Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide Version 1

Estimating Technique Guide - Draft

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2/26/2013

Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide
Table of Contents Introduction_____________________________________________________________4 Estimating Approaches ____________________________________________________4
Top-Down Estimating Approach ________________________________________________5 Bottom-Up Estimating Approach ________________________________________________5 Estimating Approach Comparison_______________________________________________6

Estimating Techniques ____________________________________________________6
Ballpark Estimating___________________________________________________________6 Proportional Percentage Estimating______________________________________________7 Comparative_________________________________________________________________8 Expert Judgment______________________________________________________________8 Proportional Estimating________________________________________________________8 Widget Counting______________________________________________________________8 Function Point Analysis________________________________________________________9 Feature Points_______________________________________________________________10 Technique Comparison________________________________________________________11 Estimating Technique Comparison______________________________________________12 Managing Multiple Estimates__________________________________________________12
Wideband Delphi Technique__________________________________________________________12 Weighted or Average Estimate________________________________________________________13

Commercially Available Estimating Tools____________________________________13
CHECKPOINT/KnowledgePLAN______________________________________________13
Overview_________________________________________________________________________13

Estimating Templates____________________________________________________14
General Purpose Templates____________________________________________________14
Staff and Duration Estimating Template...........................................................................................14 Travel Expenses Template.................................................................................................................14 Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template......................................................14

ASPIRE Phase Templates_____________________________________________________14
Vision and Strategy_________________________________________________________________14 Business Area Architecture___________________________________________________________14 Development______________________________________________________________________14 Integration________________________________________________________________________14 Deployment_______________________________________________________________________15

Specialty Area Templates______________________________________________________15
Development______________________________________________________________________15 Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template...............................................................15 Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template......................................15 Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template...............................................15 Organizational Change______________________________________________________________15

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Estimating Technique Guide
Communication Event Estimating Template.....................................................................................15 Stakeholder Group Estimating Template...........................................................................................15 Technical Infrastructure_____________________________________________________________16 Facilities Infrastructure______________________________________________________________16

Estimating Guidelines____________________________________________________17
Project-Wide Guidelines_______________________________________________________17 ASPIRE Phase Guidelines_____________________________________________________19
Vision and Strategy (ETP)___________________________________________________________19 Business Area Architecture (Requirements/BAA)_________________________________________20 Development______________________________________________________________________21 Integration________________________________________________________________________21 Deployment_______________________________________________________________________21

Specialty Areas______________________________________________________________22
Development______________________________________________________________________22 Package Based Development (PBD)..................................................................................................22 Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) Sub-Phase.........................................................................24 Iterative Custom Development (ICD)................................................................................................26 Accelerated Application Development (X/AD).................................................................................33 Organizational Change______________________________________________________________36 Technical Infrastructure_____________________________________________________________38 Critical Computer Resources and Facilities Infrastructure__________________________________38

Management and Coordination_________________________________________________39

Appendices_____________________________________________________________40
Estimating Templates_________________________________________________________40 Estimating Template User Guides_______________________________________________40
Staff and Duration Estimating Templates_______________________________________________40 Travel Expenses Template___________________________________________________________40 Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template______________________________40 Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template__________________________________41 Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template______________________42 Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template__________________________44 Communication Event Estimating Template_____________________________________________45 Stakeholder Group Estimating Template________________________________________________46

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Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide Introduction
Company Management has stated that there has been some history of Significant Project Cost and Schedule Overruns. Issues identified included:  Many project over-runs are attributed to poor estimates. Current estimating techniques are perceived to be inconsistent, baseless, and inaccurate.  There is a tremendous financial risk associated with poor estimating techniques. High estimates can result in lost business opportunities. Low estimates increase the risk of project over-runs.  There is an inconsistent use of a disciplined estimating process. This problem occurs in the sales process and in estimating subsequent phases in an ongoing project.  There is disagreement and no general consensus on the best techniques for system development estimates.  There is little or no guidance for estimating Accelerated application, package-based system development, Non-traditional system development such as object-oriented development or Internet / Intranet development, Non-system development projects such as Performance Improvement Initiatives, Vision and Strategy, Business Architecture, IT Re-engineering, and Organization Change.  Few tools exist to support estimating and the usability and validity of these tools is not universally accepted. The purpose of this Estimating Technique Guide, along with the Estimating Process Guide, is to begin to address several of these issues. It will not resolve all of these issues. However, it can be an effective vehicle that allows us to share our collective experiences. Although the targeted audience of this guide is IT Services Consulting and Systems Integration, our goal is to utilize and share knowledge and experiences across all of IT Service’s divisions. Specific goals for this guide include:  Identifying estimating approaches, techniques, models and tools that have been used on prior IT Services engagements. There are a number of techniques, models and tools that are being used across the division. There are probably an equal number of opinions on which ones are the most effective. This guide identifies some of the most common techniques, models, and tools. It does not try to cover all of them; nor does it attempt to single out which technique, model and tool is the most effective. In reality, there is no “universal” technique that applies to all types of projects; each technique is valuable when used for the appropriate type of project. The key is to have an awareness of what techniques, models, and tools are available so that you apply the best set of techniques, models, and tools for your specific project.  Sharing information on the techniques, models, and metrics that have been used for various project phases. Many of the metrics defined are rules of thumb that have come from specific projects. Many of these have not been confirmed or compared against other projects so you will need to apply your judgment accordingly. This guide also includes some “gotchas” that were identified from past experiences; hopefully these will help you to avoid similar pit-falls as you develop your estimates.  Fostering communication regarding estimating and metrics between project team members, projects, business units, regions, and divisions. This guide, in and of itself, will not make us better estimators. All of us need to experiment and communicate our experiences with these techniques, models, and tools so that we can further define and refine them.

Estimating Approaches
There are two basic approaches for determining the estimates for a given component of a project, topdown and bottom-up. IT Services highly recommends that you estimate a project using both of these approaches. A top-down estimating approach takes an estimate for an entire project and breaks it down

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you may have determined that the total effort for a Requirements/BAA phase is 1. For example. You can also adjust the hours per activity or task based on the required deliverables. Since this approach looks at the entire project from a fairly high-level view.  There is a tendency to define the scope in terms of the resources allocated rather than in terms of the activities or deliverables. estimate each of these components.Draft 5 2/26/2013 . you can develop a top-down estimate in a relatively short period of time and with a minimal amount of project related information. development software. (Note: This is risky and not generally recommended. and then total the individual estimates to produce the overall project estimate. You can than use an estimating model such as Project Bridge Modeler to apportion the 1. Examples of a low-level component include:  The effort to produce an intermediate product or deliverable. The starting point is an estimate of the size. total effort. Top-Down Estimating Approach Using this approach you divide an overall estimate into separate.  A non-labor item such as a product or service. printers. Bottom-Up Estimating Approach Using this approach you first identify the low-level components of the project. it requires more project related information and takes a longer time to develop the estimate. A bottom-up estimating approach breaks the project into pieces. your prior project experience. examines each piece at a detail level. training. Examples include preparing for or documenting workshops or interviews. and assembles all of the pieces and their estimates to come up with the overall project estimate.  You need some basis for apportioning the overall project estimate across the various subcomponents. Depending on the size and complexity of the project. according to a predefined formula as well as taking into account experience from similar projects and any known external dependencies that may act as constraints. if the client has a fixed budget. Estimating Technique Guide .) Disadvantages of this approach include:  You could miss low-level technical issues or special components of the system. You should ensure that all of your low-level components are identified in or mapped to a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) or Statement of Work to ensure that you have accounted for all of the project’s components. The definition of a low-level component can vary widely and is very dependent on the type of the project. If any of the lower-level task estimates is too low you must adjust the top level estimate upward or change the scope of the project. This estimating approach is helpful when you have relatively little knowledge of the project requirements or when the project is strictly limited by resources. or the time required to perform a project. Since this approach examines the project in much greater detail. After completing the top down estimates for the lower-level tasks you must validate your estimate by checking to make sure that each of the lower-level estimates makes sense. this estimating approach could be used to identify the level of work that could be delivered for that budget.000 hours across the various activities and tasks that comprise a Requirements/BAA. or tasks that make up the project. Because of the level of detail required.  The effort to develop a specific function of the completed software system. and creating a detail project plan for a subsequent project phase. you can repeat this process to arrive at estimates for lower-level tasks. pagers. For example.  This approach offers little or no basis for the cost justification of subsequent estimating iterations. installation fees. The total estimate is apportioned among the components. your bottom-up estimate is generally more accurate than your top-down estimate.Estimating Technique Guide into lower-level components. You should also use other estimating methods to cross-validate your results. and travel related expenses.000 hours. developing an integration or application test plan. For example. lower-level components. Examples include PCs. code and test the maintain customer address window. or the project team’s expertise.

• Relatively little knowledge of proposed system required. (These tasks are generally estimated based on the duration of the project or as a percentage of the underlying tasks. This approach also helps to identify uncertainties regarding the project requirements or proposed solution.Draft 6 2/26/2013 . • May omit special components of software system. • Need basis for proportioning estimates across project sub-components. it can yield a more accurate estimate than a top-down approach. Once the estimate is developed.) Estimating Approach Comparison The following diagram illustrates a high-level comparison between these two estimating approaches. • Requires significant effort to produce • Activities such as management and coordination cannot be estimated until underlying task estimates are complete. Estimating Techniques The following estimating techniques fit into either the top-down or bottom-up approach. This technique can be used at any point in the lifecycle. you need to decide which technique is appropriate and what adjustments.Estimating Technique Guide One advantage of this approach is that it requires a relatively thorough analysis before you begin estimating. if any. and derived from the QSM SLIM completed projects database. training. Disadvantages of this approach include:  You may overlook system-level costs such as integration or training. No one estimating technique is ideal for all situations. Ballpark Estimating With this estimating technique you use a combination of time. Estimation Approach Strengths Top-Down • Particularly relevant if project is strictly limited by resources. Since you need have a more detailed view of the project requirements when using this approach. peak staff. When estimating a project. These uncertainties will often result in assumptions in the estimate and the project’s Statement of Work.  Activities such as management and development coordination cannot be estimated until the underlying task estimates are complete.  It requires a significant effort to produce the estimate. • Has little or no basis for the cost justification of subsequent estimating iterations. are needed. provided you haven’t forgotten anything. each has its own strengths and weaknesses. • Identifies uncertainties in developers’ knowledge of system requirements or proposed solution. • May overlook system-level costs such as integration. It can be used early in the lifecycle and when no historical information is available. Bottom-Up • Enforces relatively thorough analysis before estimation. a comparative estimate can be Estimating Technique Guide . effort.  It often requires more information than what is typically available at the time the estimate is required. • Tendency to define scope in terms of resources allocated rather than in terms of activities or deliverables. Weaknesses • May miss low-level technical issues. Each row represents a consistent set of estimates that may be determined based on any one of the variables estimated using expert judgment. • Often requires more information than is available at time of estimate.

