Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide Version 1

Estimating Technique Guide - Draft

1

2/26/2013

Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide
Table of Contents Introduction_____________________________________________________________4 Estimating Approaches ____________________________________________________4
Top-Down Estimating Approach ________________________________________________5 Bottom-Up Estimating Approach ________________________________________________5 Estimating Approach Comparison_______________________________________________6

Estimating Techniques ____________________________________________________6
Ballpark Estimating___________________________________________________________6 Proportional Percentage Estimating______________________________________________7 Comparative_________________________________________________________________8 Expert Judgment______________________________________________________________8 Proportional Estimating________________________________________________________8 Widget Counting______________________________________________________________8 Function Point Analysis________________________________________________________9 Feature Points_______________________________________________________________10 Technique Comparison________________________________________________________11 Estimating Technique Comparison______________________________________________12 Managing Multiple Estimates__________________________________________________12
Wideband Delphi Technique__________________________________________________________12 Weighted or Average Estimate________________________________________________________13

Commercially Available Estimating Tools____________________________________13
CHECKPOINT/KnowledgePLAN______________________________________________13
Overview_________________________________________________________________________13

Estimating Templates____________________________________________________14
General Purpose Templates____________________________________________________14
Staff and Duration Estimating Template...........................................................................................14 Travel Expenses Template.................................................................................................................14 Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template......................................................14

ASPIRE Phase Templates_____________________________________________________14
Vision and Strategy_________________________________________________________________14 Business Area Architecture___________________________________________________________14 Development______________________________________________________________________14 Integration________________________________________________________________________14 Deployment_______________________________________________________________________15

Specialty Area Templates______________________________________________________15
Development______________________________________________________________________15 Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template...............................................................15 Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template......................................15 Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template...............................................15 Organizational Change______________________________________________________________15

Estimating Technique Guide - Draft

2

2/26/2013

Estimating Technique Guide
Communication Event Estimating Template.....................................................................................15 Stakeholder Group Estimating Template...........................................................................................15 Technical Infrastructure_____________________________________________________________16 Facilities Infrastructure______________________________________________________________16

Estimating Guidelines____________________________________________________17
Project-Wide Guidelines_______________________________________________________17 ASPIRE Phase Guidelines_____________________________________________________19
Vision and Strategy (ETP)___________________________________________________________19 Business Area Architecture (Requirements/BAA)_________________________________________20 Development______________________________________________________________________21 Integration________________________________________________________________________21 Deployment_______________________________________________________________________21

Specialty Areas______________________________________________________________22
Development______________________________________________________________________22 Package Based Development (PBD)..................................................................................................22 Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) Sub-Phase.........................................................................24 Iterative Custom Development (ICD)................................................................................................26 Accelerated Application Development (X/AD).................................................................................33 Organizational Change______________________________________________________________36 Technical Infrastructure_____________________________________________________________38 Critical Computer Resources and Facilities Infrastructure__________________________________38

Management and Coordination_________________________________________________39

Appendices_____________________________________________________________40
Estimating Templates_________________________________________________________40 Estimating Template User Guides_______________________________________________40
Staff and Duration Estimating Templates_______________________________________________40 Travel Expenses Template___________________________________________________________40 Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template______________________________40 Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template__________________________________41 Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template______________________42 Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template__________________________44 Communication Event Estimating Template_____________________________________________45 Stakeholder Group Estimating Template________________________________________________46

Estimating Technique Guide - Draft

3

2/26/2013

Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide Introduction
Company Management has stated that there has been some history of Significant Project Cost and Schedule Overruns. Issues identified included:  Many project over-runs are attributed to poor estimates. Current estimating techniques are perceived to be inconsistent, baseless, and inaccurate.  There is a tremendous financial risk associated with poor estimating techniques. High estimates can result in lost business opportunities. Low estimates increase the risk of project over-runs.  There is an inconsistent use of a disciplined estimating process. This problem occurs in the sales process and in estimating subsequent phases in an ongoing project.  There is disagreement and no general consensus on the best techniques for system development estimates.  There is little or no guidance for estimating Accelerated application, package-based system development, Non-traditional system development such as object-oriented development or Internet / Intranet development, Non-system development projects such as Performance Improvement Initiatives, Vision and Strategy, Business Architecture, IT Re-engineering, and Organization Change.  Few tools exist to support estimating and the usability and validity of these tools is not universally accepted. The purpose of this Estimating Technique Guide, along with the Estimating Process Guide, is to begin to address several of these issues. It will not resolve all of these issues. However, it can be an effective vehicle that allows us to share our collective experiences. Although the targeted audience of this guide is IT Services Consulting and Systems Integration, our goal is to utilize and share knowledge and experiences across all of IT Service’s divisions. Specific goals for this guide include:  Identifying estimating approaches, techniques, models and tools that have been used on prior IT Services engagements. There are a number of techniques, models and tools that are being used across the division. There are probably an equal number of opinions on which ones are the most effective. This guide identifies some of the most common techniques, models, and tools. It does not try to cover all of them; nor does it attempt to single out which technique, model and tool is the most effective. In reality, there is no “universal” technique that applies to all types of projects; each technique is valuable when used for the appropriate type of project. The key is to have an awareness of what techniques, models, and tools are available so that you apply the best set of techniques, models, and tools for your specific project.  Sharing information on the techniques, models, and metrics that have been used for various project phases. Many of the metrics defined are rules of thumb that have come from specific projects. Many of these have not been confirmed or compared against other projects so you will need to apply your judgment accordingly. This guide also includes some “gotchas” that were identified from past experiences; hopefully these will help you to avoid similar pit-falls as you develop your estimates.  Fostering communication regarding estimating and metrics between project team members, projects, business units, regions, and divisions. This guide, in and of itself, will not make us better estimators. All of us need to experiment and communicate our experiences with these techniques, models, and tools so that we can further define and refine them.

Estimating Approaches
There are two basic approaches for determining the estimates for a given component of a project, topdown and bottom-up. IT Services highly recommends that you estimate a project using both of these approaches. A top-down estimating approach takes an estimate for an entire project and breaks it down

Estimating Technique Guide - Draft

4

2/26/2013

and then total the individual estimates to produce the overall project estimate. if the client has a fixed budget. examines each piece at a detail level. total effort. or the project team’s expertise. After completing the top down estimates for the lower-level tasks you must validate your estimate by checking to make sure that each of the lower-level estimates makes sense. You should ensure that all of your low-level components are identified in or mapped to a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) or Statement of Work to ensure that you have accounted for all of the project’s components. Top-Down Estimating Approach Using this approach you divide an overall estimate into separate. For example. This estimating approach is helpful when you have relatively little knowledge of the project requirements or when the project is strictly limited by resources. code and test the maintain customer address window. printers. Estimating Technique Guide . it requires more project related information and takes a longer time to develop the estimate.Draft 5 2/26/2013 .) Disadvantages of this approach include:  You could miss low-level technical issues or special components of the system. The starting point is an estimate of the size. you can develop a top-down estimate in a relatively short period of time and with a minimal amount of project related information. you may have determined that the total effort for a Requirements/BAA phase is 1. You can than use an estimating model such as Project Bridge Modeler to apportion the 1. Bottom-Up Estimating Approach Using this approach you first identify the low-level components of the project.Estimating Technique Guide into lower-level components. You should also use other estimating methods to cross-validate your results. Because of the level of detail required. lower-level components.  A non-labor item such as a product or service. or tasks that make up the project.  There is a tendency to define the scope in terms of the resources allocated rather than in terms of the activities or deliverables. Examples include preparing for or documenting workshops or interviews.  This approach offers little or no basis for the cost justification of subsequent estimating iterations. pagers.000 hours. A bottom-up estimating approach breaks the project into pieces. (Note: This is risky and not generally recommended. For example. this estimating approach could be used to identify the level of work that could be delivered for that budget. and creating a detail project plan for a subsequent project phase. Examples of a low-level component include:  The effort to produce an intermediate product or deliverable. For example.  The effort to develop a specific function of the completed software system. installation fees. and assembles all of the pieces and their estimates to come up with the overall project estimate. estimate each of these components. The definition of a low-level component can vary widely and is very dependent on the type of the project. you can repeat this process to arrive at estimates for lower-level tasks.000 hours across the various activities and tasks that comprise a Requirements/BAA. Since this approach examines the project in much greater detail. developing an integration or application test plan. Since this approach looks at the entire project from a fairly high-level view. training. If any of the lower-level task estimates is too low you must adjust the top level estimate upward or change the scope of the project. or the time required to perform a project. according to a predefined formula as well as taking into account experience from similar projects and any known external dependencies that may act as constraints. your prior project experience. development software. You can also adjust the hours per activity or task based on the required deliverables.  You need some basis for apportioning the overall project estimate across the various subcomponents. The total estimate is apportioned among the components. and travel related expenses. Depending on the size and complexity of the project. your bottom-up estimate is generally more accurate than your top-down estimate. Examples include PCs.

