. 1.

similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate. Integration. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. cell P3. b) Enter the proportional factors for the BSD. cross-reference information. and its level of complexity on a scale of 1 to 10. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. Estimating Technique Guide . you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. corresponding changes will also need to be made to the other worksheets. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. To use this estimating template: 1. compute a total hour and day estimate based on the number of units specified. adjust this factor accordingly. Mgmt. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet.Draft 43 2/26/2013 . Be careful that you have defined the correct row and column coordinates when modifying this column. The estimate matrices worksheet.Estimating Technique Guide 3. ADC. For each role. the number of units. c) As a option. To do this. The worksheet will retrieve the per unit estimate from the estimate matrices worksheet. (Caution: The per unit estimate column in this worksheet is extremely sensitive with the row and column coordinates within the estimate matrices worksheet. b) The categories contained on this template can be modified to meet your specific project.) b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. The management and development coordination worksheet. number of staff.) 2. For example. Complete the PGM Matrix worksheet: a) Enter the widgets that need to be developed into the appropriate categories. enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. For each entry you can specify the name of the widget. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. Additional categories can also be created if needed. level 1 being the simplest and level 10 being the most complicated. Category and overall totals are provided. They have not been accounted for in the prior worksheet. and calculate totals. that worksheet will reference the PowerBuilder estimate matrix and retrieve the per unit estimate for a level 5 complexity window. if you enter a PowerBuilder window with a complexity level of 5 on the program matrix worksheet. contains estimating matrices for a variety of different types of widgets. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. 3. enter a description. EST Matrices. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. The program matrix worksheet uses these estimate matrices as a look-up table. If you do modify or add additional categories. (Note: Be sure to include the team lead activities in this worksheet. For each type or category of widget this worksheet contains estimates for 10 levels of complexity. and duration. 4. and Deployment phases. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only.

The user defined fields are in “blue”. The template currently allows for 2 application areas. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains three worksheets. 1. Use this worksheet to enter the key activities. XAD Details. The management and development coordination worksheet. Both estimating templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. 3. estimating drivers. The estimate total worksheet. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. the estimated effort for each unit. 2. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. 2. Repeat the ICD Matrix steps for each application area. the second supports multiple applications. you can specify the number of units. One spreadsheet supports a single XAD-based application. included in the spreadsheet. To use this estimating template. The other supports multiple applications. one supports a single XAD-based application. The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each subphase and an overall estimate. An ICD Summary worksheet that provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the XAD-based sub-phases. summarizes the project sub-phases. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. For each activity or work product. deliverables. Mgmt. contains all of the estimating details by sub-phase.Estimating Technique Guide Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus two additional worksheets: 1. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. and displays the total estimated hours. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. You can adjust the spreadsheet to add more application areas. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. An additional ICD Matrix worksheet for a second application area. Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided.Draft 44 2/26/2013 . Estimating Technique Guide . and comments for each sub-phase. The XAD-based development detail worksheet. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort of each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. and any estimating assumptions or comments. Est Ttl. or by using a proportional level of effort.

you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. cell P3. This additional worksheet.Draft 45 2/26/2013 . The estimating drivers should include: • The unit of measure. and the number of stages Estimating Technique Guide . enter a description. c) As a option. You can adjust the Est Ttl. b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. These hour totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. enter the number of staff being managed and the percentage of team lead responsibility. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. and comments for each activity. This worksheet allows you to enter detail estimating information for each application area. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. For each role.) c) The worksheet will calculate sub-totals for each sub-phase and provide an overall summary at the bottom of the worksheet. allows you to estimate the hours needed to design and deliver communication events based on the number of stakeholder groups. The first worksheet. XAD Summary. • • The number of units. and XAD Detail worksheets to add or subtract application areas. Communication Event Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the effort to design and deliver communication events. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate. The summary contains both hours and a percentage of the total effort. Modify these activities to meet your specific project requirements. XAD Summary. b) Enter the proportional factors for Integration and Deployment. b) For the team leadership activity. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. • The average number of staff involved in completing the activity. business function. or entities. adjust this factor accordingly. Define the key deliverables. The only difference is in the XAD Details worksheet. and duration. estimating drivers. 3. 2. each represents an estimating option. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. such as a prototype set. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. Option 1. The spreadsheet contains two worksheets.Estimating Technique Guide To use this estimating template: 1. the estimated hours per event. (Note: Another option would be to include the team lead activities in the management and development coordination worksheet. provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. The template contains some general activities for each of the package-based development sub-phases. The estimated effort to complete each unit. To use this estimating template. Complete the XAD Details worksheet: a) Enter the estimating details on the XAD Details worksheet. number of project phases. enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. number of staff. To do this. Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same three worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus an additional summary worksheet. The template currently allows for 3 application areas.

Next enter the actual number of stakeholder groups. and a judgment factor. select the desired values from each of the four complexity factor tables. Again. the number of project phases. The estimated effort in is hours and is based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines.Draft 46 2/26/2013 . the level of anticipated change. To use this worksheet.Estimating Technique Guide of acceptance. Fractional sizes are permitted. The first worksheet. The second worksheet. This worksheet will provide a low-end. number of project phases. To use this worksheet. The worksheet will compute the estimated number of stakeholder groups based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. simply enter the project team size in full-time equivalents. and the type of change. allows you to estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the overall size of the client and the percentage of organizational impact. Team Size. and a judgment factor. number of stakeholder groups. To use this worksheet. Stakeholder Group Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the number of stakeholder groups. and average estimated number of stakeholder groups based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. simply select the appropriate client size by entering a “1” in the correct category. simply enter the correct values. These tables are used to categorize the degree of change. Client Size. Option 2. you can only select one category. allows you to estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the size of the project team. The spreadsheet contains two worksheets. The second worksheet. the number of stakeholder groups (within a range). allows you to estimate the effort based on four complexity factors. The worksheet will calculate the estimated hours for designing and delivering communication events based on the calculations described in Organizational Change estimating guidelines. high-end. You can only make one selection. Estimating Technique Guide . To use this spreadsheet. Next select the percentage of organizational impact by entering a “1” in the correct category.

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