The group total can then be used for a single estimate for size (ESLOC).00% 5. There are different proportional models for different types of life cycles.00% 8. they may be numbered.Draft 7 2/26/2013 . which must be considered in developing proportional estimates. manage. The total of the group can be used to create one estimate for the group using the top down factors table to locate the total. Using the size and category within size. a size can be determined between Very Very Small and Very Large. the Design effort might be estimated as 22% of the Requirements effort. close) . Interfaces.00% Estimating Technique Guide . If there are logical groupings of configuration items.00% 9. and Testing/Pilot 33% of Requirements effort. when the estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor.00% 9. Consideration needs to be given to whether the current estimate is for an effort that is more like a Development/Enhancement effort or a Maintenance effort. If any portion of the labor distribution is estimated. the totals can be calculated. Using the factors table. This technique is very effective when used appropriately. with a productivity index assumed to be slightly less than the average productivity of companies in the SLIM database having a SEI CMM Level 2 productivity index.Development/Enhancement Quality Assurance Reviews Development / Enhancement Analysis (Requirements) [Solution Definition] Development / Enhancement External Design Development / Enhancement Internal Design Development / Enhancement Procedures and Training Development / Enhancement Construction (Code/Unit Test) [Solution Generation] Development / Enhancement Test [Solution Validation] Development / Enhancement Implementation [Solution Deployment] Labor Distribution Standard for "Maintenance" Work Types Project Management (start-up. The groupings can then be used to combine individual configuration items into packages of work for estimation by group. Configuration Items. manage. After all Configuration Items are estimated. The final estimates can be compared to other estimates for analysis.00% 13. Using the Business Case documentation. Proportional Percentage Estimating With this estimating technique you use the size of one component to proportionally estimate the size of another. the Modules. and using expert judgment.00% 15. it can be used to expand the known portion into a total estimate. At the same time the Category with Size can be determined. and Effort in Hours columns for guidance in determining each size estimate. a proposed solution is visualized. Estimates are developed using the Peak Staff.00% 27. Construction 45% of Requirements effort.00% Maintenance 12. the table is completed by locating the effort hours and ESLOC in the top down factors table and entering them into the Effort Estimate and ESLOC columns in the Top Down Estimate by CI worksheet. or Programs in the visualized solution can be identified and entered into Top Down Estimate by CI worksheet. For example: Labor Distribution Standard for "Development / Enhancement" Work Types Project Management (start-up. Time in Months. The ESLOC estimate is based on 100 Lines of Code per Function Point. For example. The list of configuration items can be sorted by group and combined into a single estimate. close) .Estimating Technique Guide developed using a proportional technique.00% 6.Development/Enhancement Quality Assurance Reviews Maintenance Analysis (Requirements) [Solution Definition] Development/ Enhancement 15.00% 12.00% 18.

Typical widgets may be Estimating Technique Guide . you could develop a comparative estimate for the new telecommunications systems by doubling the actual effort from your reference project. You also happen to know of a similar type of project that was also custom developed. System and Integration Testing.00% 5.00% Comparative Using this estimating technique. you identify project characteristics that can be counted and that are performed on a recurring basis (the “widget”). and determine the total effort by applying these estimates against the total number of widgets. the target project.Draft 8 2/26/2013 . It can also be useful for estimating low-level components such as documentation. processor capacity. Code/Unit Test. after using widget counting to derive the estimate for the Requirements phase of a project and then used proportional factors to estimate the Design. Expert Judgment This technique relies on the extensive experience and judgment of the estimator to compare the requirements for the component being estimated against all projects in his/her previous experience. it should be used only if time is limited or a relatively large uncertainty in the estimate can be tolerated. Proportional estimates can be used in combination with other estimating techniques. and Deployment phases of the project. Previous personal experience or estimating guidelines can help provide these proportionality factors. estimate the effort for each type of widget. This technique also requires some type of historical data to compare against. However. This technique relies heavily on the experience of the estimators and their ability to gauge the target project in relation to the comparative data available. For example you have been asked to estimate the custom development for a new telecommunications system. Using this technique will magnify estimating errors being made elsewhere. For example. with other projects similar in scope and type to produce an estimate. the design effort might be estimated as 40% of the coding effort. This technique is useful as a “sanity check” for an estimate produced by another method. Widget Counting Using this estimating technique. when the estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor.00% 40. It differs from the comparative technique in that the reference projects are not explicitly identified.00% 18. printer volume. The major weakness of this technique is that a project is not thoroughly assessed. You can use this technique for lower-level tasks such as developing a reporting sub-system or a customer maintenance window. Implementation. You could even add an additional percentage of effort to account for some of the unknowns in the new system. or programming a specific system component.00% 15.00% 4. Quality Assurance might be estimated as 3% of the total project effort. The comparison does not have to be at a project or phase level. Proportional Estimating With this estimating technique you use the size of one component to proportionally estimate the size of another. Since this reference project covered roughly 50% of the functionality needed by the new system. Therefore. The comparison is normally performed at a high-level with little reference to detail. For example.Estimating Technique Guide Maintenance External Design Maintenance Internal Design Maintenance Procedures and Training Maintenance Construction (Code/Unit Test) [Solution Generation] Maintenance Test [Solution Validation] Maintenance Implementation [Solution Deployment] 9. This technique is very effective when used appropriately. you compare the project at hand. it should not be used as a crutch to pass the estimating responsibility on to some other component. the number of printers might be estimated as one for every 6 users.

 The effort to develop or complete the project must be reasonably proportional to the number of widgets.) Function points are viewed from the perspective of the system boundary and are comprised of the following types:  Input—Any data or control information provided by the user that adds or changes data held by the system. or objects. database entities. 2. maintenance. even though the project is not necessarily made up purely of widgets. and test cases. Advantages for using Function Point Analysis include:   The project is viewed from the perspective of the user rather than the developer. pages of documentation. screens. developer’s skill level. Use the following criteria when determining whether you should be using this estimating technique:  There must be enough detail information to allow you to identify and count the widgets. reports.  Inquiry—Each unique input/output combination.. and messages. This provides for a level of independence from the specific hardware platform. Decomposing the project or application into a defined set of function types. This is typically done by using the comparative approach based on historical metrics data or by prototyping the implementation of one of the widgets.Estimating Technique Guide menu choices. An input can originate directly from the user or from user-generated transactions from an intermediary system. described below. that is. and overflow). 3.  You must be able to produce an estimate for the effort of each widget type. database fields. requirement specifications. windows. 5. and inquiry. it is treated as a single logical internal file for sizing purposes. with low algorithmic processing complexity. However. audit trails.g. languages. An inquiry is distinct from an output in that it is not procedurally generated. Function Point Analysis is the basis for several automated estimating tools. in which the online user defines an inquiry as input and the system responds immediately with an output. A logical file may span many physical files (e. output display screens.  Logical Internal File—Any logical group of data held by the system. This includes database tables and records on physical files describing a single logical object.  Output—Any unique unit of data or control information that is procedurally generated by the system for the benefit of the user.  External Interface File—Each logical group of data that is input to or output from the system boundary to share that data with another system. (This is probably the most difficult step. medium. You may assign complexity factors to each type of widget (simple. Function Point Analysis This estimating technique is suited for projects that are based on straightforward database input. and the organization’s line of business. The estimates can be developed from knowledge of the requirements without a detailed design solution being known. in terms of user functions rather than programs. 4. Tallying the function types and applying pre-defined weighting factors to these totals to drive a single unadjusted function point count. The result of an inquiry may be a display/report or a transaction file that is accessible by the user. The basic steps involved in this estimating technique include: 1. Translating the function point count to an effort estimate based on a function point delivery rate. This would include logical units forming part of printed reports. Estimating Technique Guide . output.Draft 9 2/26/2013 . Assigning a complexity to each of these function types. data. index. Adjusting this function point count based on the overall project complexity. files. Inputs exclude transactions or files that enter the system as a result of an independent process. complex) and weight the effort accordingly.

There is also a users group. and therefore track.Draft 10 2/26/2013 . we have not gathered any estimating guidelines or metrics for function point estimating. both techniques result in nearly the same number of “points”. robotics. However. Note: Before using this estimating technique. it is not certain how well this concept applies to newer technologies and development approaches such as object-oriented development. Since the concept of Function Point Analysis was developed with older technologies and development approaches. you should read one of the published books on this subject. variations of Function Point Analysis are being developed to address the newer technologies and development approaches. function points. The use of function points is not widely accepted within IT Services. The Function Point count for such systems totals only 60 to 80 percent of the Feature Point count. space systems. there is little difference in the results between Function Points and Feature Points. For real-time or highly algorithmic systems. process control. International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG). For typical management information systems.Estimating Technique Guide  The use of Function Point Analysis is accepted internationally. It involves adding a number of algorithms with an average complexity weight and changing the function point weighting in other areas. and middleware. Formal training is needed before you can consistently count. however. Function Points can be complicated to administer. Estimating Technique Guide . the results can be significantly different between these two techniques. Feature Points This estimating technique is an extension to the function point analysis technique. Disadvantages for using this estimating approach include:     This approach does not accurately estimate systems that are largely algorithmic such as military systems. As a result. which has established standards to help encourage consistency in counting function points.

report writer.  Requires previous personal experience or experience-based guideline metrics for proportionality factors..  Single data point. or CASE tool environments. Identifies areas where requirements clarification is needed.  Provides independence from hardware platform.  Must be verified by another method.  Identifies requirements tradeoffs.  Does not accurately estimate systems that are largely algorithmic such as military systems. configuration management).Draft 11 2/26/2013 . even though system is not necessarily made up purely of widgets.  Requires formal training. not developer.  Requires formal training.  Estimating Technique Guide .   Proportional Effective when estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor (e. files).Estimating Technique Guide Technique Comparison The following table highlights the strengths and weaknesses of these estimating techniques: Estimation Technique Comparative Strengths Estimate can be very accurate if a suitable analogy can be identified. especially those using 4GL. user functions rather than programs.  High risk. languages.  Widget Counting Effective for systems that can be characterized by widgets  Function Point Analysis Feature Point Well suited for standard Management Information System projects with little internal processing complexity. developers’ skill at code efficiency.  Assumes effort to develop system is proportional to number of widgets.  Can magnify estimating errors made in other areas. robotics. may not be repeatable by anyone other than the “expert”. quality assurance.  Estimates can be developed from knowledge of requirements without a detailed design solution being known. business of organization.  Does not have overall acceptance within IT Services.g.  Can be complicated to administer. with added benefit of accounting for algorithms and internal processing complexity.  Can be complicated to administer.  Does not yet have overall acceptance.  Project viewed from user.  Consistency encouraged through established international standards for function point counting. software management..g.  Magnifies size errors if widget effort estimates are incorrect. and process control.  Expert Judgment Estimate can be extremely accurate.  Same strengths as Function Point Analysis. perspective (e.  Weaknesses Historical data repository required.  Often difficult to find comparable projects. space systems.