It can be used early in the lifecycle and when no historical information is available. training. it can yield a more accurate estimate than a top-down approach. Once the estimate is developed. • Need basis for proportioning estimates across project sub-components. a comparative estimate can be Estimating Technique Guide . Estimation Approach Strengths Top-Down • Particularly relevant if project is strictly limited by resources. Bottom-Up • Enforces relatively thorough analysis before estimation.  It often requires more information than what is typically available at the time the estimate is required. When estimating a project. These uncertainties will often result in assumptions in the estimate and the project’s Statement of Work. Since you need have a more detailed view of the project requirements when using this approach. Weaknesses • May miss low-level technical issues. This approach also helps to identify uncertainties regarding the project requirements or proposed solution. • Has little or no basis for the cost justification of subsequent estimating iterations. Disadvantages of this approach include:  You may overlook system-level costs such as integration or training. No one estimating technique is ideal for all situations.Estimating Technique Guide One advantage of this approach is that it requires a relatively thorough analysis before you begin estimating. • Tendency to define scope in terms of resources allocated rather than in terms of activities or deliverables.Draft 6 2/26/2013 . and derived from the QSM SLIM completed projects database.  It requires a significant effort to produce the estimate. are needed. effort. each has its own strengths and weaknesses.) Estimating Approach Comparison The following diagram illustrates a high-level comparison between these two estimating approaches. you need to decide which technique is appropriate and what adjustments. This technique can be used at any point in the lifecycle. (These tasks are generally estimated based on the duration of the project or as a percentage of the underlying tasks. • Often requires more information than is available at time of estimate. • May omit special components of software system. • Requires significant effort to produce • Activities such as management and coordination cannot be estimated until underlying task estimates are complete. Estimating Techniques The following estimating techniques fit into either the top-down or bottom-up approach. • Relatively little knowledge of proposed system required. peak staff.  Activities such as management and development coordination cannot be estimated until the underlying task estimates are complete. • Identifies uncertainties in developers’ knowledge of system requirements or proposed solution. if any. provided you haven’t forgotten anything. • May overlook system-level costs such as integration. Each row represents a consistent set of estimates that may be determined based on any one of the variables estimated using expert judgment. Ballpark Estimating With this estimating technique you use a combination of time.

a size can be determined between Very Very Small and Very Large. the table is completed by locating the effort hours and ESLOC in the top down factors table and entering them into the Effort Estimate and ESLOC columns in the Top Down Estimate by CI worksheet. The final estimates can be compared to other estimates for analysis. which must be considered in developing proportional estimates. There are different proportional models for different types of life cycles.00% 12. and using expert judgment. Using the Business Case documentation. The group total can then be used for a single estimate for size (ESLOC). If there are logical groupings of configuration items. Proportional Percentage Estimating With this estimating technique you use the size of one component to proportionally estimate the size of another. manage. Construction 45% of Requirements effort. close) . If any portion of the labor distribution is estimated. For example: Labor Distribution Standard for "Development / Enhancement" Work Types Project Management (start-up. The ESLOC estimate is based on 100 Lines of Code per Function Point. Estimates are developed using the Peak Staff. a proposed solution is visualized. Using the size and category within size.00% 13. they may be numbered. manage.00% 15.00% Maintenance 12. when the estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor. and Testing/Pilot 33% of Requirements effort. the Modules. After all Configuration Items are estimated. Consideration needs to be given to whether the current estimate is for an effort that is more like a Development/Enhancement effort or a Maintenance effort. Using the factors table. The list of configuration items can be sorted by group and combined into a single estimate. The total of the group can be used to create one estimate for the group using the top down factors table to locate the total. This technique is very effective when used appropriately. close) .00% 8.Development/Enhancement Quality Assurance Reviews Development / Enhancement Analysis (Requirements) [Solution Definition] Development / Enhancement External Design Development / Enhancement Internal Design Development / Enhancement Procedures and Training Development / Enhancement Construction (Code/Unit Test) [Solution Generation] Development / Enhancement Test [Solution Validation] Development / Enhancement Implementation [Solution Deployment] Labor Distribution Standard for "Maintenance" Work Types Project Management (start-up.00% Estimating Technique Guide . Configuration Items.00% 5. and Effort in Hours columns for guidance in determining each size estimate.00% 9. it can be used to expand the known portion into a total estimate.Draft 7 2/26/2013 . Time in Months. or Programs in the visualized solution can be identified and entered into Top Down Estimate by CI worksheet. The groupings can then be used to combine individual configuration items into packages of work for estimation by group. with a productivity index assumed to be slightly less than the average productivity of companies in the SLIM database having a SEI CMM Level 2 productivity index. the Design effort might be estimated as 22% of the Requirements effort. the totals can be calculated.00% 9.00% 27. At the same time the Category with Size can be determined. For example.00% 6. Interfaces.00% 18.Development/Enhancement Quality Assurance Reviews Maintenance Analysis (Requirements) [Solution Definition] Development/ Enhancement 15.Estimating Technique Guide developed using a proportional technique.

and determine the total effort by applying these estimates against the total number of widgets. System and Integration Testing.00% 40. processor capacity. The comparison is normally performed at a high-level with little reference to detail.00% 5. with other projects similar in scope and type to produce an estimate. You could even add an additional percentage of effort to account for some of the unknowns in the new system. For example you have been asked to estimate the custom development for a new telecommunications system. Widget Counting Using this estimating technique. or programming a specific system component. Code/Unit Test. Expert Judgment This technique relies on the extensive experience and judgment of the estimator to compare the requirements for the component being estimated against all projects in his/her previous experience. you compare the project at hand. For example. Since this reference project covered roughly 50% of the functionality needed by the new system. Proportional estimates can be used in combination with other estimating techniques. The comparison does not have to be at a project or phase level.Estimating Technique Guide Maintenance External Design Maintenance Internal Design Maintenance Procedures and Training Maintenance Construction (Code/Unit Test) [Solution Generation] Maintenance Test [Solution Validation] Maintenance Implementation [Solution Deployment] 9. it should not be used as a crutch to pass the estimating responsibility on to some other component. Proportional Estimating With this estimating technique you use the size of one component to proportionally estimate the size of another. However. Therefore.Draft 8 2/26/2013 . the design effort might be estimated as 40% of the coding effort. the target project. This technique also requires some type of historical data to compare against. You also happen to know of a similar type of project that was also custom developed. you could develop a comparative estimate for the new telecommunications systems by doubling the actual effort from your reference project. the number of printers might be estimated as one for every 6 users. and Deployment phases of the project. printer volume. after using widget counting to derive the estimate for the Requirements phase of a project and then used proportional factors to estimate the Design. It can also be useful for estimating low-level components such as documentation. Previous personal experience or estimating guidelines can help provide these proportionality factors. Using this technique will magnify estimating errors being made elsewhere. Quality Assurance might be estimated as 3% of the total project effort.00% 4. This technique is very effective when used appropriately.00% 15. it should be used only if time is limited or a relatively large uncertainty in the estimate can be tolerated. when the estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor.00% 18. The major weakness of this technique is that a project is not thoroughly assessed. Typical widgets may be Estimating Technique Guide . estimate the effort for each type of widget. You can use this technique for lower-level tasks such as developing a reporting sub-system or a customer maintenance window. This technique relies heavily on the experience of the estimators and their ability to gauge the target project in relation to the comparative data available. This technique is useful as a “sanity check” for an estimate produced by another method. you identify project characteristics that can be counted and that are performed on a recurring basis (the “widget”). For example.00% Comparative Using this estimating technique. It differs from the comparative technique in that the reference projects are not explicitly identified. Implementation.

developer’s skill level. in which the online user defines an inquiry as input and the system responds immediately with an output. You may assign complexity factors to each type of widget (simple. and test cases. medium. This provides for a level of independence from the specific hardware platform. An input can originate directly from the user or from user-generated transactions from an intermediary system. An inquiry is distinct from an output in that it is not procedurally generated. reports. Assigning a complexity to each of these function types. Inputs exclude transactions or files that enter the system as a result of an independent process.  The effort to develop or complete the project must be reasonably proportional to the number of widgets. Advantages for using Function Point Analysis include:   The project is viewed from the perspective of the user rather than the developer. This includes database tables and records on physical files describing a single logical object. database fields. This would include logical units forming part of printed reports.g. audit trails. described below. database entities. Use the following criteria when determining whether you should be using this estimating technique:  There must be enough detail information to allow you to identify and count the widgets. 5. maintenance. (This is probably the most difficult step. windows. with low algorithmic processing complexity. it is treated as a single logical internal file for sizing purposes. Function Point Analysis This estimating technique is suited for projects that are based on straightforward database input. complex) and weight the effort accordingly. and the organization’s line of business. A logical file may span many physical files (e. requirement specifications. screens. or objects. even though the project is not necessarily made up purely of widgets. pages of documentation. Function Point Analysis is the basis for several automated estimating tools. The basic steps involved in this estimating technique include: 1. Adjusting this function point count based on the overall project complexity.  Logical Internal File—Any logical group of data held by the system. in terms of user functions rather than programs. languages. 4.Estimating Technique Guide menu choices. The result of an inquiry may be a display/report or a transaction file that is accessible by the user. and overflow).  Inquiry—Each unique input/output combination. Estimating Technique Guide . and inquiry. 3. and messages. However. Tallying the function types and applying pre-defined weighting factors to these totals to drive a single unadjusted function point count.  You must be able to produce an estimate for the effort of each widget type. output display screens.) Function points are viewed from the perspective of the system boundary and are comprised of the following types:  Input—Any data or control information provided by the user that adds or changes data held by the system. Decomposing the project or application into a defined set of function types. 2.  External Interface File—Each logical group of data that is input to or output from the system boundary to share that data with another system. This is typically done by using the comparative approach based on historical metrics data or by prototyping the implementation of one of the widgets.Draft 9 2/26/2013 . index. that is. Translating the function point count to an effort estimate based on a function point delivery rate.  Output—Any unique unit of data or control information that is procedurally generated by the system for the benefit of the user. data. files.. output. The estimates can be developed from knowledge of the requirements without a detailed design solution being known.

space systems. The Function Point count for such systems totals only 60 to 80 percent of the Feature Point count. both techniques result in nearly the same number of “points”. There is also a users group. you should read one of the published books on this subject. Function Points can be complicated to administer. robotics. however. function points. As a result. variations of Function Point Analysis are being developed to address the newer technologies and development approaches. the results can be significantly different between these two techniques.Estimating Technique Guide  The use of Function Point Analysis is accepted internationally. Formal training is needed before you can consistently count. it is not certain how well this concept applies to newer technologies and development approaches such as object-oriented development. Disadvantages for using this estimating approach include:     This approach does not accurately estimate systems that are largely algorithmic such as military systems. and middleware. For typical management information systems. Note: Before using this estimating technique. and therefore track. The use of function points is not widely accepted within IT Services. For real-time or highly algorithmic systems. we have not gathered any estimating guidelines or metrics for function point estimating. It involves adding a number of algorithms with an average complexity weight and changing the function point weighting in other areas. which has established standards to help encourage consistency in counting function points. International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG). there is little difference in the results between Function Points and Feature Points. process control.Draft 10 2/26/2013 . Feature Points This estimating technique is an extension to the function point analysis technique. Since the concept of Function Point Analysis was developed with older technologies and development approaches. However. Estimating Technique Guide .

business of organization.Estimating Technique Guide Technique Comparison The following table highlights the strengths and weaknesses of these estimating techniques: Estimation Technique Comparative Strengths Estimate can be very accurate if a suitable analogy can be identified.  Can be complicated to administer.  Weaknesses Historical data repository required.  Can magnify estimating errors made in other areas.  Estimating Technique Guide . robotics.  Provides independence from hardware platform. not developer. and process control. even though system is not necessarily made up purely of widgets. Identifies areas where requirements clarification is needed.  Magnifies size errors if widget effort estimates are incorrect.Draft 11 2/26/2013 .  Widget Counting Effective for systems that can be characterized by widgets  Function Point Analysis Feature Point Well suited for standard Management Information System projects with little internal processing complexity.g.  Single data point.  Identifies requirements tradeoffs.  Estimates can be developed from knowledge of requirements without a detailed design solution being known. configuration management). user functions rather than programs.  Requires formal training. space systems.  Assumes effort to develop system is proportional to number of widgets.  Requires formal training.  Requires previous personal experience or experience-based guideline metrics for proportionality factors.  Does not accurately estimate systems that are largely algorithmic such as military systems..  Consistency encouraged through established international standards for function point counting.  High risk.  Often difficult to find comparable projects. software management.  Can be complicated to administer. report writer. perspective (e.   Proportional Effective when estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor (e. with added benefit of accounting for algorithms and internal processing complexity. or CASE tool environments. developers’ skill at code efficiency.  Project viewed from user.. files). may not be repeatable by anyone other than the “expert”.  Expert Judgment Estimate can be extremely accurate. especially those using 4GL.  Does not have overall acceptance within IT Services.g. quality assurance.  Same strengths as Function Point Analysis. languages.  Does not yet have overall acceptance.  Must be verified by another method.

