Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide Version 1

Estimating Technique Guide - Draft

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Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide
Table of Contents Introduction_____________________________________________________________4 Estimating Approaches ____________________________________________________4
Top-Down Estimating Approach ________________________________________________5 Bottom-Up Estimating Approach ________________________________________________5 Estimating Approach Comparison_______________________________________________6

Estimating Techniques ____________________________________________________6
Ballpark Estimating___________________________________________________________6 Proportional Percentage Estimating______________________________________________7 Comparative_________________________________________________________________8 Expert Judgment______________________________________________________________8 Proportional Estimating________________________________________________________8 Widget Counting______________________________________________________________8 Function Point Analysis________________________________________________________9 Feature Points_______________________________________________________________10 Technique Comparison________________________________________________________11 Estimating Technique Comparison______________________________________________12 Managing Multiple Estimates__________________________________________________12
Wideband Delphi Technique__________________________________________________________12 Weighted or Average Estimate________________________________________________________13

Commercially Available Estimating Tools____________________________________13
CHECKPOINT/KnowledgePLAN______________________________________________13
Overview_________________________________________________________________________13

Estimating Templates____________________________________________________14
General Purpose Templates____________________________________________________14
Staff and Duration Estimating Template...........................................................................................14 Travel Expenses Template.................................................................................................................14 Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template......................................................14

ASPIRE Phase Templates_____________________________________________________14
Vision and Strategy_________________________________________________________________14 Business Area Architecture___________________________________________________________14 Development______________________________________________________________________14 Integration________________________________________________________________________14 Deployment_______________________________________________________________________15

Specialty Area Templates______________________________________________________15
Development______________________________________________________________________15 Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template...............................................................15 Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template......................................15 Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template...............................................15 Organizational Change______________________________________________________________15

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Estimating Technique Guide
Communication Event Estimating Template.....................................................................................15 Stakeholder Group Estimating Template...........................................................................................15 Technical Infrastructure_____________________________________________________________16 Facilities Infrastructure______________________________________________________________16

Estimating Guidelines____________________________________________________17
Project-Wide Guidelines_______________________________________________________17 ASPIRE Phase Guidelines_____________________________________________________19
Vision and Strategy (ETP)___________________________________________________________19 Business Area Architecture (Requirements/BAA)_________________________________________20 Development______________________________________________________________________21 Integration________________________________________________________________________21 Deployment_______________________________________________________________________21

Specialty Areas______________________________________________________________22
Development______________________________________________________________________22 Package Based Development (PBD)..................................................................................................22 Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) Sub-Phase.........................................................................24 Iterative Custom Development (ICD)................................................................................................26 Accelerated Application Development (X/AD).................................................................................33 Organizational Change______________________________________________________________36 Technical Infrastructure_____________________________________________________________38 Critical Computer Resources and Facilities Infrastructure__________________________________38

Management and Coordination_________________________________________________39

Appendices_____________________________________________________________40
Estimating Templates_________________________________________________________40 Estimating Template User Guides_______________________________________________40
Staff and Duration Estimating Templates_______________________________________________40 Travel Expenses Template___________________________________________________________40 Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template______________________________40 Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template__________________________________41 Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template______________________42 Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template__________________________44 Communication Event Estimating Template_____________________________________________45 Stakeholder Group Estimating Template________________________________________________46

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Estimating Technique Guide

Estimating Technique Guide Introduction
Company Management has stated that there has been some history of Significant Project Cost and Schedule Overruns. Issues identified included:  Many project over-runs are attributed to poor estimates. Current estimating techniques are perceived to be inconsistent, baseless, and inaccurate.  There is a tremendous financial risk associated with poor estimating techniques. High estimates can result in lost business opportunities. Low estimates increase the risk of project over-runs.  There is an inconsistent use of a disciplined estimating process. This problem occurs in the sales process and in estimating subsequent phases in an ongoing project.  There is disagreement and no general consensus on the best techniques for system development estimates.  There is little or no guidance for estimating Accelerated application, package-based system development, Non-traditional system development such as object-oriented development or Internet / Intranet development, Non-system development projects such as Performance Improvement Initiatives, Vision and Strategy, Business Architecture, IT Re-engineering, and Organization Change.  Few tools exist to support estimating and the usability and validity of these tools is not universally accepted. The purpose of this Estimating Technique Guide, along with the Estimating Process Guide, is to begin to address several of these issues. It will not resolve all of these issues. However, it can be an effective vehicle that allows us to share our collective experiences. Although the targeted audience of this guide is IT Services Consulting and Systems Integration, our goal is to utilize and share knowledge and experiences across all of IT Service’s divisions. Specific goals for this guide include:  Identifying estimating approaches, techniques, models and tools that have been used on prior IT Services engagements. There are a number of techniques, models and tools that are being used across the division. There are probably an equal number of opinions on which ones are the most effective. This guide identifies some of the most common techniques, models, and tools. It does not try to cover all of them; nor does it attempt to single out which technique, model and tool is the most effective. In reality, there is no “universal” technique that applies to all types of projects; each technique is valuable when used for the appropriate type of project. The key is to have an awareness of what techniques, models, and tools are available so that you apply the best set of techniques, models, and tools for your specific project.  Sharing information on the techniques, models, and metrics that have been used for various project phases. Many of the metrics defined are rules of thumb that have come from specific projects. Many of these have not been confirmed or compared against other projects so you will need to apply your judgment accordingly. This guide also includes some “gotchas” that were identified from past experiences; hopefully these will help you to avoid similar pit-falls as you develop your estimates.  Fostering communication regarding estimating and metrics between project team members, projects, business units, regions, and divisions. This guide, in and of itself, will not make us better estimators. All of us need to experiment and communicate our experiences with these techniques, models, and tools so that we can further define and refine them.

Estimating Approaches
There are two basic approaches for determining the estimates for a given component of a project, topdown and bottom-up. IT Services highly recommends that you estimate a project using both of these approaches. A top-down estimating approach takes an estimate for an entire project and breaks it down

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estimate each of these components. Since this approach looks at the entire project from a fairly high-level view. You should ensure that all of your low-level components are identified in or mapped to a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) or Statement of Work to ensure that you have accounted for all of the project’s components. If any of the lower-level task estimates is too low you must adjust the top level estimate upward or change the scope of the project. The starting point is an estimate of the size. A bottom-up estimating approach breaks the project into pieces. code and test the maintain customer address window.  This approach offers little or no basis for the cost justification of subsequent estimating iterations.  A non-labor item such as a product or service. you can develop a top-down estimate in a relatively short period of time and with a minimal amount of project related information. total effort. and then total the individual estimates to produce the overall project estimate. pagers.000 hours. For example. (Note: This is risky and not generally recommended. and travel related expenses.000 hours across the various activities and tasks that comprise a Requirements/BAA. Bottom-Up Estimating Approach Using this approach you first identify the low-level components of the project. training. according to a predefined formula as well as taking into account experience from similar projects and any known external dependencies that may act as constraints. Since this approach examines the project in much greater detail. Because of the level of detail required. examines each piece at a detail level. your prior project experience. printers. For example. lower-level components. Estimating Technique Guide . The total estimate is apportioned among the components.  The effort to develop a specific function of the completed software system. You can also adjust the hours per activity or task based on the required deliverables.  There is a tendency to define the scope in terms of the resources allocated rather than in terms of the activities or deliverables. Depending on the size and complexity of the project.) Disadvantages of this approach include:  You could miss low-level technical issues or special components of the system. and assembles all of the pieces and their estimates to come up with the overall project estimate. Examples include preparing for or documenting workshops or interviews. You can than use an estimating model such as Project Bridge Modeler to apportion the 1. development software. or tasks that make up the project. you can repeat this process to arrive at estimates for lower-level tasks. developing an integration or application test plan. The definition of a low-level component can vary widely and is very dependent on the type of the project. You should also use other estimating methods to cross-validate your results. and creating a detail project plan for a subsequent project phase. your bottom-up estimate is generally more accurate than your top-down estimate. or the time required to perform a project.Estimating Technique Guide into lower-level components.Draft 5 2/26/2013 . it requires more project related information and takes a longer time to develop the estimate. Top-Down Estimating Approach Using this approach you divide an overall estimate into separate. After completing the top down estimates for the lower-level tasks you must validate your estimate by checking to make sure that each of the lower-level estimates makes sense. Examples include PCs. installation fees. this estimating approach could be used to identify the level of work that could be delivered for that budget. if the client has a fixed budget. you may have determined that the total effort for a Requirements/BAA phase is 1.  You need some basis for apportioning the overall project estimate across the various subcomponents. For example. Examples of a low-level component include:  The effort to produce an intermediate product or deliverable. or the project team’s expertise. This estimating approach is helpful when you have relatively little knowledge of the project requirements or when the project is strictly limited by resources.

training.) Estimating Approach Comparison The following diagram illustrates a high-level comparison between these two estimating approaches. When estimating a project. No one estimating technique is ideal for all situations. Since you need have a more detailed view of the project requirements when using this approach. Ballpark Estimating With this estimating technique you use a combination of time. • Need basis for proportioning estimates across project sub-components. This technique can be used at any point in the lifecycle. Bottom-Up • Enforces relatively thorough analysis before estimation. Weaknesses • May miss low-level technical issues. • May omit special components of software system. Estimation Approach Strengths Top-Down • Particularly relevant if project is strictly limited by resources. • Identifies uncertainties in developers’ knowledge of system requirements or proposed solution. Each row represents a consistent set of estimates that may be determined based on any one of the variables estimated using expert judgment. it can yield a more accurate estimate than a top-down approach. • Requires significant effort to produce • Activities such as management and coordination cannot be estimated until underlying task estimates are complete. effort. peak staff. Once the estimate is developed. It can be used early in the lifecycle and when no historical information is available. • Tendency to define scope in terms of resources allocated rather than in terms of activities or deliverables.  It often requires more information than what is typically available at the time the estimate is required. a comparative estimate can be Estimating Technique Guide . These uncertainties will often result in assumptions in the estimate and the project’s Statement of Work. • Relatively little knowledge of proposed system required. and derived from the QSM SLIM completed projects database.  Activities such as management and development coordination cannot be estimated until the underlying task estimates are complete. • May overlook system-level costs such as integration. Estimating Techniques The following estimating techniques fit into either the top-down or bottom-up approach. This approach also helps to identify uncertainties regarding the project requirements or proposed solution.  It requires a significant effort to produce the estimate. (These tasks are generally estimated based on the duration of the project or as a percentage of the underlying tasks. are needed.Estimating Technique Guide One advantage of this approach is that it requires a relatively thorough analysis before you begin estimating. provided you haven’t forgotten anything. you need to decide which technique is appropriate and what adjustments. Disadvantages of this approach include:  You may overlook system-level costs such as integration or training. if any.Draft 6 2/26/2013 . each has its own strengths and weaknesses. • Has little or no basis for the cost justification of subsequent estimating iterations. • Often requires more information than is available at time of estimate.