This technique consists of the following steps: 1. The basic goal of this technique is to achieve a more accurate and reliable composite estimate. 3. Vision & Stategy. you have various degrees of confidence. Estimating Technique Guide . The lead estimator presents the same specification to each expert. and incomplete knowledge. The lead estimator calls a group meeting in which the experts discuss estimation issues. This can occur when you have used different techniques to estimate a project or component. the Wideband Delphi technique is useful to enforce convergence of the different estimates. The experts independently develop estimates and give them to the coordinator. misunderstandings. 2.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Technique Comparison The following diagram illustrates the recommended estimating techniques for the various ASPIRE project phases. thereby reducing the impact of individual biases. and management and coordination activities.Draft 12 2/26/2013 . specialty areas. Wideband Delphi Technique When several estimators are estimating the same project or component. or when you have multiple estimators. & ETP Business Area Architecture Development Integration Deployment Development Organizational Change Technical Infrastructure Facilities Infrastructue Year 2000 Development Coordination Project Management Program Management Not Recommended Recommended Optional/ Sanity Check Managing Multiple Estimates The following techniques can be used to manage multiple estimates. Estimating Techniques Comparative Proportional Expert Judgement Widget Counting Function Point Analysis Feature Point Analysis Specialty Areas Project Phases Mgmt and Coord.

measurement. The lead estimator calls a group meeting to discuss estimates. scheduling. your optimistic estimate will be your aggressive estimate. value analysis. planning. evaluate. they have not been calibrated against IT Services projects so you need to apply some judgment when using these tools. 6. EV = (1{O} + 4{R} + 1{P}) / 6 where: EV = Estimate Value O = Optimistic Estimate R = Realistic Estimate P = Pessimistic Estimate Note: The definition of optimistic. realistic.  Measure all aspects of a software project at a user-defined level of granularity. In general.700 software projects. and productivity. Estimating Technique Guide .  Estimate the cost of developing systems as well as the cost of developing specifications and user documentation. focusing on where estimates vary widely. and store data about your development projects.Draft 13 2/26/2013 . different projects. or a project against other established benchmarks.. and pessimistic is up to the individual(s) developing the estimate.g. estimating.  Estimate projects using a knowledge-base of over 4.  Perform side-by-side comparisons of project versions.  Assess a wide range of software attributes against industry standards for cost. and methodologies. your realistic estimate will be what you feel is the most likely estimate. CHECKPOINT/KnowledgePLAN Overview CHECKPOINT. and your pessimistic estimate will be your conservative estimate. quality estimating. It offers the capability to:  Predict source code size. In most of these tools. Commercially Available Estimating Tools There are a number of automated estimating tools available to support estimating efforts.Estimating Technique Guide 4. number of required personnel resources). an algorithm is applied to the basic measure of size to produce an estimate of effort (e. The lead estimator analyzes the estimates and distributes a summary containing the estimates with their medians. Although these tools have generally been calibrated using a wide range of historical project data at other companies within the industry. CHECKPOINT integrates sizing. Weighted or Average Estimate The technique uses the following formula to derive an average estimate. Typically. Experts review estimates.  Perform what-if analysis for a variety of variables including CASE tools. is a knowledge-based software management tool that can analyze. languages. this formula will result in an estimate very close to the “realistic estimate”. but excluding rationale. schedules. risk analysis. and technology assessment. skills.  Aggregate data across selected projects. 5.. quality. from Software Productivity Research Inc. and steps 4–6 are repeated until a consensus is reached.

created. The template allows you to define a project role. The various Development estimating templates generally use a proportional estimating factor for this phase. Travel Expenses Template This template provides you with two options for estimating traveling expenses. contained in the file attachments. Please refer to the Development estimating templates for a complete list. Development A number of estimating templates have been collected that support the Development phase of ASPIRE. The generic Staff and Duration template could be used for this type of an engagement.Draft 14 2/26/2013 . Detailed instructions for using these spreadsheets are located in the appendix. provides grand totals for staff count.5%. One template allows for a single resource group. The second option allows you to specify estimated travel expenses on an individual by individual basis. Integration Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this phase. The estimating templates. ASPIRE Phase Templates Vision and Strategy The Estimating and Metrics team currently does not have any templates specific to this ASPIRE phase. 8. Estimating Technique Guide . and cost. and computes an average billing rate. identify how many individuals will fill this role (fractional values are valid). the other template allows for two resource groups. such as the project team. Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template This template allows you to do a simple projection of the remainder of a project based on the actuals from the Requirements/BAA phase. The actual spreadsheets have been attached as separate files.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Templates There are a variety of estimating templates or spreadsheets being used throughout the organization to assist with our project estimating efforts. It is based on the assumption that a Requirements/BAA accounts for 7% to 10% of the total project effort. The first option allows you to estimate these expenses as an average for the entire team. such as IT Services and the client staff. Business Area Architecture The Estimating and Metrics team currently does not have any templates specific to this ASPIRE phase. Following is a high-level summary of the templates that the Estimating and Metrics team have obtained. You simply enter the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA and the spreadsheet projects the remaining project effort based on 7%. The template also allows you to specify a duration to hour conversion factor so that the total hours and cost are calculated on a per hour basis. and 10% scenarios. The spreadsheet calculates the total hours and cost for each role. hours. For example. you can specify that there are 40 hours per week. if you are counting weeks in your duration. provide two staff and duration estimating templates. You can modify these factors or add additional scenarios. The generic Staff and Duration template could be used for this type of an engagement. General Purpose Templates Staff and Duration Estimating Template This template provides a simple spreadsheet to compute the total hours and cost based on the anticipated level of staffing and length of the project. The template assumes a custom (ICD) development approach. or modified. and specify the duration and hourly billing rate for this role. The general Staff and Duration estimating template can also be applied to this phase.

the second supports multiple applications. included in the spreadsheet. This template uses the calculations described in the Estimating Technique Guide . the estimated effort for each unit. these guidelines are provided later in this document. the second supports multiple applications. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort for each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. you can rate the complexity of each on a scale from 1 to 10. Two estimating options are included in this template. reports. application development completion. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. you can specify the number of units. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. As you define each of these widgets. you can specify the number of units. or by using a proportional level of effort. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. These widgets can include items such as menus. Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template This estimating template allows you to build a bottom-up estimate based on the number of “widgets” being developed. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the business system design. The various Development estimating templates generally use a proportional estimating factor for this phase. conversions. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. the second supports multiple applications.Draft 15 2/26/2013 . Organizational Change Communication Event Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the effort to design and deliver communication events using the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the XAD sub-phases. windows. included in the spreadsheet. For each activity or work product. and any estimating assumptions or comments. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the package-based sub-phases. For each activity or work product. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. or by using a proportional level of effort. Stakeholder Group Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the number of stakeholder groups based on either the project team’s size or the overall size of the client. integration and deployment phases. included in the spreadsheet. The spreadsheet accumulates totals for each type of widget and links these totals to a summary worksheet to provide a high-level summary of your estimates. and any estimating assumptions or comments. The general Staff and Duration estimating template can also be applied to this phase. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. The detail matrix worksheet references additional look-up tables that contain the appropriate estimate based on the type of widget and its complexity.Estimating Technique Guide Deployment Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this phase. Specialty Area Templates Development Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. the estimated effort for each unit. and common objects. one supports a single XAD application. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. interfaces. one supports a single iterative custom-developed application. Two estimating templates are provided. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort for each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. one supports a single package-based application. or by using a proportional level of effort. servers.

To estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the overall client size. these guidelines are provided later in this document. simply enter the size of the project team in full-time equivalents.Estimating Technique Guide Organizational Change estimating guidelines. you need to select the appropriate client size and percentage of organizational impact from the respective tables. To estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the project team size. Facilities Infrastructure Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this specialty area except for Critical Computer Resources.Draft 16 2/26/2013 . Technical Infrastructure Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this specialty area. Estimating Technique Guide .

especially the scope and approach sections.. an initial draft of your Statement of Work. interviews. estimating approaches or techniques when estimating your project. and delivery assurance. There will be cases where your estimating process requires that you update your Statement of Work and visaversa.  Use at least two. you should take into account the effort to produce the final deliverables as well as the workshops.Draft 17 Development Coordination Business Architecture Project Management Deployment Program Management Integration Process Initiative 2/26/2013 . You will also need to identify any of the surrounding activities or components. Specialty Areas. or risks that you identify during this process in the Estimating Notebook.. TBD .Estimating Technique Guide ASPIRE Methodology Comparison The following diagram illustrates how the various estimating templates support the ASPIRE project phases. specialty areas.) Estimating Technique Guide .  To estimate effectively. ASPIRE Phases. These items must also be incorporated into the project’s Statement of Work. and the approach. travel. requirements. if you are trying to estimate an Enterprise Transformation Plan.. Vision and Strategy Recommended Optional / Sanity Check Not Recommended Estimating Guidelines Project-Wide Guidelines The following estimating guidelines can be applied across all phases of a project. For example. (Note: In most cases you will be developing the Statement of Work at the same time you are developing your estimates. and preferably three. These should be documented in your Statement of Work. project management time. Although these are often done concurrently. Using multiple approaches will help ensure a higher level of confidence in the final estimates. constraints.  On larger scale estimating efforts.. you will often need to make assumptions to “fill the gaps” in the information needed to create the estimate. and management and coordination activities. Your estimate should include at least one top-down and one bottom-up approach. Be sure to document any assumptions. you need to understand the scope. will be a valuable source of input for your estimating process. Refer to the Estimating Process Guide for additional guidelines. and Management and Coordination Activities Organizational Change Technical Infrastructure Facilities Infrastructure Development Staff and Duration Travel Expenses Estimating Templates: Requirements/Proportional Package Based Dev Iterative Custom Dev Accelerated Application Dev Ballpark Estimating Proportional Percentage .