3. Estimating Technique Guide . Wideband Delphi Technique When several estimators are estimating the same project or component. & ETP Business Area Architecture Development Integration Deployment Development Organizational Change Technical Infrastructure Facilities Infrastructue Year 2000 Development Coordination Project Management Program Management Not Recommended Recommended Optional/ Sanity Check Managing Multiple Estimates The following techniques can be used to manage multiple estimates. thereby reducing the impact of individual biases. The basic goal of this technique is to achieve a more accurate and reliable composite estimate. Estimating Techniques Comparative Proportional Expert Judgement Widget Counting Function Point Analysis Feature Point Analysis Specialty Areas Project Phases Mgmt and Coord. The lead estimator presents the same specification to each expert. specialty areas. you have various degrees of confidence. misunderstandings.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Technique Comparison The following diagram illustrates the recommended estimating techniques for the various ASPIRE project phases. The lead estimator calls a group meeting in which the experts discuss estimation issues. and management and coordination activities. and incomplete knowledge. This technique consists of the following steps: 1. 2. Vision & Stategy. the Wideband Delphi technique is useful to enforce convergence of the different estimates.Draft 12 2/26/2013 . or when you have multiple estimators. This can occur when you have used different techniques to estimate a project or component. The experts independently develop estimates and give them to the coordinator.

risk analysis. and your pessimistic estimate will be your conservative estimate. this formula will result in an estimate very close to the “realistic estimate”.. but excluding rationale. estimating. quality estimating. and methodologies. and productivity. Experts review estimates.  Estimate the cost of developing systems as well as the cost of developing specifications and user documentation. and store data about your development projects. CHECKPOINT integrates sizing. they have not been calibrated against IT Services projects so you need to apply some judgment when using these tools.  Perform what-if analysis for a variety of variables including CASE tools.  Estimate projects using a knowledge-base of over 4.  Measure all aspects of a software project at a user-defined level of granularity. CHECKPOINT/KnowledgePLAN Overview CHECKPOINT. measurement. EV = (1{O} + 4{R} + 1{P}) / 6 where: EV = Estimate Value O = Optimistic Estimate R = Realistic Estimate P = Pessimistic Estimate Note: The definition of optimistic. your realistic estimate will be what you feel is the most likely estimate. and pessimistic is up to the individual(s) developing the estimate. is a knowledge-based software management tool that can analyze. planning.Draft 13 2/26/2013 . In most of these tools.700 software projects.  Perform side-by-side comparisons of project versions. and steps 4–6 are repeated until a consensus is reached. schedules. your optimistic estimate will be your aggressive estimate. languages. from Software Productivity Research Inc.Estimating Technique Guide 4. 6. quality. different projects. realistic. and technology assessment. skills. or a project against other established benchmarks.  Aggregate data across selected projects. Typically. number of required personnel resources). The lead estimator analyzes the estimates and distributes a summary containing the estimates with their medians.  Assess a wide range of software attributes against industry standards for cost. evaluate. In general. Estimating Technique Guide ..g. 5. Although these tools have generally been calibrated using a wide range of historical project data at other companies within the industry. value analysis. Commercially Available Estimating Tools There are a number of automated estimating tools available to support estimating efforts. The lead estimator calls a group meeting to discuss estimates. It offers the capability to:  Predict source code size. an algorithm is applied to the basic measure of size to produce an estimate of effort (e. focusing on where estimates vary widely. Weighted or Average Estimate The technique uses the following formula to derive an average estimate. scheduling.

The template assumes a custom (ICD) development approach. provide two staff and duration estimating templates. The spreadsheet calculates the total hours and cost for each role. Business Area Architecture The Estimating and Metrics team currently does not have any templates specific to this ASPIRE phase. Travel Expenses Template This template provides you with two options for estimating traveling expenses. if you are counting weeks in your duration. the other template allows for two resource groups. Development A number of estimating templates have been collected that support the Development phase of ASPIRE. and computes an average billing rate. The generic Staff and Duration template could be used for this type of an engagement. The general Staff and Duration estimating template can also be applied to this phase. You can modify these factors or add additional scenarios. identify how many individuals will fill this role (fractional values are valid). The template allows you to define a project role. You simply enter the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA and the spreadsheet projects the remaining project effort based on 7%. The various Development estimating templates generally use a proportional estimating factor for this phase. The template also allows you to specify a duration to hour conversion factor so that the total hours and cost are calculated on a per hour basis. ASPIRE Phase Templates Vision and Strategy The Estimating and Metrics team currently does not have any templates specific to this ASPIRE phase. Integration Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this phase. such as the project team. The second option allows you to specify estimated travel expenses on an individual by individual basis. Detailed instructions for using these spreadsheets are located in the appendix.Draft 14 2/26/2013 . contained in the file attachments. The actual spreadsheets have been attached as separate files. hours. The generic Staff and Duration template could be used for this type of an engagement. and specify the duration and hourly billing rate for this role.5%. 8. One template allows for a single resource group. General Purpose Templates Staff and Duration Estimating Template This template provides a simple spreadsheet to compute the total hours and cost based on the anticipated level of staffing and length of the project. you can specify that there are 40 hours per week. provides grand totals for staff count. and 10% scenarios. or modified.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Templates There are a variety of estimating templates or spreadsheets being used throughout the organization to assist with our project estimating efforts. created. For example. such as IT Services and the client staff. Estimating Technique Guide . Following is a high-level summary of the templates that the Estimating and Metrics team have obtained. and cost. The first option allows you to estimate these expenses as an average for the entire team. It is based on the assumption that a Requirements/BAA accounts for 7% to 10% of the total project effort. The estimating templates. Please refer to the Development estimating templates for a complete list. Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template This template allows you to do a simple projection of the remainder of a project based on the actuals from the Requirements/BAA phase.

Organizational Change Communication Event Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the effort to design and deliver communication events using the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. you can rate the complexity of each on a scale from 1 to 10. one supports a single iterative custom-developed application. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. Specialty Area Templates Development Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. The general Staff and Duration estimating template can also be applied to this phase. windows. The spreadsheet accumulates totals for each type of widget and links these totals to a summary worksheet to provide a high-level summary of your estimates. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. Stakeholder Group Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the number of stakeholder groups based on either the project team’s size or the overall size of the client. For each activity or work product. The detail matrix worksheet references additional look-up tables that contain the appropriate estimate based on the type of widget and its complexity. the second supports multiple applications. one supports a single package-based application. the second supports multiple applications. or by using a proportional level of effort. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates.Estimating Technique Guide Deployment Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this phase. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. and any estimating assumptions or comments. included in the spreadsheet. or by using a proportional level of effort. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort for each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. interfaces. and any estimating assumptions or comments. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the XAD sub-phases. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. Two estimating options are included in this template. integration and deployment phases. you can specify the number of units. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. these guidelines are provided later in this document. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. These widgets can include items such as menus.Draft 15 2/26/2013 . conversions. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort for each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. and common objects. As you define each of these widgets. included in the spreadsheet. servers. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the business system design. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the package-based sub-phases. The various Development estimating templates generally use a proportional estimating factor for this phase. included in the spreadsheet. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. For each activity or work product. or by using a proportional level of effort. the second supports multiple applications. the estimated effort for each unit. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. reports. application development completion. This template uses the calculations described in the Estimating Technique Guide . Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template This estimating template allows you to build a bottom-up estimate based on the number of “widgets” being developed. you can specify the number of units. Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. the estimated effort for each unit. one supports a single XAD application. Two estimating templates are provided.

Facilities Infrastructure Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this specialty area except for Critical Computer Resources. To estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the project team size. you need to select the appropriate client size and percentage of organizational impact from the respective tables. Estimating Technique Guide . these guidelines are provided later in this document. To estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the overall client size. Technical Infrastructure Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this specialty area.Estimating Technique Guide Organizational Change estimating guidelines.Draft 16 2/26/2013 . simply enter the size of the project team in full-time equivalents.