The total of the group can be used to create one estimate for the group using the top down factors table to locate the total. they may be numbered. Consideration needs to be given to whether the current estimate is for an effort that is more like a Development/Enhancement effort or a Maintenance effort. Using the size and category within size. The ESLOC estimate is based on 100 Lines of Code per Function Point. Interfaces. close) .00% 9. it can be used to expand the known portion into a total estimate. Proportional Percentage Estimating With this estimating technique you use the size of one component to proportionally estimate the size of another.00% 6. manage. This technique is very effective when used appropriately.00% 18.00% Estimating Technique Guide .00% Maintenance 12. and using expert judgment. The list of configuration items can be sorted by group and combined into a single estimate. the table is completed by locating the effort hours and ESLOC in the top down factors table and entering them into the Effort Estimate and ESLOC columns in the Top Down Estimate by CI worksheet. the Design effort might be estimated as 22% of the Requirements effort.Development/Enhancement Quality Assurance Reviews Development / Enhancement Analysis (Requirements) [Solution Definition] Development / Enhancement External Design Development / Enhancement Internal Design Development / Enhancement Procedures and Training Development / Enhancement Construction (Code/Unit Test) [Solution Generation] Development / Enhancement Test [Solution Validation] Development / Enhancement Implementation [Solution Deployment] Labor Distribution Standard for "Maintenance" Work Types Project Management (start-up. The group total can then be used for a single estimate for size (ESLOC). If there are logical groupings of configuration items. For example.Development/Enhancement Quality Assurance Reviews Maintenance Analysis (Requirements) [Solution Definition] Development/ Enhancement 15.00% 5. close) . or Programs in the visualized solution can be identified and entered into Top Down Estimate by CI worksheet. Time in Months. and Effort in Hours columns for guidance in determining each size estimate. a proposed solution is visualized. There are different proportional models for different types of life cycles. with a productivity index assumed to be slightly less than the average productivity of companies in the SLIM database having a SEI CMM Level 2 productivity index.00% 8. which must be considered in developing proportional estimates. The final estimates can be compared to other estimates for analysis.Draft 7 2/26/2013 .00% 27. Configuration Items.00% 9. and Testing/Pilot 33% of Requirements effort.00% 12. the totals can be calculated.00% 13. Using the factors table. After all Configuration Items are estimated.Estimating Technique Guide developed using a proportional technique. The groupings can then be used to combine individual configuration items into packages of work for estimation by group. a size can be determined between Very Very Small and Very Large. Construction 45% of Requirements effort.00% 15. Using the Business Case documentation. For example: Labor Distribution Standard for "Development / Enhancement" Work Types Project Management (start-up. manage. At the same time the Category with Size can be determined. If any portion of the labor distribution is estimated. the Modules. when the estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor. Estimates are developed using the Peak Staff.

and Deployment phases of the project. the design effort might be estimated as 40% of the coding effort.Draft 8 2/26/2013 . It can also be useful for estimating low-level components such as documentation. or programming a specific system component. when the estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor. the target project.00% 5. You also happen to know of a similar type of project that was also custom developed. with other projects similar in scope and type to produce an estimate. processor capacity. you identify project characteristics that can be counted and that are performed on a recurring basis (the “widget”). System and Integration Testing. estimate the effort for each type of widget. printer volume. This technique is very effective when used appropriately. The major weakness of this technique is that a project is not thoroughly assessed. after using widget counting to derive the estimate for the Requirements phase of a project and then used proportional factors to estimate the Design. It differs from the comparative technique in that the reference projects are not explicitly identified. Since this reference project covered roughly 50% of the functionality needed by the new system. For example.00% Comparative Using this estimating technique. This technique relies heavily on the experience of the estimators and their ability to gauge the target project in relation to the comparative data available.Estimating Technique Guide Maintenance External Design Maintenance Internal Design Maintenance Procedures and Training Maintenance Construction (Code/Unit Test) [Solution Generation] Maintenance Test [Solution Validation] Maintenance Implementation [Solution Deployment] 9. and determine the total effort by applying these estimates against the total number of widgets. However. The comparison is normally performed at a high-level with little reference to detail.00% 4. Previous personal experience or estimating guidelines can help provide these proportionality factors. Proportional Estimating With this estimating technique you use the size of one component to proportionally estimate the size of another. Expert Judgment This technique relies on the extensive experience and judgment of the estimator to compare the requirements for the component being estimated against all projects in his/her previous experience.00% 18. you could develop a comparative estimate for the new telecommunications systems by doubling the actual effort from your reference project. you compare the project at hand. This technique is useful as a “sanity check” for an estimate produced by another method. the number of printers might be estimated as one for every 6 users. Widget Counting Using this estimating technique. it should be used only if time is limited or a relatively large uncertainty in the estimate can be tolerated. You can use this technique for lower-level tasks such as developing a reporting sub-system or a customer maintenance window.00% 15. it should not be used as a crutch to pass the estimating responsibility on to some other component. Using this technique will magnify estimating errors being made elsewhere. Quality Assurance might be estimated as 3% of the total project effort. The comparison does not have to be at a project or phase level.00% 40. For example you have been asked to estimate the custom development for a new telecommunications system. Proportional estimates can be used in combination with other estimating techniques. Code/Unit Test. For example. Typical widgets may be Estimating Technique Guide . Implementation. This technique also requires some type of historical data to compare against. You could even add an additional percentage of effort to account for some of the unknowns in the new system. Therefore.

output display screens. index.  The effort to develop or complete the project must be reasonably proportional to the number of widgets.Draft 9 2/26/2013 . Function Point Analysis This estimating technique is suited for projects that are based on straightforward database input. Adjusting this function point count based on the overall project complexity. An input can originate directly from the user or from user-generated transactions from an intermediary system.  Output—Any unique unit of data or control information that is procedurally generated by the system for the benefit of the user.  You must be able to produce an estimate for the effort of each widget type. You may assign complexity factors to each type of widget (simple. However. requirement specifications. screens. and inquiry.  Inquiry—Each unique input/output combination. files. complex) and weight the effort accordingly. developer’s skill level. Use the following criteria when determining whether you should be using this estimating technique:  There must be enough detail information to allow you to identify and count the widgets. A logical file may span many physical files (e. output. database fields. it is treated as a single logical internal file for sizing purposes. and overflow). windows. Assigning a complexity to each of these function types. with low algorithmic processing complexity. and the organization’s line of business. 2. This provides for a level of independence from the specific hardware platform. This includes database tables and records on physical files describing a single logical object. maintenance. data. database entities.Estimating Technique Guide menu choices. and messages. medium. reports. Translating the function point count to an effort estimate based on a function point delivery rate. Advantages for using Function Point Analysis include:   The project is viewed from the perspective of the user rather than the developer. languages. This is typically done by using the comparative approach based on historical metrics data or by prototyping the implementation of one of the widgets. in terms of user functions rather than programs. and test cases. that is.. Inputs exclude transactions or files that enter the system as a result of an independent process. An inquiry is distinct from an output in that it is not procedurally generated. described below. Estimating Technique Guide . Function Point Analysis is the basis for several automated estimating tools. in which the online user defines an inquiry as input and the system responds immediately with an output. This would include logical units forming part of printed reports. 5. (This is probably the most difficult step. The estimates can be developed from knowledge of the requirements without a detailed design solution being known. even though the project is not necessarily made up purely of widgets.  Logical Internal File—Any logical group of data held by the system. 4.g. The result of an inquiry may be a display/report or a transaction file that is accessible by the user. pages of documentation. audit trails. The basic steps involved in this estimating technique include: 1.) Function points are viewed from the perspective of the system boundary and are comprised of the following types:  Input—Any data or control information provided by the user that adds or changes data held by the system. Tallying the function types and applying pre-defined weighting factors to these totals to drive a single unadjusted function point count. or objects.  External Interface File—Each logical group of data that is input to or output from the system boundary to share that data with another system. Decomposing the project or application into a defined set of function types. 3.

As a result. there is little difference in the results between Function Points and Feature Points. and middleware. process control. you should read one of the published books on this subject. Feature Points This estimating technique is an extension to the function point analysis technique. which has established standards to help encourage consistency in counting function points. For real-time or highly algorithmic systems. The use of function points is not widely accepted within IT Services. There is also a users group. The Function Point count for such systems totals only 60 to 80 percent of the Feature Point count. both techniques result in nearly the same number of “points”. space systems.Draft 10 2/26/2013 .Estimating Technique Guide  The use of Function Point Analysis is accepted internationally. It involves adding a number of algorithms with an average complexity weight and changing the function point weighting in other areas. Since the concept of Function Point Analysis was developed with older technologies and development approaches. Function Points can be complicated to administer. Disadvantages for using this estimating approach include:     This approach does not accurately estimate systems that are largely algorithmic such as military systems. however. International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG). function points. we have not gathered any estimating guidelines or metrics for function point estimating. Formal training is needed before you can consistently count. For typical management information systems. and therefore track. the results can be significantly different between these two techniques. Estimating Technique Guide . Note: Before using this estimating technique. it is not certain how well this concept applies to newer technologies and development approaches such as object-oriented development. However. robotics. variations of Function Point Analysis are being developed to address the newer technologies and development approaches.

even though system is not necessarily made up purely of widgets. may not be repeatable by anyone other than the “expert”. business of organization..  Requires formal training.  Estimates can be developed from knowledge of requirements without a detailed design solution being known.  Project viewed from user. quality assurance.  Does not yet have overall acceptance. space systems.g.  Expert Judgment Estimate can be extremely accurate.  Can magnify estimating errors made in other areas.  Widget Counting Effective for systems that can be characterized by widgets  Function Point Analysis Feature Point Well suited for standard Management Information System projects with little internal processing complexity. files).Estimating Technique Guide Technique Comparison The following table highlights the strengths and weaknesses of these estimating techniques: Estimation Technique Comparative Strengths Estimate can be very accurate if a suitable analogy can be identified.  Weaknesses Historical data repository required. user functions rather than programs.  Requires formal training.  Same strengths as Function Point Analysis.  Provides independence from hardware platform.  Single data point. with added benefit of accounting for algorithms and internal processing complexity. developers’ skill at code efficiency.  Estimating Technique Guide . especially those using 4GL. configuration management).  Consistency encouraged through established international standards for function point counting.   Proportional Effective when estimated value really does depend proportionally on another factor (e.  Assumes effort to develop system is proportional to number of widgets.  Can be complicated to administer.  Identifies requirements tradeoffs. report writer. robotics. perspective (e.  Does not have overall acceptance within IT Services.  Can be complicated to administer.  Requires previous personal experience or experience-based guideline metrics for proportionality factors.Draft 11 2/26/2013 .  Magnifies size errors if widget effort estimates are incorrect. Identifies areas where requirements clarification is needed.g. or CASE tool environments. software management. languages.  Does not accurately estimate systems that are largely algorithmic such as military systems.  Often difficult to find comparable projects. not developer.  Must be verified by another method.  High risk.. and process control.