and ½ hour for both individuals (manager and project team member) to review and discuss.  Include the effort for conducting architecture.Estimating Technique Guide  Breakdown the project deliverables and work products into more manageable pieces by creating a work breakdown structure (WBS) that contains all of the components of the proposed solution.  When appropriate. number of windows being developed. Examples include the number of workshops being conducted. All too often we try to develop an estimate with a maximum price tag in mind and we let the “price” drive the “estimate”.  Base your estimates on some quantifiable unit of measure.  Try to separate the “pricing” from the “estimate”. business function. One rule of thumb is to allow for 4 FTEs for 5 days every quarter.  Use the following guidelines when estimating for project expectations and reviews: • For each project expectation: ½ hour to write. number of packages being evaluated. design. Document these quantifiable units of measure in the Statement of Work and Estimating Notebook. • Allow for 1 project evaluation for each team member every four months. and the number of staff over some fixed duration of time.Draft 18 2/26/2013 . • For each project evaluation: 1 hour to write and 1 hour for both individuals to review and discuss. and development reviews in your estimates. evaluate and approve estimates from sub-contractors. Estimating Technique Guide .

and Templates Recommended estimating techniques include comparative and expert judgment. The time to develop this plan is often underestimated. or risk factors accordingly. Plan on one to two days per page for preparing the final documentation. A plan that we cannot live with surely is one the client cannot live with. Another critical success factor is the staffing. Review these and adjust your estimates. significant cost overruns and loss of credibility are likely. None of the estimating tools that we have used address this phase of a project. as well as one or two solid Business Analysts and a good Technical Architect who can take a pragmatic approach and make fact-based recommendations.  At the outset of the project.    It takes four people approximately six weeks to complete an ETP study. assumptions.Estimating Technique Guide ASPIRE Phase Guidelines Vision and Strategy (ETP) General Information Several interviews with project teams indicate that the "soft deliverables" associated with an ETP allow a fair amount of flexibility in the duration of the study. You can also use a proportional or widget counting technique to get an alternative estimate. 1996. client expectations must be carefully managed as to the level of detail that will be provided as a result of the study. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your ETP estimates. The only estimating template that we currently have available for an ETP is the general staff and duration estimating template. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated.750 hours. Estimating Techniques. significant cost overruns and loss of credibility are likely. we must realize that IT Services will need to be prepared to do the work for those estimates. The total cost for an ETP seems to be in the $50.    Estimating Technique Guide .) Following are some rules of thumb that have been used on prior projects. The answer usually does not "fall out" from the work done during the study. The primary deliverable is a prioritized listing of future steps to achieve the Vision set by the study. Manage client expectations on the length of the document to be presented and the depth to which it will extend. A good client relationship person is key. If expectations are not properly managed. even for a relatively small project such as an ETP.000 range. prior experiences. and from our various field visits. Tools. If expectations are not properly managed.Draft 19 2/26/2013 . Will we estimate IT Services involvement or leave the numbers "generic"? Will dollars be associated with the estimates? Will the estimates be considered "IT Service’s bid" for the work? In the likely event that the plans for the future studies become budgeted numbers for the client. Client expectations must be carefully managed as to the level of detail that will be provided as a result of the study. even for a relatively small project such as an ETP. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April.000 to $350. Assuming a $200/hr billing rate this would translate to 250 to 1.

) Following are some rules of thumb that have been used on prior projects. How many departments or locations will be involved? What is the client’s overall organizational structure? For example is the client’s organization largely regulatory. how many customers. you will need to adjust your estimates based your specific project. or competitors will be targeted? Do we have already identified an industry or business best practice for this type of client? Will there be a final presentation? Who will do the final sign-off.                   How many user representatives will be involved with the Requirements/BAA effort? How many representatives will be providing requirements? How many interviews will you conduct? Include interviews at the executive level as well as firstlevel management. multidivisional. You can also use a proportional or widget counting technique to get an alternative estimate. multinational. or competitor surveys be conducted? And if so. Possible estimating tools include Ballpark. QSM Slim. The only estimating template we currently have available for a Requirements//BAA is the general staff and duration estimating template. suppliers. centralized.Estimating Technique Guide Business Area Architecture (Requirements/BAA) General Information The following questions can assist you in sizing the Requirements/BAA effort. and from our various field visits. I/S or the business users? How many individuals will be reviewing or approving deliverables? Will you need to create a business case for action? Will the client be using a value discipline? Has this already been established? How many alternative architectures is the client expecting? Estimating Techniques. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. or decentralized? What is the scope baseline as defined by each of the six domains of change? What deliverables is the client expecting to be delivered? What is the expected level of detail for these deliverables? How many process threads will you be addressing? Is the client looking for a business process redesign or a business process improvement? How many conceptual data entities are expected to be involved? How many workshops are you expecting to conduct? How many individuals will be attending these workshops? What are the time box assumptions for each workshop? How many best practice interviews are you expecting to conduct? How many legacy systems are involved? Will customer. and Proportional Percentage.Draft 20 2/26/2013 . and Templates Recommended estimating techniques include comparative and expert judgment. prior experiences. The following staff size/ project duration have been used on prior Requirements/BAA efforts:  Six people for five months Estimating Technique Guide . especially if you are going to use a bottom-up estimating approach. Since the scope and depth of the final deliverable for a Requirements/BAA can vary significantly from project to project. 1996. supplier. Tools.

Data modeling metrics:  Four hours per entity using workshops. Other estimating options include using a staff and duration model or basing the estimates on the number of test scenarios that need to be executed. Deployment Specific estimating guidelines have not been developed for this phase at this time. These hours are for the data modeler only. or nearly completed. reducing the potential “sticker shock” of subsequent phases.  When possible.Estimating Technique Guide  Four people for two months (Decision Support System. resist the need for producing downstream estimates for BSD and Development until the Requirements/BAA has been completed.  Changes in scope during the Requirements/BAA will impact later phases of the project. Note: If you have already provided estimates for subsequent phases. Integration Specific estimating guidelines have not been developed for this phase at this time.  Three people for three months. Workshops seemed to be the most efficient method. Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes that are 4 to 5 times as much during program construction. Development Refer to the Development estimating guidelines for each of the specific Development paths. During our field support visits. focused on data not processes)  Six people for three and a half months. Estimating Technique Guide . Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes that are up to 10 times as much during integration testing.Draft 21 2/26/2013 . This will help the client in understanding the full impact of the change request.  The overall client culture could increase the time and effort to resolve issues. or risk factors accordingly. Other estimating options include using a staff and duration model or basing the estimates on the number of deployment sites. Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes 2 to 3 times as much during the BSD phase. Your estimate and schedule should reflect this effort. Accurate estimates are very difficult to produce during the early phases of a project. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your Requirements/BAA estimates. we generally used a proportional factor for this phase. Review these and adjust your estimates. This will increase time frames. we generally used a proportional factor for this phase. The Requirements/BAA was for a small division and included all the processes for this division. be sure to include the potential estimate adjustment for later phases as well. knowing the estimating drivers that were used for these later phases will also help you to identify the overall impact of the scope changes.  During the Requirements/BAA phase. During our field support visits. Req /BAA: BSD: ADP: INT: Scope changes are generally 1 to 1.  The Requirements/BAA effort generally involves intense senior business level participation. assumptions. When applicable. Following are some general metrics regarding the impacts on subsequent project phases. there tends to be more committee decision making versus individual decision making.

Estimating Technique Guide . A configuration involves setting a software parameter as intended. expert judgment. An enhancement involves making a fix using the tools provided by the vendor. A modification is a change to the core software code. a configuration.  How will the application or data be distributed across locations? Will the application or data be distributed over time?  Who (IT Services or client) will be responsible for managing the software vendor? Estimating Techniques. More specific estimating guidelines have also been included for the Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) sub-phase. As a general rule. policies. Tools. We have developed a package-based estimating template that can support a single or multiple applications. Checkpoint applies mainly to any proposed enhancements and is not recommended for a package-based development effort. CA-Estimacs contains a packaged-based lifecycle model. and a modification.Estimating Technique Guide Specialty Areas Development Package Based Development (PBD) General Information The following estimating guidelines apply to the entire PBD specialty area. however. and procedures may be required. is the client expecting a process improvement or a reengineering of its business processes?  Is a Technical Infrastructure included?  Will the project include PSD through implementation? Does the project scope include any production support? Any Training?  What is the messaging infrastructure (mainframe component)?  Does the project scope include data mapping?  Does the project scope include Organizational change for IS or the business community?  Does the project scope include a gap analysis? What percentage of change is the client expecting?  Will the project team have direct or intermediary contact with the users and decision makers?  How involved will the user community be?  Will IT Services have overall project control or will we be shadow-managing?  Does the project scope include a pilot? Does it include a roll-out?  What other tools (IT or project management) will be required for this project?  How much experience does the client have with the proposed platform? How sophisticated is the client with this platform? Additional support. Do Not Make Modifications!  Does the package include any modules that are provided by ancillary vendors?  Will the project include a Requirements/BAA? What is the extent will the business processes change.Draft 22 2/26/2013 . and widget counting.  Have a clear definition of an enhancement. All of the estimating tools discussed in the prior section provide some level of support for a package-based development approach. The following questions can help you to size your overall PBD effort. and Templates Estimating techniques that apply to a PBD effort include comparative. we have had minimal success with using CA-Estimacs to estimate this type of a project.

8 months. General:  We typically under-estimate the development. prior experiences. and a 1. conversion. or risk factors accordingly. you can usually distribute module specific information. Oracle Implementation:  A typical Oracle implementation costs approximately $10 million. and from our various field visits.  Software vendors are generally unwilling to modify their software. SAP Implementation:  A general rule of thumb is $1 million for an SAP implementation.12 months.  EDI capabilities are non-existent within the Oracle suite of applications.  A minimum client PC requirement is a Pentium processor with 24 meg of memory. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your PBD estimates.  Earlier software versions are generally prone to bugs and poor software performance. and interface efforts.  Although the minimum timeframe for an Oracle implementation can be as short as 6 .  A SAP R3 implementation can be 10 times or more higher than the retail software price.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April.  Best of breed solutions often require multiple vendors. An SAP implementation is often 2 times longer than an Oracle implementation. 12 18 months is a more realistic minimum timeframe. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. Oracle.) Following are some suggested rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your estimate. You will need to adjust your estimates based on your specific project.2 gig hard drive. Review these and adjust your estimates.  An Oracle 2 implementation can be 3 times or more higher than the retail software price.Draft 23 2/26/2013 . however. assumptions.  Multiple database and application software vendors add to the overall risk and complexity.  For SAP.  Although the minimum timeframe for an SAP implementation can be a short as 6 months. the average minimum timeframe for a generic implementation is 9 . and PowerSoft: Inflate server requirements 4 times the vendor statements. 1996. Estimating Technique Guide .  We often underestimate vendor and subcontractor efforts. Oracle:  Oracle may not be considered true client server.  Clients often fail to provide full-time business resources. SAP:  SAP does not have a distributed data architecture. if it does not have a distributed data architecture.

 Is contract negotiation part of the project scope?  Does the project scope include the Technical Infrastructure Acquisition (TIA)? If so. you may need to estimate all of the related equipment costs.  Will IT Services be managing the project or only assisting the client in managing this effort?  What will be the client’s involvement in the PES? What is the client’s experience level with PES?  What is the scope of the end package.  Does the client have a current or prior relationship with potential vendors? Are there any political issues that you need to be aware of?  How many functions or process threads is the new package going to address? How does this compare to the current system?  Does the client have a list of requirements?  Are there any unique functions specific to the client’s industry or the client’s company? Is the client considering being an industry center of excellence?  How many interfaces are you anticipating? Are there multiple systems or platforms?  Will the packaged solution be an enterprise-wide solution?  What is the client’s guiding principle towards business process change. for example. to what extent? If not. Following is a list of scope questions that should be considered. platform.Estimating Technique Guide Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) Sub-Phase General Information Understanding the scope of the PES is a critical factor when deriving your estimate. will it be used solely for AR or will it also be used for order management?  Is the client looking for an integrated packaged solution or is the client looking for a best of breed solution?  What are the client’s budget thresholds?  What are the business drivers behind this initiative?  How many packages are you planning on evaluating? What is your evaluation approach for the top packages?  What is the client’s timeframe for choosing and installing the packaged solution?  What is the acceptance process? What is the acceptance criteria? These should be identified in the project’s Statement of Work.  What is the I/S strategy for or their view towards the package or the package’s architecture? Is the package’s architecture in alignment with current I/S strategy? Will it be accepted by the I/S organization?  Have the equipment.Draft 24 2/26/2013 .  Has a vision and strategy (ETP) been conducted? If so. are they willing to change their business process for the package or visa versa. will part of the PES need to address the vision and strategy?  Does PES also include the relevant activities of the Requirements/BAA or is this being estimated separately?  Will the PES selection process result in vendor’s submitting a response to either a Request For Proposal (RFP) or a Request For Solution (RFS)? An RFS will involve more effort. or technical requirements been identified? Estimating Technique Guide . These items should be addressed in the project’s Statement of Work.

Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. Shop Floor Control. accessibility. Review these and adjust your estimates. Inventory. This time does not include the SDL.Draft 25 2/26/2013 . You will need to adjust your estimates based on your specific project. avoid a weighted point system as the ultimate decision maker. and from our various field visits.  Multi-lingual. WIP. AICPA.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Techniques. and templates identified for a package-based development effort also apply to the PES sub-phase. Tools.  Client’s expectations of IT Services developing a vendor short list.  When selecting the final package. Order Entry.  The minimum cost for a PES is $100K.  Consider the vendor’s location. ERP/ MRPII has 15 major modules: General Ledger. For example. MRP.  Ensure that there is a real business value. allow for 20 days or more for each major module. You should try to compare their definition with an APICS reference.) Following are some rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your estimate.  Be sure to validate a vendor’s integrity through references. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. Estimating Technique Guide . Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your PES estimates. multinational. tools. MPS. 1996. and logistics for distributing and receiving RFP or RFS responses. distribution.  Interfaces with other systems or packages. and Standard Costing. The minimum duration of 3 months elapsed time is needed to accommodate scheduling issues. Hackett Group.  When estimating the selection process.  Each major module will cost $25k or higher. technical. assumptions. Human Resources. Payroll. A major module is defined as a major functional subsystem. Purchasing. and Templates The same techniques. and project management. Accounts Receivable. and multicultural capabilities or requirements. Accounts Payable. The staff should be experienced. or HRSP. Master Scheduling. prior experiences.  Confusion or misinterpretation of the client’s definition of specified business processes. manufacturing.  Vendor meetings with the client.  Level of organizational change required versus planned.  A PES project should be staffed with one person per functional area such as financial. or risk factors accordingly. Bill of Material.

) Following are some rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your ICD estimate. Team Leaders: When a team lead is monitoring 3 or less developers. approved prototype. The matrix based ICD estimating template is also an effective tool for this type of project.  Following are some general metrics for interfaces. For estimates in excess of 88 hours. These hours include technical design. These individuals are in addition to a full-time project manager. try to breakdown into simpler tasks in order to accurately estimate the progress of this task.48 hours 80 . DBA. you will need to adjust these for more complex 3-tier applications. Simple: Medium: Complex: 24 . system architect.4 boxes. and test coordinator. There can be a simple query done in this window that does a select from a single table. 1996. Many of the data maintenance windows fall into this category. Tools. and Templates All of the estimating techniques and tools discussed in prior sections provide some level of support for an iterative custom development effort. application architect. If the team leader is monitoring up to 6 developers. Note: If you are using Widget Counting to estimate the development effort. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. servers. programming. You should adjust your estimates based on your specific project. Technical Support: Consider adding one additional FTE for every 3 .32 hours 40 .  Following are some general metrics for additional “support” staff. and from our various field visits. These hours are for coding and unit testing 2-tier applications. or databases. These estimates are based on an existing.88+ hours Note: Simple Window: Contains 1-2 simple objects such as a drop down data window or single line edits. Additional Managers: Consider adding one additional FTE for every 15 -16 team members. networks.Draft 26 2/26/2013 . and unit testing of one program: Simple (Extract and Post): Medium: Complex (multiple systems or conversions): 80 hours 160 hours 240 hours  Following are some general PowerBuilder/ PowerTools metrics. 50% of this individual’s time can be allocated for team leader activities and the other 50% to development activities. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. the team leader activities are additional hours. then 100% of the individual’s time needs to be allocated to team leader activities. Estimating Technique Guide . prior experiences.Estimating Technique Guide Iterative Custom Development (ICD) General Information Estimating Techniques.

simple logic within the stored procedure. simple updates or deletes from the database. multiple table (4 or more) joins in the SQL. Complex Window: Contains 3 . and has multiple cursor management within the function. Complex Procedure: Contains complex program logic.Draft 27 2/26/2013 . simple exception handling.120+ hours Note: Simple Procedure: Contains a single simple query. code. multiple table (2-4) joins in the SQL. and has multiple cursor management with in the stored procedure. These hours are for design. Medium Function: A more complex function that has data manipulation. Complex Function: Contains data manipulation. Medium Procedure: Contains 1-2 transactions. The project team’s System Architect needs to be familiar with the stored procedure functionality and know when is it beneficial to use a stored procedure versus a C function or visa versa. Does not contain any logic. you need to break these down into simpler tasks. There can be a simple query done in this function that does a select from a single table. and has cursor management within the function. complex queries. multiple table (4 or more) joins in the logic. updates. Performance considerations are critical in this window and extra effort should be taken to make sure that this window is as efficient as possible. Note: These estimates were based on Oracle stored procedures.  Following are some general ANSI “C” coding and unit testing metrics. Simple: Medium: Complex: Note: Simple Function: Does not contain a lot of complex computation or data manipulation . and unit testing. updates and deletes from the database. Simple: Medium: Complex: 10 hours 20 hours 40+ hours 40 hours 80 hours 80 . updates and deletes from the database.6 data windows with multiple objects on the window. Estimating Technique Guide . If these are greater than 120 hours. A complex C function can also contain complex queries. simple cursor manipulation. complex data manipulation. Complex data queries.Estimating Technique Guide Medium Window: Contains several simple data objects or 1-2 complex data windows that have SQL selects with multiple table joins. and complex exception handling. inserts. inserts and deletes across multiple data tables. dynamic memory allocation for structures in support of complex data manipulation. such as sub-functions within the main business process. This stored procedure can have multiple transactions processing within the procedure. inserts. Note: The hour estimates for the complex functions are in excess of 80 hours.  Following are some general metrics for stored procedures.

Estimating Technique Guide .Estimating Technique Guide  Following are some general metrics for creating a database. code. Medium-Complex Conversion: Expect to have approximately 20 . Simple: Simple-Medium: Medium: Medium-Complex: Complex: 120 hours 160 hours 200 hours 280 hours 400 hours Note: Simple Conversion: A simple extract and post program. The actual conversion effort is not included.Draft 28 2/26/2013 . These estimates include the design. Medium Conversion: Expect to have approximately 10 . Simple (less than 25 tables): Medium (less than 70 tables): Complex (greater than 70 tables): 80 hours 160 hours 240 hours  The following metrics can be used to determine the effort for creating a logical data model: Four attributes per hour Five relationships per hour One entity per hour  Following are some general conversion metrics. The average is approximately 3 hours per table. (If the form was created manually. Simple: A simple form is one that contains only one block and requires few edits or validations. fields. Simple-Medium Conversion: Expect approximately 10% of the conversion programs to be classified in the category.50% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. average database size.) Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 24 hours 40 hours 64 hours 104 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these forms or whether these estimates include development and unit testing.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Forms. Note: Estimates are based on creating a physical build with a first cut at optimization.0 and they assume that the form has been generated through Designer/2000. and additional 12 to 20 hours should be added to the estimates depending on the number of blocks.20% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. These following estimates are for Forms 4. and list values contained in the window. canvases. and unit testing for each conversion program. single database and location with primary indices. Expect that less than 10% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. Estimates do not include performance turning. Complex Conversion: Expect to have over 50% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category.

(For example.Estimating Technique Guide Medium: A medium form is one that contains two or three blocks and a moderate amount of additional processing logic.Draft 29 2/26/2013 . The following estimates cover any custom zooms written to allow users to jump from one application form to another with the possibility of performing some processing once the user arrives at the new application form. Complex: A complex form is one that contains two or more blocks and requires a substantial amount of additional processing logic. copy data from source to destination. Medium: A medium report is one that contains two or three queries and a moderate amount of formatting.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Reports. Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 16 hours 32 hours 56 hours 80+ hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these zooms or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. Very Complex: A very complex form is similar to a complex form. Simple: A simple zoom is one that only has one zoom event and few zoom steps and has little or no effect on the zoom-to location.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Alerts. Simple: A simple report is one that contains only one query and requires little formatting. Complex: A complex zoom is one that has several zoom events each with several zoom steps that perform some function in the zoom-to location. except that the additional processing logic itself is complex. Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 8 hours 16 hours 32 hours 48 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these reports or whether these estimates include development and unit testing.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Zooms. or update data either the source or destination location.) Note: Zooms are commonly used with Oracle’s character-based version.) Very Complex: A very complex zoom is one where significant actions take place at both the source and destination locations using combinations of queries and triggers in multiple steps in each event. Complex: A complex report is one that contains two or more queries and requires a substantial amount of formatting. Medium: A medium zoom is one that may have only one zoom event but several soom steps or have some effect on the zoom-to location. (This is similar in concept to a “hot key”. Estimating Technique Guide . execute an automatic query at the destination. Very Complex: A very complex report is one that contains two or more queries and requires a significant amount of formatting. They are not commonly used (might not be supported) in their GUI version.

Medium: A medium alert is one that incorporates more detailed actions in response to events and contain more complex SQL. Very Complex: A very complex alert is one that requires interaction with the operating system in conjunction with detailed actions. The metrics assume that the development is client/ server using C++ or Visual Basic. Also it is uncertain at this time whether unit testing is covered in the “coding” or “testing” phase. They do not account for 4GL tools. code. or other support activities.  Estimate 8 hours of effort to develop one page (8.Draft 30 2/26/2013 . Simple: A simple alert is one that incorporates simple SQL code to respond to well defined events or to perform very routine actions such as cleaning obsolete data out of a table.  Estimate 40 hours of effort to develop one hour for hands-on (classroom-type) training with labs. There numbers were based on a small sampling of projects and should be adjusted based on the knowledge of the specific project environment. team leadership. report is one that contains only one query and requires little formatting. prototyping.  Following are some generic custom development metrics. Simple Design Code Test Total: Note: These numbers seem to be on the low side when compared to other metrics provided above.5 x 11) of user documentation.Estimating Technique Guide Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 8 hours 16 hours 32 hours 48 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these alerts or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. unit test. and limited application/ integration testing. the following percentages can be used to break-down an estimate: Review Specification: Code Program: Compile Program: Code Review: Create Test Plan: Review Test Plan: Unit Test Program: Obtain Program Sign-off: 5% 15% 15% 5% 15% 5% 35% 5% Estimating Technique Guide . database activities. The total hours cover design. Complex: A complex alert is one that might require several elegantly formatted detailed and summary actions in response to an event. performance engineering.  Medium 17 40 8 65 Complex 34 80 16 130 10 24 4 38 For completing a program.

) Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your ICD estimates. and stored procedures. Consider conducting regular meetings with key staff to look forward for unplanned tasks and potential workarounds. especially if the Requirements/BAA has not been completed. PowerBuilder. system architect (technical analyst). project managers. the unit test plan has been completed and executed. especially system and performance testing. the code has been desk checked. assumptions. and DBA roles.  Be sure to anticipate an lower level of utilization for client staff. allow the Application staff to build the procedures and have the DBA staff review them.  The DBA staff being expected to build all stored procedures. or risk factors accordingly. (Calculate each phase separately.  System complexity can have a huge multiplier effect on your estimates. test plan and results.g. Review these and adjust your estimates. This individual will need time to understand the project-specific business requirements.  3-Tier environments add an additional layer of complexity.  Being forced to estimate the entire project up-front.  Testing and Pilot includes: • String and Integration Testing: 40% of effort • User Acceptance Testing: 40% of effort • Performance Testing: 20% of effort As a reasonable sanity check for these phases. and peer (or management) reviews of the code. calculate the effort based on the anticipated staff count and duration. all software documentation has been completed. Estimating Technique Guide .  Failure to distinguish between the various components of the application architecture: e. Note: you can never bring in the test coordinator too soon. These are generally unanticipated problems. Adjust your estimates accordingly. and DASD management. These individuals should be allocated for the entire ICD phase.  It is essential for the development staff to understand what “done” means before program development begins.  Allocate time for project manager.  Failure to include time for all levels of testing. application architect (business analyst). and software documentation have been completed. backups. Try to place these resources on non-critical paths.  Include time to account for miscellaneous development problem solving.  It is essential to have a frozen architecture before you begin development.  We occasionally forget to account for fixed support staff (architects. test coordinator. Try to avoid estimating forward from the Requirements/BAA. C.Estimating Technique Guide  Following is a proportional percentage by project phase: Requirements /BAA: BSD: Construction: Testing/ Pilot: 10% 20% 40% 30% Notes:  Construction includes unit testing.  Remember to make allowances for computer operations. You will need them for critical items such as network support. One definition of done: A developer is done with a module when all coding has been completed. Instead.Draft 31 2/26/2013 . team leaders) when we adjust end dates due to schedule slips.

 Performance Testing:  We typically under-estimate or forget to estimate stress and performance testing efforts. This will slow down performance during early user acceptance testing so the client does not develop unrealistic expectations for the system’s final response time.  We typically under-estimate the number of interfaces.  The time required to select a vendor. and legacy system testing.Estimating Technique Guide  Avoid being too aggressive with complexity ratings. Estimating Technique Guide . purchasing.  Hint: Simulate an realistic system loading during user acceptance testing. You may want to consider timeboxing manual data conversions.  We typically under-estimate conversions and the effort to cleanse the data.  We also need to differentiate between benchmarking and performance testing. and training in the use of performance tools. The performance levels should focus on business functionality not screen or program response. purchase hardware or software components.  Need to estimate the performance testing architecture and infrastructure. Data quality will be low and you could expect to have to cleanse 75% of the data. Try to allow for these potential schedule delays. New systems rarely map directly to the systems that they are replacing.  We should determine if legacy system retirement is within the scope of the project.Draft 32 2/26/2013 . or implement hardware or software components can impact the project schedule. The effort to completely retire a legacy system is much more than just developing a new one.  Need to have target performance levels from the client. legacy system modifications.  A mix of application languages will impact the level of effort.  We typically under-estimate or forget to estimate the effort needed to create a physical data design and to physically place the data on the server.  Conduct pre-development walkthroughs to identify potential performance problems before the application is built.  Be sure to identify and inventory interfaces and conversion programs.  Need to estimate the effort for selecting . We generally rate programs as easy when they really have a medium complexity. interface testing. Adjust your estimates accordingly.

Team Leads. The BSD was completed in 12 weeks. The technology employed on these projects was PowerBuilder for the GUI development. and data design. and widget counting. and a 2-teir client/server design. C for the server development. database creation. Tools. Estimating Rules of Thumb BSD Estimating Guidelines: The goal of the BSD phase was to develop a proof of concept prototype of the application. design the business processes.  Six weeks for application architecture design. define the logical database design. Estimating Techniques. development environment setup. and Templates Estimating techniques that apply to an XAD effort include comparative. We have developed two XAD estimating templates. for estimating an XAD engagement. and a DBA. one that supports a single application and one that supports multiple applications. prototype development. expert judgment. Data Modeler. Estimating Technique Guide .Draft 33 2/26/2013 . The BSD phase was staffed with a Project Manager. they provide a high-level structure for composing a project plan. and development estimating.Estimating Technique Guide Accelerated Application Development (X/AD) General Information The following guidelines are based on two X/AD client/server projects. Systems Architect. discussed in the prior section. a UNIX database server. Both of these projects were 1 year in duration. common object definition. The phase was broken down as follows:  Six weeks for business process design. and to design the architecture of the application. We have not tried to use any of the estimating tools.

This phase was used for performance tuning. the number of timeboxes for applications development was defined. This is not to say there won’t be any changes to the data model along the way. final user acceptance. and business site preparation. If more than four timeboxes were used. Note: No developer should have a task that lasts more than two weeks. Estimating Technique Guide . enhancements.) The project staff consisted of: Project Manager System Architect All the team leads Half of the development staff DBA Success Factors  It is critical to have a test coordinator on staff as soon as possible so that he or she understands the business rules of the application. the users were completing acceptance testing for the previous timebox. Integration Testing Estimating Guidelines: After completing all of the timeboxes. an integration testing phase was completed. and assisting the users in acceptance testing. Subsequent timeboxes contained the development work in a logical sequence based on the work to be done. They are testing the deliverable from the previous timebox. Their time is consumed by managing the developers. each with 3-4 developers. one additional timebox was added to the schedule. helps to better estimate the size of the project. part-time logical data modeler. The application estimates were prepared using ICD estimating guidelines. The project team consisted of one or more team leads. The user test plans should be business rule based. Each timebox contained a mixture of simple and complex tasks based on the level of experience of the staff. and any schedule overruns.  The users are completing acceptance testing concurrent with development.  Having a prototype to show the user community the proof of concept and then get sign-off on the prototype. A team lead is NOT responsible for any development. four weeks for development and 1-2 weeks for testing and delivery to the users for acceptance testing. but it avoids slowing down development while the data model is created. During the application architecture design in BSD. While the development for a timebox was underway.Draft 34 2/26/2013 . this phase should be equal to three timeboxes (15-18 weeks. so that you are testing the application from the end user’s perspective and not the developer’s perspective. planning the next timebox. full-time project manager. full-time systems architect. bug fixes.  Having the data model defined ahead of development helped out greatly. (Note: If four or fewer timeboxes were used. and fulltime test coordinator.Estimating Technique Guide Timebox Estimating Guidelines: The duration of each timebox was 5-6 weeks. user training. data conversion. Common objects and application frameworks were developed in the first timebox. the integration testing phase should be equal to two timeboxes (10-12 weeks). This timebox was used to complete user change requests. There was also a full-time DBA. A project should assign as many development teams (1 team lead with 3-4 developers) as the project needs. After the timeboxes for new development were defined.

adherence to standards. Estimating Technique Guide .Estimating Technique Guide  It is critical to have a System Architect during the design phases and then guide the development team to make sure the entire application works together. Cautions None have been identified. This person should review all developed software for consistency. The System Architect should be on the project until the system is deployed. and usability.Draft 35 2/26/2013 .

Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. and a second that can be used to estimate the number of stakeholder groups. 1996.Draft 36 2/26/2013 . For a systems integration project. One that can help estimate the effort to design and deliver communication events. 50% of time. and the length of the engagement are all factors that can influence this estimate. approve. Two days to plan. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. This formula guideline includes the time required ( in days) to plan.Estimating Technique Guide Organizational Change General Information The following estimating guidelines were collected during one of our field visits. (# of stakeholder groups * # of project phases * # of hours per event * # of stages of acceptance) Notes: Estimating the number of stakeholder groups is discussed later in this section.  1. Tools. and Templates The current estimating techniques being used for estimating organizational change include comparative.) The following guidelines are intended to provide a high-level idea of the amount of time required. and execute an event. You will need to adjust these estimates based on your project and team-related experience. Organizational Change as an overall level of effort:  One person. ETP and Requirements/BAA equals two phases) J = Judgment factor (use 5 for low-end. and deploying the communication event. use a proportional estimate of 10% . and 15 for high-end complexity) Estimating Technique Guide .) A minimum of 5% of the overall effort to a maximum of 40% of selected project phases. We have developed two estimating templates. discussed in the prior section. design.) An average of 4 to 20 hours per change enabling communication event. design.15% of the overall effort. (Effort = F * S * P * J) where: F = Complexity factor as calculated below S = Number of stakeholder groups P = Number of project phases (example. developing. the general readiness for change. The complexity of the engagement. the types of communication vehicles. These guidelines include planning. Another formula for estimating the amount of time required for change enabling communication follows. Expect the Subject Matter Expert to spend most of his or her time during the phase transitions (beginning and end of each phase.  Communication Plans: The following formula can be used to estimate the effort to design and deliver communication events. Estimating Techniques. appear to address organizational change activities. approving. expert judgment. You will need to adjust these to fit your specific project environment.  The number of stages of acceptance is 5. and widget counting. (This does not apply to a very sophisticated event such as a video component. for the duration of the project. proportional. draft. designing. prior experiences. None of the estimating tools.  Two guidelines have been given for estimating the hours per event. and deploy the communication. 10 for average. 2. and from our various field visits.

and impacted business unit.000 9    Percent of Organization Impacted by Change PO factor 10 to 30% 2 For example: Your client has approximately 5.0 No Resistance 1.4 Much Resistance 1.000 8 50 to 100% 4 500. (CS (5) * PO (2) = 10) Estimating Technique Guide . The estimated number of stakeholder groups is 10.000 6 50.000 4 Up to 10% 1 5.) Minimum number of stakeholder groups for an enterprise-wide engagement is 6 (executive sponsors.0 Moderate 1. for a strategic change.44. use the following table to categorize the degree of change.   Minimum number of stakeholder groups for a small engagement is 4 (executive sponsors.44 x 7 x 1 x 10 = 100) Example 2. Degree of Change Anticipated Resistance Type of Change Number of Stakeholder Groups Minor 1.0 Anticipated Change 1.2 x 1.000 5 10. project management.the complexity factor (F) would be 1. Using this factor.Draft 37 2/26/2013 . Multiply the factor for each category to determine the complexity factor.or -. we could estimate the effort during a Requirements/BAA to equal about 475 days. and organization as a whole.4 x 1.2 Major 1.000 total employees.) To calculate the lower boundary of the number of stakeholder groups: divide the number of fulltime project team members (FTEs including client staff) by four and add two. and 7 stakeholder groups are involved -. with some resistance anticipated. ((project team FTEs / 4) + 2) To calculate the upper boundary of the number of stakeholder groups: divide the number of fulltime project team members by two and add four.0 x 1. extended project team.9 stakeholder groups 1.0 1 . with much resistance anticipated.95 x 12 x 1 x 10 = 475) Stakeholder Groups: The following guidelines have been defined for estimating the number of stakeholder groups. project team.4 Example 1: Assume the change is minor.3. subject matter experts. ((project team FTEs / 2) + 4) To estimate the number of stakeholder groups bases on the company size and percent of employees impacted by the change use the following tables to multiply the size (CS) factor by the percent of organizational change (PO) factor: Company Size CS factor 100 2 500 3 1. which accounts for 20% of the company. The project is expected to only impact the corporate office.95.2 Tactical (business unit) 1.2 x 1.000 7 25 to 80% 3 100. type of change and number of stakeholder groups.4 x 1.0 = 1.2 = 3.or -.1.2 Some Resistance 1.4 x 1. Assume the change is major. anticipated resistance.the complexity factor (F) would be 1. and 12 stakeholder groups have been identified -.25 groups 1.4 Strategic (organization) 1. Using this factor. (Effort = F x S x P x J -. project management. (Effort = F x S x P x J -. we could estimate the effort during a Requirements/BAA to equal about 100 days.Estimating Technique Guide To compute the Complexity Factor (F).4 More than 25 groups 1. for a tactical change. project team.2 10 .

and deployment. acquisition. In addition. instructor-led training. The attendees review the estimated resource use and the responsibilities for all technical and administrative personnel. Technical Infrastructure No specific estimating guidelines have been identified at this time. It is accomplished in conjunction with preparing and updating of the Project Management Plan and the Software Development Plan. Training and Education Assuming the forum will be traditional. conducted at startup. and use one monitored in project startup and performance tracking activities. 3. In Estimating Technique Guide . This could range as high as 80 hours of development time per hour of delivery for world-class instructor script and participant guides. Computer resources planning. financial spread sheets). This can range from as low as 2 hours to as high as 12 hours per role. standard contract and task order negotiation (if applicable).Draft 38 2/26/2013 . The hardware acquisition will be a part of the project. Review and analysis are dictated by the types of activities (e. Cautions None have been identified. The planning and estimation for production or development hardware platforms will be developed in accordance with hardware feasibility and sizing studies that are included in task performance criteria. If a new project or new task order requires new hardware. database. The review considers the type of equipment for all personnel and the peak periods of performance for all devices or units. directs correlating staff duties and skills and computer resource use. use a guideline of 10 hours of development time for each hour of delivery. At project start up. use 4 hours per role as a guideline. The prime objective is to develop a plan for estimating and acquiring computer resources and then to analyze the use so that hardware requirements are satisfied. The planning and analysis of computer resource use should be conducted monthly as an integral part of the project performance and exercised in conjunction with ongoing project tracking and oversight. Critical Computer Resources and Facilities Infrastructure No specific estimating guidelines have been identified at this time. all documents and planning materials developed in previous stages are used for project. the task order team and contract staffing (if applicable) consider the work allocation and equipment needs that were planned into the task order performance.. implementation. 2. Steps for Planning/Estimating are: 1. the PM conducts a meeting with all section managers of all key activities.g.Estimating Technique Guide Roles and Responsibilities: Assuming that your are creating a role (job description) from scratch and have some starting material. The equipment is then listed in direct relationship to the staff and contract performance. testing. terminal access. Each section manager identifies their staff’s roles and responsibilities. task order and computer resource planning. Critical Computer Resources may be estimated Critical Computer resource planning and estimating is an on-going activity. word processing.

The timeline developed and provided to the section managers for review. a current hardware configuration from a system specification and a current hardware use report from the Operations and Maintenance Team may be used. 6. The current use of resources is compared to acquisition of future resources. adjustments are made to the acquisition plans. A common guideline is to use a 1 to 6 ratio. the total management and coordination effort should be approximately 15% to 20% of the total project effort. The Analysis and Design Manager maps the acquisition strategy against the staffing profile or an existing plan to develop a new resource acquisition plan and budget. we generally used a staff and duration model to estimate development coordination. Management and Coordination Specific estimating guidelines have not be developed for this phase at this time. The Project Manager and the section managers review the use report to analyze use of memory and the storage. and device capacity. and program management. channel capacity.Draft 39 2/26/2013 . The current Hardware Acquisition Plan from the Software Development Plan and project/ontract budget provide insight to the equipment that is available and what new equipment is planned for the future. The system administrators monitor the use of critical computer resources and report the use to the PM monthly as the project progresses. The Analysis and Design Manager review the plan with the PM and the accounting and finance personnel. The project/task order plan is then used to update the contract and site plans for hardware acquisition. Estimating Technique Guide . project management. If the team lead activities have not been included in the other project phases. be sure to include them here. 5. 7. usage of network. 8. The Analysis and Design Team manager maps the acquisition strategy on a timeline. The computer resources acquisition plans for a task order is built to reflect any required increase in current or planned contract hardware capabilities. During our field support visits. a simpler update is developed for the task or contract budget. In general. and changes are proposed to the client. The plan is used to update the planned hardware expenditure for the contract.Estimating Technique Guide addition. 4.

and team size. To use these spreadsheets: 1. and 10% scenarios. 8. If you did not receive these file attachments or if you have any questions on how to use these spreadsheets. team size. provides grand totals for staff count. such as the entire project team. Totals are provided of each category. and cost. The first worksheet. This worksheet provides total weekly and project expenses by individual. The user defined fields are in “blue”. and miscellaneous expenses. Estimating Template User Guides The following user guides provide some general directions on how to use each of the estimating templates. meals. Option 2. You can modify the proportional factors or add additional scenarios. Potential customization options include:   Modifying the IT Services and Client spreadsheet to represent billable and non-billable effort. timebox. 2. Staff and Duration Estimating Templates Two estimating spreadsheets have been provided. or development build. hours. Simply enter the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA and the spreadsheet projects the remaining project effort based on 7%. The spreadsheet that allows for two groups of resources provides sub-totals for each group along with aggregated totals. For each unique project role. these are calculated based on the weekly expense amount. and the estimated expenses for: airfare. Modifying either spreadsheet to specify hours and costs by project phase. the number of resources (count). release. Each spreadsheet calculates the total hours and cost for each role. the overall project. allows you to specify the above expense categories and project duration on an individual by individual basis. Either of these spreadsheets can be tailored to your specific estimating needs. This cell is used to calculate hours based on the duration that you have entered. Either of these worksheets can be easily customized to meet your specific project requirements. One allows for a single resource group. so the duration to hour conversion factor has been set to 40 hours. and computes an average billing rate. lodging. The second worksheet. Each spreadsheet allows you to compute the total hours and cost by project team role. parking. such as IT Services and the client staff. The template assumes a custom (ICD) development approach. It also provides totals for each expense category . The duration used in the template is weeks. project duration. The second allows for two resource groups.5%. A grand total is also provided. Estimating Technique Guide . Option 1. allows you to identify the project’s duration (in weeks).Draft 40 2/26/2013 . It is based on the assumption that a Requirements/BAA accounts for 7% to 10% of the total project effort. cab/ auto. enter a role description. Add or delete roles as needed. please contact any of the Estimating and Metrics team members. Travel Expenses Template This spreadsheet provides you with two options for estimating travel related expenses.Estimating Technique Guide Appendices Estimating Templates Please refer to the additional file attachments for these spreadsheets. and the hourly billing rate for this role. and computes an average weekly travel expense based on the total project expenses and the total number of weeks. Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template This spreadsheet projects the hours for the remaining phases of a project based on the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA phase. the length of duration. Enter the duration to hour conversion factor.

or by using a proportional level of effort. Complete the PBD Details worksheet: a) Enter the estimating details on the PBD Details worksheet. The estimated effort to complete each unit. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. enter the number of staff being managed and the percentage of team lead responsibility. For each role. To use this estimating template: 1. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. Est Ttl. The other supports multiple applications. b) For the team leadership activity. deliverables. Modify these activities to meet your specific project requirements. estimating drivers. or package. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. the second supports multiple applications. (Note: Another option would be to include the team lead activities in the management and development coordination worksheet. estimating drivers. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the package-based sub-phases. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort of each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet.) c) The worksheet will calculate sub-totals for each sub-phase and provide an overall summary at the bottom of the worksheet. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. and duration. such as a workshop. The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each subphase and an overall estimate. included in the spreadsheet. The estimate total worksheet. Use this worksheet to enter the key activities. business function. 1. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains three worksheets. contains all of the estimating details by sub-phase. Mgmt. The management and development coordination worksheet.Estimating Technique Guide Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. and displays the total estimated hours. • The average number of staff involved in completing the activity. One spreadsheet supports a single package-based application. Define the key deliverables. The template contains some general activities for each of the package-based development sub-phases. one supports a single package-based application. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. These hour totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. and any estimating assumptions or comments. enter a description. and comments for each sub-phase. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. the estimated effort for each unit. Both estimating templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. 2. • • The number of units. number of staff. The package-based development detail worksheet.Draft 41 2/26/2013 . PBD Details. 2. summarizes the project sub-phases. For each activity or work product. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. The estimating drivers should include: • The unit of measure. timebox. The summary contains both hours and a percentage of the total effort. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. and comments for each activity. you can specify the number of units. 3. Estimating Technique Guide . The user defined fields are in “blue”.

reports. One spreadsheet supports a single custom-developed application. one supports a single iterative custom-developed application. To use this estimating template. C functions. Both templates allow you to build a bottom-up estimate based on the number of “widgets” being developed. The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each category and an overall total. The spreadsheet accumulates totals for each type of widget and links these totals to a summary worksheet to provide a high-level summary of your estimates.Estimating Technique Guide b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. The other supports multiple applications.Draft 42 2/26/2013 . 1. 3. conversions. PBD Summary. As you define each of these widgets. you can rate the complexity of each widget on a scale from 1 to 10. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. The detail matrix worksheet references additional look-up tables that contain the appropriate estimates based on the type of widget and its complexity. Tuxedo services. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. defines and categories all of the widgets that need to be developed. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the business system design. cell P3. provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. summarizes the project sub-phases. Est Ttl. The user defined fields are in “blue”. included in the spreadsheet. servers. application development completion. 2. enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. The only difference is in the PBD Details worksheet. PGM Matrix. the second supports multiple applications. Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates provided. This worksheet allows you to enter detailed estimating information for each application area. conversions. and PBD Detail worksheets to add or subtract application areas. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. b) Enter the proportional factors for Integration and Deployment. Oracle forms. reports. Use this worksheet to enter the widgets that need to be developed for each category. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. interfaces. windows. and common functions. PBD Summary. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. This additional worksheet. The estimate total worksheet. or by using a proportional level of effort. integration and deployment phases. and displays the total estimated hours. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. adjust this factor accordingly. common objects. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains four worksheets. The program matrix worksheet. You can adjust the Est Ttl. windows. The template currently allows for menus. c) As a option. These widgets can include menus. To do this. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. Estimating Technique Guide . Both templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. interfaces. You can adjust these look-up tables to reflect your specific project environment. Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same three worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus an additional summary worksheet. you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. The template currently allows for 3 application areas.

EST Matrices. Estimating Technique Guide . To do this. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. cell P3. The management and development coordination worksheet.) b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. 4. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate. Integration.Draft 43 2/26/2013 . contains estimating matrices for a variety of different types of widgets. Complete the PGM Matrix worksheet: a) Enter the widgets that need to be developed into the appropriate categories. that worksheet will reference the PowerBuilder estimate matrix and retrieve the per unit estimate for a level 5 complexity window. For example. and duration. and its level of complexity on a scale of 1 to 10.) 2. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. Mgmt. you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. For each type or category of widget this worksheet contains estimates for 10 levels of complexity. The program matrix worksheet uses these estimate matrices as a look-up table. The worksheet will retrieve the per unit estimate from the estimate matrices worksheet. If you do modify or add additional categories. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. For each entry you can specify the name of the widget. For each role. The estimate matrices worksheet. 3. Additional categories can also be created if needed. and calculate totals. adjust this factor accordingly. number of staff. They have not been accounted for in the prior worksheet. b) Enter the proportional factors for the BSD. the number of units.Estimating Technique Guide 3. compute a total hour and day estimate based on the number of units specified. Category and overall totals are provided. c) As a option. cross-reference information. level 1 being the simplest and level 10 being the most complicated. enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. ADC. b) The categories contained on this template can be modified to meet your specific project. enter a description. (Caution: The per unit estimate column in this worksheet is extremely sensitive with the row and column coordinates within the estimate matrices worksheet. corresponding changes will also need to be made to the other worksheets. To use this estimating template: 1. Be careful that you have defined the correct row and column coordinates when modifying this column. (Note: Be sure to include the team lead activities in this worksheet. and Deployment phases. if you enter a PowerBuilder window with a complexity level of 5 on the program matrix worksheet.

The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort of each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. You can adjust the spreadsheet to add more application areas. 2. An ICD Summary worksheet that provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. Use this worksheet to enter the key activities. one supports a single XAD-based application. and displays the total estimated hours. Estimating Technique Guide .Draft 44 2/26/2013 . included in the spreadsheet. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. summarizes the project sub-phases. To use this estimating template. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. deliverables. The estimate total worksheet. One spreadsheet supports a single XAD-based application. The management and development coordination worksheet.Estimating Technique Guide Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus two additional worksheets: 1. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. The template currently allows for 2 application areas. estimating drivers. The XAD-based development detail worksheet. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. contains all of the estimating details by sub-phase. XAD Details. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. Repeat the ICD Matrix steps for each application area. Mgmt. 2. 3. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the XAD-based sub-phases. The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each subphase and an overall estimate. or by using a proportional level of effort. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains three worksheets. and comments for each sub-phase. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. Both estimating templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. 1. The user defined fields are in “blue”. Est Ttl. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. An additional ICD Matrix worksheet for a second application area. and any estimating assumptions or comments. the estimated effort for each unit. The other supports multiple applications. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. the second supports multiple applications. For each activity or work product. you can specify the number of units.

To use this estimating template.) c) The worksheet will calculate sub-totals for each sub-phase and provide an overall summary at the bottom of the worksheet. estimating drivers. The summary contains both hours and a percentage of the total effort. enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. The estimating drivers should include: • The unit of measure. allows you to estimate the hours needed to design and deliver communication events based on the number of stakeholder groups. enter a description. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. This worksheet allows you to enter detail estimating information for each application area. b) For the team leadership activity. The estimated effort to complete each unit. c) As a option. 3. number of staff. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. adjust this factor accordingly. For each role. This additional worksheet. To do this. each represents an estimating option. The template currently allows for 3 application areas. b) Enter the proportional factors for Integration and Deployment. The spreadsheet contains two worksheets. Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same three worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus an additional summary worksheet. You can adjust the Est Ttl. These hour totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. and duration. b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. business function. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. and XAD Detail worksheets to add or subtract application areas. The first worksheet. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. or entities. 2. • The average number of staff involved in completing the activity. Complete the XAD Details worksheet: a) Enter the estimating details on the XAD Details worksheet. enter the number of staff being managed and the percentage of team lead responsibility.Draft 45 2/26/2013 . XAD Summary. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. Define the key deliverables. • • The number of units. and the number of stages Estimating Technique Guide . and comments for each activity. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. XAD Summary. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate. Communication Event Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the effort to design and deliver communication events. (Note: Another option would be to include the team lead activities in the management and development coordination worksheet. Modify these activities to meet your specific project requirements. The template contains some general activities for each of the package-based development sub-phases. such as a prototype set.Estimating Technique Guide To use this estimating template: 1. the estimated hours per event. number of project phases. provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. cell P3. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. Option 1. you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. The only difference is in the XAD Details worksheet.

The worksheet will compute the estimated number of stakeholder groups based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. Stakeholder Group Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the number of stakeholder groups. Estimating Technique Guide . Again. the number of project phases. the level of anticipated change. simply select the appropriate client size by entering a “1” in the correct category. Fractional sizes are permitted. number of stakeholder groups.Estimating Technique Guide of acceptance. allows you to estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the overall size of the client and the percentage of organizational impact. The worksheet will calculate the estimated hours for designing and delivering communication events based on the calculations described in Organizational Change estimating guidelines. select the desired values from each of the four complexity factor tables. Next select the percentage of organizational impact by entering a “1” in the correct category. you can only select one category. allows you to estimate the effort based on four complexity factors. The spreadsheet contains two worksheets. and average estimated number of stakeholder groups based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. These tables are used to categorize the degree of change.Draft 46 2/26/2013 . This worksheet will provide a low-end. and a judgment factor. Option 2. high-end. To use this worksheet. and a judgment factor. the number of stakeholder groups (within a range). The second worksheet. and the type of change. number of project phases. To use this spreadsheet. Team Size. The estimated effort in is hours and is based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. Client Size. To use this worksheet. The first worksheet. simply enter the project team size in full-time equivalents. To use this worksheet. You can only make one selection. Next enter the actual number of stakeholder groups. allows you to estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the size of the project team. The second worksheet. simply enter the correct values.

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