) Estimating Technique Guide . Your estimate should include at least one top-down and one bottom-up approach. Vision and Strategy Recommended Optional / Sanity Check Not Recommended Estimating Guidelines Project-Wide Guidelines The following estimating guidelines can be applied across all phases of a project. project management time.Draft 17 Development Coordination Business Architecture Project Management Deployment Program Management Integration Process Initiative 2/26/2013 . requirements. ASPIRE Phases.  Use at least two. (Note: In most cases you will be developing the Statement of Work at the same time you are developing your estimates.  On larger scale estimating efforts. Using multiple approaches will help ensure a higher level of confidence in the final estimates. you need to understand the scope. or risks that you identify during this process in the Estimating Notebook. These should be documented in your Statement of Work.Estimating Technique Guide ASPIRE Methodology Comparison The following diagram illustrates how the various estimating templates support the ASPIRE project phases. estimating approaches or techniques when estimating your project.. and the approach. TBD . an initial draft of your Statement of Work. You will also need to identify any of the surrounding activities or components. Specialty Areas. you should take into account the effort to produce the final deliverables as well as the workshops. if you are trying to estimate an Enterprise Transformation Plan.. For example. you will often need to make assumptions to “fill the gaps” in the information needed to create the estimate. especially the scope and approach sections. interviews. specialty areas. travel.. Refer to the Estimating Process Guide for additional guidelines. These items must also be incorporated into the project’s Statement of Work. There will be cases where your estimating process requires that you update your Statement of Work and visaversa. will be a valuable source of input for your estimating process. and Management and Coordination Activities Organizational Change Technical Infrastructure Facilities Infrastructure Development Staff and Duration Travel Expenses Estimating Templates: Requirements/Proportional Package Based Dev Iterative Custom Dev Accelerated Application Dev Ballpark Estimating Proportional Percentage . and preferably three. Although these are often done concurrently. Be sure to document any assumptions.  To estimate effectively. and management and coordination activities.. constraints. and delivery assurance.

number of packages being evaluated.  Use the following guidelines when estimating for project expectations and reviews: • For each project expectation: ½ hour to write. All too often we try to develop an estimate with a maximum price tag in mind and we let the “price” drive the “estimate”. Examples include the number of workshops being conducted.  Base your estimates on some quantifiable unit of measure. business function. and the number of staff over some fixed duration of time. design.Draft 18 2/26/2013 . Document these quantifiable units of measure in the Statement of Work and Estimating Notebook.  Include the effort for conducting architecture.Estimating Technique Guide  Breakdown the project deliverables and work products into more manageable pieces by creating a work breakdown structure (WBS) that contains all of the components of the proposed solution.  Try to separate the “pricing” from the “estimate”. • Allow for 1 project evaluation for each team member every four months. and ½ hour for both individuals (manager and project team member) to review and discuss. • For each project evaluation: 1 hour to write and 1 hour for both individuals to review and discuss. number of windows being developed.  When appropriate. Estimating Technique Guide . One rule of thumb is to allow for 4 FTEs for 5 days every quarter. and development reviews in your estimates. evaluate and approve estimates from sub-contractors.

The answer usually does not "fall out" from the work done during the study.000 range. client expectations must be carefully managed as to the level of detail that will be provided as a result of the study.    It takes four people approximately six weeks to complete an ETP study.750 hours. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your ETP estimates. significant cost overruns and loss of credibility are likely. A plan that we cannot live with surely is one the client cannot live with. None of the estimating tools that we have used address this phase of a project. Client expectations must be carefully managed as to the level of detail that will be provided as a result of the study. Assuming a $200/hr billing rate this would translate to 250 to 1. as well as one or two solid Business Analysts and a good Technical Architect who can take a pragmatic approach and make fact-based recommendations. The time to develop this plan is often underestimated. and Templates Recommended estimating techniques include comparative and expert judgment. assumptions. even for a relatively small project such as an ETP. The total cost for an ETP seems to be in the $50. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. or risk factors accordingly. The only estimating template that we currently have available for an ETP is the general staff and duration estimating template. prior experiences. If expectations are not properly managed. If expectations are not properly managed. You can also use a proportional or widget counting technique to get an alternative estimate. Tools. Will we estimate IT Services involvement or leave the numbers "generic"? Will dollars be associated with the estimates? Will the estimates be considered "IT Service’s bid" for the work? In the likely event that the plans for the future studies become budgeted numbers for the client. and from our various field visits. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. significant cost overruns and loss of credibility are likely.    Estimating Technique Guide . A good client relationship person is key.000 to $350. The primary deliverable is a prioritized listing of future steps to achieve the Vision set by the study. Another critical success factor is the staffing. 1996.Estimating Technique Guide ASPIRE Phase Guidelines Vision and Strategy (ETP) General Information Several interviews with project teams indicate that the "soft deliverables" associated with an ETP allow a fair amount of flexibility in the duration of the study. Manage client expectations on the length of the document to be presented and the depth to which it will extend. Review these and adjust your estimates. even for a relatively small project such as an ETP.Draft 19 2/26/2013 . Plan on one to two days per page for preparing the final documentation.) Following are some rules of thumb that have been used on prior projects.  At the outset of the project. Estimating Techniques. we must realize that IT Services will need to be prepared to do the work for those estimates.

Draft 20 2/26/2013 . and from our various field visits. or competitor surveys be conducted? And if so. How many departments or locations will be involved? What is the client’s overall organizational structure? For example is the client’s organization largely regulatory.Estimating Technique Guide Business Area Architecture (Requirements/BAA) General Information The following questions can assist you in sizing the Requirements/BAA effort. centralized.) Following are some rules of thumb that have been used on prior projects. You can also use a proportional or widget counting technique to get an alternative estimate. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. suppliers. 1996. and Proportional Percentage. I/S or the business users? How many individuals will be reviewing or approving deliverables? Will you need to create a business case for action? Will the client be using a value discipline? Has this already been established? How many alternative architectures is the client expecting? Estimating Techniques.                   How many user representatives will be involved with the Requirements/BAA effort? How many representatives will be providing requirements? How many interviews will you conduct? Include interviews at the executive level as well as firstlevel management. The following staff size/ project duration have been used on prior Requirements/BAA efforts:  Six people for five months Estimating Technique Guide . how many customers. Since the scope and depth of the final deliverable for a Requirements/BAA can vary significantly from project to project. multidivisional. multinational. The only estimating template we currently have available for a Requirements//BAA is the general staff and duration estimating template. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. prior experiences. Possible estimating tools include Ballpark. supplier. or competitors will be targeted? Do we have already identified an industry or business best practice for this type of client? Will there be a final presentation? Who will do the final sign-off. Tools. QSM Slim. you will need to adjust your estimates based your specific project. or decentralized? What is the scope baseline as defined by each of the six domains of change? What deliverables is the client expecting to be delivered? What is the expected level of detail for these deliverables? How many process threads will you be addressing? Is the client looking for a business process redesign or a business process improvement? How many conceptual data entities are expected to be involved? How many workshops are you expecting to conduct? How many individuals will be attending these workshops? What are the time box assumptions for each workshop? How many best practice interviews are you expecting to conduct? How many legacy systems are involved? Will customer. and Templates Recommended estimating techniques include comparative and expert judgment. especially if you are going to use a bottom-up estimating approach.

Deployment Specific estimating guidelines have not been developed for this phase at this time. resist the need for producing downstream estimates for BSD and Development until the Requirements/BAA has been completed. This will increase time frames.  When possible. or nearly completed.  During the Requirements/BAA phase. assumptions. Workshops seemed to be the most efficient method. Other estimating options include using a staff and duration model or basing the estimates on the number of test scenarios that need to be executed.Estimating Technique Guide  Four people for two months (Decision Support System. Your estimate and schedule should reflect this effort. Note: If you have already provided estimates for subsequent phases. we generally used a proportional factor for this phase. The Requirements/BAA was for a small division and included all the processes for this division. Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes 2 to 3 times as much during the BSD phase. focused on data not processes)  Six people for three and a half months.  Three people for three months. we generally used a proportional factor for this phase. Other estimating options include using a staff and duration model or basing the estimates on the number of deployment sites. This will help the client in understanding the full impact of the change request. During our field support visits.  Changes in scope during the Requirements/BAA will impact later phases of the project. During our field support visits. reducing the potential “sticker shock” of subsequent phases. Review these and adjust your estimates. Development Refer to the Development estimating guidelines for each of the specific Development paths. be sure to include the potential estimate adjustment for later phases as well.Draft 21 2/26/2013 . Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes that are up to 10 times as much during integration testing. Following are some general metrics regarding the impacts on subsequent project phases. When applicable. Accurate estimates are very difficult to produce during the early phases of a project. or risk factors accordingly. Estimating Technique Guide . Data modeling metrics:  Four hours per entity using workshops. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your Requirements/BAA estimates.  The overall client culture could increase the time and effort to resolve issues. Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes that are 4 to 5 times as much during program construction. there tends to be more committee decision making versus individual decision making. knowing the estimating drivers that were used for these later phases will also help you to identify the overall impact of the scope changes. These hours are for the data modeler only. Integration Specific estimating guidelines have not been developed for this phase at this time.  The Requirements/BAA effort generally involves intense senior business level participation. Req /BAA: BSD: ADP: INT: Scope changes are generally 1 to 1.

is the client expecting a process improvement or a reengineering of its business processes?  Is a Technical Infrastructure included?  Will the project include PSD through implementation? Does the project scope include any production support? Any Training?  What is the messaging infrastructure (mainframe component)?  Does the project scope include data mapping?  Does the project scope include Organizational change for IS or the business community?  Does the project scope include a gap analysis? What percentage of change is the client expecting?  Will the project team have direct or intermediary contact with the users and decision makers?  How involved will the user community be?  Will IT Services have overall project control or will we be shadow-managing?  Does the project scope include a pilot? Does it include a roll-out?  What other tools (IT or project management) will be required for this project?  How much experience does the client have with the proposed platform? How sophisticated is the client with this platform? Additional support. a configuration. and widget counting. Do Not Make Modifications!  Does the package include any modules that are provided by ancillary vendors?  Will the project include a Requirements/BAA? What is the extent will the business processes change.Draft 22 2/26/2013 . expert judgment. Estimating Technique Guide . Checkpoint applies mainly to any proposed enhancements and is not recommended for a package-based development effort. however. The following questions can help you to size your overall PBD effort. A configuration involves setting a software parameter as intended. All of the estimating tools discussed in the prior section provide some level of support for a package-based development approach. As a general rule. policies. we have had minimal success with using CA-Estimacs to estimate this type of a project.  Have a clear definition of an enhancement. CA-Estimacs contains a packaged-based lifecycle model. We have developed a package-based estimating template that can support a single or multiple applications. An enhancement involves making a fix using the tools provided by the vendor. and procedures may be required.  How will the application or data be distributed across locations? Will the application or data be distributed over time?  Who (IT Services or client) will be responsible for managing the software vendor? Estimating Techniques. A modification is a change to the core software code.Estimating Technique Guide Specialty Areas Development Package Based Development (PBD) General Information The following estimating guidelines apply to the entire PBD specialty area. and a modification. Tools. and Templates Estimating techniques that apply to a PBD effort include comparative. More specific estimating guidelines have also been included for the Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) sub-phase.