you have various degrees of confidence. 2. & ETP Business Area Architecture Development Integration Deployment Development Organizational Change Technical Infrastructure Facilities Infrastructue Year 2000 Development Coordination Project Management Program Management Not Recommended Recommended Optional/ Sanity Check Managing Multiple Estimates The following techniques can be used to manage multiple estimates. The lead estimator presents the same specification to each expert. Estimating Techniques Comparative Proportional Expert Judgement Widget Counting Function Point Analysis Feature Point Analysis Specialty Areas Project Phases Mgmt and Coord. This can occur when you have used different techniques to estimate a project or component. This technique consists of the following steps: 1.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Technique Comparison The following diagram illustrates the recommended estimating techniques for the various ASPIRE project phases. The experts independently develop estimates and give them to the coordinator.Draft 12 2/26/2013 . specialty areas. and management and coordination activities. The lead estimator calls a group meeting in which the experts discuss estimation issues. and incomplete knowledge. Estimating Technique Guide . misunderstandings. Vision & Stategy. or when you have multiple estimators. the Wideband Delphi technique is useful to enforce convergence of the different estimates. The basic goal of this technique is to achieve a more accurate and reliable composite estimate. thereby reducing the impact of individual biases. Wideband Delphi Technique When several estimators are estimating the same project or component. 3.

quality estimating.  Perform what-if analysis for a variety of variables including CASE tools. In general. and steps 4–6 are repeated until a consensus is reached.  Aggregate data across selected projects. In most of these tools. Estimating Technique Guide . and your pessimistic estimate will be your conservative estimate. estimating.  Measure all aspects of a software project at a user-defined level of granularity. Experts review estimates. they have not been calibrated against IT Services projects so you need to apply some judgment when using these tools.  Estimate the cost of developing systems as well as the cost of developing specifications and user documentation. risk analysis. this formula will result in an estimate very close to the “realistic estimate”.  Perform side-by-side comparisons of project versions. quality. measurement. 5. from Software Productivity Research Inc.700 software projects. and pessimistic is up to the individual(s) developing the estimate. It offers the capability to:  Predict source code size. languages. is a knowledge-based software management tool that can analyze. 6. and technology assessment. Typically. CHECKPOINT integrates sizing. planning. different projects.. an algorithm is applied to the basic measure of size to produce an estimate of effort (e. and methodologies.  Estimate projects using a knowledge-base of over 4. Although these tools have generally been calibrated using a wide range of historical project data at other companies within the industry. scheduling. evaluate. EV = (1{O} + 4{R} + 1{P}) / 6 where: EV = Estimate Value O = Optimistic Estimate R = Realistic Estimate P = Pessimistic Estimate Note: The definition of optimistic. or a project against other established benchmarks. number of required personnel resources). and productivity. The lead estimator analyzes the estimates and distributes a summary containing the estimates with their medians.g.Estimating Technique Guide 4. Commercially Available Estimating Tools There are a number of automated estimating tools available to support estimating efforts.Draft 13 2/26/2013 . CHECKPOINT/KnowledgePLAN Overview CHECKPOINT. your optimistic estimate will be your aggressive estimate. but excluding rationale. realistic. Weighted or Average Estimate The technique uses the following formula to derive an average estimate.. your realistic estimate will be what you feel is the most likely estimate.  Assess a wide range of software attributes against industry standards for cost. The lead estimator calls a group meeting to discuss estimates. skills. schedules. value analysis. and store data about your development projects. focusing on where estimates vary widely.

General Purpose Templates Staff and Duration Estimating Template This template provides a simple spreadsheet to compute the total hours and cost based on the anticipated level of staffing and length of the project. The first option allows you to estimate these expenses as an average for the entire team. 8. Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template This template allows you to do a simple projection of the remainder of a project based on the actuals from the Requirements/BAA phase. One template allows for a single resource group. Detailed instructions for using these spreadsheets are located in the appendix. The estimating templates. Business Area Architecture The Estimating and Metrics team currently does not have any templates specific to this ASPIRE phase. and computes an average billing rate. and cost. The template allows you to define a project role. or modified. The generic Staff and Duration template could be used for this type of an engagement.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Templates There are a variety of estimating templates or spreadsheets being used throughout the organization to assist with our project estimating efforts. and 10% scenarios. ASPIRE Phase Templates Vision and Strategy The Estimating and Metrics team currently does not have any templates specific to this ASPIRE phase. You can modify these factors or add additional scenarios. The actual spreadsheets have been attached as separate files. Travel Expenses Template This template provides you with two options for estimating traveling expenses. such as IT Services and the client staff. Please refer to the Development estimating templates for a complete list. contained in the file attachments. provides grand totals for staff count. Integration Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this phase. provide two staff and duration estimating templates. Development A number of estimating templates have been collected that support the Development phase of ASPIRE. Estimating Technique Guide . It is based on the assumption that a Requirements/BAA accounts for 7% to 10% of the total project effort. the other template allows for two resource groups. hours. The second option allows you to specify estimated travel expenses on an individual by individual basis. and specify the duration and hourly billing rate for this role. if you are counting weeks in your duration. The spreadsheet calculates the total hours and cost for each role. created. Following is a high-level summary of the templates that the Estimating and Metrics team have obtained. you can specify that there are 40 hours per week. such as the project team.Draft 14 2/26/2013 . The template assumes a custom (ICD) development approach. The generic Staff and Duration template could be used for this type of an engagement. The general Staff and Duration estimating template can also be applied to this phase. You simply enter the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA and the spreadsheet projects the remaining project effort based on 7%. The various Development estimating templates generally use a proportional estimating factor for this phase. The template also allows you to specify a duration to hour conversion factor so that the total hours and cost are calculated on a per hour basis.5%. For example. identify how many individuals will fill this role (fractional values are valid).

The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort for each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. the second supports multiple applications. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. the estimated effort for each unit. Two estimating templates are provided. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. you can rate the complexity of each on a scale from 1 to 10.Estimating Technique Guide Deployment Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this phase. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. servers. and common objects. Stakeholder Group Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the number of stakeholder groups based on either the project team’s size or the overall size of the client. For each activity or work product. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. The detail matrix worksheet references additional look-up tables that contain the appropriate estimate based on the type of widget and its complexity. windows. or by using a proportional level of effort. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the business system design. The various Development estimating templates generally use a proportional estimating factor for this phase. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the package-based sub-phases. For each activity or work product. included in the spreadsheet. or by using a proportional level of effort. The general Staff and Duration estimating template can also be applied to this phase. As you define each of these widgets. the second supports multiple applications. and any estimating assumptions or comments. integration and deployment phases. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. one supports a single package-based application. application development completion. included in the spreadsheet. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the XAD sub-phases. the second supports multiple applications. reports. or by using a proportional level of effort. This template uses the calculations described in the Estimating Technique Guide . Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. interfaces. you can specify the number of units. Specialty Area Templates Development Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. one supports a single XAD application. included in the spreadsheet. The spreadsheet accumulates totals for each type of widget and links these totals to a summary worksheet to provide a high-level summary of your estimates. These widgets can include items such as menus. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template This estimating template allows you to build a bottom-up estimate based on the number of “widgets” being developed. the estimated effort for each unit. and any estimating assumptions or comments. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. these guidelines are provided later in this document. one supports a single iterative custom-developed application. Organizational Change Communication Event Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the effort to design and deliver communication events using the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. you can specify the number of units. Two estimating options are included in this template. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort for each activity and provide totals by sub-phase.Draft 15 2/26/2013 . You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. conversions.

Estimating Technique Guide . Facilities Infrastructure Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this specialty area except for Critical Computer Resources. simply enter the size of the project team in full-time equivalents. To estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the overall client size.Estimating Technique Guide Organizational Change estimating guidelines. you need to select the appropriate client size and percentage of organizational impact from the respective tables. To estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the project team size. Technical Infrastructure Specific estimating templates have not been developed for this specialty area. these guidelines are provided later in this document.Draft 16 2/26/2013 .

you will often need to make assumptions to “fill the gaps” in the information needed to create the estimate. interviews. or risks that you identify during this process in the Estimating Notebook. requirements. you need to understand the scope. especially the scope and approach sections.. and preferably three. ASPIRE Phases. specialty areas..  Use at least two. if you are trying to estimate an Enterprise Transformation Plan. There will be cases where your estimating process requires that you update your Statement of Work and visaversa. constraints.Draft 17 Development Coordination Business Architecture Project Management Deployment Program Management Integration Process Initiative 2/26/2013 . estimating approaches or techniques when estimating your project. Vision and Strategy Recommended Optional / Sanity Check Not Recommended Estimating Guidelines Project-Wide Guidelines The following estimating guidelines can be applied across all phases of a project. Using multiple approaches will help ensure a higher level of confidence in the final estimates. You will also need to identify any of the surrounding activities or components. These should be documented in your Statement of Work. Your estimate should include at least one top-down and one bottom-up approach. These items must also be incorporated into the project’s Statement of Work. travel. and management and coordination activities. project management time.  To estimate effectively. (Note: In most cases you will be developing the Statement of Work at the same time you are developing your estimates. For example. and delivery assurance.  On larger scale estimating efforts. Refer to the Estimating Process Guide for additional guidelines. Specialty Areas. will be a valuable source of input for your estimating process.Estimating Technique Guide ASPIRE Methodology Comparison The following diagram illustrates how the various estimating templates support the ASPIRE project phases. and the approach.) Estimating Technique Guide . Although these are often done concurrently.. you should take into account the effort to produce the final deliverables as well as the workshops. TBD . an initial draft of your Statement of Work. Be sure to document any assumptions. and Management and Coordination Activities Organizational Change Technical Infrastructure Facilities Infrastructure Development Staff and Duration Travel Expenses Estimating Templates: Requirements/Proportional Package Based Dev Iterative Custom Dev Accelerated Application Dev Ballpark Estimating Proportional Percentage ..

number of packages being evaluated. All too often we try to develop an estimate with a maximum price tag in mind and we let the “price” drive the “estimate”.  Include the effort for conducting architecture. Document these quantifiable units of measure in the Statement of Work and Estimating Notebook. and ½ hour for both individuals (manager and project team member) to review and discuss.  Try to separate the “pricing” from the “estimate”. design.  Use the following guidelines when estimating for project expectations and reviews: • For each project expectation: ½ hour to write. and the number of staff over some fixed duration of time.Draft 18 2/26/2013 . number of windows being developed.  Base your estimates on some quantifiable unit of measure.Estimating Technique Guide  Breakdown the project deliverables and work products into more manageable pieces by creating a work breakdown structure (WBS) that contains all of the components of the proposed solution.  When appropriate. Examples include the number of workshops being conducted. evaluate and approve estimates from sub-contractors. Estimating Technique Guide . One rule of thumb is to allow for 4 FTEs for 5 days every quarter. • Allow for 1 project evaluation for each team member every four months. business function. and development reviews in your estimates. • For each project evaluation: 1 hour to write and 1 hour for both individuals to review and discuss.