 Although the minimum timeframe for an SAP implementation can be a short as 6 months. if it does not have a distributed data architecture. 12 18 months is a more realistic minimum timeframe.2 gig hard drive. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. Oracle:  Oracle may not be considered true client server.  Software vendors are generally unwilling to modify their software.12 months. General:  We typically under-estimate the development. You will need to adjust your estimates based on your specific project.Draft 23 2/26/2013 . and from our various field visits.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. SAP:  SAP does not have a distributed data architecture. and PowerSoft: Inflate server requirements 4 times the vendor statements.  Clients often fail to provide full-time business resources.  For SAP. Oracle Implementation:  A typical Oracle implementation costs approximately $10 million. Review these and adjust your estimates.8 months. and interface efforts. assumptions.  Although the minimum timeframe for an Oracle implementation can be as short as 6 .) Following are some suggested rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your estimate.  A minimum client PC requirement is a Pentium processor with 24 meg of memory.  Earlier software versions are generally prone to bugs and poor software performance. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your PBD estimates. conversion. or risk factors accordingly.  EDI capabilities are non-existent within the Oracle suite of applications.  Multiple database and application software vendors add to the overall risk and complexity. Oracle. An SAP implementation is often 2 times longer than an Oracle implementation. however. and a 1. prior experiences.  A SAP R3 implementation can be 10 times or more higher than the retail software price.  Best of breed solutions often require multiple vendors.  An Oracle 2 implementation can be 3 times or more higher than the retail software price. you can usually distribute module specific information. Estimating Technique Guide .  We often underestimate vendor and subcontractor efforts. 1996. SAP Implementation:  A general rule of thumb is $1 million for an SAP implementation. the average minimum timeframe for a generic implementation is 9 .

Following is a list of scope questions that should be considered. for example. to what extent? If not. are they willing to change their business process for the package or visa versa. you may need to estimate all of the related equipment costs. will part of the PES need to address the vision and strategy?  Does PES also include the relevant activities of the Requirements/BAA or is this being estimated separately?  Will the PES selection process result in vendor’s submitting a response to either a Request For Proposal (RFP) or a Request For Solution (RFS)? An RFS will involve more effort.  Is contract negotiation part of the project scope?  Does the project scope include the Technical Infrastructure Acquisition (TIA)? If so. platform.  What is the I/S strategy for or their view towards the package or the package’s architecture? Is the package’s architecture in alignment with current I/S strategy? Will it be accepted by the I/S organization?  Have the equipment.  Has a vision and strategy (ETP) been conducted? If so. These items should be addressed in the project’s Statement of Work.  Does the client have a current or prior relationship with potential vendors? Are there any political issues that you need to be aware of?  How many functions or process threads is the new package going to address? How does this compare to the current system?  Does the client have a list of requirements?  Are there any unique functions specific to the client’s industry or the client’s company? Is the client considering being an industry center of excellence?  How many interfaces are you anticipating? Are there multiple systems or platforms?  Will the packaged solution be an enterprise-wide solution?  What is the client’s guiding principle towards business process change.Estimating Technique Guide Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) Sub-Phase General Information Understanding the scope of the PES is a critical factor when deriving your estimate.  Will IT Services be managing the project or only assisting the client in managing this effort?  What will be the client’s involvement in the PES? What is the client’s experience level with PES?  What is the scope of the end package. or technical requirements been identified? Estimating Technique Guide .Draft 24 2/26/2013 . will it be used solely for AR or will it also be used for order management?  Is the client looking for an integrated packaged solution or is the client looking for a best of breed solution?  What are the client’s budget thresholds?  What are the business drivers behind this initiative?  How many packages are you planning on evaluating? What is your evaluation approach for the top packages?  What is the client’s timeframe for choosing and installing the packaged solution?  What is the acceptance process? What is the acceptance criteria? These should be identified in the project’s Statement of Work.

accessibility. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. and from our various field visits. 1996. prior experiences. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. This time does not include the SDL. Master Scheduling. Hackett Group.  When estimating the selection process.  Confusion or misinterpretation of the client’s definition of specified business processes. For example. MRP. Tools. Inventory. allow for 20 days or more for each major module. or risk factors accordingly.  The minimum cost for a PES is $100K. technical. and templates identified for a package-based development effort also apply to the PES sub-phase. Review these and adjust your estimates. MPS. and logistics for distributing and receiving RFP or RFS responses.Draft 25 2/26/2013 .  When selecting the final package. and Templates The same techniques. Accounts Receivable.  Client’s expectations of IT Services developing a vendor short list. assumptions.  Interfaces with other systems or packages. You will need to adjust your estimates based on your specific project. and project management. and multicultural capabilities or requirements.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Techniques. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your PES estimates. The staff should be experienced. Bill of Material. AICPA. avoid a weighted point system as the ultimate decision maker. Shop Floor Control. multinational. tools. Payroll.  Multi-lingual. and Standard Costing. A major module is defined as a major functional subsystem.  Ensure that there is a real business value.  Be sure to validate a vendor’s integrity through references. manufacturing. Purchasing. Order Entry. or HRSP. ERP/ MRPII has 15 major modules: General Ledger. The minimum duration of 3 months elapsed time is needed to accommodate scheduling issues. WIP. Human Resources. Accounts Payable.) Following are some rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your estimate.  Level of organizational change required versus planned. distribution.  Consider the vendor’s location.  A PES project should be staffed with one person per functional area such as financial.  Vendor meetings with the client.  Each major module will cost $25k or higher. Estimating Technique Guide . You should try to compare their definition with an APICS reference.

These estimates are based on an existing.) Following are some rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your ICD estimate. then 100% of the individual’s time needs to be allocated to team leader activities. networks. and test coordinator. or databases. Tools.  Following are some general metrics for interfaces.Draft 26 2/26/2013 . You should adjust your estimates based on your specific project. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. application architect. Estimating Technique Guide .  Following are some general metrics for additional “support” staff.Estimating Technique Guide Iterative Custom Development (ICD) General Information Estimating Techniques. Simple: Medium: Complex: 24 . and unit testing of one program: Simple (Extract and Post): Medium: Complex (multiple systems or conversions): 80 hours 160 hours 240 hours  Following are some general PowerBuilder/ PowerTools metrics. system architect. Team Leaders: When a team lead is monitoring 3 or less developers. and Templates All of the estimating techniques and tools discussed in prior sections provide some level of support for an iterative custom development effort. the team leader activities are additional hours. These hours include technical design. There can be a simple query done in this window that does a select from a single table. approved prototype. DBA. try to breakdown into simpler tasks in order to accurately estimate the progress of this task. you will need to adjust these for more complex 3-tier applications.4 boxes. prior experiences.32 hours 40 . 1996. If the team leader is monitoring up to 6 developers. Additional Managers: Consider adding one additional FTE for every 15 -16 team members. For estimates in excess of 88 hours. and from our various field visits. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. 50% of this individual’s time can be allocated for team leader activities and the other 50% to development activities. Technical Support: Consider adding one additional FTE for every 3 . programming. The matrix based ICD estimating template is also an effective tool for this type of project. Note: If you are using Widget Counting to estimate the development effort.48 hours 80 . Many of the data maintenance windows fall into this category.88+ hours Note: Simple Window: Contains 1-2 simple objects such as a drop down data window or single line edits. These hours are for coding and unit testing 2-tier applications. servers. These individuals are in addition to a full-time project manager.

inserts. Complex data queries. simple logic within the stored procedure. Does not contain any logic. and has cursor management within the function. Complex Window: Contains 3 . and unit testing. inserts and deletes across multiple data tables. Medium Procedure: Contains 1-2 transactions. Complex Function: Contains data manipulation. This stored procedure can have multiple transactions processing within the procedure. If these are greater than 120 hours.6 data windows with multiple objects on the window. you need to break these down into simpler tasks. A complex C function can also contain complex queries. simple exception handling. complex data manipulation. Medium Function: A more complex function that has data manipulation. multiple table (2-4) joins in the SQL. The project team’s System Architect needs to be familiar with the stored procedure functionality and know when is it beneficial to use a stored procedure versus a C function or visa versa.Estimating Technique Guide Medium Window: Contains several simple data objects or 1-2 complex data windows that have SQL selects with multiple table joins. Note: These estimates were based on Oracle stored procedures. simple cursor manipulation. and complex exception handling.120+ hours Note: Simple Procedure: Contains a single simple query.  Following are some general ANSI “C” coding and unit testing metrics. Note: The hour estimates for the complex functions are in excess of 80 hours. Complex Procedure: Contains complex program logic. Simple: Medium: Complex: 10 hours 20 hours 40+ hours 40 hours 80 hours 80 . Performance considerations are critical in this window and extra effort should be taken to make sure that this window is as efficient as possible.Draft 27 2/26/2013 .  Following are some general metrics for stored procedures. such as sub-functions within the main business process. complex queries. inserts. updates and deletes from the database. simple updates or deletes from the database. and has multiple cursor management with in the stored procedure. Simple: Medium: Complex: Note: Simple Function: Does not contain a lot of complex computation or data manipulation . dynamic memory allocation for structures in support of complex data manipulation. code. updates. multiple table (4 or more) joins in the logic. multiple table (4 or more) joins in the SQL. updates and deletes from the database. There can be a simple query done in this function that does a select from a single table. These hours are for design. and has multiple cursor management within the function. Estimating Technique Guide .

Simple (less than 25 tables): Medium (less than 70 tables): Complex (greater than 70 tables): 80 hours 160 hours 240 hours  The following metrics can be used to determine the effort for creating a logical data model: Four attributes per hour Five relationships per hour One entity per hour  Following are some general conversion metrics.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Forms. Expect that less than 10% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category.Estimating Technique Guide  Following are some general metrics for creating a database. These estimates include the design. single database and location with primary indices. canvases. Complex Conversion: Expect to have over 50% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. The average is approximately 3 hours per table.0 and they assume that the form has been generated through Designer/2000. These following estimates are for Forms 4. average database size. Estimates do not include performance turning. Estimating Technique Guide . Medium-Complex Conversion: Expect to have approximately 20 . Medium Conversion: Expect to have approximately 10 . The actual conversion effort is not included.Draft 28 2/26/2013 . and unit testing for each conversion program. Simple-Medium Conversion: Expect approximately 10% of the conversion programs to be classified in the category. and list values contained in the window. and additional 12 to 20 hours should be added to the estimates depending on the number of blocks. fields. Simple: A simple form is one that contains only one block and requires few edits or validations. code.20% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category.) Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 24 hours 40 hours 64 hours 104 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these forms or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. Simple: Simple-Medium: Medium: Medium-Complex: Complex: 120 hours 160 hours 200 hours 280 hours 400 hours Note: Simple Conversion: A simple extract and post program. (If the form was created manually. Note: Estimates are based on creating a physical build with a first cut at optimization.50% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category.

Medium: A medium report is one that contains two or three queries and a moderate amount of formatting. Very Complex: A very complex form is similar to a complex form.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Reports.) Very Complex: A very complex zoom is one where significant actions take place at both the source and destination locations using combinations of queries and triggers in multiple steps in each event. (For example.Draft 29 2/26/2013 . The following estimates cover any custom zooms written to allow users to jump from one application form to another with the possibility of performing some processing once the user arrives at the new application form. except that the additional processing logic itself is complex. Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 16 hours 32 hours 56 hours 80+ hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these zooms or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 8 hours 16 hours 32 hours 48 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these reports or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. Estimating Technique Guide .) Note: Zooms are commonly used with Oracle’s character-based version. Simple: A simple zoom is one that only has one zoom event and few zoom steps and has little or no effect on the zoom-to location.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Zooms. Simple: A simple report is one that contains only one query and requires little formatting. (This is similar in concept to a “hot key”. Medium: A medium zoom is one that may have only one zoom event but several soom steps or have some effect on the zoom-to location. Complex: A complex form is one that contains two or more blocks and requires a substantial amount of additional processing logic. Complex: A complex report is one that contains two or more queries and requires a substantial amount of formatting. copy data from source to destination.Estimating Technique Guide Medium: A medium form is one that contains two or three blocks and a moderate amount of additional processing logic.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Alerts. execute an automatic query at the destination. Complex: A complex zoom is one that has several zoom events each with several zoom steps that perform some function in the zoom-to location. They are not commonly used (might not be supported) in their GUI version. Very Complex: A very complex report is one that contains two or more queries and requires a significant amount of formatting. or update data either the source or destination location.

the following percentages can be used to break-down an estimate: Review Specification: Code Program: Compile Program: Code Review: Create Test Plan: Review Test Plan: Unit Test Program: Obtain Program Sign-off: 5% 15% 15% 5% 15% 5% 35% 5% Estimating Technique Guide . Also it is uncertain at this time whether unit testing is covered in the “coding” or “testing” phase. Complex: A complex alert is one that might require several elegantly formatted detailed and summary actions in response to an event. Medium: A medium alert is one that incorporates more detailed actions in response to events and contain more complex SQL. prototyping. and limited application/ integration testing. Simple: A simple alert is one that incorporates simple SQL code to respond to well defined events or to perform very routine actions such as cleaning obsolete data out of a table. database activities.  Following are some generic custom development metrics.5 x 11) of user documentation. There numbers were based on a small sampling of projects and should be adjusted based on the knowledge of the specific project environment.Estimating Technique Guide Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 8 hours 16 hours 32 hours 48 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these alerts or whether these estimates include development and unit testing.  Estimate 40 hours of effort to develop one hour for hands-on (classroom-type) training with labs. Very Complex: A very complex alert is one that requires interaction with the operating system in conjunction with detailed actions. unit test. performance engineering. report is one that contains only one query and requires little formatting. The metrics assume that the development is client/ server using C++ or Visual Basic.  Estimate 8 hours of effort to develop one page (8. Simple Design Code Test Total: Note: These numbers seem to be on the low side when compared to other metrics provided above. code. team leadership.Draft 30 2/26/2013 . or other support activities. They do not account for 4GL tools. The total hours cover design.  Medium 17 40 8 65 Complex 34 80 16 130 10 24 4 38 For completing a program.

test coordinator. application architect (business analyst). and DASD management. allow the Application staff to build the procedures and have the DBA staff review them.  3-Tier environments add an additional layer of complexity. and software documentation have been completed. system architect (technical analyst). Estimating Technique Guide .g. C. calculate the effort based on the anticipated staff count and duration.Draft 31 2/26/2013 . or risk factors accordingly.  Allocate time for project manager. Try to avoid estimating forward from the Requirements/BAA. assumptions. (Calculate each phase separately. and peer (or management) reviews of the code. the code has been desk checked. Review these and adjust your estimates. test plan and results. One definition of done: A developer is done with a module when all coding has been completed.Estimating Technique Guide  Following is a proportional percentage by project phase: Requirements /BAA: BSD: Construction: Testing/ Pilot: 10% 20% 40% 30% Notes:  Construction includes unit testing. Consider conducting regular meetings with key staff to look forward for unplanned tasks and potential workarounds.  Being forced to estimate the entire project up-front. and stored procedures.  Include time to account for miscellaneous development problem solving. Note: you can never bring in the test coordinator too soon.  Be sure to anticipate an lower level of utilization for client staff. the unit test plan has been completed and executed. especially system and performance testing.  Remember to make allowances for computer operations.  Failure to include time for all levels of testing. Adjust your estimates accordingly. These individuals should be allocated for the entire ICD phase.  We occasionally forget to account for fixed support staff (architects.  It is essential for the development staff to understand what “done” means before program development begins. backups. You will need them for critical items such as network support. Instead. and DBA roles.  It is essential to have a frozen architecture before you begin development. Try to place these resources on non-critical paths. project managers. especially if the Requirements/BAA has not been completed.  Testing and Pilot includes: • String and Integration Testing: 40% of effort • User Acceptance Testing: 40% of effort • Performance Testing: 20% of effort As a reasonable sanity check for these phases. PowerBuilder. team leaders) when we adjust end dates due to schedule slips. These are generally unanticipated problems.  System complexity can have a huge multiplier effect on your estimates. all software documentation has been completed.  The DBA staff being expected to build all stored procedures.) Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your ICD estimates. This individual will need time to understand the project-specific business requirements.  Failure to distinguish between the various components of the application architecture: e.

This will slow down performance during early user acceptance testing so the client does not develop unrealistic expectations for the system’s final response time. purchase hardware or software components.  Need to have target performance levels from the client.  Need to estimate the effort for selecting .  Hint: Simulate an realistic system loading during user acceptance testing. purchasing.  We typically under-estimate conversions and the effort to cleanse the data.  Be sure to identify and inventory interfaces and conversion programs.  We should determine if legacy system retirement is within the scope of the project. We generally rate programs as easy when they really have a medium complexity. The effort to completely retire a legacy system is much more than just developing a new one. Try to allow for these potential schedule delays. You may want to consider timeboxing manual data conversions.  We typically under-estimate the number of interfaces. legacy system modifications.  Performance Testing:  We typically under-estimate or forget to estimate stress and performance testing efforts.  We typically under-estimate or forget to estimate the effort needed to create a physical data design and to physically place the data on the server. or implement hardware or software components can impact the project schedule. interface testing. New systems rarely map directly to the systems that they are replacing. The performance levels should focus on business functionality not screen or program response. Estimating Technique Guide .Estimating Technique Guide  Avoid being too aggressive with complexity ratings. Data quality will be low and you could expect to have to cleanse 75% of the data.  Conduct pre-development walkthroughs to identify potential performance problems before the application is built.  We also need to differentiate between benchmarking and performance testing. and legacy system testing.  A mix of application languages will impact the level of effort.Draft 32 2/26/2013 .  The time required to select a vendor. and training in the use of performance tools.  Need to estimate the performance testing architecture and infrastructure. Adjust your estimates accordingly.

and data design.Draft 33 2/26/2013 . Tools. design the business processes. and a DBA. and development estimating. Estimating Technique Guide . and to design the architecture of the application. We have not tried to use any of the estimating tools. The BSD phase was staffed with a Project Manager. discussed in the prior section. for estimating an XAD engagement. The phase was broken down as follows:  Six weeks for business process design. Data Modeler. a UNIX database server.Estimating Technique Guide Accelerated Application Development (X/AD) General Information The following guidelines are based on two X/AD client/server projects. and widget counting. one that supports a single application and one that supports multiple applications. Estimating Techniques. The BSD was completed in 12 weeks. and Templates Estimating techniques that apply to an XAD effort include comparative. database creation. expert judgment. define the logical database design. We have developed two XAD estimating templates.  Six weeks for application architecture design. C for the server development. and a 2-teir client/server design. Both of these projects were 1 year in duration. Team Leads. prototype development. common object definition. development environment setup. they provide a high-level structure for composing a project plan. The technology employed on these projects was PowerBuilder for the GUI development. Estimating Rules of Thumb BSD Estimating Guidelines: The goal of the BSD phase was to develop a proof of concept prototype of the application. Systems Architect.

Common objects and application frameworks were developed in the first timebox. and business site preparation. four weeks for development and 1-2 weeks for testing and delivery to the users for acceptance testing. helps to better estimate the size of the project. bug fixes.Draft 34 2/26/2013 . While the development for a timebox was underway. (Note: If four or fewer timeboxes were used. this phase should be equal to three timeboxes (15-18 weeks. full-time systems architect. each with 3-4 developers. planning the next timebox. and fulltime test coordinator. Their time is consumed by managing the developers. one additional timebox was added to the schedule. Subsequent timeboxes contained the development work in a logical sequence based on the work to be done. an integration testing phase was completed. the integration testing phase should be equal to two timeboxes (10-12 weeks). The project team consisted of one or more team leads. final user acceptance. and any schedule overruns. This timebox was used to complete user change requests. so that you are testing the application from the end user’s perspective and not the developer’s perspective.  Having a prototype to show the user community the proof of concept and then get sign-off on the prototype. but it avoids slowing down development while the data model is created. user training. The user test plans should be business rule based.  The users are completing acceptance testing concurrent with development.  Having the data model defined ahead of development helped out greatly. A project should assign as many development teams (1 team lead with 3-4 developers) as the project needs. They are testing the deliverable from the previous timebox. During the application architecture design in BSD. data conversion. and assisting the users in acceptance testing. There was also a full-time DBA. enhancements. full-time project manager. Integration Testing Estimating Guidelines: After completing all of the timeboxes. Note: No developer should have a task that lasts more than two weeks. A team lead is NOT responsible for any development. This is not to say there won’t be any changes to the data model along the way.) The project staff consisted of: Project Manager System Architect All the team leads Half of the development staff DBA Success Factors  It is critical to have a test coordinator on staff as soon as possible so that he or she understands the business rules of the application. This phase was used for performance tuning. If more than four timeboxes were used. the users were completing acceptance testing for the previous timebox. Each timebox contained a mixture of simple and complex tasks based on the level of experience of the staff. part-time logical data modeler. the number of timeboxes for applications development was defined.Estimating Technique Guide Timebox Estimating Guidelines: The duration of each timebox was 5-6 weeks. After the timeboxes for new development were defined. Estimating Technique Guide . The application estimates were prepared using ICD estimating guidelines.

Estimating Technique Guide  It is critical to have a System Architect during the design phases and then guide the development team to make sure the entire application works together. This person should review all developed software for consistency.Draft 35 2/26/2013 . and usability. Estimating Technique Guide . adherence to standards. Cautions None have been identified. The System Architect should be on the project until the system is deployed.