Manage client expectations on the length of the document to be presented and the depth to which it will extend. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your ETP estimates.    It takes four people approximately six weeks to complete an ETP study. Assuming a $200/hr billing rate this would translate to 250 to 1. Client expectations must be carefully managed as to the level of detail that will be provided as a result of the study. as well as one or two solid Business Analysts and a good Technical Architect who can take a pragmatic approach and make fact-based recommendations. significant cost overruns and loss of credibility are likely. assumptions. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. and Templates Recommended estimating techniques include comparative and expert judgment. even for a relatively small project such as an ETP. Another critical success factor is the staffing. A good client relationship person is key.    Estimating Technique Guide . If expectations are not properly managed.000 range. The total cost for an ETP seems to be in the $50.Draft 19 2/26/2013 . You can also use a proportional or widget counting technique to get an alternative estimate.Estimating Technique Guide ASPIRE Phase Guidelines Vision and Strategy (ETP) General Information Several interviews with project teams indicate that the "soft deliverables" associated with an ETP allow a fair amount of flexibility in the duration of the study. and from our various field visits. client expectations must be carefully managed as to the level of detail that will be provided as a result of the study.000 to $350. The primary deliverable is a prioritized listing of future steps to achieve the Vision set by the study. Plan on one to two days per page for preparing the final documentation. we must realize that IT Services will need to be prepared to do the work for those estimates. prior experiences.) Following are some rules of thumb that have been used on prior projects. even for a relatively small project such as an ETP. If expectations are not properly managed. Will we estimate IT Services involvement or leave the numbers "generic"? Will dollars be associated with the estimates? Will the estimates be considered "IT Service’s bid" for the work? In the likely event that the plans for the future studies become budgeted numbers for the client. The time to develop this plan is often underestimated.750 hours. Review these and adjust your estimates.  At the outset of the project. The answer usually does not "fall out" from the work done during the study. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. 1996. or risk factors accordingly. Estimating Techniques. None of the estimating tools that we have used address this phase of a project. A plan that we cannot live with surely is one the client cannot live with. The only estimating template that we currently have available for an ETP is the general staff and duration estimating template. Tools. significant cost overruns and loss of credibility are likely.

and Proportional Percentage. multidivisional. How many departments or locations will be involved? What is the client’s overall organizational structure? For example is the client’s organization largely regulatory. or competitors will be targeted? Do we have already identified an industry or business best practice for this type of client? Will there be a final presentation? Who will do the final sign-off.Draft 20 2/26/2013 . supplier.Estimating Technique Guide Business Area Architecture (Requirements/BAA) General Information The following questions can assist you in sizing the Requirements/BAA effort. The following staff size/ project duration have been used on prior Requirements/BAA efforts:  Six people for five months Estimating Technique Guide . how many customers. Possible estimating tools include Ballpark. multinational. you will need to adjust your estimates based your specific project. or competitor surveys be conducted? And if so. 1996. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated.) Following are some rules of thumb that have been used on prior projects. suppliers. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. prior experiences. and Templates Recommended estimating techniques include comparative and expert judgment. or decentralized? What is the scope baseline as defined by each of the six domains of change? What deliverables is the client expecting to be delivered? What is the expected level of detail for these deliverables? How many process threads will you be addressing? Is the client looking for a business process redesign or a business process improvement? How many conceptual data entities are expected to be involved? How many workshops are you expecting to conduct? How many individuals will be attending these workshops? What are the time box assumptions for each workshop? How many best practice interviews are you expecting to conduct? How many legacy systems are involved? Will customer. The only estimating template we currently have available for a Requirements//BAA is the general staff and duration estimating template.                   How many user representatives will be involved with the Requirements/BAA effort? How many representatives will be providing requirements? How many interviews will you conduct? Include interviews at the executive level as well as firstlevel management. and from our various field visits. I/S or the business users? How many individuals will be reviewing or approving deliverables? Will you need to create a business case for action? Will the client be using a value discipline? Has this already been established? How many alternative architectures is the client expecting? Estimating Techniques. You can also use a proportional or widget counting technique to get an alternative estimate. Since the scope and depth of the final deliverable for a Requirements/BAA can vary significantly from project to project. centralized. Tools. especially if you are going to use a bottom-up estimating approach. QSM Slim.

This will help the client in understanding the full impact of the change request. Your estimate and schedule should reflect this effort. Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes that are up to 10 times as much during integration testing. we generally used a proportional factor for this phase. The Requirements/BAA was for a small division and included all the processes for this division. resist the need for producing downstream estimates for BSD and Development until the Requirements/BAA has been completed. Review these and adjust your estimates. Workshops seemed to be the most efficient method. Deployment Specific estimating guidelines have not been developed for this phase at this time. Req /BAA: BSD: ADP: INT: Scope changes are generally 1 to 1. During our field support visits. Other estimating options include using a staff and duration model or basing the estimates on the number of test scenarios that need to be executed. knowing the estimating drivers that were used for these later phases will also help you to identify the overall impact of the scope changes. focused on data not processes)  Six people for three and a half months. Note: If you have already provided estimates for subsequent phases.  When possible.  Changes in scope during the Requirements/BAA will impact later phases of the project. Other estimating options include using a staff and duration model or basing the estimates on the number of deployment sites. there tends to be more committee decision making versus individual decision making. Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes that are 4 to 5 times as much during program construction. Changes in the Requirements/BAA could result in changes 2 to 3 times as much during the BSD phase. These hours are for the data modeler only. or nearly completed.Estimating Technique Guide  Four people for two months (Decision Support System. When applicable.  The overall client culture could increase the time and effort to resolve issues. Following are some general metrics regarding the impacts on subsequent project phases. Development Refer to the Development estimating guidelines for each of the specific Development paths. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your Requirements/BAA estimates. During our field support visits. be sure to include the potential estimate adjustment for later phases as well. Accurate estimates are very difficult to produce during the early phases of a project. Estimating Technique Guide . Integration Specific estimating guidelines have not been developed for this phase at this time. Data modeling metrics:  Four hours per entity using workshops. or risk factors accordingly. assumptions.  During the Requirements/BAA phase.  The Requirements/BAA effort generally involves intense senior business level participation. we generally used a proportional factor for this phase.Draft 21 2/26/2013 . reducing the potential “sticker shock” of subsequent phases. This will increase time frames.  Three people for three months.

An enhancement involves making a fix using the tools provided by the vendor. a configuration. Tools. we have had minimal success with using CA-Estimacs to estimate this type of a project.  Have a clear definition of an enhancement. and a modification. and Templates Estimating techniques that apply to a PBD effort include comparative.  How will the application or data be distributed across locations? Will the application or data be distributed over time?  Who (IT Services or client) will be responsible for managing the software vendor? Estimating Techniques. CA-Estimacs contains a packaged-based lifecycle model.Draft 22 2/26/2013 . is the client expecting a process improvement or a reengineering of its business processes?  Is a Technical Infrastructure included?  Will the project include PSD through implementation? Does the project scope include any production support? Any Training?  What is the messaging infrastructure (mainframe component)?  Does the project scope include data mapping?  Does the project scope include Organizational change for IS or the business community?  Does the project scope include a gap analysis? What percentage of change is the client expecting?  Will the project team have direct or intermediary contact with the users and decision makers?  How involved will the user community be?  Will IT Services have overall project control or will we be shadow-managing?  Does the project scope include a pilot? Does it include a roll-out?  What other tools (IT or project management) will be required for this project?  How much experience does the client have with the proposed platform? How sophisticated is the client with this platform? Additional support. Do Not Make Modifications!  Does the package include any modules that are provided by ancillary vendors?  Will the project include a Requirements/BAA? What is the extent will the business processes change. Checkpoint applies mainly to any proposed enhancements and is not recommended for a package-based development effort. We have developed a package-based estimating template that can support a single or multiple applications. A configuration involves setting a software parameter as intended. All of the estimating tools discussed in the prior section provide some level of support for a package-based development approach.Estimating Technique Guide Specialty Areas Development Package Based Development (PBD) General Information The following estimating guidelines apply to the entire PBD specialty area. expert judgment. More specific estimating guidelines have also been included for the Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) sub-phase. As a general rule. Estimating Technique Guide . and procedures may be required. A modification is a change to the core software code. and widget counting. however. The following questions can help you to size your overall PBD effort. policies.

however. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your PBD estimates. and a 1.Draft 23 2/26/2013 . assumptions.  Earlier software versions are generally prone to bugs and poor software performance. Estimating Technique Guide .  We often underestimate vendor and subcontractor efforts.  Clients often fail to provide full-time business resources.) Following are some suggested rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your estimate. You will need to adjust your estimates based on your specific project. and interface efforts.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April.  Software vendors are generally unwilling to modify their software. SAP Implementation:  A general rule of thumb is $1 million for an SAP implementation.  Although the minimum timeframe for an Oracle implementation can be as short as 6 .  Best of breed solutions often require multiple vendors. General:  We typically under-estimate the development. Review these and adjust your estimates. the average minimum timeframe for a generic implementation is 9 . prior experiences. you can usually distribute module specific information.  A SAP R3 implementation can be 10 times or more higher than the retail software price. Oracle. and from our various field visits.  Although the minimum timeframe for an SAP implementation can be a short as 6 months. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. and PowerSoft: Inflate server requirements 4 times the vendor statements.  A minimum client PC requirement is a Pentium processor with 24 meg of memory.  An Oracle 2 implementation can be 3 times or more higher than the retail software price.2 gig hard drive. 1996. 12 18 months is a more realistic minimum timeframe. if it does not have a distributed data architecture.  EDI capabilities are non-existent within the Oracle suite of applications.  Multiple database and application software vendors add to the overall risk and complexity. Oracle Implementation:  A typical Oracle implementation costs approximately $10 million. Oracle:  Oracle may not be considered true client server. conversion.  For SAP. An SAP implementation is often 2 times longer than an Oracle implementation. SAP:  SAP does not have a distributed data architecture.12 months. or risk factors accordingly.8 months.

for example.  Has a vision and strategy (ETP) been conducted? If so. platform. you may need to estimate all of the related equipment costs.  Will IT Services be managing the project or only assisting the client in managing this effort?  What will be the client’s involvement in the PES? What is the client’s experience level with PES?  What is the scope of the end package. to what extent? If not.Draft 24 2/26/2013 . are they willing to change their business process for the package or visa versa.  What is the I/S strategy for or their view towards the package or the package’s architecture? Is the package’s architecture in alignment with current I/S strategy? Will it be accepted by the I/S organization?  Have the equipment.  Does the client have a current or prior relationship with potential vendors? Are there any political issues that you need to be aware of?  How many functions or process threads is the new package going to address? How does this compare to the current system?  Does the client have a list of requirements?  Are there any unique functions specific to the client’s industry or the client’s company? Is the client considering being an industry center of excellence?  How many interfaces are you anticipating? Are there multiple systems or platforms?  Will the packaged solution be an enterprise-wide solution?  What is the client’s guiding principle towards business process change. will part of the PES need to address the vision and strategy?  Does PES also include the relevant activities of the Requirements/BAA or is this being estimated separately?  Will the PES selection process result in vendor’s submitting a response to either a Request For Proposal (RFP) or a Request For Solution (RFS)? An RFS will involve more effort. or technical requirements been identified? Estimating Technique Guide . Following is a list of scope questions that should be considered.Estimating Technique Guide Package Evaluation and Selection (PES) Sub-Phase General Information Understanding the scope of the PES is a critical factor when deriving your estimate.  Is contract negotiation part of the project scope?  Does the project scope include the Technical Infrastructure Acquisition (TIA)? If so. These items should be addressed in the project’s Statement of Work. will it be used solely for AR or will it also be used for order management?  Is the client looking for an integrated packaged solution or is the client looking for a best of breed solution?  What are the client’s budget thresholds?  What are the business drivers behind this initiative?  How many packages are you planning on evaluating? What is your evaluation approach for the top packages?  What is the client’s timeframe for choosing and installing the packaged solution?  What is the acceptance process? What is the acceptance criteria? These should be identified in the project’s Statement of Work.

MRP.  When estimating the selection process.Draft 25 2/26/2013 . multinational.  The minimum cost for a PES is $100K.  Level of organizational change required versus planned. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. distribution.) Following are some rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your estimate. MPS. assumptions. Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your PES estimates. tools.  When selecting the final package. prior experiences. Purchasing.  Confusion or misinterpretation of the client’s definition of specified business processes. Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. or risk factors accordingly. and project management. and Standard Costing. and logistics for distributing and receiving RFP or RFS responses. Bill of Material. Payroll. You should try to compare their definition with an APICS reference. WIP.Estimating Technique Guide Estimating Techniques. Order Entry.  A PES project should be staffed with one person per functional area such as financial.  Each major module will cost $25k or higher. For example. avoid a weighted point system as the ultimate decision maker. accessibility. Accounts Receivable. or HRSP. This time does not include the SDL.  Consider the vendor’s location. Tools. A major module is defined as a major functional subsystem. technical. manufacturing. Accounts Payable. Master Scheduling.  Vendor meetings with the client. Inventory.  Ensure that there is a real business value.  Client’s expectations of IT Services developing a vendor short list.  Multi-lingual. and multicultural capabilities or requirements.  Be sure to validate a vendor’s integrity through references. and Templates The same techniques. The staff should be experienced. Shop Floor Control. and from our various field visits. Review these and adjust your estimates. ERP/ MRPII has 15 major modules: General Ledger. and templates identified for a package-based development effort also apply to the PES sub-phase. Hackett Group. allow for 20 days or more for each major module. 1996. Human Resources. Estimating Technique Guide . You will need to adjust your estimates based on your specific project. AICPA.  Interfaces with other systems or packages. The minimum duration of 3 months elapsed time is needed to accommodate scheduling issues.

Additional Managers: Consider adding one additional FTE for every 15 -16 team members.  Following are some general metrics for additional “support” staff. Team Leaders: When a team lead is monitoring 3 or less developers. system architect. networks. Note: If you are using Widget Counting to estimate the development effort. 1996.) Following are some rules of thumb that you can use when deriving your ICD estimate. servers. programming. you will need to adjust these for more complex 3-tier applications.Estimating Technique Guide Iterative Custom Development (ICD) General Information Estimating Techniques. These hours are for coding and unit testing 2-tier applications. These estimates are based on an existing. Tools. then 100% of the individual’s time needs to be allocated to team leader activities.48 hours 80 . and unit testing of one program: Simple (Extract and Post): Medium: Complex (multiple systems or conversions): 80 hours 160 hours 240 hours  Following are some general PowerBuilder/ PowerTools metrics. There can be a simple query done in this window that does a select from a single table.32 hours 40 .4 boxes. DBA. or databases. Estimating Technique Guide .88+ hours Note: Simple Window: Contains 1-2 simple objects such as a drop down data window or single line edits. try to breakdown into simpler tasks in order to accurately estimate the progress of this task. You should adjust your estimates based on your specific project. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated. For estimates in excess of 88 hours. These individuals are in addition to a full-time project manager. the team leader activities are additional hours. These hours include technical design. If the team leader is monitoring up to 6 developers. application architect. The matrix based ICD estimating template is also an effective tool for this type of project. prior experiences.  Following are some general metrics for interfaces. Simple: Medium: Complex: 24 . and Templates All of the estimating techniques and tools discussed in prior sections provide some level of support for an iterative custom development effort. and test coordinator. approved prototype. 50% of this individual’s time can be allocated for team leader activities and the other 50% to development activities. and from our various field visits. Technical Support: Consider adding one additional FTE for every 3 . Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. Many of the data maintenance windows fall into this category.Draft 26 2/26/2013 .

multiple table (4 or more) joins in the SQL. The project team’s System Architect needs to be familiar with the stored procedure functionality and know when is it beneficial to use a stored procedure versus a C function or visa versa. you need to break these down into simpler tasks. Complex Window: Contains 3 . and unit testing. Medium Procedure: Contains 1-2 transactions. Note: The hour estimates for the complex functions are in excess of 80 hours. inserts. simple updates or deletes from the database. If these are greater than 120 hours.6 data windows with multiple objects on the window. Complex Function: Contains data manipulation.Draft 27 2/26/2013 . and complex exception handling. multiple table (2-4) joins in the SQL.  Following are some general ANSI “C” coding and unit testing metrics. multiple table (4 or more) joins in the logic. simple cursor manipulation. inserts and deletes across multiple data tables. code. Does not contain any logic. Complex data queries. updates and deletes from the database. There can be a simple query done in this function that does a select from a single table. Complex Procedure: Contains complex program logic. This stored procedure can have multiple transactions processing within the procedure.120+ hours Note: Simple Procedure: Contains a single simple query. such as sub-functions within the main business process.Estimating Technique Guide Medium Window: Contains several simple data objects or 1-2 complex data windows that have SQL selects with multiple table joins. and has multiple cursor management with in the stored procedure. Estimating Technique Guide . Note: These estimates were based on Oracle stored procedures. simple exception handling. updates and deletes from the database. inserts. Simple: Medium: Complex: Note: Simple Function: Does not contain a lot of complex computation or data manipulation . These hours are for design. simple logic within the stored procedure. A complex C function can also contain complex queries. Simple: Medium: Complex: 10 hours 20 hours 40+ hours 40 hours 80 hours 80 . complex queries. Medium Function: A more complex function that has data manipulation. Performance considerations are critical in this window and extra effort should be taken to make sure that this window is as efficient as possible. and has cursor management within the function. dynamic memory allocation for structures in support of complex data manipulation.  Following are some general metrics for stored procedures. and has multiple cursor management within the function. updates. complex data manipulation.

and additional 12 to 20 hours should be added to the estimates depending on the number of blocks. These following estimates are for Forms 4.Estimating Technique Guide  Following are some general metrics for creating a database. Simple (less than 25 tables): Medium (less than 70 tables): Complex (greater than 70 tables): 80 hours 160 hours 240 hours  The following metrics can be used to determine the effort for creating a logical data model: Four attributes per hour Five relationships per hour One entity per hour  Following are some general conversion metrics. Simple: Simple-Medium: Medium: Medium-Complex: Complex: 120 hours 160 hours 200 hours 280 hours 400 hours Note: Simple Conversion: A simple extract and post program. and list values contained in the window.20% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. Medium Conversion: Expect to have approximately 10 . fields. code. canvases. Medium-Complex Conversion: Expect to have approximately 20 . The average is approximately 3 hours per table. Estimates do not include performance turning. average database size. These estimates include the design. and unit testing for each conversion program.50% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. Expect that less than 10% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. Complex Conversion: Expect to have over 50% of the conversion programs to be classified in this category. Estimating Technique Guide . Note: Estimates are based on creating a physical build with a first cut at optimization. The actual conversion effort is not included. (If the form was created manually. Simple: A simple form is one that contains only one block and requires few edits or validations.) Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 24 hours 40 hours 64 hours 104 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these forms or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. single database and location with primary indices.Draft 28 2/26/2013 .  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Forms. Simple-Medium Conversion: Expect approximately 10% of the conversion programs to be classified in the category.0 and they assume that the form has been generated through Designer/2000.

Simple: A simple zoom is one that only has one zoom event and few zoom steps and has little or no effect on the zoom-to location. Medium: A medium report is one that contains two or three queries and a moderate amount of formatting. Estimating Technique Guide . Simple: A simple report is one that contains only one query and requires little formatting. Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 16 hours 32 hours 56 hours 80+ hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these zooms or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. execute an automatic query at the destination.Estimating Technique Guide Medium: A medium form is one that contains two or three blocks and a moderate amount of additional processing logic. Complex: A complex form is one that contains two or more blocks and requires a substantial amount of additional processing logic. or update data either the source or destination location. They are not commonly used (might not be supported) in their GUI version.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Reports. Medium: A medium zoom is one that may have only one zoom event but several soom steps or have some effect on the zoom-to location. Complex: A complex zoom is one that has several zoom events each with several zoom steps that perform some function in the zoom-to location. Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 8 hours 16 hours 32 hours 48 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these reports or whether these estimates include development and unit testing.Draft 29 2/26/2013 . Very Complex: A very complex report is one that contains two or more queries and requires a significant amount of formatting. Very Complex: A very complex form is similar to a complex form. copy data from source to destination.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Zooms. (For example.) Note: Zooms are commonly used with Oracle’s character-based version. except that the additional processing logic itself is complex.  Following are some guidelines for developing Oracle Alerts. (This is similar in concept to a “hot key”. Complex: A complex report is one that contains two or more queries and requires a substantial amount of formatting. The following estimates cover any custom zooms written to allow users to jump from one application form to another with the possibility of performing some processing once the user arrives at the new application form.) Very Complex: A very complex zoom is one where significant actions take place at both the source and destination locations using combinations of queries and triggers in multiple steps in each event.

Complex: A complex alert is one that might require several elegantly formatted detailed and summary actions in response to an event. prototyping.Draft 30 2/26/2013 .  Following are some generic custom development metrics. report is one that contains only one query and requires little formatting.5 x 11) of user documentation.  Estimate 8 hours of effort to develop one page (8. or other support activities. performance engineering. the following percentages can be used to break-down an estimate: Review Specification: Code Program: Compile Program: Code Review: Create Test Plan: Review Test Plan: Unit Test Program: Obtain Program Sign-off: 5% 15% 15% 5% 15% 5% 35% 5% Estimating Technique Guide . team leadership. Simple: A simple alert is one that incorporates simple SQL code to respond to well defined events or to perform very routine actions such as cleaning obsolete data out of a table. Very Complex: A very complex alert is one that requires interaction with the operating system in conjunction with detailed actions. Simple Design Code Test Total: Note: These numbers seem to be on the low side when compared to other metrics provided above.  Estimate 40 hours of effort to develop one hour for hands-on (classroom-type) training with labs. Medium: A medium alert is one that incorporates more detailed actions in response to events and contain more complex SQL. Also it is uncertain at this time whether unit testing is covered in the “coding” or “testing” phase. database activities. There numbers were based on a small sampling of projects and should be adjusted based on the knowledge of the specific project environment. They do not account for 4GL tools. and limited application/ integration testing.  Medium 17 40 8 65 Complex 34 80 16 130 10 24 4 38 For completing a program. code. The total hours cover design.Estimating Technique Guide Simple: Medium: Complex: Very Complex: 8 hours 16 hours 32 hours 48 hours Note: It is not certain whether these estimates only include just the development of these alerts or whether these estimates include development and unit testing. The metrics assume that the development is client/ server using C++ or Visual Basic. unit test.

These are generally unanticipated problems. You will need them for critical items such as network support. One definition of done: A developer is done with a module when all coding has been completed. assumptions.  Testing and Pilot includes: • String and Integration Testing: 40% of effort • User Acceptance Testing: 40% of effort • Performance Testing: 20% of effort As a reasonable sanity check for these phases. especially if the Requirements/BAA has not been completed. or risk factors accordingly. calculate the effort based on the anticipated staff count and duration. allow the Application staff to build the procedures and have the DBA staff review them. Note: you can never bring in the test coordinator too soon. Try to avoid estimating forward from the Requirements/BAA.  Being forced to estimate the entire project up-front. PowerBuilder.  We occasionally forget to account for fixed support staff (architects. and DASD management.) Cautions Following is a list of potential “gotchas” that could impact your ICD estimates.  Failure to distinguish between the various components of the application architecture: e. system architect (technical analyst).Draft 31 2/26/2013 .  Remember to make allowances for computer operations. This individual will need time to understand the project-specific business requirements. and peer (or management) reviews of the code. test plan and results. project managers. especially system and performance testing.  System complexity can have a huge multiplier effect on your estimates. and stored procedures. C. Estimating Technique Guide .  Include time to account for miscellaneous development problem solving.  The DBA staff being expected to build all stored procedures. Adjust your estimates accordingly. the code has been desk checked. Consider conducting regular meetings with key staff to look forward for unplanned tasks and potential workarounds.  Be sure to anticipate an lower level of utilization for client staff.Estimating Technique Guide  Following is a proportional percentage by project phase: Requirements /BAA: BSD: Construction: Testing/ Pilot: 10% 20% 40% 30% Notes:  Construction includes unit testing. and DBA roles. team leaders) when we adjust end dates due to schedule slips. test coordinator. (Calculate each phase separately. These individuals should be allocated for the entire ICD phase. the unit test plan has been completed and executed. Try to place these resources on non-critical paths. and software documentation have been completed. all software documentation has been completed. Instead.  Allocate time for project manager.  Failure to include time for all levels of testing.  3-Tier environments add an additional layer of complexity. backups.g. Review these and adjust your estimates. application architect (business analyst).  It is essential for the development staff to understand what “done” means before program development begins.  It is essential to have a frozen architecture before you begin development.

 Need to estimate the performance testing architecture and infrastructure. interface testing. Estimating Technique Guide .  We typically under-estimate conversions and the effort to cleanse the data.Draft 32 2/26/2013 . legacy system modifications. We generally rate programs as easy when they really have a medium complexity. New systems rarely map directly to the systems that they are replacing.  We also need to differentiate between benchmarking and performance testing. The performance levels should focus on business functionality not screen or program response. You may want to consider timeboxing manual data conversions.  Conduct pre-development walkthroughs to identify potential performance problems before the application is built.  Need to have target performance levels from the client.  The time required to select a vendor.Estimating Technique Guide  Avoid being too aggressive with complexity ratings. The effort to completely retire a legacy system is much more than just developing a new one. and training in the use of performance tools.  We should determine if legacy system retirement is within the scope of the project. Try to allow for these potential schedule delays.  Performance Testing:  We typically under-estimate or forget to estimate stress and performance testing efforts.  Need to estimate the effort for selecting . or implement hardware or software components can impact the project schedule. Adjust your estimates accordingly.  A mix of application languages will impact the level of effort.  We typically under-estimate or forget to estimate the effort needed to create a physical data design and to physically place the data on the server.  Be sure to identify and inventory interfaces and conversion programs. and legacy system testing. purchase hardware or software components.  We typically under-estimate the number of interfaces. purchasing. Data quality will be low and you could expect to have to cleanse 75% of the data.  Hint: Simulate an realistic system loading during user acceptance testing. This will slow down performance during early user acceptance testing so the client does not develop unrealistic expectations for the system’s final response time.

Both of these projects were 1 year in duration. and to design the architecture of the application. Estimating Techniques. prototype development. C for the server development. define the logical database design. Team Leads. and data design. We have developed two XAD estimating templates. Estimating Rules of Thumb BSD Estimating Guidelines: The goal of the BSD phase was to develop a proof of concept prototype of the application. and a 2-teir client/server design. and Templates Estimating techniques that apply to an XAD effort include comparative. common object definition.  Six weeks for application architecture design. Tools. The BSD phase was staffed with a Project Manager. discussed in the prior section. one that supports a single application and one that supports multiple applications. development environment setup. The BSD was completed in 12 weeks. design the business processes. The technology employed on these projects was PowerBuilder for the GUI development. Estimating Technique Guide . Data Modeler. The phase was broken down as follows:  Six weeks for business process design. and development estimating. expert judgment. a UNIX database server. they provide a high-level structure for composing a project plan. Systems Architect. and a DBA. We have not tried to use any of the estimating tools. for estimating an XAD engagement.Draft 33 2/26/2013 . and widget counting. database creation.Estimating Technique Guide Accelerated Application Development (X/AD) General Information The following guidelines are based on two X/AD client/server projects.

the users were completing acceptance testing for the previous timebox. Estimating Technique Guide . A team lead is NOT responsible for any development. and fulltime test coordinator. The project team consisted of one or more team leads. four weeks for development and 1-2 weeks for testing and delivery to the users for acceptance testing. This is not to say there won’t be any changes to the data model along the way. full-time project manager. While the development for a timebox was underway. part-time logical data modeler. final user acceptance.Estimating Technique Guide Timebox Estimating Guidelines: The duration of each timebox was 5-6 weeks. If more than four timeboxes were used. This timebox was used to complete user change requests. so that you are testing the application from the end user’s perspective and not the developer’s perspective. full-time systems architect. There was also a full-time DBA. and assisting the users in acceptance testing. enhancements. helps to better estimate the size of the project. The user test plans should be business rule based. one additional timebox was added to the schedule. Integration Testing Estimating Guidelines: After completing all of the timeboxes. but it avoids slowing down development while the data model is created. this phase should be equal to three timeboxes (15-18 weeks. the integration testing phase should be equal to two timeboxes (10-12 weeks). (Note: If four or fewer timeboxes were used.  The users are completing acceptance testing concurrent with development. After the timeboxes for new development were defined.Draft 34 2/26/2013 . bug fixes. the number of timeboxes for applications development was defined. Each timebox contained a mixture of simple and complex tasks based on the level of experience of the staff. They are testing the deliverable from the previous timebox. The application estimates were prepared using ICD estimating guidelines. and business site preparation. Common objects and application frameworks were developed in the first timebox. Subsequent timeboxes contained the development work in a logical sequence based on the work to be done.  Having the data model defined ahead of development helped out greatly. Their time is consumed by managing the developers. and any schedule overruns. an integration testing phase was completed. During the application architecture design in BSD. This phase was used for performance tuning.) The project staff consisted of: Project Manager System Architect All the team leads Half of the development staff DBA Success Factors  It is critical to have a test coordinator on staff as soon as possible so that he or she understands the business rules of the application. data conversion. planning the next timebox. A project should assign as many development teams (1 team lead with 3-4 developers) as the project needs. each with 3-4 developers. Note: No developer should have a task that lasts more than two weeks.  Having a prototype to show the user community the proof of concept and then get sign-off on the prototype. user training.

Estimating Technique Guide  It is critical to have a System Architect during the design phases and then guide the development team to make sure the entire application works together. The System Architect should be on the project until the system is deployed. adherence to standards. Estimating Technique Guide . and usability.Draft 35 2/26/2013 . This person should review all developed software for consistency. Cautions None have been identified.

10 for average. the general readiness for change. (# of stakeholder groups * # of project phases * # of hours per event * # of stages of acceptance) Notes: Estimating the number of stakeholder groups is discussed later in this section. and deploy the communication. use a proportional estimate of 10% . 2. The complexity of the engagement. and the length of the engagement are all factors that can influence this estimate. For a systems integration project.  1.Estimating Technique Guide Organizational Change General Information The following estimating guidelines were collected during one of our field visits. (This does not apply to a very sophisticated event such as a video component. ETP and Requirements/BAA equals two phases) J = Judgment factor (use 5 for low-end. discussed in the prior section. appear to address organizational change activities. and execute an event.) A minimum of 5% of the overall effort to a maximum of 40% of selected project phases. for the duration of the project. Not all of these have been confirmed or validated.Draft 36 2/26/2013 . draft. prior experiences.) The following guidelines are intended to provide a high-level idea of the amount of time required. designing.15% of the overall effort. design. 1996. Organizational Change as an overall level of effort:  One person.  The number of stages of acceptance is 5. 50% of time. and Templates The current estimating techniques being used for estimating organizational change include comparative. Tools. developing. Expect the Subject Matter Expert to spend most of his or her time during the phase transitions (beginning and end of each phase. expert judgment. and a second that can be used to estimate the number of stakeholder groups. and from our various field visits. Two days to plan. None of the estimating tools.) An average of 4 to 20 hours per change enabling communication event. One that can help estimate the effort to design and deliver communication events. These guidelines include planning. You will need to adjust these to fit your specific project environment. and deploying the communication event. Estimating Techniques. This formula guideline includes the time required ( in days) to plan. and widget counting. approve. and 15 for high-end complexity) Estimating Technique Guide . Estimating Rules of Thumb (Note: The following estimating rules of thumb have been collected from a variety of sources including an Estimating Workshop that was conducted in April. approving.  Communication Plans: The following formula can be used to estimate the effort to design and deliver communication events. proportional. Another formula for estimating the amount of time required for change enabling communication follows.  Two guidelines have been given for estimating the hours per event. design. We have developed two estimating templates. the types of communication vehicles. You will need to adjust these estimates based on your project and team-related experience. (Effort = F * S * P * J) where: F = Complexity factor as calculated below S = Number of stakeholder groups P = Number of project phases (example.

2 Major 1.0 Moderate 1. with much resistance anticipated. The estimated number of stakeholder groups is 10.95.4 x 1.2 10 . with some resistance anticipated. anticipated resistance. Multiply the factor for each category to determine the complexity factor.000 9    Percent of Organization Impacted by Change PO factor 10 to 30% 2 For example: Your client has approximately 5.or -.2 = 3.4 x 1.Estimating Technique Guide To compute the Complexity Factor (F).4 Much Resistance 1. which accounts for 20% of the company. project management. we could estimate the effort during a Requirements/BAA to equal about 100 days.4 Example 1: Assume the change is minor.000 6 50.000 5 10.000 8 50 to 100% 4 500.9 stakeholder groups 1.0 = 1. ((project team FTEs / 2) + 4) To estimate the number of stakeholder groups bases on the company size and percent of employees impacted by the change use the following tables to multiply the size (CS) factor by the percent of organizational change (PO) factor: Company Size CS factor 100 2 500 3 1.0 No Resistance 1. Degree of Change Anticipated Resistance Type of Change Number of Stakeholder Groups Minor 1.0 x 1.000 7 25 to 80% 3 100.the complexity factor (F) would be 1.) To calculate the lower boundary of the number of stakeholder groups: divide the number of fulltime project team members (FTEs including client staff) by four and add two. (Effort = F x S x P x J -. use the following table to categorize the degree of change. type of change and number of stakeholder groups.0 1 .44 x 7 x 1 x 10 = 100) Example 2.4 More than 25 groups 1. project team.2 x 1.000 total employees. (Effort = F x S x P x J -.the complexity factor (F) would be 1.95 x 12 x 1 x 10 = 475) Stakeholder Groups: The following guidelines have been defined for estimating the number of stakeholder groups. project management. Using this factor.2 Tactical (business unit) 1.1.25 groups 1.3. for a strategic change. ((project team FTEs / 4) + 2) To calculate the upper boundary of the number of stakeholder groups: divide the number of fulltime project team members by two and add four.0 Anticipated Change 1. for a tactical change. and impacted business unit.Draft 37 2/26/2013 . (CS (5) * PO (2) = 10) Estimating Technique Guide . and 12 stakeholder groups have been identified -. extended project team. subject matter experts.4 x 1.   Minimum number of stakeholder groups for a small engagement is 4 (executive sponsors.000 4 Up to 10% 1 5. and organization as a whole.2 Some Resistance 1. Assume the change is major.4 Strategic (organization) 1. and 7 stakeholder groups are involved -. The project is expected to only impact the corporate office.2 x 1. we could estimate the effort during a Requirements/BAA to equal about 475 days.) Minimum number of stakeholder groups for an enterprise-wide engagement is 6 (executive sponsors.or -. Using this factor. project team.44.

Each section manager identifies their staff’s roles and responsibilities. Review and analysis are dictated by the types of activities (e. In Estimating Technique Guide . 3. In addition. The planning and analysis of computer resource use should be conducted monthly as an integral part of the project performance and exercised in conjunction with ongoing project tracking and oversight. instructor-led training. If a new project or new task order requires new hardware. This can range from as low as 2 hours to as high as 12 hours per role.. The equipment is then listed in direct relationship to the staff and contract performance. Cautions None have been identified. word processing. and use one monitored in project startup and performance tracking activities. Training and Education Assuming the forum will be traditional. terminal access. At project start up. The planning and estimation for production or development hardware platforms will be developed in accordance with hardware feasibility and sizing studies that are included in task performance criteria.Estimating Technique Guide Roles and Responsibilities: Assuming that your are creating a role (job description) from scratch and have some starting material. financial spread sheets). The prime objective is to develop a plan for estimating and acquiring computer resources and then to analyze the use so that hardware requirements are satisfied. the task order team and contract staffing (if applicable) consider the work allocation and equipment needs that were planned into the task order performance. This could range as high as 80 hours of development time per hour of delivery for world-class instructor script and participant guides. It is accomplished in conjunction with preparing and updating of the Project Management Plan and the Software Development Plan. testing. conducted at startup. Technical Infrastructure No specific estimating guidelines have been identified at this time. 2. database. The attendees review the estimated resource use and the responsibilities for all technical and administrative personnel. standard contract and task order negotiation (if applicable).Draft 38 2/26/2013 . and deployment. Critical Computer Resources and Facilities Infrastructure No specific estimating guidelines have been identified at this time. Critical Computer Resources may be estimated Critical Computer resource planning and estimating is an on-going activity. task order and computer resource planning. The hardware acquisition will be a part of the project. Computer resources planning. the PM conducts a meeting with all section managers of all key activities. Steps for Planning/Estimating are: 1. acquisition. use a guideline of 10 hours of development time for each hour of delivery. The review considers the type of equipment for all personnel and the peak periods of performance for all devices or units.g. all documents and planning materials developed in previous stages are used for project. implementation. directs correlating staff duties and skills and computer resource use. use 4 hours per role as a guideline.

be sure to include them here. The system administrators monitor the use of critical computer resources and report the use to the PM monthly as the project progresses. In general. If the team lead activities have not been included in the other project phases. and program management. The computer resources acquisition plans for a task order is built to reflect any required increase in current or planned contract hardware capabilities. project management. a current hardware configuration from a system specification and a current hardware use report from the Operations and Maintenance Team may be used. 6.Draft 39 2/26/2013 . Estimating Technique Guide . 4. 7. channel capacity. a simpler update is developed for the task or contract budget. Management and Coordination Specific estimating guidelines have not be developed for this phase at this time. 5. The Analysis and Design Manager maps the acquisition strategy against the staffing profile or an existing plan to develop a new resource acquisition plan and budget. we generally used a staff and duration model to estimate development coordination. During our field support visits. A common guideline is to use a 1 to 6 ratio. and changes are proposed to the client.Estimating Technique Guide addition. The timeline developed and provided to the section managers for review. the total management and coordination effort should be approximately 15% to 20% of the total project effort. The Project Manager and the section managers review the use report to analyze use of memory and the storage. The current use of resources is compared to acquisition of future resources. The project/task order plan is then used to update the contract and site plans for hardware acquisition. The current Hardware Acquisition Plan from the Software Development Plan and project/ontract budget provide insight to the equipment that is available and what new equipment is planned for the future. usage of network. 8. The Analysis and Design Team manager maps the acquisition strategy on a timeline. The plan is used to update the planned hardware expenditure for the contract. The Analysis and Design Manager review the plan with the PM and the accounting and finance personnel. and device capacity. adjustments are made to the acquisition plans.

A grand total is also provided. the number of resources (count). Modifying either spreadsheet to specify hours and costs by project phase. such as IT Services and the client staff. The first worksheet. Simply enter the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA and the spreadsheet projects the remaining project effort based on 7%. Option 2. allows you to identify the project’s duration (in weeks). Totals are provided of each category. allows you to specify the above expense categories and project duration on an individual by individual basis. Estimating Technique Guide . If you did not receive these file attachments or if you have any questions on how to use these spreadsheets. so the duration to hour conversion factor has been set to 40 hours. enter a role description. please contact any of the Estimating and Metrics team members. 8. Either of these worksheets can be easily customized to meet your specific project requirements. You can modify the proportional factors or add additional scenarios. It also provides totals for each expense category . and computes an average billing rate. For each unique project role. Option 1. project duration. Either of these spreadsheets can be tailored to your specific estimating needs. the overall project. such as the entire project team. lodging.5%. It is based on the assumption that a Requirements/BAA accounts for 7% to 10% of the total project effort. One allows for a single resource group. Travel Expenses Template This spreadsheet provides you with two options for estimating travel related expenses. Estimating Template User Guides The following user guides provide some general directions on how to use each of the estimating templates. meals. and cost. The duration used in the template is weeks. Each spreadsheet calculates the total hours and cost for each role. The user defined fields are in “blue”. team size. and team size.Draft 40 2/26/2013 . This cell is used to calculate hours based on the duration that you have entered. provides grand totals for staff count. and computes an average weekly travel expense based on the total project expenses and the total number of weeks. and miscellaneous expenses. The spreadsheet that allows for two groups of resources provides sub-totals for each group along with aggregated totals. cab/ auto. Each spreadsheet allows you to compute the total hours and cost by project team role. 2. Enter the duration to hour conversion factor. To use these spreadsheets: 1. This worksheet provides total weekly and project expenses by individual. parking. Staff and Duration Estimating Templates Two estimating spreadsheets have been provided. or development build. and the hourly billing rate for this role.Estimating Technique Guide Appendices Estimating Templates Please refer to the additional file attachments for these spreadsheets. Requirements/BAA Proportional Estimate Projection Template This spreadsheet projects the hours for the remaining phases of a project based on the actual hours from the Requirements/BAA phase. and 10% scenarios. Potential customization options include:   Modifying the IT Services and Client spreadsheet to represent billable and non-billable effort. these are calculated based on the weekly expense amount. the length of duration. release. The template assumes a custom (ICD) development approach. The second worksheet. Add or delete roles as needed. and the estimated expenses for: airfare. timebox. hours. The second allows for two resource groups.

The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each subphase and an overall estimate. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains three worksheets. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. or package. The user defined fields are in “blue”. business function. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. and duration. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. • The average number of staff involved in completing the activity. The management and development coordination worksheet. deliverables. Use this worksheet to enter the key activities. number of staff. For each role. or by using a proportional level of effort. 2. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. enter the number of staff being managed and the percentage of team lead responsibility. Modify these activities to meet your specific project requirements. b) For the team leadership activity. the second supports multiple applications. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort of each activity and provide totals by sub-phase. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. The estimate total worksheet. and any estimating assumptions or comments. the estimated effort for each unit. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. 3. estimating drivers. such as a workshop.) c) The worksheet will calculate sub-totals for each sub-phase and provide an overall summary at the bottom of the worksheet. The estimated effort to complete each unit. estimating drivers. Est Ttl. timebox. The estimating drivers should include: • The unit of measure. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. you can specify the number of units. To use this estimating template: 1. contains all of the estimating details by sub-phase. summarizes the project sub-phases. • • The number of units. The package-based development detail worksheet. PBD Details. Mgmt. The other supports multiple applications. Complete the PBD Details worksheet: a) Enter the estimating details on the PBD Details worksheet. Define the key deliverables. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. included in the spreadsheet.Estimating Technique Guide Package-Based Development (PBD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. (Note: Another option would be to include the team lead activities in the management and development coordination worksheet. The template contains some general activities for each of the package-based development sub-phases. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. and comments for each sub-phase. For each activity or work product. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. one supports a single package-based application. enter a description. 2. and comments for each activity.Draft 41 2/26/2013 . Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the package-based sub-phases. One spreadsheet supports a single package-based application. and displays the total estimated hours. 1. Both estimating templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. The summary contains both hours and a percentage of the total effort. Estimating Technique Guide . These hour totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet.

Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same three worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus an additional summary worksheet. integration and deployment phases. provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. reports. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains four worksheets. adjust this factor accordingly. summarizes the project sub-phases. Estimating Technique Guide . enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. interfaces. b) Enter the proportional factors for Integration and Deployment. the second supports multiple applications. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. One spreadsheet supports a single custom-developed application. To use this estimating template. and displays the total estimated hours.Estimating Technique Guide b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. 1. Matrix-Based Iterative Custom Development (ICD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates provided. PBD Summary. Tuxedo services. The template currently allows for menus. These widgets can include menus. The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each category and an overall total. Oracle forms. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. 3. application development completion. defines and categories all of the widgets that need to be developed. The template currently allows for 3 application areas. The other supports multiple applications. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. windows. Both templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. you can rate the complexity of each widget on a scale from 1 to 10. reports. cell P3. PGM Matrix. The program matrix worksheet. To do this. or by using a proportional level of effort. one supports a single iterative custom-developed application. and PBD Detail worksheets to add or subtract application areas. you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. The user defined fields are in “blue”. Use this worksheet to enter the widgets that need to be developed for each category. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. This additional worksheet. PBD Summary. 2. The spreadsheet accumulates totals for each type of widget and links these totals to a summary worksheet to provide a high-level summary of your estimates. and common functions. common objects. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. windows. As you define each of these widgets. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the business system design. The only difference is in the PBD Details worksheet. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. C functions. You can adjust the Est Ttl. servers. Both templates allow you to build a bottom-up estimate based on the number of “widgets” being developed. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. c) As a option. conversions. The detail matrix worksheet references additional look-up tables that contain the appropriate estimates based on the type of widget and its complexity. Est Ttl. The estimate total worksheet. interfaces.Draft 42 2/26/2013 . This worksheet allows you to enter detailed estimating information for each application area. conversions. included in the spreadsheet. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. You can adjust these look-up tables to reflect your specific project environment.

enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly.) b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. c) As a option. 3. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. if you enter a PowerBuilder window with a complexity level of 5 on the program matrix worksheet. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements.Estimating Technique Guide 3. the number of units. cross-reference information. The estimate matrices worksheet. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. cell P3. EST Matrices. number of staff. Additional categories can also be created if needed. and its level of complexity on a scale of 1 to 10. For each role. The program matrix worksheet uses these estimate matrices as a look-up table. Mgmt. For example. To do this. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. that worksheet will reference the PowerBuilder estimate matrix and retrieve the per unit estimate for a level 5 complexity window. 4. and calculate totals. They have not been accounted for in the prior worksheet. Integration. you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. For each entry you can specify the name of the widget. (Caution: The per unit estimate column in this worksheet is extremely sensitive with the row and column coordinates within the estimate matrices worksheet. and Deployment phases. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. Estimating Technique Guide .Draft 43 2/26/2013 . enter a description.) 2. and duration. level 1 being the simplest and level 10 being the most complicated. (Note: Be sure to include the team lead activities in this worksheet. contains estimating matrices for a variety of different types of widgets. Be careful that you have defined the correct row and column coordinates when modifying this column. The management and development coordination worksheet. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. corresponding changes will also need to be made to the other worksheets. Category and overall totals are provided. adjust this factor accordingly. b) Enter the proportional factors for the BSD. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. To use this estimating template: 1. b) The categories contained on this template can be modified to meet your specific project. For each type or category of widget this worksheet contains estimates for 10 levels of complexity. ADC. The worksheet will retrieve the per unit estimate from the estimate matrices worksheet. compute a total hour and day estimate based on the number of units specified. If you do modify or add additional categories. Complete the PGM Matrix worksheet: a) Enter the widgets that need to be developed into the appropriate categories.

2. and comments for each sub-phase. 1. Repeat the ICD Matrix steps for each application area. An ICD Summary worksheet that provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. estimating drivers. deliverables. included in the spreadsheet. The sub-totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. Est Ttl. For each activity or work product. The other supports multiple applications. the estimated effort for each unit. These totals are linked to a summary worksheet that provides a high-level overview of your estimates. Either of these spreadsheets can be easily customized to fit your specific project needs. allows you to enter a staff and duration estimate for this effort. one supports a single XAD-based application. One spreadsheet supports a single XAD-based application. You can also apply a proportional level of effort for the integration and deployment phases. The management and development coordination worksheet. The user defined fields are in “blue”. Estimating Technique Guide . 3. The total management and development coordination hour estimate is automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. the second supports multiple applications. and displays the total estimated hours. The template currently allows for 2 application areas. The estimate total worksheet. You can adjust the spreadsheet to add more application areas. Single Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains three worksheets. you can specify the number of units. 2. summarizes the project sub-phases. The XAD-based development detail worksheet. contains all of the estimating details by sub-phase. XAD Details. The worksheet will provide sub-totals for each subphase and an overall estimate. and any estimating assumptions or comments.Estimating Technique Guide Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus two additional worksheets: 1. the number of staff working on each activity or work product. Both estimating templates consist of a spreadsheet with multiple worksheets that allow to you enter the necessary details and summarize the overall results. Accelerated Application Development (XAD) Estimating Template Two estimating templates are provided. Each template allows you to identify the key activities and work products for each of the XAD-based sub-phases. An additional ICD Matrix worksheet for a second application area. Use this worksheet to enter the key activities. To use this estimating template. calculates the subphase’s percentage of the overall estimate. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. The project management and coordination phases can be estimated based on a staff and duration template. or by using a proportional level of effort.Draft 44 2/26/2013 . Mgmt. The spreadsheet will compute the total estimated effort of each activity and provide totals by sub-phase.

Estimating Technique Guide To use this estimating template: 1. The only difference is in the XAD Details worksheet. • • The number of units. The template contains some general activities for each of the package-based development sub-phases. or entities. The summary contains both hours and a percentage of the total effort. XAD Summary. such as a prototype set. and comments for each activity. (Note: Another option would be to include the team lead activities in the management and development coordination worksheet. Complete the XAD Details worksheet: a) Enter the estimating details on the XAD Details worksheet. 2. Adjust the hour computation to meet your specific requirements. the estimated hours per event. If you prefer to have man-months or man-years. number of staff. provides an hour and percentage summary for each application. enter the appropriate proportional factor and adjust the cell formula for the phase hours accordingly. adjust this factor accordingly. Complete the Mgmt worksheet: a) Complete the staffing and duration template for the management and development coordination effort. and duration. c) As a option. You can adjust the Est Ttl.Draft 45 2/26/2013 . enter a description. This additional worksheet. To do this. The first worksheet. These hour totals are automatically linked to the estimate total worksheet. The spreadsheet contains two worksheets.) c) The worksheet will calculate sub-totals for each sub-phase and provide an overall summary at the bottom of the worksheet. Communication Event Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the effort to design and deliver communication events. The estimating drivers should include: • The unit of measure. b) The worksheet will compute the total management and development coordination hours and automatically link this total to the estimate total worksheet. Define the key deliverables. allows you to estimate the hours needed to design and deliver communication events based on the number of stakeholder groups. For each role. cell P3. b) Enter the proportional factors for Integration and Deployment. and the number of stages Estimating Technique Guide . To use this estimating template. business function. Option 1. The template currently allows for 3 application areas. similar to the Integration and Deployment project phases rather than using a staff and duration estimate. Multiple Application Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet contains the same three worksheets as the single application spreadsheet plus an additional summary worksheet. XAD Summary. each represents an estimating option. enter the number of staff being managed and the percentage of team lead responsibility. and XAD Detail worksheets to add or subtract application areas. estimating drivers. Complete the Est Ttl worksheet: a) Define the hour conversion factor. The percentages currently defined in the worksheet are for illustration purposes only. This worksheet allows you to enter detail estimating information for each application area. b) For the team leadership activity. you can define the management and coordination effort as a proportional factor. This conversion factor is currently defined as 8 hours to convert the hour estimate to man-days. number of project phases. 3. Modify these activities to meet your specific project requirements. use the steps outlined for the single application spreadsheet. The template currently assumes that the duration is specified in 40 hour weeks. • The average number of staff involved in completing the activity. The estimated effort to complete each unit.

Stakeholder Group Estimating Template This estimating template assists in estimating the number of stakeholder groups. number of stakeholder groups. the level of anticipated change. allows you to estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the overall size of the client and the percentage of organizational impact. the number of project phases. and a judgment factor. Again. The spreadsheet contains two worksheets. number of project phases. Team Size. simply enter the correct values. Fractional sizes are permitted. allows you to estimate the number of stakeholder groups based on the size of the project team. Next select the percentage of organizational impact by entering a “1” in the correct category. You can only make one selection. allows you to estimate the effort based on four complexity factors. The second worksheet. and a judgment factor.Estimating Technique Guide of acceptance. Estimating Technique Guide . you can only select one category. The worksheet will calculate the estimated hours for designing and delivering communication events based on the calculations described in Organizational Change estimating guidelines. The first worksheet. To use this spreadsheet. The worksheet will compute the estimated number of stakeholder groups based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. simply select the appropriate client size by entering a “1” in the correct category. select the desired values from each of the four complexity factor tables. To use this worksheet. the number of stakeholder groups (within a range). Option 2. To use this worksheet. To use this worksheet. Next enter the actual number of stakeholder groups. The estimated effort in is hours and is based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines.Draft 46 2/26/2013 . and the type of change. These tables are used to categorize the degree of change. high-end. The second worksheet. This worksheet will provide a low-end. simply enter the project team size in full-time equivalents. and average estimated number of stakeholder groups based on the calculations described in the Organizational Change estimating guidelines. Client Size.

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