 1. approve. 10 for average. discussed in the prior section. use a proportional estimate of 10% . (This does not apply to a very sophisticated event such as a video component.  The number of stages of acceptance is 5. expert judgment. You will need to adjust these to fit your specific project environment.) The following guidelines are intended to provide a high-level idea of the amount of time required. design. appear to address organizational change activities.  Communication Plans: The following formula can be used to estimate the effort to design and deliver communication events. draft. and execute an event. (Effort = F * S * P * J) where: F = Complexity factor as calculated below S = Number of stakeholder groups P = Number of project phases (example. 2.Draft 36 2/26/2013 . For a systems integration project. proportional. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. and a second that can be used to estimate the number of stakeholder groups.  Two guidelines have been given for estimating the hours per event. These guidelines include planning. for the duration of the project. Another formula for estimating the amount of time required for change enabling communication follows. 50% of time. and deploy the communication. designing. developing. We have developed two estimating templates. and deploying the communication event.Estimating Technique Guide Organizational Change General Information The following estimating guidelines were collected during one of our field visits. You will need to adjust these estimates based on your project and team-related experience.) An average of 4 to 20 hours per change enabling communication event. ETP and Requirements/BAA equals two phases) J = Judgment factor (use 5 for low-end. Expect the Subject Matter Expert to spend most of his or her time during the phase transitions (beginning and end of each phase. the types of communication vehicles. Organizational Change as an overall level of effort:  One person. This formula guideline includes the time required ( in days) to plan. Tools. approving. Two days to plan. prior experiences. 1996. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. One that can help estimate the effort to design and deliver communication events. design. and Templates The current estimating techniques being used for estimating organizational change include comparative. and the length of the engagement are all factors that can influence this estimate.15% of the overall effort. None of the estimating tools. and 15 for high-end complexity) Estimating Technique Guide . (# of stakeholder groups * # of project phases * # of hours per event * # of stages of acceptance) Notes: Estimating the number of stakeholder groups is discussed later in this section. and widget counting.) A minimum of 5% of the overall effort to a maximum of 40% of selected project phases. and from our various field visits. the general readiness for change. Estimating Techniques. The complexity of the engagement.

or -.95. for a strategic change. Using this factor.000 4 Up to 10% 1 5.9 stakeholder groups 1. and impacted business unit.000 9    Percent of Organization Impacted by Change PO factor 10 to 30% 2 For example: Your client has approximately 5. Using this factor.2 x 1.2 x 1.Draft 37 2/26/2013 .2 = 3.000 total employees. Degree of Change Anticipated Resistance Type of Change Number of Stakeholder Groups Minor 1. and organization as a whole. subject matter experts.the complexity factor (F) would be 1.0 Anticipated Change 1. with much resistance anticipated.4 x 1.44 x 7 x 1 x 10 = 100) Example 2. project management. project management.000 8 50 to 100% 4 500.) Minimum number of stakeholder groups for an enterprise-wide engagement is 6 (executive sponsors.000 7 25 to 80% 3 100.4 x 1. and 7 stakeholder groups are involved -.2 Major 1. ((project team FTEs / 2) + 4) To estimate the number of stakeholder groups bases on the company size and percent of employees impacted by the change use the following tables to multiply the size (CS) factor by the percent of organizational change (PO) factor: Company Size CS factor 100 2 500 3 1.the complexity factor (F) would be 1. (Effort = F x S x P x J -. The project is expected to only impact the corporate office.) To calculate the lower boundary of the number of stakeholder groups: divide the number of fulltime project team members (FTEs including client staff) by four and add two. ((project team FTEs / 4) + 2) To calculate the upper boundary of the number of stakeholder groups: divide the number of fulltime project team members by two and add four. Multiply the factor for each category to determine the complexity factor.4 x 1. with some resistance anticipated. type of change and number of stakeholder groups. we could estimate the effort during a Requirements/BAA to equal about 475 days.Estimating Technique Guide To compute the Complexity Factor (F). which accounts for 20% of the company.3.4 Much Resistance 1. extended project team.25 groups 1. Assume the change is major.0 Moderate 1. project team.000 6 50.   Minimum number of stakeholder groups for a small engagement is 4 (executive sponsors.44. project team.95 x 12 x 1 x 10 = 475) Stakeholder Groups: The following guidelines have been defined for estimating the number of stakeholder groups.2 10 .2 Some Resistance 1. The estimated number of stakeholder groups is 10.2 Tactical (business unit) 1.4 Strategic (organization) 1.4 Example 1: Assume the change is minor.0 x 1. use the following table to categorize the degree of change.000 5 10.0 1 . and 12 stakeholder groups have been identified -.4 More than 25 groups 1.1. (CS (5) * PO (2) = 10) Estimating Technique Guide . for a tactical change. (Effort = F x S x P x J -.or -. anticipated resistance.0 No Resistance 1.0 = 1. we could estimate the effort during a Requirements/BAA to equal about 100 days.

The review considers the type of equipment for all personnel and the peak periods of performance for all devices or units. standard contract and task order negotiation (if applicable). Cautions None have been identified. database. Training and Education Assuming the forum will be traditional. The hardware acquisition will be a part of the project.g. The prime objective is to develop a plan for estimating and acquiring computer resources and then to analyze the use so that hardware requirements are satisfied. directs correlating staff duties and skills and computer resource use. 2. The attendees review the estimated resource use and the responsibilities for all technical and administrative personnel. The planning and analysis of computer resource use should be conducted monthly as an integral part of the project performance and exercised in conjunction with ongoing project tracking and oversight. acquisition. use 4 hours per role as a guideline. The planning and estimation for production or development hardware platforms will be developed in accordance with hardware feasibility and sizing studies that are included in task performance criteria. The equipment is then listed in direct relationship to the staff and contract performance. implementation. Critical Computer Resources may be estimated Critical Computer resource planning and estimating is an on-going activity. At project start up. Each section manager identifies their staff’s roles and responsibilities. the task order team and contract staffing (if applicable) consider the work allocation and equipment needs that were planned into the task order performance. Computer resources planning. Review and analysis are dictated by the types of activities (e. In addition. terminal access. 3. the PM conducts a meeting with all section managers of all key activities. Technical Infrastructure No specific estimating guidelines have been identified at this time. This could range as high as 80 hours of development time per hour of delivery for world-class instructor script and participant guides. and use one monitored in project startup and performance tracking activities. This can range from as low as 2 hours to as high as 12 hours per role. conducted at startup. It is accomplished in conjunction with preparing and updating of the Project Management Plan and the Software Development Plan. In Estimating Technique Guide . Critical Computer Resources and Facilities Infrastructure No specific estimating guidelines have been identified at this time.Estimating Technique Guide Roles and Responsibilities: Assuming that your are creating a role (job description) from scratch and have some starting material. instructor-led training. financial spread sheets). word processing. and deployment. task order and computer resource planning.. all documents and planning materials developed in previous stages are used for project. testing. use a guideline of 10 hours of development time for each hour of delivery. If a new project or new task order requires new hardware. Steps for Planning/Estimating are: 1.Draft 38 2/26/2013 .

The project/task order plan is then used to update the contract and site plans for hardware acquisition. In general. The Project Manager and the section managers review the use report to analyze use of memory and the storage. The system administrators monitor the use of critical computer resources and report the use to the PM monthly as the project progresses. we generally used a staff and duration model to estimate development coordination. If the team lead activities have not been included in the other project phases. Management and Coordination Specific estimating guidelines have not be developed for this phase at this time. Estimating Technique Guide . The computer resources acquisition plans for a task order is built to reflect any required increase in current or planned contract hardware capabilities. usage of network. The timeline developed and provided to the section managers for review. project management. and changes are proposed to the client. 7. 5. The Analysis and Design Manager review the plan with the PM and the accounting and finance personnel. adjustments are made to the acquisition plans. and program management. a simpler update is developed for the task or contract budget. and device capacity. a current hardware configuration from a system specification and a current hardware use report from the Operations and Maintenance Team may be used. the total management and coordination effort should be approximately 15% to 20% of the total project effort. The Analysis and Design Manager maps the acquisition strategy against the staffing profile or an existing plan to develop a new resource acquisition plan and budget. The plan is used to update the planned hardware expenditure for the contract. 4. 6. The current use of resources is compared to acquisition of future resources. A common guideline is to use a 1 to 6 ratio. channel capacity. 8. During our field support visits. The Analysis and Design Team manager maps the acquisition strategy on a timeline.Estimating Technique Guide addition.Draft 39 2/26/2013 . The current Hardware Acquisition Plan from the Software Development Plan and project/ontract budget provide insight to the equipment that is available and what new equipment is planned for the future. be sure to include them here.

Estimating Technique Guide Appendices Estimating Templates Please refer to the additional file attachments for these spreadsheets. timebox. the overall project. and the estimated expenses for: airfare. project duration. Simply enter the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA and the spreadsheet projects the remaining project effort based on 7%. To use these spreadsheets: 1. Each spreadsheet calculates the total hours and cost for each role. allows you to specify the above expense categories and project duration on an individual by individual basis. the length of duration. team size.5%. One allows for a single resource group. It is based on the assumption that a Requirements/BAA accounts for 7% to 10% of the total project effort. The second allows for two resource groups. Enter the duration to hour conversion factor. and the hourly billing rate for this role. Estimating Technique Guide . provides grand totals for staff count. and 10% scenarios. Estimating Template User Guides The following user guides provide some general directions on how to use each of the estimating templates. such as IT Services and the client staff. The second worksheet. so the duration to hour conversion factor has been set to 40 hours.Draft 40 2/26/2013 . Totals are provided of each category. Either of these spreadsheets can be tailored to your specific estimating needs. parking. The template assumes a custom (ICD) development approach. or development build. and computes an average weekly travel expense based on the total project expenses and the total number of weeks. You can modify the proportional factors or add additional scenarios. release. Potential customization options include:   Modifying the IT Services and Client spreadsheet to represent billable and non-billable effort. and cost. The first worksheet. these are calculated based on the weekly expense amount. The spreadsheet that allows for two groups of resources provides sub-totals for each group along with aggregated totals. enter a role description. allows you to identify the project’s duration (in weeks). please contact any of the Estimating and Metrics team members. If you did not receive these file attachments or if you have any questions on how to use these spreadsheets. lodging. meals. Modifying either spreadsheet to specify hours and costs by project phase. Each spreadsheet allows you to compute the total hours and cost by project team role. and computes an average billing rate. 8. The duration used in the template is weeks. 2. Either of these worksheets can be easily customized to meet your specific project requirements. Option 2. such as the entire project team. Travel Expenses Template This spreadsheet provides you with two options for estimating travel related expenses. and team size. and miscellaneous expenses. It also provides totals for each expense category . Staff and Duration Estimating Templates Two estimating spreadsheets have been provided. This worksheet provides total weekly and project expenses by individual. A grand total is also provided. Add or delete roles as needed. This cell is used to calculate hours based on the duration that you have entered. hours. Option 1. cab/ auto. Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template This spreadsheet projects the hours for the remaining phases of a project based on the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA phase. For each unique project role. The user defined fields are in “blue”. the number of resources (count).

Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. and duration. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. For each activity or work product. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. Estimating Technique Guide . PBD Details. and comments for each activity. Modify these activities to meet your specific project requirements. 2. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the package-based sub-phases. and comments for each sub-phase. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. timebox. and any estimating assumptions or comments. b) For the team leadership activity. 1. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. The package-based development detail worksheet. The estimating drivers should include: • The unit of measure. The template contains some general activities for each of the package-based development sub-phases.Draft 41 2/26/2013 . 2. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. estimating drivers. enter the number of staff being managed and the percentage of team lead responsibility. contains all of the estimating details by sub-phase. enter a description. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. deliverables. business function. The management and development coordination worksheet. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. These hour totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. such as a workshop. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. number of staff. you can specify the number of units. (Note: Another option would be to include the team lead activities in the management and development coordination worksheet. 3. Both estimating templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. • • The number of units. or package. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. or by using a proportional level of effort. Complete the PBD Details worksheet: a) Enter the estimating details on the PBD Details worksheet. For each role.) c) The worksheet will calculate sub-totals for each sub-phase and provide an overall summary at the bottom of the worksheet. The summary contains both hours and a percentage of the total effort. To use this estimating template: 1. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains three worksheets. the estimated effort for each unit.Estimating Technique Guide Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. The estimate total worksheet. The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each subphase and an overall estimate. The estimated effort to complete each unit. The other supports multiple applications. Define the key deliverables. estimating drivers. Est Ttl. One spreadsheet supports a single package-based application. • The average number of staff involved in completing the activity. the second supports multiple applications. included in the spreadsheet. Use this worksheet to enter the key activities. summarizes the project sub-phases. one supports a single package-based application. The user defined fields are in “blue”. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort of each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. Mgmt. and displays the total estimated hours.

servers. adjust this factor accordingly. and PBD Detail worksheets to add or subtract application areas. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. 1. enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. This worksheet allows you to enter detailed estimating information for each application area. 2. common objects.Estimating Technique Guide b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. You can adjust the Est Ttl. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. defines and categories all of the widgets that need to be developed. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. summarizes the project sub-phases. b) Enter the proportional factors for Integration and Deployment. integration and deployment phases. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. The spreadsheet accumulates totals for each type of widget and links these totals to a summary worksheet to provide a high-level summary of your estimates. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. The other supports multiple applications. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains four worksheets. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the business system design. The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each category and an overall total. provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. or by using a proportional level of effort. Est Ttl. Estimating Technique Guide . One spreadsheet supports a single custom-developed application. reports. the second supports multiple applications. To use this estimating template. conversions. The detail matrix worksheet references additional look-up tables that contain the appropriate estimates based on the type of widget and its complexity. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate. you can rate the complexity of each widget on a scale from 1 to 10. The template currently allows for menus. Oracle forms. Both templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. application development completion. PBD Summary. As you define each of these widgets. conversions. Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same three worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus an additional summary worksheet. These widgets can include menus. one supports a single iterative custom-developed application. included in the spreadsheet. Both templates allow you to build a bottom-up estimate based on the number of “widgets” being developed. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet.Draft 42 2/26/2013 . and displays the total estimated hours. The user defined fields are in “blue”. The estimate total worksheet. PBD Summary. Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates provided. windows. windows. The template currently allows for 3 application areas. C functions. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. cell P3. reports. interfaces. The only difference is in the PBD Details worksheet. interfaces. To do this. This additional worksheet. The program matrix worksheet. Use this worksheet to enter the widgets that need to be developed for each category. and common functions. You can adjust these look-up tables to reflect your specific project environment. 3. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. Tuxedo services. PGM Matrix. c) As a option.

Mgmt. (Note: Be sure to include the team lead activities in this worksheet. For example. that worksheet will reference the PowerBuilder estimate matrix and retrieve the per unit estimate for a level 5 complexity window. For each role. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. The worksheet will retrieve the per unit estimate from the estimate matrices worksheet. corresponding changes will also need to be made to the other worksheets. If you do modify or add additional categories. (Caution: The per unit estimate column in this worksheet is extremely sensitive with the row and column coordinates within the estimate matrices worksheet. The management and development coordination worksheet. you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet.Draft 43 2/26/2013 . adjust this factor accordingly.Estimating Technique Guide 3. enter a description. c) As a option. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. The estimate matrices worksheet. Be careful that you have defined the correct row and column coordinates when modifying this column. Category and overall totals are provided. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. level 1 being the simplest and level 10 being the most complicated. and Deployment phases. EST Matrices. To do this. cell P3.) 2. enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. Integration. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. For each type or category of widget this worksheet contains estimates for 10 levels of complexity. The program matrix worksheet uses these estimate matrices as a look-up table. b) Enter the proportional factors for the BSD. Complete the PGM Matrix worksheet: a) Enter the widgets that need to be developed into the appropriate categories. Estimating Technique Guide . 4. cross-reference information. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. and calculate totals. For each entry you can specify the name of the widget. the number of units. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. and duration.) b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. To use this estimating template: 1. if you enter a PowerBuilder window with a complexity level of 5 on the program matrix worksheet. They have not been accounted for in the prior worksheet. contains estimating matrices for a variety of different types of widgets. and its level of complexity on a scale of 1 to 10. compute a total hour and day estimate based on the number of units specified. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. b) The categories contained on this template can be modified to meet your specific project. 3. ADC. number of staff. Additional categories can also be created if needed. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate.

you can specify the number of units. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. The XAD-based development detail worksheet. and displays the total estimated hours.Estimating Technique Guide Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus two additional worksheets: 1. one supports a single XAD-based application. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. For each activity or work product. The template currently allows for 2 application areas. contains all of the estimating details by sub-phase. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. 1.Draft 44 2/26/2013 . Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. summarizes the project sub-phases. The other supports multiple applications. estimating drivers. The estimate total worksheet. the estimated effort for each unit. Use this worksheet to enter the key activities. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. The user defined fields are in “blue”. An additional ICD Matrix worksheet for a second application area. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. included in the spreadsheet. Repeat the ICD Matrix steps for each application area. 3. You can adjust the spreadsheet to add more application areas. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. 2. To use this estimating template. The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each subphase and an overall estimate. The management and development coordination worksheet. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the XAD-based sub-phases. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. the second supports multiple applications. Estimating Technique Guide . An ICD Summary worksheet that provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort of each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. 2. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. Both estimating templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains three worksheets. deliverables. One spreadsheet supports a single XAD-based application. or by using a proportional level of effort. Est Ttl. Mgmt. and comments for each sub-phase. and any estimating assumptions or comments. XAD Details.

you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor.Draft 45 2/26/2013 . and duration. enter a description. enter the number of staff being managed and the percentage of team lead responsibility. To use this estimating template.) c) The worksheet will calculate sub-totals for each sub-phase and provide an overall summary at the bottom of the worksheet. enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. XAD Summary. adjust this factor accordingly. Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same three worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus an additional summary worksheet. To do this. The first worksheet. (Note: Another option would be to include the team lead activities in the management and development coordination worksheet. XAD Summary. The spreadsheet contains two worksheets. number of staff. or entities. such as a prototype set. and comments for each activity. the estimated hours per event. 3. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. estimating drivers. This worksheet allows you to enter detail estimating information for each application area. The summary contains both hours and a percentage of the total effort. The template currently allows for 3 application areas. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate. The only difference is in the XAD Details worksheet. The estimating drivers should include: • The unit of measure. Complete the XAD Details worksheet: a) Enter the estimating details on the XAD Details worksheet. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. 2. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. • • The number of units. b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. These hour totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. Communication Event Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the effort to design and deliver communication events. This additional worksheet. each represents an estimating option. • The average number of staff involved in completing the activity. The template contains some general activities for each of the package-based development sub-phases. allows you to estimate the hours needed to design and deliver communication events based on the number of stakeholder groups. Option 1. Define the key deliverables. cell P3. Modify these activities to meet your specific project requirements. The estimated effort to complete each unit. For each role. b) Enter the proportional factors for Integration and Deployment. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. and XAD Detail worksheets to add or subtract application areas. business function. b) For the team leadership activity. and the number of stages Estimating Technique Guide . c) As a option.Estimating Technique Guide To use this estimating template: 1. number of project phases. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. You can adjust the Est Ttl.

Client Size. Estimating Technique Guide . the level of anticipated change. Team Size. high-end. and a judgment factor. simply enter the project team size in full-time equivalents. The worksheet will compute the estimated number of stakeholder groups based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. allows you to estimate the effort based on four complexity factors. This worksheet will provide a low-end. To use this spreadsheet. The worksheet will calculate the estimated hours for designing and delivering communication events based on the calculations described in Organizational Change estimating guidelines. simply enter the correct values. number of project phases. the number of stakeholder groups (within a range). allows you to estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the size of the project team. and the type of change. number of stakeholder groups. Again. You can only make one selection. These tables are used to categorize the degree of change. The estimated effort in is hours and is based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. Next select the percentage of organizational impact by entering a “1” in the correct category. Next enter the actual number of stakeholder groups. select the desired values from each of the four complexity factor tables. To use this worksheet. Stakeholder Group Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the number of stakeholder groups. The first worksheet. the number of project phases. and average estimated number of stakeholder groups based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. To use this worksheet. Fractional sizes are permitted. The second worksheet.Estimating Technique Guide of acceptance. The spreadsheet contains two worksheets. simply select the appropriate client size by entering a “1” in the correct category. Option 2. To use this worksheet. you can only select one category.Draft 46 2/26/2013 . allows you to estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the overall size of the client and the percentage of organizational impact. The second worksheet. and a judgment factor.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful