Narcissistic

And Psychopathic
Leaders
1
st
EDITION
Sam Vaknin, Ph.D.
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– Pathological Narcissism An Overview
A Primer on Narcissism and the Narcissistic
( ) Personality Disorder NPD
The Narcissist's Entitlement of outine
– Pathological Narcissism A Dysfunction or a
!lessing"
The Narcissist's #onfabulated $ife
The #ult of the Narcissist
!ibliography
The Narcissist in the %orkplace
The Narcissist in the %orkplace
Narcissism in the !oardroom
The Professions of the Narcissist
Narcissists in Positions of Authority
Narcissistic $eaders
Narcissists in Positions of Authority
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#elebrity Narcissists
The Narcissist's Addiction to &ame and #elebrity
– 'istreating #elebrities An (nterview )ranted to
*uperinteressante 'aga+ine in !ra+il
Ac,uired *ituational Narcissism
– Narcissists and )od The eligious
Narcissist
&or the $ove of )od
The Narcissist and *ocial (nstitutions
)uide to #oping with Narcissists and
Psychopaths
The Author
(“ - : The !ook 'alignant *elf love Narcissism
”) evisited
_øm_m_n
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Narcissistic
And Psychopathic
Leaders
Pathological Narcissism – An Overview
A Primer on Narcissism
And the Narcissistic Personality Disorder
(NPD)
What is Pathological Narcissism?
Pathological narcissism is a life-long pattern of traits
and behaviours which signify infatuation and obsession
with one's self to the eclusion of all others and the
egotistic and ruthless pursuit of one's gratification,
dominance and ambition.
!s distinct from healthy narcissism which we all
possess, pathological narcissism is maladaptive, rigid,
persisting, and causes significant distress, and functional
impairment.
Pathological narcissism was first described in detail by
"reud in his essay #$n %arcissism# &'(')*. $ther ma+or
contributors to the study of narcissism are, -elanie
.lein, .aren /orney, "ran0 .ohut, $tto .ernberg,
1heodore -illon, 2lsa 3oningstam, 4underson, and
3obert /are.
What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)?
1he %arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 5formerly
known as megalomania or, collo7uially, as egotism6 is a
form of pathological narcissism. 8t is a 9luster :
5dramatic, emotional, or erratic6 Personality Disorder.
$ther 9luster : personality disorders are the :orderline
Personality Disorder 5:PD6, the !ntisocial Personality
Disorder 5!PD6, and the /istrionic Personality Disorder
5/PD6. 1he %arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6
first appeared as a mental health diagnosis in the DS--
888-13 5Diagnostic and Statistical -anual6 in '(;<.
Diagnostic Criteria
1he 89D-'<, the 8nternational 9lassification of
Diseases, published by the =orld /ealth $rganisation
in 4eneva &'((>* regards the %arcissistic Personality
Disorder 5%PD6 as "a personality disorder that fits none
of the specific rubrics". 8t relegates it to the category
#$ther Specific Personality Disorders# together with the
eccentric, #haltlose#, immature, passive-aggressive, and
psychoneurotic personality disorders and types.
1he !merican Psychiatric !ssociation, based in
=ashington D.9., ?S!, publishes the Diagnostic and
Statistical -anual of -ental Disorders, fourth edition,
1et 3evision 5DS--8V-136 &><<<* where it provides
the diagnostic criteria for the %arcissistic Personality
Disorder 5@<'.;', p. A'A6.
1he DS--8V-13 defines %arcissistic Personality
Disorder 5%PD6 as "an all-pervasive pattern of
randiosity !in fantasy or behaviour"# need for
ad$iration or adulation and lac% of e$pathy# usually
beinnin by early adulthood and present in various
conte&ts", such as family life and work.
1he DS- specifies nine diagnostic criteria. "ive 5or
more6 of these criteria must be met for a diagnosis of
%arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 to be rendered.
&8n the tet below, 8 have proposed modifications to
the language of these criteria to incorporate current
knowledge about this disorder. -y modifications appear
in italics.*
&-y amendments do not constitute a part of the tet of
the DS--8V-13, nor is the !merican Psychiatric
!ssociation 5!P!6 associated with them in any way.*
&9lick here to download a bibliography of the studies
and research regarding the %arcissistic Personality
Disorder 5%PD6 on which 8 based my proposed
revisions.*
Proposed Amended Criteria for the
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
B "eels grandiose and self-important 5e.g., eaggerates
accomplishments, talents, s%ills, contacts, and
personality traits to the point of lyin, de$ands to be
recognised as superior without commensurate
achievements6C
B 8s obsessed with fantasies of unlimited success,
fa$e, fearso$e power or o$nipotence, une'ualled
brilliance 5the cerebral narcissist6, bodily beauty or
se&ual perfor$ance 5the so$atic narcissist6, or ideal,
everlastin, all-con'uerin love or passionC
B "irmly convinced that he or she is uni7ue and, being
special, can only be understood by, should only be
treated by, or associate with, other special or uni7ue,
or high-status people 5or institutions6C
B 3e7uires ecessive admiration, adulation, attention
and affir$ation D or# failin that# (ishes to be feared
and to be notorious 5Narcissistic )upply6C
B "eels entitled. De$ands auto$atic and full
co$pliance with his or her unreasonable
epectations for special and favourable priority
treatmentC
B 8s #interpersonally eploitative#, i.e., uses others to
achieve his or her own endsC
B Devoid of empathy. 8s unable or unwilling to
identify with, ac%no(lede, or accept the feelings,
needs, preferences, priorities, and choices of othersC
B 9onstantly envious of others and see%s to hurt or
destroy the ob*ects of his or her frustration. )uffers
fro$ persecutory !paranoid" delusions as he or she
believes that they feel the same about him or her and
are li%ely to act si$ilarlyC
B :ehaves arrogantly and haughtily. +eels superior#
o$nipotent# o$niscient# invincible# i$$une# "above
the la("# and o$nipresent !$aical thin%in", -aes
(hen frustrated# contradicted# or confronted by
people he or she considers inferior to him or her and
unworthy.
Prevalence and Age and Gender Features
!ccording to the DS--8V-13, between >E and 'FE of
the population in clinical settings 5between <.)-'E of
the general population6 are diagnosed with %arcissistic
Personality Disorder 5%PD6. -ost narcissists 5)<-A)E,
according to the DS--8V-136 are men.
=e must carefully distinguish between the narcissistic
traits of adolescents D narcissism is an integral part of
their healthy personal development D and the full-fledge
disorder. !dolescence is about self-definition,
differentiation, separation from one's parents, and
individuation. 1hese inevitably involve narcissistic
assertiveness which is not to be conflated or confused
with %arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6.
"The lifeti$e prevalence rate of NPD is
appro&i$ately .,/-1 percent0 ho(ever# the esti$ated
prevalence in clinical settins is appro&i$ately 1-12
percent, Al$ost 3/ percent of individuals dianosed
(ith NPD are $ale !APA# D)4-I5-T- 1...","
&"rom the !bstract of Psychotherapeutic !ssessment
and 1reatment of %arcissistic Personality Disorder :y
3obert 9. Schwart0, Ph.D., D!P! and Shannon D.
Smith, Ph.D., D!P! 5!merican Psychotherapy
!ssociation, !rticle G@<<H !nnals IulyJ!ugust ><<>6*
%arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 is
eacerbated by the onset of aging and the physical,
mental, and occupational restrictions it imposes.
8n certain situations, such as under constant public
scrutiny and eposure, a transient and reactive form of
the %arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 has been
observed by 3obert -ilman and labelled #!c7uired
Situational %arcissism#.
1here is only scant research regarding the %arcissistic
Personality Disorder 5%PD6, but studies have not
demonstrated any ethnic, social, cultural, economic,
genetic, or professional predilection to it.
o!"or#idity and Di$$erential Diagnoses
%arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 is often
diagnosed with other mental health disorders 5#co-
morbidity#6, such as mood disorders, eating disorders,
and substance-related disorders. Patients with
%arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 are fre7uently
abusive and prone to impulsive and reckless behaviours
5#dual diagnosis#6.
%arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 is commonly
diagnosed with other personality disorders, such as the
/istrionic, :orderline, Paranoid, and !ntisocial
Personality Disorders.
1he personal style of those suffering from the
%arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 should be
distinguished from the personal styles of patients with
other 9luster : personality disorders. 1he narcissist is
grandiose, the histrionic co7uettish, the antisocial
5psychopath6 callous, and the borderline needy.
!s opposed to patients with the :orderline Personality
Disorder, the self-image of the narcissist is stable, he or
she are less impulsive and less self-defeating or self-
destructive and less concerned with abandonment issues
5not as clinging6.
9ontrary to the histrionic patient, the narcissist is
achievements-orientated and proud of his or her
possessions and accomplishments. %arcissists also
rarely display their emotions as histrionics do and they
hold the sensitivities and needs of others in contempt.
!ccording to the DS--8V-13, both narcissists and
psychopaths are #tough-minded, glib, superficial,
eploitative, and un-empathic#. :ut narcissists are less
impulsive, less aggressive, and less deceitful.
Psychopaths rarely seek %arcissistic Supply. !s
opposed to psychopaths, few narcissists are criminals.
Patients suffering from the range of obsessive-
compulsive disorders are committed to perfection and
believe that only they are capable of attaining it. :ut, as
opposed to narcissists, they are self-critical and far more
aware of their own deficiencies, flaws, and
shortcomings.
linical Features o$ the Narcissistic Personality
Disorder
1he onset of pathological narcissism is in infancy,
childhood and early adolescence. 8t is commonly
attributed to childhood abuse and trauma inflicted by
parents, authority figures, or even peers. Pathological
narcissism is a defence mechanism intended to deflect
hurt and trauma from the victim's #1rue Self# into a
#"alse Self# which is omnipotent, invulnerable, and
omniscient. 1he narcissist uses the "alse Self to regulate
his or her labile sense of self-worth by etracting from
his environment %arcissistic Supply 5any form of
attention, both positive and negative6.
1here is a whole range of narcissistic reactions, styles,
and personalities D from the mild, reactive and transient
to the permanent personality disorder.
Patients with %arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6
feel in+ured, humiliated and empty when criticised.
1hey often react with disdain 5devaluation6, rage, and
defiance to any slight, real or imagined. 1o avoid such
situations, some patients with %arcissistic Personality
Disorder 5%PD6 socially withdraw and feign false
modesty and humility to mask their underlying
grandiosity. Dysthymic and depressive disorders are
common reactions to isolation and feelings of shame
and inade7uacy.
1he interpersonal relationships of patients with
%arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 are typically
impaired due to their lack of empathy, disregard for
others, eploitativeness, sense of entitlement, and
constant need for attention 5%arcissistic Supply6.
1hough often ambitious and capable, inability to
tolerate setbacks, disagreement, and criticism make it
difficult for patients with %arcissistic Personality
Disorder 5%PD6 to work in a team or to maintain long-
term professional achievements. 1he narcissist's
fantastic grandiosity, fre7uently coupled with a
hypomanic mood, is typically incommensurate with his
or her real accomplishments 5the #4randiosity 4ap#6.
Patients with %arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6
are either #cerebral# 5derive their %arcissistic Supply
from their intelligence or academic achievements6 or
#somatic# 5derive their %arcissistic Supply from their
physi7ue, eercise, physical or seual prowess and
romantic or physical #con7uests#6.
Patients with %arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6
are either #classic# 5meet five of the nine diagnostic
criteria included in the DS-6, or they are
#compensatory# 5their narcissism compensates for deep-
set feelings of inferiority and lack of self-worth6.
Some narcissists are covert, or inverted narcissists. !s
co-dependents, they derive their %arcissistic Supply
from their relationships with classic narcissists.
%reatment and Prognosis
1he common treatment for patients with %arcissistic
Personality Disorder 5%PD6 is talk therapy 5mainly
psychodynamic psychotherapy or cognitive-behavioural
treatment modalities6. 1alk therapy is used
to modify the narcissist's antisocial, interpersonally
eploitative, and dysfunctional behaviours, often with
some success. -edication is prescribed to control and
ameliorate attendant conditions such as mood disorders
or obsessive-compulsive disorders.
1he prognosis for an adult suffering from the
%arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 is poor, though
his adaptation to life and to others can improve with
treatment.
&:ibliography,
4oldman, /oward /., 3eview of 4eneral Psychiatry,
fourth edition, '((). Prentice-/all 8nternational,
Kondon.
4elder, -ichael, 4ath, Dennis, -ayou, 3ichard,
9owen, Philip 5eds.6, $ford 1etbook of Psychiatry,
third edition, '((F, reprinted ><<<. $ford ?niversity
Press, $ford.
Vaknin, Sam, -alignant Self Kove D %arcissism
3evisited, seventh revised impression, '(((-><<A.
%arcissus Publications, Prague and Skop+e.*
3eturn
%he Narcissist&s 'ntitlement o$ (outine
8 hate routine. =hen 8 find myself doing the same things
over and over again, 8 get depressed. 8 oversleep, over-
eat, over-drink and, in general, engage in addictive,
impulsive and compulsive behaviours. 1his is my way
of re-introducing risk and ecitement into what 8
5emotionally6 perceive to be a barren life.
1he problem is that even the most eciting and varied
eistence becomes routine after a while. Kiving in the
same country or apartment, meeting the same people,
doing essentially the same things 5though with changing
content6 D all #7ualify# as stultifying rote.
8 feel entitled to more. 8 feel it is my right D due to my
intellectual superiority D to lead a thrilling, rewarding,
kaleidoscopic life. 8 feel entitled to force life itself, or, at
least, people around me D to yield to my wishes and
needs, supreme among them the need for stimulating
variety.
1his re+ection of habit is part of a larger pattern of
aggressive entitlement. 8 feel that the very eistence of a
sublime intellect 5such as myself6 warrants concessions
and allowances. Standing in line is a waste of time best
spent pursuing knowledge, inventing and creating. 8
should avail myself of the best medical treatment
proffered by the most prominent medical authorities D
lest the asset that is 8 be lost to -ankind. 8 should not be
bothered with proofreading my articles 5or even re-
reading them6 D these lowly +obs best be assigned to the
less gifted. 1he devil is in paying precious attention to
details.
2ntitlement is sometimes +ustified in a Picasso or an
2instein. :ut 8 am neither. -y achievements are
grotes7uely incommensurate with my overwhelming
sense of entitlement. 8 am but a mediocre and
forgettable scribbler who, at the age of @(, is a colossal
under-achiever, if anything.
$f course, the feeling of supremacy often serves to
mask a cancerous comple of inferiority. -oreover, 8
infect others with my pro+ected grandiosity and their
feedback constitutes the edifice upon which 8 construct
my self-esteem. 8 regulate my sense of self-worth by
rigidly insisting that 8 am above the madding crowd
while deriving my %arcissistic Supply from this very
thus despised source.
:ut there is a second angle to this abhorrence of the
predictable. !s a narcissist, 8 employ a host of
2motional 8nvolvement Prevention -echanisms
528P-6. Despising routine and avoiding it is one of
these mechanisms. 1heir function is to prevent me from
getting emotionally involved and, subse7uently, hurt.
1heir application results in an #approach-avoidance
repetition comple#. 1he narcissist, fearing and loathing
intimacy, stability and security D yet craving them D
approaches and then avoids significant others or
important tasks in a rapid succession of apparently
inconsistent and disconnected behaviours.
3eturn
Pathological Narcissism
A Dys$unction or a )lessing?
6o$$ents on recent research by -oy 7au$eister,
8s pathological narcissism a blessing or a maledictionL
1he answer is, it depends. /ealthy narcissism is a
mature, balanced love of oneself coupled with a stable
sense of self-worth and self-esteem. /ealthy narcissism
implies knowledge of one's boundaries and a
proportionate and realistic appraisal of one's
achievements and traits.
Pathological narcissism is wrongly described as too
much healthy narcissism 5or too much self-esteem6.
1hese are two absolutely unrelated phenomena which,
regrettably, came to bear the same title. 9onfusing
pathological narcissism with self-esteem betrays a
fundamental ignorance of both.
Pathological narcissism involves an impaired,
dysfunctional, immature 51rue6 Self coupled with a
compensatory fiction 5the "alse Self6. 1he sick
narcissist's sense of self-worth and self-esteem derive
entirely from audience feedback. 1he narcissist has no
self-esteem or self-worth of his own 5no such ego
functions6. 8n the absence of observers, the narcissist
shrivels to non-eistence and feels dead. /ence the
narcissist's preying habits in his constant pursuit of
%arcissistic Supply. Pathological narcissism is an
addictive behaviour.
Still, dysfunctions are reactions to abnormal
environments and situations 5e.g., abuse, trauma,
smothering, etc.6.
Paradoically, his dysfunction allows the narcissist to
function. 8t compensates for lacks and deficiencies by
eaggerating tendencies and traits. 8t is like the tactile
sense of a blind person. 8n short, pathological
narcissism is a result of over-sensitivity, the repression
of overwhelming memories and eperiences, and the
suppression of inordinately strong negative feelings
5e.g., hurt, envy, anger, or humiliation6.
1hat the narcissist functions at all D is because of his
pathology and thanks to it. 1he alternative is complete
decompensation and integration.
8n time, the narcissist learns how to leverage his
pathology, how to use it to his advantage, how to deploy
it in order to maimise benefits and utilities D in other
words, how to transform his curse into a blessing.
%arcissists are obsessed by delusions of fantastic
grandeur and superiority. !s a result they are very
competitive. 1hey are strongly compelled D where
others are merely motivated. 1hey are driven, relentless,
tireless, and ruthless. 1hey often make it to the top. :ut
even when they do not D they strive and fight and learn
and climb and create and think and devise and design
and conspire. "aced with a challenge D they are likely to
do better than non-narcissists.
Met, we often find that narcissists abandon their efforts
in mid-stream, give up, vanish, lose interest, devalue
former pursuits, or slump. =hy is thatL
%arcissists are prone to self-defeating and self-
destructive behaviours.
%he *el$!Punishing+ Guilt!Purging )ehaviours
1hese are intended to inflict punishment on the
narcissist and thus instantly relieve him of his
overwhelming aniety.
1his is very reminiscent of a compulsive-ritualistic
behaviour. 1he narcissist feels guilty. 8t could be an
#ancient# guilt, a #seual# guilt 5"reud6, or a #social#
guilt. 8n early life, the narcissist internalised and
intro+ected the voices of meaningful and authoritative
others D parents, role models, peers D that consistently
and convincingly +udged him to be no good,
blameworthy, deserving of punishment or retaliation, or
corrupt.
3eturn
%he Narcissist&s on$a#ulated ,i$e
9onfabulations are an important part of life. 1hey serve
to heal emotional wounds or to prevent ones from being
inflicted in the first place. 1hey prop-up the
confabulator's self-esteem, regulate his 5or her6 sense of
self-worth, and buttress his 5or her6 self-image. 1hey
serve as organising principles in social interactions.
"ather's wartime heroism, mother's youthful good
looks, one's oft-recounted eploits, erstwhile alleged
brilliance, and past purported seual irresistibility D are
typical eamples of white, fu00y, heart-warming lies
wrapped around a shrivelled kernel of truth.
:ut the distinction between reality and fantasy is
rarely completely lost. Deep inside, the healthy
confabulator knows where facts end and wishful
thinking takes over. "ather acknowledges he was no war
hero, though he did his share of fighting. -other
understands she was no ravishing beauty, though she
may have been attractive. 1he confabulator realises that
his recounted eploits are overblown, his brilliance
eaggerated, and his seual irresistibility a myth.
Such distinctions never rise to the surface because
everyone D the confabulator and his audience alike D
have a common interest to maintain the confabulation.
1o challenge the integrity of the confabulator or the
veracity of his confabulations is to threaten the very
fabric of family and society. /uman intercourse is built
around such entertaining deviations from the truth.
1his is where the narcissist differs from others 5from
#normal# people6.
/is very self is a piece of fiction concocted to fend off
hurt and to nurture the narcissist's grandiosity. /e fails
in his #reality test# D the ability to distinguish the actual
from the imagined. 1he narcissist fervently believes in
his own infallibility, brilliance, omnipotence, heroism,
and perfection. /e doesn't dare confront the truth and
admit it even to himself.
-oreover, he imposes his personal mythology on his
nearest and dearest. Spouse, children, colleagues,
friends, neighbours D sometimes even perfect strangers
D must abide by the narcissist's narrative or face his
wrath. 1he narcissist countenances no disagreement,
alternative points of view, or criticism. 1o him,
confabulation 8S reality.
1he coherence of the narcissist's dysfunctional and
precariously-balanced personality depends on the
plausibility of his stories and on their acceptance by his
Sources of %arcissistic Supply. 1he narcissist invests an
inordinate time in substantiating his tales, collecting
#evidence#, defending his version of events, and in re-
interpreting reality to fit his scenario. !s a result, most
narcissists are self-delusional, obstinate, opinionated,
and argumentative.
1he narcissist's lies are not goal-orientated. 1his is
what makes his constant dishonesty both disconcerting
and incomprehensible. 1he narcissist lies at the drop of
a hat, needlessly, and almost ceaselessly. /e lies in
order to avoid the 4randiosity 4ap D when the abyss
between fact and 5narcissistic6 fiction becomes too
gaping to ignore.
1he narcissist lies in order to preserve appearances,
uphold fantasies, support the tall 5and impossible6 tales
of his "alse Self and etract %arcissistic Supply from
unsuspecting sources, who are not yet on to him. 1o the
narcissist, confabulation is not merely a way of life D
but life itself.
=e are all conditioned to let other indulge in pet
delusions and get away with white, not too egregious,
lies. 1he narcissist makes use of our socialisation. =e
dare not confront or epose him, despite the
outlandishness of his claims, the improbability of his
stories, the implausibility of his alleged
accomplishments and con7uests. =e simply turn the
other cheek, or meekly avert our eyes, often
embarrassed.
-oreover, the narcissist makes clear, from the very
beginning, that it is his way or the highway. /is
aggression D even violent streak D are close to the
surface. /e may be charming in a first encounter D but
even then there are telltale signs of pent-up abuse. /is
interlocutors sense this impending threat and avoid
conflict by ac7uiescing with the narcissist's fairy tales.
1hus he imposes his private universe and virtual reality
on his milieu D sometimes with disastrous
conse7uences.
3eturn
%he ult o$ the Narcissist
1he narcissist is the guru at the centre of a cult. Kike
other gurus, he demands complete obedience from his
flock, his spouse, his offspring, other family members,
friends, and colleagues. /e feels entitled to adulation
and special treatment by his followers. /e punishes the
wayward and the straying lambs. /e enforces discipline,
adherence to his teachings, and common goals. 1he less
accomplished he is in reality D the more stringent his
mastery and the more pervasive the brainwashing.
1he D often involuntary D members of the narcissist's
mini-cult inhabit a twilight 0one of his own
construction. /e imposes on them a shared psychosis,
replete with persecutory delusions, #enemies#, mythical
narratives, and apocalyptic scenarios if he is flouted.
1he narcissist's control is based on ambiguity,
unpredictability, fu00iness, and ambient abuse. /is
ever-shifting whims eclusively define right versus
wrong, desirable and unwanted, what is to be pursued
and what to be avoided. /e alone determines the rights
and obligations of his disciples and alters them at will.
1he narcissist is a micro-manager. /e eerts control
over the minutest details and behaviours. /e punishes
severely and abuses withholders of information and
those who fail to conform to his wishes and goals.
1he narcissist does not respect the boundaries and
privacy of his reluctant adherents. /e ignores their
wishes and treats them as ob+ects or instruments of
gratification. /e seeks to control both situations and
people compulsively.
/e strongly disapproves of others' personal autonomy
and independence. 2ven innocuous activities, such as
meeting a friend or visiting one's family re7uire his
permission. 4radually, he isolates his nearest and
dearest until they are fully dependent on him
emotionally, seually, financially, and socially.
/e acts in a patronising and condescending manner
and criticises often. /e alternates between emphasising
the minutest faults 5devalues6 and eaggerating the
talents, traits, and skills 5idealises6 of the members of
his cult. /e is wildly unrealistic in his epectations D
which legitimises his subse7uent abusive conduct.
1he narcissist claims to be infallible, superior,
talented, skilful, omnipotent, and omniscient. /e often
lies and confabulates to support these unfounded claims.
=ithin his cult, he epects awe, admiration, adulation,
and constant attention commensurate with his
outlandish stories and assertions. /e reinterprets reality
to fit his fantasies.
/is thinking is dogmatic, rigid, and doctrinaire. /e
does not countenance free thought, pluralism, or free
speech and doesn't brook criticism and disagreement.
/e demands D and often gets D complete trust and the
relegation to his capable hands of all decision-making.
/e forces the participants in his cult to be hostile to
critics, the authorities, institutions, his personal enemies,
or the media D if they try to uncover his actions and
reveal the truth. /e closely monitors and censors
information from the outside, eposing his captive
audience only to selective data and analyses.
1he narcissist's cult is #missionary# and
#imperialistic#. /e is always on the lookout for new
recruits D his spouse's friends, his daughter's girlfriends,
his neighbours, new colleagues at work. /e
immediately attempts to #convert# them to his #creed# D
to convince them how wonderful and admirable he is. 8n
other words, he tries to render them Sources of
%arcissistic Supply.
$ften, his behaviour on these #recruiting missions# is
different to his conduct within the #cult#. 8n the first
phases of wooing new admirers and proselytising to
potential #conscripts# D the narcissist is attentive,
compassionate, empathic, fleible, self-effacing, and
helpful. !t home, among the #veterans# he is tyrannical,
demanding, wilful, opinionated, aggressive, and
eploitative.
!s the leader of his congregation, the narcissist feels
entitled to special amenities and benefits not accorded
the #rank and file#. /e epects to be waited on hand and
foot, to make free use of everyone's money and dispose
of their assets liberally, and to be cynically eempt from
the rules that he himself established 5if such violation is
pleasurable or gainful6.
8n etreme cases, the narcissist feels above the law D
any kind of law. 1his grandiose and haughty conviction
leads to criminal acts, incestuous or polygamous
relationships, and recurrent friction with the authorities.
/ence the narcissist's panicky and sometimes violent
reactions to #dropouts# from his cult. 1here's a lot going
on that the narcissist wants kept under wraps. -oreover,
the narcissist stabilises his fluctuating sense of self-
worth by deriving %arcissistic Supply from his victims.
!bandonment threatens the narcissist's precariously
balanced personality.
!dd to that the narcissist's paranoid and schi0oid
tendencies, his lack of introspective self-awareness, and
his stunted sense of humour 5lack of self-deprecation6
and the risks to the grudging members of his cult are
clear.
1he narcissist sees enemies and conspiracies
everywhere. /e often casts himself as the heroic victim
5martyr6 of dark and stupendous forces. 8n every
deviation from his tenets he espies malevolent and
ominous subversion. /e, therefore, is bent on
disempowering his devotees. :y any and all means.
1he narcissist is dangerous.
3eturn
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Narcissistic
And Psychopathic
Leaders
8n the =orkplace
%he Narcissist in the Wor-.lace
Question:
1he narcissist turns the workplace into a duplicitous
hell. =hat to doL
Answer:
1o a narcissistic employer, the members of his #staff#
are Secondary Sources of %arcissistic Supply. 1heir role
is to accumulate the supply 5remember events that
support the grandiose self-image of the narcissist6 and to
regulate the %arcissistic Supply of the narcissist during
dry spells - to adulate, adore, admire, agree, provide
attention and approval, and, generally, serve as an
audience to him.
1he staff 5or should we say #stuff#L6 is supposed to
remain passive. 1he narcissist is not interested in
anything but the simplest function of mirroring. =hen
the mirror ac7uires a personality and a life of its own,
the narcissist is incensed. =hen independent minded, an
employee might be in danger of being sacked by his
narcissistic employer 5an act which demonstrates the
employer's omnipotence6.
1he employee's presumption to be the employer's e7ual
by trying to befriend him 5friendship is possible only
among e7uals6 in+ures the employer narcissistically. /e
is willing to accept his employees as underlings, whose
very position serves to support his grandiose fantasies.
:ut his grandiosity is so tenuous and rests on such
fragile foundations, that any hint of e7uality,
disagreement or need 5any intimation that the narcissist
#needs# friends, for instance6 threatens the narcissist
profoundly. 1he narcissist is eceedingly insecure. 8t is
easy to destabilise his impromptu #personality#. /is
reactions are merely in self-defence.
9lassic narcissistic behaviour is when idealisation is
followed by devaluation. 1he devaluing attitude
develops as a result of disagreements or simply because
time has eroded the employee's capacity to serve as a
FRES Source of Supply.
1he veteran employee, now taken for granted by his
narcissistic employer, becomes uninspiring as a source
of adulation, admiration and attention. 1he narcissist
always seeks new thrills and stimuli.
1he narcissist is notorious for his low threshold of
resistance to boredom. /is behaviour is impulsive and
his biography tumultuous precisely because of his need
to introduce uncertainty and risk to what he regards as
#stagnation# or #slow death# 5i.e., routine6. -ost
interactions in the workplace are part of the rut D and
thus constitute a reminder of this routine D deflating the
narcissist's grandiose fantasies.
%arcissists do many unnecessary, wrong and even
dangerous things in pursuit of the stabilisation of their
inflated self-image.
%arcissists feel suffocated by intimacy, or by the
constant reminders of the REA!, nitty-gritty world out
there. 8t reduces them, makes them realise the
4randiosity 4ap between their fantasies and reality. 8t is
a threat to the precarious balance of their personality
structures 5#false# and invented6 and treated by them as
a menace.
%arcissists forever shift the blame, pass the buck, and
engage in cognitive dissonance. 1hey #pathologi0e# the
other, foster feelings of guilt and shame in her, demean,
debase and humiliate in order to preserve their sense of
superiority.
%arcissists are pathological liars. 1hey think nothing of
it because their very self is false, their own
confabulation.
/ere are a few useful guidelines,
• %ever disagree with the narcissist or contradict
himC
• %ever offer him any intimacyC
• Kook awed by whatever attribute matters to him
5for instance, by his professional achievements
or by his good looks, or by his success with
women and so on6C
• %ever remind him of life out there and if you do,
connect it somehow to his sense of grandiosity.
Mou can aggrandi0e even your office supplies,
the most mundane thing conceivable by saying,
#1hese are the "ES# art materials AN$
workplace is going to have#, #=e get them
E%C!&S'(E!$#, etc.C
• Do not make any comment, which might directly
or indirectly impinge on the narcissist's self-
image, omnipotence, superior +udgement,
omniscience, skills, capabilities, professional
record, or even omnipresence. :ad sentences
start with, #8 think you overlooked P made a
mistake here P you don't know P do you know
P you were not here yesterday so P you cannot
P you should P 5interpreted as rude
imposition, narcissists react very badly to
perceived restrictions placed on their freedom6
P 8 5never mention the fact that you are a
separate, independent entity, narcissists regard
others as etensions of their selves6P# Mou get
the gist of it.
-anage your narcissistic boss. %otice patterns in his
bullying. 8s he more aggressive on -onday mornings -
and more open to suggestions on "riday afternoonL 8s
he amenable to flatteryL 9an you modify his conduct by
appealing to his morality, superior knowledge, good
manners, cosmopolitanism, or upbringingL
-anipulating the narcissist is the only way to survive in
such a tainted workplace.
9an the narcissist be harnessedL 9an his energies be
channeled productivelyL
1his would be a deeply flawed D and even dangerous D
#advice#. Various management gurus purport to teach us
how to harness this force of nature known as malignant
or pathological narcissism. %arcissists are driven,
visionary, ambitious, eciting and productive, says
-ichael -accoby, for instance. 1o ignore such a
resource is a criminal waste. !ll we need to do is learn
how to #handle# them.
Met, this prescription is either naive or disingenuous.
%arcissists cannot be #handled#, or #managed#, or
#contained#, or #channeled#. 1hey are, by definition,
incapable of team work. 1hey lack empathy, are
eploitative, envious, haughty and feel entitled, even if
such a feeling is commensurate only with their
grandiose fantasies and when their accomplishments are
meager.
%arcissists dissemble, conspire, destroy and self-
destruct. 1heir drive is compulsive, their vision rarely
grounded in reality, their human relations a calamity. 8n
the long run, there is no enduring benefit to dancing
with narcissists D only ephemeral and, often, fallacious,
#achievements#.
3eturn
Narcissism in the )oardroom
1he perpetrators of the recent spate of financial frauds
in the ?S! acted with callous disregard for both their
employees and shareholders D not to mention other
stakeholders. Psychologists have often remote-
diagnosed them as #malignant, pathological narcissists#.
%arcissists are driven by the need to uphold and
maintain a "alse Self D a concocted, grandiose, and
demanding psychological construct typical of the
%arcissistic Personality Disorder. 1he "alse Self is
pro+ected to the world in order to garner %arcissistic
Supply D adulation, admiration, or even notoriety and
infamy. !ny kind of attention is usually deemed by
narcissists to be preferable to obscurity.
1he "alse Self is suffused with fantasies of perfection,
grandeur, brilliance, infallibility, immunity,
significance, omnipotence, omnipresence, and
omniscience. 1o be a narcissist is to be convinced of a
great, inevitable personal destiny. 1he narcissist is
preoccupied with ideal love, the construction of
brilliant, revolutionary scientific theories, the
composition or authoring or painting of the greatest
work of art, the founding of a new school of thought,
the attainment of fabulous wealth, the reshaping of a
nation or a conglomerate, and so on. 1he narcissist
never sets realistic goals to himself. /e is forever
preoccupied with fantasies of uni7ueness, record
breaking, or breathtaking achievements. /is verbosity
reflects this propensity.
3eality is, naturally, 7uite different and this gives rise
to a 4randiosity 4ap. 1he demands of the "alse Self are
never satisfied by the narcissist's accomplishments,
standing, wealth, clout, seual prowess, or knowledge.
1he narcissist's grandiosity and sense of entitlement are
e7ually incommensurate with his achievements.
1o bridge the 4randiosity 4ap, the malignant
5pathological6 narcissist resorts to shortcuts. 1hese very
often lead to fraud.
1he narcissist cares only about appearances. =hat
matters to him are the facade of wealth and its attendant
social status and %arcissistic Supply. =itness the
travestied etravagance of 1yco's Denis .o0lowski.
-edia attention only eacerbates the narcissist's
addiction and makes it incumbent on him to go to ever-
wilder etremes to secure uninterrupted supply from
this source.
1he narcissist lacks empathy D the ability to put
himself in other people's shoes. /e does not recognise
boundaries D personal, corporate, or legal. 2verything
and everyone are to him mere instruments, etensions,
ob+ects unconditionally and uncomplainingly available
in his pursuit of narcissistic gratification.
1his makes the narcissist perniciously eploitative. /e
uses, abuses, devalues, and discards even his nearest
and dearest in the most chilling manner. 1he narcissist
is utility D driven, obsessed with his overwhelming need
to reduce his aniety and regulate his labile sense of
self-worth by securing a constant supply of his drug D
attention. !merican eecutives acted without
compunction when they raided their employees' pension
funds D as did 3obert -awell a generation earlier in
:ritain.
1he narcissist is convinced of his superiority D
cerebral or physical. 1o his mind, he is a 4ulliver
hamstrung by a horde of narrow-minded and envious
Killiputians. 1he dotcom #new economy# was infested
with #visionaries# with a contemptuous attitude towards
the mundane, profits, business cycles, conservative
economists, doubtful +ournalists, and cautious analysts.
Met, deep inside, the narcissist is painfully aware of
his addiction to others D their attention, admiration,
applause, and affirmation. /e despises himself for being
thus dependent. /e hates people the same way a drug
addict hates his pusher. /e wishes to #put them in their
place#, humiliate them, demonstrate to them how
inade7uate and imperfect they are in comparison to his
regal self and how little he craves or needs them.
1he narcissist regards himself as one would an
epensive present, a gift to his company, to his family,
to his neighbours, to his colleagues, to his country. 1his
firm conviction of his inflated importance makes him
feel entitled to special treatment, special favours, special
outcomes, concessions, subservience, immediate
gratification, obse7uiousness, and lenience. 8t also
makes him feel immune to mortal laws and somehow
divinely protected and insulated from the inevitable
conse7uences of his deeds and misdeeds.
1he self-destructive narcissist plays the role of the
#bad guy# 5or #bad girl#6. :ut even this is within the
traditional social roles cartoonishly eaggerated by the
narcissist to attract attention. -en are likely to
emphasise intellect, power, aggression, money, or social
status. %arcissistic women are likely to emphasise body,
looks, charm, seuality, feminine #traits#, homemaking,
children and childrearing.
Punishing the wayward narcissist is a veritable catch-
>>.
! +ail term is useless as a deterrent if it only serves to
focus attention on the narcissist. :eing infamous is
second best to being famous D and far preferable to
being ignored. 1he only way to effectively punish a
narcissist is to withhold %arcissistic Supply from him
and thus to prevent him from becoming a notorious
celebrity.
4iven a sufficient amount of media eposure, book
contracts, talk shows, lectures, and public attention D the
narcissist may even consider the whole grisly affair to
be emotionally rewarding. 1o the narcissist, freedom,
wealth, social status, family, vocation D are all means to
an end. !nd the end is attention. 8f he can secure
attention by being the big bad wolf D the narcissist
unhesitatingly transforms himself into one. Kord !rcher,
for instance, seems to be positively basking in the media
circus provoked by his prison diaries.
1he narcissist does not victimise, plunder, terrorise
and abuse others in a cold, calculating manner. /e does
so offhandedly, as a manifestation of his genuine
character. 1o be truly #guilty# one needs to intend, to
deliberate, to contemplate one's choices and then to
choose one's acts. 1he narcissist does none of these.
1hus, punishment breeds in him surprise, hurt and
seething anger. 1he narcissist is stunned by society's
insistence that he should be held accountable for his
deeds and penalised accordingly. /e feels wronged,
baffled, in+ured, the victim of bias, discrimination and
in+ustice. /e rebels and rages.
Depending upon the pervasiveness of his magical
thinking, the narcissist may feel besieged by
overwhelming powers, forces cosmic and intrinsically
ominous. /e may develop compulsive rites to fend off
this #bad#, unwarranted, persecutory influences.
1he narcissist, very much the infantile outcome of
stunted personal development, engages in magical
thinking. /e feels omnipotent, that there is nothing he
couldn't do or achieve if only he sets his mind to it. /e
feels omniscient D he rarely admits to ignorance and
regards his intuitions and intellect as founts of ob+ective
data.
1hus, narcissists are haughtily convinced that
introspection is a more important and more efficient
5not to mention easier to accomplish6 method of
obtaining knowledge than the systematic study of
outside sources of information in accordance with strict
and tedious curricula. %arcissists are #inspired# and they
despise hamstrung technocrats.
1o some etent, they feel omnipresent because they
are either famous or about to become famous or because
their product is selling or is being manufactured
globally. Deeply immersed in their delusions of
grandeur, they firmly believe that their acts have D or
will have D a great influence not only on their firm, but
on their country, or even on -ankind. /aving mastered
the manipulation of their human environment D they are
convinced that they will always #get away with it#.
1hey develop hubris and a false sense of immunity.
%arcissistic immunity is the 5erroneous6 feeling,
harboured by the narcissist, that he is impervious to the
conse7uences of his actions, that he will never be
effected by the results of his own decisions, opinions,
beliefs, deeds and misdeeds, acts, inaction, or
membership of certain groups, that he is above reproach
and punishment, that, magically, he is protected and will
miraculously be saved at the last moment. /ence the
audacity, simplicity, and transparency of some of the
fraud and corporate looting in the '((<'s. %arcissists
rarely bother to cover their traces, so great is their
disdain and conviction that they are above mortal laws
and wherewithal.
=hat are the sources of this unrealistic appraisal of
situations and eventsL
1he "alse Self is a childish response to abuse and
trauma. !buse is not limited to seual molestation or
beatings. Smothering, doting, pampering, over-
indulgence, treating the child as an etension of the
parent, not respecting the child's boundaries, and
burdening the child with ecessive epectations are also
forms of abuse.
1he child reacts by constructing "alse Self that is
possessed of everything it needs in order to prevail,
unlimited and instantaneously available /arry Potter-
like powers and wisdom. 1he "alse Self, this Superman,
is indifferent to abuse and punishment. 1his way, the
child's 1rue Self is shielded from the toddler's harsh
reality.
1his artificial, maladaptive separation between a
vulnerable 5but not punishable6 1rue Self and a
punishable 5but invulnerable6 "alse Self is an effective
mechanism. 8t isolates the child from the un+ust,
capricious, emotionally dangerous world that he
occupies. :ut, at the same time, it fosters in him a false
sense of #nothing can happen to me, because 8 am not
here, 8 am not available to be punished, hence 8 am
immune to punishment#.
1he comfort of false immunity is also yielded by the
narcissist's sense of entitlement. 8n his grandiose
delusions, the narcissist is sui generis, a gift to
humanity, a precious, fragile, ob+ect. -oreover, the
narcissist is convinced both that this uni7ueness is
immediately discernible D and that it gives him special
rights. 1he narcissist feels that he is protected by some
cosmological law pertaining to #endangered species#.
/e is convinced that his future contribution to others D
his firm, his country, humanity D should and does
eempt him from the mundane, daily chores, boring
+obs, recurrent tasks, personal eertion, orderly
investment of resources and efforts, laws and
regulations, social conventions, and so on.
1he narcissist is entitled to a #special treatment#, high
living standards, constant and immediate catering to his
needs, the eradication of any friction with the humdrum
and the routine, an all-engulfing absolution of his sins,
fast track privileges 5to higher education, or in his
encounters with bureaucracies, for instance6.
Punishment, trusts the narcissist, is for ordinary people,
where no great loss to humanity is involved.
%arcissists are possessed of inordinate abilities to
charm, to convince, to seduce, and to persuade. -any of
them are gifted orators and intellectually endowed.
-any of them work in politics, the media, fashion, show
business, the arts, medicine, or business, and serve as
religious leaders.
:y virtue of their standing in the community, their
charisma, or their ability to find the willing scapegoats,
they do get eempted many times. /aving recurrently
#got away with it# D they develop a theory of personal
immunity, founded upon some kind of societal and even
cosmic #order# in which certain people are above
punishment.
:ut there is a fourth, simpler, eplanation. 1he
narcissist lacks self-awareness. Divorced from his 1rue
Self, unable to empathise 5to understand what it is like
to be someone else6, unwilling to constrain his actions
to cater to the feelings and needs of others D the
narcissist is in a constant dreamlike state.
1o the narcissist, his life is unreal, like watching an
autonomously unfolding movie. 1he narcissist is a mere
spectator, mildly interested, greatly entertained at times.
/e does not #own# his actions. /e, therefore, cannot
understand why he should be punished and when he is,
he feels grossly wronged.
So convinced is the narcissist that he is destined to
great things D that he refuses to accept setbacks, failures
and punishments. /e regards them as temporary, as the
outcomes of someone else's errors, as part of the future
mythology of his rise to powerJbrillianceJwealthJideal
love, etc. :eing punished is a diversion of his precious
energy and resources from the all-important task of
fulfilling his mission in life.
1he narcissist is pathologically envious of people and
believes that they are e7ually envious of him. /e is
paranoid, on guard, ready to fend off an imminent
attack. ! punishment to the narcissist is a ma+or surprise
and a nuisance but it also validates his suspicion that he
is being persecuted. 8t proves to him that strong forces
are arrayed against him.
/e tells himself that people, envious of his
achievements and humiliated by them, are out to get
him. /e constitutes a threat to the accepted order. =hen
re7uired to pay for his misdeeds, the narcissist is always
disdainful and bitter and feels misunderstood by his
inferiors.
9ooked books, corporate fraud, bending the 54!!P or
other6 rules, sweeping problems under the carpet, over-
promising, making grandiose claims 5the #vision thing#6
D are hallmarks of a narcissist in action. =hen social
cues and norms encourage such behaviour rather than
inhibit it D in other words, when such behaviour elicits
abundant %arcissistic Supply D the pattern is reinforced
and become entrenched and rigid. 2ven when
circumstances change, the narcissist finds it difficult to
adapt, shed his routines, and replace them with new
ones. /e is trapped in his past success. /e becomes a
swindler.
:ut pathological narcissism is not an isolated
phenomenon. 8t is embedded in our contemporary
culture. 1he =est's is a narcissistic civili0ation. 8t
upholds narcissistic values and penalises alternative
value-systems. "rom an early age, children are taught to
avoid self-criticism, to deceive themselves regarding
their capacities and attainments, to feel entitled, and to
eploit others.
!s Kilian .at0 observed in her important paper,
#Distinctions between Self-2steem and %arcissism,
8mplications for Practice#, published by the 2ducational
3esources 8nformation 9entre, the line between
enhancing self-esteem and fostering narcissism is often
blurred by educators and parents.
:oth 9hristopher Kasch in #1he 9ulture of
%arcissism# and 1heodore -illon in his books about
personality disorders, singled out !merican society as
narcissistic. Kitigiousness may be the flip side of an
inane sense of entitlement. 9onsumerism is built on this
common and communal lie of #8 can do anything 8 want
and possess everything 8 desire if 8 only apply myself to
it# and on the pathological envy it fosters.
%ot surprisingly, narcissistic disorders are more
common among men than among women. 1his may be
because narcissism conforms to masculine social mores
and to the prevailing ethos of capitalism. !mbition,
achievements, hierarchy, ruthlessness, drive D are both
social values and narcissistic male traits. Social thinkers
like the aforementioned Kasch speculated that modern
!merican culture D a self-centred one D increases the
rate of incidence of the %arcissistic Personality
Disorder.
$tto .ernberg, a notable scholar of personality
disorders, confirmed Kasch's intuition, ")ociety can
$a%e serious psycholoical abnor$alities# (hich
already e&ist in so$e percentae of the population#
see$ to be at least superficially appropriate,"
8n their book #Personality Disorders in -odern Kife#,
1heodore -illon and 3oger Davis state, as a matter of
fact, that pathological narcissism was once the preserve
of #the royal and the wealthy# and that it #seems to have
gained prominence only in the late twentieth century#.
%arcissism, according to them, may be associated with
"hiher levels of 4aslo(8s hierarchy of needs 9
Individuals in less advantaed nations 9 are too busy
tryin !to survive" 9 to be arroant and randiose".
1hey D like Kasch before them D attribute pathological
narcissism to "a society that stresses individualis$ and
self-ratification at the e&pense of co$$unity# na$ely
the :nited )tates". 1hey assert that the disorder is more
prevalent among certain professions with #star power#
or respect. "In an individualistic culture# the narcissist
is 8;od8s ift to the (orld8, In a collectivist society# the
narcissist is 8;od8s ift to the collective8,"
-illon 7uotes =arren and 9aponi's #1he 3ole of
9ulture in the Development of %arcissistic Personality
Disorders in !merica, Iapan and Denmark#,
"Individualistic narcissistic structures of self-reard
!in individualistic societies" 9 are rather self-contained
and independent 9 !In collectivist cultures" narcissistic
confiurations of the (e-self 9 denote self-estee$
derived fro$ stron identification (ith the reputation
and honour of the fa$ily# roups# and others in
hierarchical relationships,"
Still, there are malignant narcissists among
subsistence farmers in !frica, nomads in the Sinai
desert, day labourers in 2ast 2urope, and intellectuals
and socialites in -anhattan. -alignant narcissism is all-
pervasive and independent of culture and society. 8t is
true, though, that the way pathological narcissism
manifests and is eperienced is dependent on the
particulars of societies and cultures.
8n some cultures, it is encouraged, in others
suppressed. 8n some societies it is channelled against
minorities D in others it is tainted with paranoia. 8n
collectivist societies, it may be pro+ected onto the
collective, in individualistic societies, it is an
individual's trait.
Met, can families, organisations, ethnic groups,
churches, and even whole nations be safely described as
#narcissistic# or #pathologically self-absorbed#L 9an we
talk about a #corporate culture of narcissism#L
/uman collectives D states, firms, households,
institutions, political parties, cli7ues, bands D ac7uire a
life and a character all their own. 1he longer the
association or affiliation of the members, the more
cohesive and conformist the inner dynamics of the
group, the more persecutory or numerous its enemies,
competitors, or adversaries, the more intensive the
physical and emotional eperiences of the individuals it
is comprised of, the stronger the bonds of locale,
language, and history D the more rigorous might an
assertion of a common pathology be.
Such an all-pervasive and etensive pathology
manifests itself in the behaviour of each and every
member. 8t is a defining D though often implicit or
underlying D mental structure. 8t has eplanatory and
predictive powers. 8t is recurrent and invariable D a
pattern of conduct melding distorted cognition and
stunted emotions. !nd it is often vehemently denied.
3eturn
%he Pro$essions o$ the Narcissist
1he narcissist naturally gravitates towards those
professions which guarantee the abundant and
uninterrupted provision of %arcissistic Supply. /e seeks
to interact with people from a position of authority,
advantage, or superiority. /e thus elicits their automatic
admiration, adulation, and affirmation D or, failing that,
their fear and obedience.
Several vocations meet these re7uirements, teaching,
the clergy, show business, corporate management, the
medical professions, the military, law enforcement
agencies, politics, and sports. 8t is safe to predict that
narcissists would be over-represented in these
occupations.
1he cerebral narcissist is likely to emphasi0e his
intellectual prowess and accomplishments 5real and
imaginary6 in an attempt to solicit supply from awe-
struck students, devoted parishioners, admiring voters,
obse7uious subordinates, or dependent patients. /is
somatic counterpart derives his sense of self-worth from
body building, athletic achievements, tests of resilience
or endurance, and seual con7uests.
1he narcissistic medical doctor or mental health
professional and his patients, the narcissistic guide,
teacher, or mentor and his students, the narcissistic
leader, guru, pundit, or psychic and his followers or
admirers, and the narcissistic business tycoon, boss, or
employer and his underlings D all are instances of
Pathological %arcissistic Spaces.
1his is a worrisome state of affairs. %arcissists are liars.
1hey misrepresent their credentials, knowledge, talents,
skills, and achievements. ! narcissist medical doctor
would rather let patients die than epose his ignorance.
! narcissistic therapist often traumati0es his clients with
his acting out, rage, eploitativeness, and lack of
empathy. %arcissistic businessmen bring ruin on their
firms and employees.
-oreover, even when all is #well#, the narcissist's
relationship with his sycophants is abusive. /e
perceives others as ob+ects, mere instruments of
gratification, dispensable and interchangeable. !n
addict, the narcissist tends to pursue an ever-larger dose
of adoration, and an ever-bigger fi of attention, while
gradually losing what's left of his moral constraints.
=hen his sources become weary, rebellious, tired,
bored, disgusted, repelled, or plainly amused by the
narcissist's incessant dependence, his childish craving
for attention, his eaggerated or even paranoid fears
which lead to obsessive-compulsive behaviours, and his
#drama 7ueen# temper tantrums - he resorts to
emotional etortion, straight blackmail, abuse, or
misuse of his authority, and criminal or antisocial
conduct. 8f these fail, the narcissist devalues and
discards the very people he so ideali0ed and cherished
only a short while before.
!s opposed to their #normal# colleagues or peers,
narcissists in authority lack empathy and ethical
standards. 1hus, they are prone to immorally, cynically,
callously and consistently abuse their position. 1heir
socialisation process D usually the product of
problematic early relationships with Primary $b+ects
5parents, or caregivers6 D is often perturbed and results
in social dysfunctioning.
%or is the narcissist deterred by possible punishment or
regards himself sub+ect to -an-made laws. /is sense of
entitlement coupled with the conviction of his own
superiority lead him to believe in his invincibility,
invulnerability, immunity, and divinity. 1he narcissist
holds human edicts, rules, and regulations in disdain and
human penalties in disdain. /e regards human needs
and emotions as weaknesses to be predatorily eploited.
3eturn
Narcissistic
And Psychopathic
Leaders
Narcissists in Positions o$ Authority
Narcissistic ,eaders
)*#he leader+s, intellectual acts are strong and independent e-en
in isolation and his will need no reinforcement from others ...
*e, lo-es no one /ut himself0 or other people only insofar as
they ser-e his needs.1
Freud0 Sigmund0 23roup Psychology and the Analysis of the
Ego2
2't was precisely that e-ening in !odi that ' came to /elie-e in
myself as an unusual person and /ecame consumed with the
am/ition to do the great things that until then had /een /ut a
fantasy.2
*Napoleon "onaparte0 2#houghts2,
2#hey may all e called eroes0 in as much as they ha-e deri-ed
their purposes and their -ocation not from the calm regular
course of things0 sanctioned /y the e4isting order0 /ut from a
concealed fount0 from that inner Spirit0 still hidden /eneath the
surface0 which impinges on the outer world as a shell and /ursts
it into pieces 5 such were Ale4ander0 Caesar0 Napoleon ... 6orld5
historical men 5 the eroes of an epoch 5 must therefore /e
recogni7ed as its clear5sighted ones: their deeds0 their words are
the /est of their time ... 8oral claims which are irrele-ant must
not /e /rought into collision with 6orld5historical deeds ... So
mighty a form must trample down many an innocent flower 5
crush to pieces many an o/9ect in its path.2
*3.6.F. egel0 2!ectures on the Philosophy of istory2,
2Such /eings are incalcula/le0 they come li:e fate without cause
or reason0 inconsiderately and without prete4t. Suddenly they are
here li:e lightning too terri/le0 too sudden0 too compelling and
too +different+ e-en to /e hated ... 6hat mo-es them is the terri/le
egotism of the artist of the /ra7en glance0 who :nows himself to
/e 9ustified for all eternity in his +wor:+ as the mother is 9ustified
in her child ...
'n all great decei-ers a remar:a/le process is at wor: to which
they owe their power. 'n the -ery act of deception with all its
preparations0 the dreadful -oice0 e4pression0 and gestures0 they
are o-ercome /y their /elief in themsel-es; it is this /elief which
then spea:s0 so persuasi-ely0 so miracle5li:e0 to the audience.2
*Friedrich Niet7sche0 2#he 3enealogy of 8orals2,
2e :nows not how to rule a :ingdom0 that cannot manage a
pro-ince; nor can he wield a pro-ince0 that cannot order a city;
nor he order a city0 that :nows not how to regulate a -illage; nor
he a -illage0 that cannot guide a family; nor can that man go-ern
well a family that :nows not how to go-ern himself; neither can
any go-ern himself unless his reason /e lord0 will and appetite
her -assals; nor can reason rule unless herself /e ruled /y 3od0
and /e o/edient to im.2
*ugo 3rotius,
1he narcissistic or psychopathic leader is the
culmination and reification of his period, culture, and
civili0ation. /e is likely to rise to prominence in
narcissistic societies.
1he malignant narcissist invents and then pro+ects a
false, fictitious, self for the world to fear, or to admire.
/e maintains a tenuous grasp on reality to start with and
this is further eacerbated by the trappings of power.
1he narcissist's grandiose self-delusions and fantasies of
omnipotence and omniscience are supported by real life
authority and the narcissist's predilection to surround
himself with obse7uious sycophants.
1he narcissist's personality is so precariously balanced
that he cannot tolerate even a hint of criticism and
disagreement. -ost narcissists are paranoid and suffer
from ideas of reference 5the delusion that they are being
mocked or discussed when they are not6. 1hus,
narcissists often regard themselves as #victims of
persecution#.
1he narcissistic leader fosters and encourages a
personality cult with all the hallmarks of an institutional
religion, priesthood, rites, rituals, temples, worship,
catechism, mythology. 1he leader is this religion's
ascetic saint. /e monastically denies himself earthly
pleasures 5or so he claims6 in order to be able to
dedicate himself fully to his calling.
1he narcissistic leader is a monstrously inverted Iesus,
sacrificing his life and denying himself so that his
people - or humanity at large - should benefit. :y
surpassing and suppressing his humanity, the
narcissistic leader became a distorted version of
%iet0sche's #superman#.
-any narcissistic and psychopathic leaders are the
hostages of self-imposed rigid ideologies. 1hey fancy
themselves Platonic #philosopher-kings#. Kacking
empathy, they regard their sub+ects as a manufacturer
does his raw materials, or as the abstracted collateral
damage in vast historical processes 5to prepare an
omelet, one must break eggs, as their favorite saying
goes6.
:ut being a-human or super-human also means being a-
seual and a-moral.
8n this restricted sense, narcissistic leaders are post-
modernist and moral relativists. 1hey pro+ect to the
masses an androgynous figure and enhance it by
engendering the adoration of nudity and all things
#natural# - or by strongly repressing these feelings. :ut
what they refer to as #nature# is not natural at all.
1he narcissistic leader invariably proffers an aesthetic
of decadence and evil carefully orchestrated and
artificial - though it is not perceived this way by him or
by his followers. %arcissistic leadership is about
reproduced copies, not about originals. 8t is about the
manipulation of symbols - not about veritable atavism
or true conservatism.
8n short, narcissistic leadership is about theatre, not
about life. 1o en+oy the spectacle 5and be subsumed by
it6, the cultish leader demands the suspension of
+udgment, and the attainment of depersonali0ation and
de-reali0ation. 9atharsis is tantamount, in this
narcissistic dramaturgy, to self-annulment.
%arcissism is nihilistic not only operationally, or
ideologically. 8ts very language and narratives are
nihilistic. %arcissism is conspicuous nihilism - and the
cult's leader serves as a role model, annihilating the
-an, only to re-appear as a pre-ordained and irresistible
force of nature.
%arcissistic leadership often poses as a rebellion against
the #old ways#, against the hegemonic culture, the upper
classes, the established religions, the superpowers, the
corrupt order. %arcissistic movements are puerile, a
reaction to narcissistic in+uries inflicted upon a
narcissistic 5and rather psychopathic6 toddler nation-
state, or group, or upon the leader.
-inorities or #others# - often arbitrarily selected -
constitute a perfect, easily identifiable, embodiment of
all that is #wrong#. 1hey are accused of being old, of
being eerily disembodied, cosmopolitan, a part of the
establishment, of being #decadent#. 1hey are hated on
religious and socio-economic grounds, or because of
their race, seual orientation, or origin.
1hey are different, they are narcissistic 5they feel and
act as morally superior6, they are everywhere, they are
defenceless, they are credulous, they are adaptable 5and
thus can be co-opted to collaborate in their own
destruction6. 1hey are the perfect hate figure, a foil.
%arcissists thrive on hatred and pathological envy.
1his is precisely the source of the fascination with
/itler, diagnosed by 2rich "romm - together with Stalin
- as a malignant narcissist. /e was an inverted human.
/is unconscious was his conscious. /e acted out our
most repressed drives, fantasies, and wishes.
/itler provided us with a glimpse of the horrors that lie
beneath the veneer, the barbarians at our personal gates,
and what it was like before we invented civili0ation.
/itler forced us all through a time warp and many did
not emerge. /e was not the devil. /e was one of us. /e
was what !rendt aptly called the banality of evil. Iust
an ordinary, mentally disturbed, failure, a member of a
mentally disturbed and failing nation, who lived through
disturbed and failing times. /e was the perfect mirror, a
channel, a voice, and the very depth of our souls.
1he narcissistic leader prefers the sparkle and glamour
of well-orchestrated illusions to the tedium and method
of real accomplishments. /is reign is all smoke and
mirrors, devoid of substance, consisting of mere
appearances and mass delusions.
8n the aftermath of his regime - the narcissistic leader
having died, been deposed, or voted out of office - it all
unravels. 1he tireless and constant prestidigitation
ceases and the entire edifice crumbles. =hat looked like
an economic miracle turns out to have been a fraud-
laced bubble. Koosely-held empires disintegrate.
Kaboriously assembled business conglomerates go to
pieces. #2arth shattering# and #revolutionary# scientific
discoveries and theories are discredited. Social
eperiments end in mayhem.
!s their end draws near, narcissistic-psychopathic
leaders act out, lash out, erupt. 1hey attack with e7ual
virulence and ferocity compatriots, erstwhile allies,
neighbors, and foreigners.
8t is important to understand that the use of violence
must be ego-syntonic. 8t must accord with the self-
image of the narcissist. 8t must abet and sustain his
grandiose fantasies and feed his sense of entitlement. 8t
must conform with the narcissistic narrative.
!ll populist, charismatic leaders believe that they have a
#special connection# with the #people#, a relationship
that is direct, almost mystical, and transcends the
normal channels of communication 5such as the
legislature or the media6. 1hus, a narcissist who regards
himself as the benefactor of the poor, a member of the
common folk, the representative of the disenfranchised,
the champion of the dispossessed against the corrupt
elite, is highly unlikely to use violence at first.
1he pacific mask crumbles when the narcissist has
become convinced that the very people he purported to
speak for, his constituency, his grassroots fans, the
prime sources of his narcissistic supply, have turned
against him. !t first, in a desperate effort to maintain
the fiction underlying his chaotic personality, the
narcissist strives to eplain away the sudden reversal of
sentiment. #1he people are being duped by 5the media,
big industry, the military, the elite, etc.6#, #they don't
really know what they are doing#, #following a rude
awakening, they will revert to form#, etc.
=hen these flimsy attempts to patch a tattered personal
mythology fail, the narcissist is in+ured. %arcissistic
in+ury inevitably leads to narcissistic rage and to a
terrifying display of unbridled aggression. 1he pent-up
frustration and hurt translate into devaluation. 1hat
which was previously ideali0ed is now discarded with
contempt and hatred.
1his primitive defense mechanism is called #splitting#.
1o the narcissist, things and people are either entirely
bad 5evil6 or entirely good. /e pro+ects onto others his
own shortcomings and negative emotions, thus
becoming a totally good ob+ect. ! narcissistic leader is
likely to +ustify the butchering of his own people by
claiming that they intended to assassinate him, undo the
revolution, devastate the economy, harm the nation or
the country, etc.
1he #small people#, the #rank and file#, the #loyal
soldiers# of the narcissist - his flock, his nation, his
employees - they pay the price. 1he disillusionment and
disenchantment are agoni0ing. 1he process of
reconstruction, of rising from the ashes, of overcoming
the trauma of having been deceived, eploited and
manipulated - is drawn-out. 8t is difficult to trust again,
to have faith, to love, to be led, to collaborate. "eelings
of shame and guilt engulf the erstwhile followers of the
narcissist. 1his is his sole legacy, a massive post-
traumatic stress disorder 5P1SD6.
APPEND'%: Strong 8en and Political #heatres 5 #he
2"eing #here2 Syndrome
2' came here to see a country0 /ut what ' find is a theater ... 'n
appearances0 e-erything happens as it does e-erywhere else.
#here is no difference e4cept in the -ery foundation of things.1
*de Custine0 writing a/out Russia in the mid5<=th century,
"our decades ago, the Polish-!merican-Iewish author,
Ier0y .osinski, wrote the book #:eing 1here#. 8t
describes the election to the presidency of the ?nited
States of a simpleton, a gardener, whose vapid and trite
pronouncements are taken to be sagacious and
penetrating insights into human affairs. 1he #:eing
1here Syndrome# is now manifest throughout the world,
from 3ussia 5Putin6 to the ?nited States 5$bama6.
4iven a high enough level of frustration, triggered by
recurrent, endemic, and systemic failures in all spheres
of policy, even the most resilient democracy develops a
predilection to #strong men#, leaders whose self-
confidence, sangfroid, and apparent omniscience all but
#guarantee# a change of course for the better.
1hese are usually people with a thin resume, having
accomplished little prior to their ascendance. 1hey
appear to have erupted on the scene from nowhere.
1hey are received as providential messiahs precisely
because they are unencumbered with a discernible past
and, thus, are ostensibly unburdened by prior affiliations
and commitments. 1heir only duty is to the future. 1hey
are a-historical, they have no history and they are above
history.
8ndeed, it is precisely this apparent lack of a biography
that 7ualifies these leaders to represent and bring about
a fantastic and grandiose future. 1hey act as a blank
screen upon which the multitudes pro+ect their own
traits, wishes, personal biographies, needs, and
yearnings.
1he more these leaders deviate from their initial
promises and the more they fail, the dearer they are to
the hearts of their constituents, like them, their new-
chosen leader is struggling, coping, trying, and failing
and, like them, he has his shortcomings and vices. 1his
affinity is endearing and captivating. 8t helps to form a
shared psychosis 5follies-a-plusieurs6 between ruler and
people and fosters the emergence of an hagiography.
1he propensity to elevate narcissistic or even
psychopathic personalities to power is most pronounced
in countries that lack a democratic tradition 5such as
9hina, 3ussia, or the nations that inhabit the territories
that once belonged to :y0antium or the $ttoman
2mpire6.
9ultures and civili0ations which frown upon
individualism and have a collectivist tradition, prefer to
install #strong collective leaderships# rather than #strong
men#. Met, all these polities maintain a theatre of
democracy, or a theatre of #democratically-reached
consensus# 5Putin calls it, #sovereign democracy#6.
Such charades are devoid of essence and proper
function and are replete and concurrent with a
personality cult or the adoration of the party in power.
8n most developing countries and nations in transition,
#democracy# is an empty word. 4ranted, the hallmarks
of democracy are there, candidate lists, parties, election
propaganda, a plurality of media, and voting. :ut its
7uiddity is absent. 1he democratic principles are
institutions are being consistently hollowed out and
rendered mock by election fraud, eclusionary policies,
cronyism, corruption, intimidation, and collusion with
=estern interests, both commercial and political.
1he new #democracies# are thinly-disguised and
criminali0ed plutocracies 5recall the 3ussian oligarchs6,
authoritarian regimes 59entral !sia and the 9aucasus6,
or puppeteered heterarchies 5-acedonia, :osnia, and
8ra7, to mention three recent eamples6.
1he new #democracies# suffer from many of the same
ills that afflict their veteran role models, murky
campaign financesC venal revolving doors between state
administration and private enterpriseC endemic
corruption, nepotism, and cronyismC self-censoring
mediaC socially, economically, and politically ecluded
minoritiesC and so on. :ut while this malaise does not
threaten the foundations of the ?nited States and "rance
- it does imperil the stability and future of the likes of
?kraine, Serbia, and -oldova, 8ndonesia, -eico, and
:olivia.
-any nations have chosen prosperity over democracy.
Mes, the deni0ens of these realms can't speak their mind
or protest or critici0e or even +oke lest they be arrested
or worse - but, in echange for giving up these trivial
freedoms, they have food on the table, they are fully
employed, they receive ample health care and proper
education, they save and spend to their hearts' content.
8n return for all these worldly and intangible goods
5popularity of the leadership which yields political
stabilityC prosperityC securityC prestige abroadC authority
at homeC a renewed sense of nationalism, collective and
community6, the citi0ens of these countries forgo the
right to be able to critici0e the regime or change it once
every four years. -any insist that they have struck a
good bargain - not a "austian one.
3eturn
omomccmc@c m_ocm@mo_con
@oomm@:
2e :nows not how to rule a :ingdom0 that cannot manage a
pro-ince; nor can he wield a pro-ince0 that cannot order a city;
nor he order a city0 that :nows not how to regulate a -illage; nor
he a -illage0 that cannot guide a family; nor can that man go-ern
well a family that :nows not how to go-ern himself; neither can
any go-ern himself unless his reason /e lord0 will and appetite
her -assals; nor can reason rule unless herself /e ruled /y 3od0
and /e o/edient to im.2
/ugo Grotius
:eing in a position of authority secures the
uninterrupted flow of %arcissistic Supply. "ed by the
awe, fear, subordination, admiration, adoration and
obedience of his underlings, parish, students, or patients
D the narcissist thrives in such circumstances. 1he
narcissist aspires to ac7uire authority by any means
available to him. /e may achieve this by making use of
some outstanding traits or skills such as his intelligence,
or through an asymmetry built into a relationship. 1he
narcissistic medical doctor or mental health professional
and his patients, the narcissistic guide, teacher, or
mentor and his students, the narcissistic leader, guru,
pundit, or psychic and his followers or admirers, or the
narcissistic business tycoon, boss, or employer and his
subordinates D all are instances of such asymmetries.
1he rich, powerful, more knowledgeable narcissist
occupy a Pathological %arcissistic Space.
1hese types of relationships D based on the
unidirectional and unilateral flow of %arcissistic Supply
D border on abuse. 1he narcissist, in pursuit of an ever-
increasing supply, of an ever-larger dose of adoration,
and an ever-bigger fi of attention D gradually loses his
moral constraints. =ith time, it gets harder to obtain
%arcissistic Supply. 1he sources of such supply are
human and they become weary, rebellious, tired, bored,
disgusted, repelled, or plainly amused by the narcissist's
incessant dependence, his childish craving for attention,
his eaggerated or even paranoid fears which lead to
obsessive-compulsive behaviours. 1o secure their
continued collaboration in the procurement of his much-
needed supply D the narcissist might resort to emotional
etortion, straight blackmail, abuse, or misuse of his
authority.
1he temptation to do so, though, is universal. %o doctor
is immune to the charms of certain female patients, nor
are university professors aseual. =hat prevent them
from immorally, cynically, callously and consistently
abusing their position are ethical imperatives embedded
in them through socialisation and empathy. 1hey
learned the difference between right and wrong and,
having internalised it, they choose right when they face
a moral dilemma. 1hey empathise with other human
beings, #putting themselves in their shoes#, and refrain
from doing unto others what they do not wish to be
done to them.
8t is in these two crucial points that narcissists differ
from other humans.
1heir socialisation process D usually the product of
problematic early relationships with Primary $b+ects
5parents, or caregivers6 D is often perturbed and results
in social dysfunctioning. !nd they are incapable of
empathising, humans are there only to supply them with
%arcissistic Supply. 1hose unfortunate humans who do
not comply with this overriding dictum must be made to
alter their ways and if even this fails, the narcissist loses
interest in them and they are classified as #sub-human,
animals, service-providers, functions, symbols# and
worse. /ence the abrupt shifts from over-valuation to
devaluation of others. =hile bearing the gifts of
%arcissistic Supply D the #other# is idealised by the
narcissist. 1he narcissist shifts to the opposite pole
5devaluation6 when %arcissistic Supply dries up or
when he estimates that it is about to.
!s far as the narcissist is concerned, there is no moral
dimension to abusing others D only a pragmatic one,
will he be punished for doing soL 1he narcissist is
atavistically responsive to fear and lacks any in-depth
understanding of what it is to be a human being.
1rapped in his pathology, the narcissist resembles an
alien on drugs, a +unkie of %arcissistic Supply devoid of
the kind of language, which renders human emotions
intelligible.
3eturn
1he -aking of a Keader
)*#he leader+s, intellectual acts are strong and independent e-en
in isolation and his will need no reinforcement from others ...
*e, lo-es no one /ut himself0 or other people only insofar as
they ser-e his needs.1
Freud0 Sigmund0 23roup Psychology and the Analysis of the
Ego2
/ow does a leader become a leaderL
8n this article, we are not interested in the historical
process but in the answer to the twin 7uestions, what
7ualifies one to be a leader and why do people elect
someone specific to be a leader.
1he immediately evident response would be that the
leader addresses or is +udged by his voters to be capable
of addressing their needs. 1hese could be economic
needs, psychological needs, or moral needs. 8n all these
cases, if left unfulfilled, these unre7uited needs are
+udged to be capable of +eopardi0ing #acceptable 5modes
of6 eistence#. 2cept in rare cases 5famine, war,
plague6, survival is rarely at risk. $n the contrary,
people are mostly willing to sacrifice their genetic and
biological survival on the altar of said #acceptable
eistence#.
1o be acceptable, life must be honorable. 1o be
honorable, certain conditions 5commonly known as
#rights#6 must be fulfilled and upheld. %o life is deemed
honorable in the absence of food and shelter 5property
rights6, personal autonomy 5safeguarded by codified
freedoms6, personal safety, respect 5human rights6, and
a modicum of influence upon one's future 5civil rights6.
8n the absence of even one of these elements, people
tend to gradually become convinced that their lives are
not worth living. 1hey become mutinous and try to
restore the #honorable e7uilibrium#. 1hey seek food and
shelter by inventing new technologies and by
implementing them in a bid to control nature and other,
human, factors. 1hey rebel against any massive breach
of their freedoms. People seek safety, they legislate and
create law enforcement agencies and form armies.
!bove all, people are concerned with maintaining their
dignity and an influence over their terms of eistence,
present and future. 1he two may be linked , the more a
person influences his environment and moulds D the
more respected he is by others. Keaders are perceived to
be possessed of 7ualities conducive to the success of
such efforts. 1he leader seems to be emitting a signal
that tells his followers, 8 can increase your chances to
win the constant war that you are waging to find food
and shelter, to be respected, to enhance your personal
autonomy and security, and o have a say about your
future.
:ut =/!1 is this signalL =hat information does it
carryL /ow is it received and deciphered by the ledL
!nd how, eactly, does it influence their decision
making processesL
1he signal is, probably, a resonance. 1he information
emanating from the leader, the air euded by him, his
personal data must resonate with the situation of the
people he leads. 1he leader must not only resonate with
the world around him D but also with the world that he
promises to usher. -odes, fashions, bu00words, fads,
beliefs, hopes, fears, hates and loves, plans, other
information, a vision D all must be neatly incorporated
in this resonance table. ! leader is a shorthand version
of the world in which he operates, a map of his times,
the harmony 5if not the melody6 upon which those led
by him can improvise. 1hey must see in him all the
principle elements of their mental life, grievances,
agreements, disagreements, anger, deceit, conceit,
myths and facts, interpretation, compatibility, guilt,
paranoia, illusions and delusions D all wrapped 5or
warped6 into one neat parcel. 8t should not be taken to
mean that the leader must be an average person D but he
must discernibly contain the average person or faithfully
reflect him. /is voice must echo the multitude of sounds
that formed the popular wave which swept him to
power. 1his ability of his, to be and not to be, to vacate
himself, to become the conduit of other people's
eperiences and eistence, in short, to be a gifted actor
D is the first element in the leadership signal. 8t is
oriented to the past and to the present.
1he second element is what makes the leader distinct.
!gain, it is resonance. 1he leader must be perceived to
resonate in perfect harmony with a vision of the future,
agreeable to the people who elected him. #!greeable# D
read, compatible with the fulfillment of the
aforementioned needs in a manner, which renders life
acceptable. 2ach group of people has its own
re7uirements, eplicit and implicit, openly epressed
and latent.
1he members of a nation might feel that they have lost
the ability to shape their future and that their security is
compromised. 1hey will then select a leader who will D
so they believe, +udged by what they know about him D
restore both. 1he means of restoration are less
important. 1o become a leader, one must convince the
multitude, the masses, the public that one can deliver,
not that one knows the best, most optimal and most
efficient path to a set goal. 1he /$= is of no
conse7uences. 8t pales compared to the =8KK /2 L 1his
is because people value the results more than the way.
2ven in the most individualistic societies, people prefer
the welfare of the group to which they belong to their
own. 1he leader promises to optimi0e utility for the
group as a whole. 8t is clear that not all the members
will e7ually benefit, or even benefit at all. 1he one who
convinces his fellow beings that he can secure the
attainment of their goals 5and, thus, provide for their
needs satisfactorily6 D becomes a leader. =hat matters
to the public varies from time to time and from place to
place. 1o one group of people, the personality of the
leader is of crucial importance, to others his ancestral
roots. !t one time, the religious affiliation, and at
another, the right education, or a vision of the future.
=hatever determines the outcome, it must be strongly
correlated with what the group perceives to be its needs
and firmly founded upon its definition of an acceptable
life. 1his is the information content of the signal.
Selecting a leader is no trivial pursuit. People take it
very seriously. 1hey often believe that the results of this
decision also determine whether their needs are fulfilled
or not. 8n other words , the choice of leader determines
if they lead an acceptable life. 1hese seriousness and
contemplative attitude prevail even when the leader is
chosen by a select few 5the nobility, the party6.
1hus, information about the leader is gathered from
open sources, formal and informal, by deduction,
induction and inference, through contetual surmises,
historical pu00le-work and indirect associations. 1o
which ethnic group does the candidate belongL =hat is
his history and his family's J tribe's J nation'sL =here is
he coming from , geographically and culturallyL =hat is
he aiming at and where is he going to, what is his
visionL =ho are his friends, associates, partners,
collaborators, enemies and rivalsL =hat are the rumors
about him, the gossipL 1hese are the cognitive,
epistemological and hermeneutic dimensions of the
information gathered. 8t is all sub+ect to a process very
similar to scientific theori0ing. /ypotheses are
constructed to fit the known facts. Predictions are made.
2periments conducted and data gathered. ! theory is
then developed and applied to the known facts. !s more
data is added D the theory undergoes revisions or even a
paradigmatic shift. !s with scientific conservatism, the
reigning theory tends to color the interpretation of new
data. ! cult of #priests' 5commentators and pundits6
emerges to defend common wisdom and #well known#
#facts# against intellectual revisionism and non-
conformism. :ut finally the theory settles down and a
consensus emerges, a leader is born.
1he emotional aspect is predominant, though. 2motions
play the role of gatekeepers and circuit breakers in the
decision-making processes involved in the selection of a
leader. 1hey are the filters, the membranes through
which information seeps into the minds of the members
of the group. 1hey determine the inter-relations between
the various data. "inally, they assign values and moral
and affective weights within a coherent emotional
framework to the various bits information . 2motions
are rules of procedure. 1he information is the input
processed by these rules within a fu00y decision
theorem. 1he leader is the outcome 5almost the by-
product6 of this process.
1his is a static depiction, which does not provide us
with the dynamics of the selection process. /ow does
the information gathered affect itL =hich elements
interactL /ow is the outcome determinedL
8t would seem that people come naturally e7uipped with
a mechanism for the selection of leaders. 1his
mechanism is influenced by eperience 5a-posteriori6. 8t
is in the form of procedural rules, an algorithm which
guides the members of the group in the intricacies of the
group interaction known as #leadership selection#.
1his leader-selection mechanism comprises two
modules, a module for the evaluation and taonomy of
information and an interactive module. 1he former is
built to deal with constantly added data, to evaluate
them and to alter the emerging picture
5=eltanschauung6 accordingly 5to reconstruct or to
ad+ust the theory, even to replace it with another6.
1he second module responds to signals from the other
members of the group and treats these signals as data,
which, in turn, affects the performance of the first
module. 1he synthesis of the output produced by these
two modules determines the ultimate selection.
Keader selection is an interaction between a #nucleus of
individuality#, which is comprised of our Self, the way
we perceive our Self 5introspective element6 and the
way that we perceive our Selves as reflected by others.
1hen there is the #group nucleus#, which incorporates
the group's consciousness and goals. ! leader is a
person who succeeds in giving epression to both these
nuclei amply and successfully. =hen choosing a leader,
we, thus, really are choosing ourselves.
APPEND'%: A Comment on Campaign Finance
Reform
1he !thenian model of representative participatory
democracy was both eclusive and direct. 8t ecluded
women and slaves but it allowed the rest to actively,
constantly, and consistently contribute to decision
making processes on all levels and of all kinds
5including +uridical6. 1his was 5barely6 manageable in a
town ><,<<< strong.
1he application of this model to bigger polities is rather
more problematic and leads to serious and ominous
failures.
1he problem of the gathering and processing of
information - a logistical constraint - is likely to be
completely, satisfactorily, and comprehensively
resolved by the application of computer networks to
voting. 2ven with eisting technologies, election results
5regardless of the si0e of the electorate6, can be
announced with great accuracy within hours.
Met, computer networks are unlikely to overcome the
second obstacle - the problem of the large constituency.
Political candidates in a direct participatory democracy
need to keep each and every member of their
constituency 5potential voter6 informed about their
platform, 5if incumbent6 their achievements, their
person, and what distinguishes them from their rivals.
1his is a huge amount of information. 8ts dissemination
to large constituencies re7uires outlandish amounts of
money 5tens of millions of dollars per campaign6.
Politicians end up spending a lot of their time in office
5and out of it6 raising funds through #contributions#
which place them in hock to #contributing# individuals
and corporations. 1his anomaly cannot be solved by
tinkering with campaign finance laws. 8t reflects the real
costs of packaging and disseminating information. 1o
restrict these activities would be a disservice to
democracy and to voters.
9ampaign finance reform in its current 5myriad6 forms,
is, thus, largely anti-democratic, it limits access to
information 5by reducing the money available to the
candidates to spread their message6. :y doing so, it
restricts choice and it tilts the electoral machinery in
favor of the haves. Voters with money and education are
able to obtain the information they need by themselves
and at their own epense. 1he haves-not, who rely
eclusively on information dished out by the candidates,
are likely to be severely disadvantaged by any form of
campaign finance reform.
1he solution is to reduce the si0e of the constituencies.
1his can be done only by adopting an indirect, non-
participatory form of democracy, perhaps by abolishing
the direct election 5and campaigning6 of most currently
elected office holders. Direct elections in manageable
constituencies will be confined to multi-tiered, self-
dissolving 5#sunset#6 #electoral colleges# composed
eclusively of volunteers.
N>#E 5 #he Role of Politicians
8t is a common error to assume that the politician's role
is to create +obs, encourage economic activity, enhance
the welfare and well-being of his sub+ects, preserve the
territorial integrity of his country, and fulfill a host of
other functions.
8n truth, the politician has a single and eclusive role, to
get re-elected. /is primary responsibility is to his party
and its members. /e owes them patronage, +obs,
sinecures, guaranteed income or cash flow, access to the
public purse, and the intoicating wielding of power.
/is relationship is with his real constituency - the
party's rank and file - and he is accountable to them the
same way a 92$ 59hief 2ecutive $fficer6 answers to
the corporation's ma+or shareholders.
1o make sure that they get re-elected, politicians are
sometimes re7uired to implement reforms and policy
measures that contribute to the general welfare of the
populace and promote it. !t other times, they have to
refrain from action to preserve their electoral assets and
etend their political life epectancy.
Resources regarding !eadership Styles
3eturn
Narcissistic
And Psychopathic
Leaders
0n /istory
"arac: >/ama ? Narcissist0
>r 8erely Narcissistic@
:arack $bama appears to be a narcissist. Scroll down
for a detailed treatment.

4ranted, only a 7ualified mental health diagnostician
can determine whether someone suffers from
%arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 and this,
following lengthy tests and personal interviews. :ut, in
the absence of access to :arack $bama, one has to rely
on his overt performance and on testimonies by his
closest, nearest and dearest.

%arcissistic leaders are nefarious and their
effects pernicious. 1hey are subtle, refined, socially-
adept, manipulative, possessed of thespian skills, and
convincing. :oth types e7ually lack empathy and are
ruthless and relentless or driven.

Perhaps it is time to re7uire each candidate to high
office in the ?S! to submit to a rigorous physical and
mental checkup with the results made public.

01 2.#ringing and hildhood

$bama's early life was decidedly chaotic and replete
with traumatic and mentally bruising dislocations.
-ied-race marriages were even less common then. /is
parents went through a divorce when he was an infant
5two years old6. $bama saw his father only once again,
before he died in a car accident. 1hen, his mother re-
married and $bama had to relocate to 8ndonesia, a
foreign land with a radically foreign culture, to be raised
by a step-father. !t the age of ten, he was whisked off to
live with his maternal 5white6 grandparents. /e saw his
mother only intermittently in the following few years
and then she vanished from his life in '(A(. She died of
cancer in '(().

Pathological narcissism is a reaction to prolonged abuse
and trauma in early childhood or early adolescence. 1he
source of the abuse or trauma is immaterial, the
perpetrators could be dysfunctional or absent parents,
teachers, other adults, or peers.

001 )ehavior Patterns
1he narcissist,
• "eels grandiose and self-important 5e.g.,
eaggerates accomplishments, talents, s:ills0
contacts0 and personality traits to the point of
lying+ demands to be recognised as superior
without commensurate achievements6C
• 8s o/sessed with fantasies of unlimited success,
fame0 fearsome power or omnipotence,
uneAualled brilliance *the cere/ral narcissist,,
/odily beauty or se4ual performance *the
somatic narcissist,, or ideal, e-erlasting0 all5
conAuering love or passionC
• "irmly convinced that he or she is uni7ue and,
being special, can only be understood by, should
only /e treated /y, or associate with, other
special or uni7ue, or high-status people 5or
institutions6C
• 3e7uires ecessive admiration, adulation0
attention and affirmation ? or0 failing that0
wishes to /e feared and to /e notorious
*Narcissistic Supply,C
• "eels entitled. Demands automatic and full
compliance with his or her unreasonable
epectations for special and fa-oura/le priority
treatmentC
• 8s #interpersonally eploitative#, i.e., uses others
to achieve his or her own endsC
• De-oid of empathy. 8s una/le or unwilling to
identify with, ac:nowledge0 or accept the
feelings, needs, preferences0 priorities0 and
choices of othersC
• 9onstantly envious of others and see:s to hurt
or destroy the o/9ects of his or her frustration.
Suffers from persecutory *paranoid, delusions
as he or she believes that they feel the same
about him or her and are li:ely to act similarlyC
• :ehaves arrogantly and haughtily. Feels
superior0 omnipotent0 omniscient0 in-inci/le0
immune0 2a/o-e the law20 and omnipresent
*magical thin:ing,. Rages when frustrated0
contradicted0 or confronted by people he or she
considers inferior to him or her and unworthy.
%arcissism is a defense mechanism whose role is to
deflect hurt and trauma from the victim's #1rue Self#
into a #"alse Self# which is omnipotent, invulnerable,
and omniscient. 1his "alse Self is then used by the
narcissist to garner narcissistic supply from his human
environment. %arcissistic supply is any form of
attention, both positive and negative and it is
instrumental in the regulation of the narcissist's labile
sense of self-worth.

Perhaps the most immediately evident trait of patients
with %arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 is their
vulnerability to criticism and disagreement. Sub+ect to
negative input, real or imagined, even to a mild rebuke,
a constructive suggestion, or an offer to help, they feel
in+ured, humiliated and empty and they react with
disdain 5devaluation6, rage, and defiance.

"rom my book #-alignant Self Kove - %arcissism
3evisited#,
2#o a-oid such intolera/le pain0 some patients with
Narcissistic Personality Disorder *NPD, socially
withdraw and feign false modesty and humility to
mas: their underlying grandiosity. Dysthymic and
depressi-e disorders are common reactions to isolation
and feelings of shame and inadeAuacy.2
Due to their lack of empathy, disregard for others,
eploitativeness, sense of entitlement, and constant need
for attention 5narcissistic supply6, narcissists are rarely
able to maintain functional and healthy interpersonal
relationships.
-any narcissists are over-achievers and ambitious.
Some of them are even talented and skilled. :ut they are
incapable of team work because they cannot tolerate
setbacks. 1hey are easily frustrated and demorali0ed and
are unable to cope with disagreement and criticism.
1hough some narcissists have meteoric and inspiring
careers, in the long-run, all of them find it difficult to
maintain long-term professional achievements and the
respect and appreciation of their peers. 1he narcissist's
fantastic grandiosity, fre7uently coupled with a
hypomanic mood, is typically incommensurate with his
or her real accomplishments 5the #grandiosity gap#6.
!n important distinction is between cerebral and
somatic narcissists. 1he cerebrals derive their
%arcissistic Supply from their intelligence or academic
achievements and the somatics derive their %arcissistic
Supply from their physi7ue, eercise, physical or seual
prowess and romantic or physical #con7uests#.
!nother crucial division within the ranks of patients
with %arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 is between
the classic variety 5those who meet five of the nine
diagnostic criteria included in the DS-6, and the
compensatory kind 5their narcissism compensates for
deep-set feelings of inferiority and lack of self-worth6.
$bama displays the following behaviors, which are
among the hallmarks of pathological narcissism,
• Subtly misrepresents facts and epediently and
opportunistically shifts positions, views,
opinions, and #ideals# 5e.g., about campaign
finance, re-districting6. 1hese flip-flops do not
cause him overt distress and are ego-syntonic
5he feels +ustified in acting this
way6. !lternatively, reuses to commit to a
standpoint and, in the process, evidences a lack
of empathy.

8gnores data that conflict with his fantasy world,
or with his inflated and grandiose self-image.
1his has to do with magical thinking. $bama
already sees himself as president because he is
firmly convinced that his dreams, thoughts, and
wishes affect reality. !dditionally, he denies the
gap between his fantasies and his modest or
limited real-life achievements 5for instance, in
'> years of academic career, he hasn't published
a single scholarly paper or book6.

"eels that he is above the law, incl. and
especially his own laws.

1alks about himself in the @rd person singular
or uses the regal #we# and craves to be
the eclusive center of attention, even adulation

/ave a messianic-cosmic vision of himself and
his life and his #mission#.

Sets ever more comple rules in a convoluted
world of grandiose fantasies with its own
language 5+argon6

Displays false modesty and unctuous
#folksiness# but unable to sustain these
behaviors 5the persona, or mask6 for long. 8t
slips and the true $bama is revealed, haughty,
aloof, distant, and disdainful of simple folk
and their lives.

Sublimates aggression and holds grudges.

:ehaves as an eternal adolescent 5e.g., his choice
of language, youthful image he pro+ects,
demands indulgence and feels entitled to special
treatment, even though his ob+ective
accomplishments do not +ustify it6.
0001 )ody ,anguage

-any complain of the incredible deceptive powers of
the narcissist. 1hey find themselves involved with
narcissists 5emotionally, in business, or otherwise6
before they have a chance to discover their true
character. Shocked by the later revelation, they mourn
their inability to separate from the narcissist and their
gullibility.
%arcissists are an elusive breed, hard to spot, harder to
pinpoint, impossible to capture. 2ven an eperienced
mental health diagnostician with unmitigated access to
the record and to the person eamined would find it
fiendishly difficult to determine with any degree of
certainty whether someone suffers from a full fledged
%arcissistic Personality Disorder D or merely possesses
narcissistic traits, a narcissistic style, a personality
structure 5#character#6, or a narcissistic #overlay#
superimposed on another mental health problem.
-oreover, it is important to distinguish between traits
and behavior patterns that are independent of the
patient's cultural-social contet 5i.e., which are inherent,
or idiosyncratic6 D and reactive patterns, or conformity
to cultural and social morals and norms. 3eactions to
severe life crises or circumstances are also often
characteri0ed by transient pathological narcissism, for
instance 53onningstam and 4underson, '((F6. :ut such
reactions do not a narcissist make.
=hen a person belongs to a society or culture that has
often been described as narcissistic by scholars 5such as
1heodore -illon6 and social thinkers 5e.g., 9hristopher
Kasch6 D how much of his behavior can be attributed to
his milieu and which of his traits are really hisL
1he %arcissistic Personality Disorder is rigorously
defined in the DS- 8V-13 with a set of strict criteria
and differential diagnoses.
%arcissism is regarded by many scholars to be an
adaptative strategy 5#healthy narcissism#6. 8t is
considered pathological in the clinical sense only when
it becomes a rigid personality structure replete with a
series of primitive defence mechanisms 5such as
splitting, pro+ection, pro+ective identification, or
intellectuali0ation6 D and when it leads to dysfunctions
in one or more areas of the patient's life.
Pathological narcissism is the art of deception. 1he
narcissist pro+ects a "alse Self and manages all his
social interactions through this concocted fictional
construct.
=hen the narcissist reveals his true colors, it is usually
far too late. /is victims are unable to separate from him.
1hey are frustrated by this ac7uired helplessness and
angry at themselves for having they failed to see
through the narcissist earlier on.
:ut the narcissist does emit subtle, almost subliminal,
signals 5#presenting symptoms#6 even in a first or casual
encounter. 9ompare the following list to :arack
$bama's body language during his public appearances.
1hese are,
2aughty2 /ody language D 1he narcissist adopts a
physical posture which implies and eudes an air of
superiority, seniority, hidden powers, mysteriousness,
amused indifference, etc. 1hough the narcissist usually
maintains sustained and piercing eye contact, he often
refrains from physical proimity 5he is #territorial#6.
1he narcissist takes part in social interactions D even
mere banter D condescendingly, from a position of
supremacy and fau #magnanimity and largesse#. :ut
he rarely mingles socially and prefers to remain the
#observer#, or the #lone wolf#.
Entitlement mar:ers D 1he narcissist immediately asks
for #special treatment# of some kind. %ot to wait his
turn, to have a longer or a shorter therapeutic session, to
talk directly to authority figures 5and not to their
assistants or secretaries6, to be granted special payment
terms, to en+oy custom tailored arrangements - or to get
served first.
1he narcissist is the one who D vocally and
demonstratively D demands the undivided attention of
the head waiter in a restaurant, or monopoli0es the
hostess, or latches on to celebrities in a party. 1he
narcissist reacts with rage and indignantly when denied
his wishes and if treated e7ually with others whom he
deems inferior.
'deali7ation or de-aluation D 1he narcissist instantly
ideali0es or devalues his interlocutor. 1his depends on
how the narcissist appraises the potential his converser
has as a %arcissistic Supply Source. 1he narcissist
flatters, adores, admires and applauds the #target# in an
embarrassingly eaggerated and profuse manner D or
sulks, abuses, and humiliates her.
%arcissists are polite only in the presence of a potential
Supply Source. :ut they are unable to sustain even
perfunctory civility and fast deteriorate to barbs and
thinly-veiled hostility, to verbal or other violent displays
of abuse, rage attacks, or cold detachment.
#he 2mem/ership2 posture D 1he narcissist always
tries to #belong#. Met, at the very same time, he
maintains his stance as an outsider. 1he narcissist seeks
to be admired for his ability to integrate and ingratiate
himself without investing the efforts commensurate with
such an undertaking.
"or instance, if the narcissist talks to a psychologist, the
narcissist first states emphatically that he never studied
psychology. /e then proceeds to make seemingly
effortless use of obscure professional terms, thus
demonstrating that he mastered the discipline all the
same, as an autodidact D which proves that he is
eceptionally intelligent or introspective.
8n general, the narcissist always prefers show-off to
substance. $ne of the most effective methods of
eposing a narcissist is by trying to delve deeper. 1he
narcissist is shallow, a pond pretending to be an ocean.
/e likes to think of himself as a 3enaissance man, a
Iack of all trades. 1he narcissist never admits to
ignorance in any field D yet, typically, he is ignorant of
them all. 8t is surprisingly easy to penetrate the gloss
and the veneer of the narcissist's self-proclaimed
omniscience.
"ragging and false auto/iography – 1he narcissist
brags incessantly. /is speech is peppered with #8#,
#my#, #myself#, and #mine#. /e describes himself as
intelligent, or rich, or modest, or intuitive, or creative D
but always ecessively, implausibly, and etraordinarily
so.
1he narcissist's biography sounds unusually rich and
comple. /is achievements D incommensurate with his
age, education, or renown. Met, his actual condition is
evidently and demonstrably incompatible with his
claims. Very often, the narcissist lies or his fantasies are
easily discernible. /e always name-drops and
appropriates other people's eperiences and
accomplishments.
Emotion5free language D 1he narcissist likes to talk
about himself and only about himself. /e is not
interested in others or what they have to say, unless they
constitute potential Sources of Supply and in order to
obtain said supply. /e acts bored, disdainful, even
angry, if he feels that they are intruding on his precious
time and, thus, abusing him.
8n general, the narcissist is very impatient, easily bored,
with strong attention deficits D unless and until he is the
topic of discussion. $ne can publicly dissect all aspects
of the intimate life of a narcissist without repercussions,
providing the discourse is not #emotionally tinted#.
8f asked to relate directly to his emotions, the narcissist
intellectuali0es, rationali0es, speaks about himself in the
third person and in a detached #scientific# tone or
composes a narrative with a fictitious character in it,
suspiciously autobiographical. %arcissists like to refer
to themselves in mechanical terms, as efficient automata
or machines.
Seriousness and sense of intrusion and coercion D 1he
narcissist is dead serious about himself. /e may possess
a subtle, wry, and riotous sense of humor, scathing and
cynical, but rarely is he self-deprecating. 1he narcissist
regards himself as being on a constant mission, whose
importance is cosmic and whose conse7uences are
global. 8f a scientist D he is always in the throes of
revolutioni0ing science. 8f a +ournalist D he is in the
middle of the greatest story ever. 8f a novelist - he is on
his way to a :ooker or %obel pri0e.
1his self-misperception is not amenable to light-
headedness or self-effacement. 1he narcissist is easily
hurt and insulted 5narcissistic in+ury6. 2ven the most
innocuous remarks or acts are interpreted by him as
belittling, intruding, or coercive. /is time is more
valuable than others' D therefore, it cannot be wasted on
unimportant matters such as mere banter or going out
for a walk.
!ny suggested help, advice, or concerned in7uiry are
immediately cast by the narcissist as intentional
humiliation, implying that the narcissist is in need of
help and counsel and, thus, imperfect and less than
omnipotent. !ny attempt to set an agenda is, to the
narcissist, an intimidating act of enslavement. 8n this
sense, the narcissist is both schi0oid and paranoid and
often entertains ideas of reference.
1hese D the lack of empathy, the aloofness, the disdain,
the sense of entitlement, the constricted sense of humor,
the une7ual treatment and the paranoia D render the
narcissist a social misfit. 1he narcissist is able to
provoke in his milieu, in his casual ac7uaintances, even
in his psychotherapist, the strongest, most avid and
furious hatred and revulsion. 1o his shock, indignation
and consternation, he invariably induces in others
unbridled aggression.
/e is perceived to be asocial at best and, often,
antisocial. 1his, perhaps, is the strongest presenting
symptom. $ne feels ill at ease in the presence of a
narcissist for no apparent reason. %o matter how
charming, intelligent, thought provoking, outgoing, easy
going and social the narcissist is D he fails to secure the
sympathy of others, a sympathy he is never ready,
willing, or able to reciprocate.
031 Narcissistic and .sycho.athic ,eaders

1he narcissistic or psychopathic leader is the
culmination and reification of his period, culture, and
civili0ation. /e is likely to rise to prominence in
narcissistic societies.
1he malignant narcissist invents and then pro+ects a
false, fictitious, self for the world to fear, or to admire.
/e maintains a tenuous grasp on reality to start with and
this is further eacerbated by the trappings of power.
1he narcissist's grandiose self-delusions and fantasies of
omnipotence and omniscience are supported by real life
authority and the narcissist's predilection to surround
himself with obse7uious sycophants.
1he narcissist's personality is so precariously balanced
that he cannot tolerate even a hint of criticism and
disagreement. -ost narcissists are paranoid and suffer
from ideas of reference 5the delusion that they are being
mocked or discussed when they are not6. 1hus,
narcissists often regard themselves as #victims of
persecution#.
1he narcissistic leader fosters and encourages a
personality cult with all the hallmarks of an institutional
religion, priesthood, rites, rituals, temples, worship,
catechism, mythology. 1he leader is this religion's
ascetic saint. /e monastically denies himself earthly
pleasures 5or so he claims6 in order to be able to
dedicate himself fully to his calling.
1he narcissistic leader is a monstrously inverted Iesus,
sacrificing his life and denying himself so that his
people - or humanity at large - should benefit. :y
surpassing and suppressing his humanity, the
narcissistic leader became a distorted version of
%iet0sche's #superman#.
:ut being a-human or super-human also means being a-
seual and a-moral.
8n this restricted sense, narcissistic leaders are post-
modernist and moral relativists. 1hey pro+ect to the
masses an androgynous figure and enhance it by
engendering the adoration of nudity and all things
#natural# - or by strongly repressing these feelings. :ut
what they refer to as #nature# is not natural at all.
1he narcissistic leader invariably proffers an aesthetic
of decadence and evil carefully orchestrated and
artificial - though it is not perceived this way by him or
by his followers. %arcissistic leadership is about
reproduced copies, not about originals. 8t is about the
manipulation of symbols - not about veritable atavism
or true conservatism.
8n short, narcissistic leadership is about theatre, not
about life. 1o en+oy the spectacle 5and be subsumed by
it6, the leader demands the suspension of +udgment,
depersonali0ation, and de-reali0ation. 9atharsis is
tantamount, in this narcissistic dramaturgy, to self-
annulment.
%arcissism is nihilistic not only operationally, or
ideologically. 8ts very language and narratives are
nihilistic. %arcissism is conspicuous nihilism - and the
cult's leader serves as a role model, annihilating the
-an, only to re-appear as a pre-ordained and irresistible
force of nature.
%arcissistic leadership often poses as a rebellion against
the #old ways# - against the hegemonic culture, the
upper classes, the established religions, the
superpowers, the corrupt order. %arcissistic movements
are puerile, a reaction to narcissistic in+uries inflicted
upon a narcissistic 5and rather psychopathic6 toddler
nation-state, or group, or upon the leader.
-inorities or #others# - often arbitrarily selected -
constitute a perfect, easily identifiable, embodiment of
all that is #wrong#. 1hey are accused of being old, they
are eerily disembodied, they are cosmopolitan, they are
part of the establishment, they are #decadent#, they are
hated on religious and socio-economic grounds, or
because of their race, seual orientation, origin ... 1hey
are different, they are narcissistic 5feel and act as
morally superior6, they are everywhere, they are
defenceless, they are credulous, they are adaptable 5and
thus can be co-opted to collaborate in their own
destruction6. 1hey are the perfect hate figure.
%arcissists thrive on hatred and pathological envy.
1his is precisely the source of the fascination with
/itler, diagnosed by 2rich "romm - together with Stalin
- as a malignant narcissist. /e was an inverted human.
/is unconscious was his conscious. /e acted out our
most repressed drives, fantasies, and wishes. /e
provides us with a glimpse of the horrors that lie
beneath the veneer, the barbarians at our personal gates,
and what it was like before we invented civili0ation.
/itler forced us all through a time warp and many did
not emerge. /e was not the devil. /e was one of us. /e
was what !rendt aptly called the banality of evil. Iust
an ordinary, mentally disturbed, failure, a member of a
mentally disturbed and failing nation, who lived through
disturbed and failing times. /e was the perfect mirror, a
channel, a voice, and the very depth of our souls.
1he narcissistic leader prefers the sparkle and glamour
of well-orchestrated illusions to the tedium and method
of real accomplishments. /is reign is all smoke and
mirrors, devoid of substances, consisting of mere
appearances and mass delusions. 8n the aftermath of his
regime - the narcissistic leader having died, been
deposed, or voted out of office - it all unravels. 1he
tireless and constant prestidigitation ceases and the
entire edifice crumbles. =hat looked like an economic
miracle turns out to have been a fraud-laced bubble.
Koosely-held empires disintegrate. Kaboriously
assembled business conglomerates go to pieces. #2arth
shattering# and #revolutionary# scientific discoveries
and theories are discredited. Social eperiments end in
mayhem.
8t is important to understand that the use of violence
must be ego-syntonic. 8t must accord with the self-
image of the narcissist. 8t must abet and sustain his
grandiose fantasies and feed his sense of entitlement. 8t
must conform with the narcissistic narrative.
1hus, a narcissist who regards himself as the benefactor
of the poor, a member of the common folk, the
representative of the disenfranchised, the champion of
the dispossessed against the corrupt elite - is highly
unlikely to use violence at first.
1he pacific mask crumbles when the narcissist has
become convinced that the very people he purported to
speak for, his constituency, his grassroots fans, the
prime sources of his narcissistic supply - have turned
against him. !t first, in a desperate effort to maintain
the fiction underlying his chaotic personality, the
narcissist strives to eplain away the sudden reversal of
sentiment. #1he people are being duped by 5the media,
big industry, the military, the elite, etc.6#, #they don't
really know what they are doing#, #following a rude
awakening, they will revert to form#, etc.
=hen these flimsy attempts to patch a tattered personal
mythology fail - the narcissist is in+ured. %arcissistic
in+ury inevitably leads to narcissistic rage and to a
terrifying display of unbridled aggression. 1he pent-up
frustration and hurt translate into devaluation. 1hat
which was previously ideali0ed - is now discarded with
contempt and hatred.
1his primitive defense mechanism is called #splitting#.
1o the narcissist, things and people are either entirely
bad 5evil6 or entirely good. /e pro+ects onto others his
own shortcomings and negative emotions, thus
becoming a totally good ob+ect. ! narcissistic leader is
likely to +ustify the butchering of his own people by
claiming that they intended to kill him, undo the
revolution, devastate the economy, or the country, etc.
1he #small people#, the #rank and file#, the #loyal
soldiers# of the narcissist - his flock, his nation, his
employees - they pay the price. 1he disillusionment and
disenchantment are agoni0ing. 1he process of
reconstruction, of rising from the ashes, of overcoming
the trauma of having been deceived, eploited and
manipulated - is drawn-out. 8t is difficult to trust again,
to have faith, to love, to be led, to collaborate. "eelings
of shame and guilt engulf the erstwhile followers of the
narcissist. 1his is his sole legacy, a massive post-
traumatic stress disorder.
3eturn
4esus hrist+ narcissist
Note:
#hough most of the Auotes in this essay are from the 3ospel of
Saint 8atthew0 ' was careful to compare them with the te4ts of
the other three canonical gospels. 6here the gospels disagree0 '
a-oided using the Auote altogether.
8llegitimate and adopted children, especially of humble
origins, often develop narcissistic defenses to fend off
persistent feelings of inade7uacy and inferiority.
!dmittedly, it is highly unlikely that Iesus was an
illegitimate child. !dulteresses in ancient Iudea were
stoned to death. :ut, e7ually, there is little doubt that
the circumstances of Iesus's birth were shrouded in
mystery. /is mother, -ary, got herself pregnant but not
by having seual intercourse with her lawfully-wedded
husband, Ioseph.
2arly on, Iesus developed magical thinking,
compensatory grandiose delusions, and fantasies of
omnipotence and omniscience. ! firstborn, he was
much pampered by his doting mother. /e was a
prodigy, a =underkind, highly intelligent and
in7uisitive and more comfortable in the company of
adults than with his peers.
=hen he was a mere '> years old,
2*#,hey found him in the temple0 sitting in the midst
of the doctors0 /oth hearing them0 and as:ing them
Auestions.2 *!u:e B:CD,
2ven at this tender age, he showed a marked lack of
empathy and a full-fledged case of pathological
grandiosity,
2is mother said unto him0 Son0 why hast thou thus
dealt with us@ /ehold0 thy father and ' ha-e sought
thee sorrowing. And he said unto them0 ow is it that
ye sought me@ wist ye not that ' must /e a/out my
Father+s /usiness@2 *28y Father2 /eing 3od 5 S(,.
*!u:e B:CE5C=,
4urus at the center of emergent cults are inevitably
narcissistic, if not outright narcissists. 1he self-
imputation of superiority, epiphanic knowledge, and
infallibility and the assumption that others need and
crave the guru's message are at the heart of an elaborate
construct which often borders on the psychotic,
2... *#,he people were astonished at his doctrine: For
he taught them as one ha-ing authority0 and not as the
scri/es.2 *8atthew F:BE5B=,
3eferring to his '> disciples, Iesus made clear that,
2#he disciple is not a/o-e his master0 nor the ser-ant
a/o-e his lord.2 *8atthew <G:BC,
2e that lo-eth father or mother more than me is not
worthy of me: and he that lo-eth son or daughter more
than me is not worthy of me. And he that ta:eth not
his cross0 and followeth after me0 is not worthy of me.
e that findeth his life shall lose it: and he that loseth
his life for my sa:e shall find it.2 *8atthew <G:HF5H=,
/ere is how Iesus, the lowly, unmarried, and itinerant
son of a carpenter - an abysmal failure by the standards
of his society - viewed himself,
26hen the Son of man shall come in his glory0 and all
the holy angels with him0 then shall he sit upon the
throne of his glory: And /efore him shall /e gathered
all nations: and he shall separate them one from
another0 as a shepherd di-ideth his sheep from the
goats ... And these shall go away into e-erlasting
punishment: /ut the righteous into life eternal.2
*8atthew BI:H<5HB and BI:CD,
2#hin:est thou that ' cannot now pray to my Father0
and he shall presently gi-e me more than twel-e
legions of angels@2 *8atthew BD:IH,
9ontrary to his much-cultivated image, Iesus, like the
vast ma+ority of cult leaders, lacked empathy and was a
heartless and irresponsible manipulator whose magical
thinking ruined the lives of many. /e instructed his
followers to commit acts that must have had harshly
adverse impacts on their hitherto nearest and dearest.
Iesus monopoli0ed the lives of his disciples to the
eclusion of all else and all others,
2For ' am come to set a man at -ariance against his
father0 and the daughter against her mother0 and the
daughter in law against her mother in law. And a
man+s foes shall /e they of his own household.2
*8atthew <G:HI5HD,

2#hen one said unto him0 "ehold0 thy mother and thy
/rethren stand without0 desiring to spea: with thee.
"ut he answered and said unto him that told him0
6ho is my mother@ and who are my /rethren@ And
he stretched forth his hand toward his disciples0 and
said0 "ehold my mother and my /rethrenJ2 *8atthew
<B:CF5CE,

2And Kesus0 wal:ing /y the sea of 3alilee0 saw two
/rethren0 Simon called Peter0 and Andrew his /rother0
casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. And
he saith unto them0 Follow me0 and ' will ma:e you
fishers of men. And they straightway left their nets0
and followed him. And going on from thence0 he saw
other two /rethren0 Kames the son of Le/edee0 and
Kohn his /rother0 in a ship with Le/edee their father0
mending their nets; and he called them. And they
immediately left the ship and their father0 and
followed him.2 *8atthew C:<E5BB,
9onsider the disastrous effects their actions had had on
their fathers and their families, now left to starve. 1o
Iesus, evidently, these were irrelevant considerations.
Iesus healed only those who visibly, volubly, clearly,
publicly and repeatedly worshipped him. 8n other
words, he etended his gift only to his sources of
narcissistic supply. 1here are numerous instances in the
four canonical gospels where Iesus actually bargains
with the afflicted and demands - sometimes in anger -
their unconditional adoration. /e is happiest when
acknowledged and affirmed as 9hrist, the Son of -an
5son of 4od6. 1hose who do not recogni0e his splendid
grandeur, unbounded might, and implied divinity are
#dogs# and #swine# 58atthew F:D,
/is much-touted love of the poor was not a match for
his malignant self-love. =hen his disciples upbraided a
woman for anointing Iesus with epensive ointment
because the money could have been better used to help
the poor, the great humanist, Iesus, had this to say,
26hy trou/le ye the woman@ for she hath wrought a
good wor: upon me. For ye ha-e the poor always with
you; /ut me ye ha-e not always.2 58atthew BD:<G5<<,
1he principles espoused by Iesus were malleable and
easily bent. /e professed to minister only to the
/ebrews 5Sons of 8srael6 and steadfastly refused to heal
the 4entiles whom he called #dogs#. =hen a woman of
9anaan beseeched him to cast the devil out of her
daughter 5#/ave mercy on meQ#6, he retorted,
shockingly,
2' am not sent /ut unto the lost sheep of the house of
'srael ... 't is not meet to ta:e the children+s /read0 and
to cast it to dogs.2 *8atthew <I:BC5BD,
:ut he soon forgot and retracted this lofty #principle#
when she adulated him,
2#hen Kesus answered and said unto her0 > woman0
great is thy faith: /e it unto thee e-en as thou wilt.
And her daughter was made whole from that -ery
hour.2 58atthew <I:BE,
Similarly, he cured the servant of a 3oman centurion
after his master catered to Iesus's by-now rampant
megalomania,
26hen Kesus heard it0 he mar-elled0 and said to them
that followed0 (erily ' say unto you0 ' ha-e not found
so great faith0 no0 not in 'srael. And Kesus said unto
the centurion0 3o thy way; and as thou hast /elie-ed0
so /e it done unto thee. And his ser-ant was healed in
the selfsame hour.2 *8atthew E:<G and E:<H,
Iesus's initial false modesty soon gave way to bragging
and outlandish, often confabulatory claims.
=henever he affected a miracle - such as restoring
eyesight to the blind, cleansing lepers, reviving the
crippled, and raising the ostensibly dead - Iesus
beseeched them to keep mum about the events. $ne of
many eamples,
2And their eyes were opened; and Kesus straitly
charged them0 saying0 See that no man :now it.2
*8atthew =:HG,
:ut Iesus was not averse to blatant self-promotion when
his false modesty failed to elicit narcissistic supply,
23o and shew Kohn again those things which ye do
hear and see: #he /lind recei-e their sight0 and the
lame wal:0 the lepers are cleansed0 and the deaf hear0
the dead are raised up0 and the poor ha-e the gospel
preached to them.2 *8atthew <<:B,

2' say unto you0 #hat in this place is one greater than
the temple ... For the Son of man is !ord e-en of the
sa//ath day ... /ehold0 a greater than *the prophet,
Konas is here ... /ehold0 a greater than *Ming,
Solomon is here.2 *8atthew <B,

!s a true narcissist, Iesus reprimanded others for his
own brand of behavior. 1his psychological defense
mechanism is called #pro+ection#.

1his is how he described the Pharisees, the scribes, and
the Sadducees 5and, inadvertently, himself and his own
conduct6,

2*#,hey say0 and do not. For they /ind hea-y /urdens
and grie-ous to /e /orne0 and lay them on men+s
shoulders; /ut they themsel-es will not mo-e them
with one of their fingers. "ut all their wor:s they do
for to /e seen of men: they ma:e /road their
phylacteries0 and enlarge the /orders of their
garments0 And lo-e the uppermost rooms at feasts0 and
the chief seats in the synagogues0 And greetings in the
mar:ets0 and to /e called of men0 Ra//i0 Ra//i.2
*8atthew BH:<5D,
%arcissists are disruptive, counter-dependent,
combative, and resent authority 5rebellious and
contumacious6. 1hey feel that they are above the law,
or, rather, that they are a law unto themselves. 1hey
hold themselves to be immune to the conse7uences of
their actions,
2#hin: not that ' am come to send peace on earth: '
came not to send peace0 /ut a sword.2 *8atthew
<G:HC,
2And Kesus went into the temple of 3od0 and cast out
all them that sold and /ought in the temple0 and
o-erthrew the ta/les of the moneychangers0 and the
seats of them that sold do-es0 And said unto them0 't is
written0 8y house shall /e called the house of prayer;
/ut ye ha-e made it a den of thie-es.2 *8atthew
B<:<B5<H,
%arcissists are ill-disposed towards disagreement and
criticism. 1hey react to the slightest hint of either with
narcissistic rage and fury that knows no bounds and no
mercy,
2And thou0 Capernaum0 which art e4alted unto
hea-en0 shalt /e /rought down to hell: for if the
mighty wor:s0 which ha-e /een done in thee0 had /een
done in Sodom0 it would ha-e remained until this day.
"ut ' say unto you0 #hat it shall /e more tolera/le for
the land of Sodom in the day of 9udgment0 than for
thee.2 *8atthew <<:BH5BC,
2e that is not with me is against me2 *8atthew
<B:HG,
2For ' say unto you0 $e shall not see me henceforth0
till ye shall say0 "lessed is he that cometh in the name
of the !ord.2 *8atthew BH:H=,
%arcissists react particularly badly when their concocted
personal myth, their "alse Self, is directly and
effectively challenged and they are conse7uently
discredited and humiliated in public,
2And when he was come into his own country0 he
taught them in their synagogue0 insomuch that they
were astonished0 and said0 6hence hath this man this
wisdom0 and these mighty wor:s@ 's not this the
carpenter+s son@ is not his mother called 8ary@ and
his /rethren0 Kames0 and Koses0 and Simon0 and
Kudas@ And his sisters0 are they not all with us@
6hence then hath this man all these things@ And they
were offended in him. "ut Kesus said unto them0 A
prophet is not without honour0 sa-e in his own
country0 and in his own house. And he did not many
mighty wor:s there /ecause of their un/elief.2
*8atthew <H:IC5IE,
?ltimately, the narcissist pays the price for years of ill-
treating others and sucking their energies dry with
constant demands for attention, adulation, and
affirmation. People get tired of the overbearing and
overweening presence of the narcissist in their lives, of
his disruptive and destabili0ing influence, and of the
pernicious effects he has on their nearest, dearest, and
communities. 8nvariably, they seek to banish him and
etricate themselves from his cult. 1he authorities
usually are forced to intervene and lock the narcissist up
or, worse, crucify him.
2ven his closest followers, supporters, and disciples
give up on the narcissist,
2#hen all the disciples forsoo: him0 and fled.2
*8atthew BD:ID,
2#hen did they spit in his face0 and /uffeted him; and
others smote him with the palms of their hands0
Saying0 Prophesy unto us0 thou Christ0 6ho is he that
smote thee@2 *8atthew BD:DF5DE,
2Peter remem/ered the word of Kesus0 which said unto
him0 "efore the coc: crow0 thou shalt deny me thrice.2
*Peter0 indeed0 denying :nowing Kesus thrice 5 S(,
*8atthew BD:FI,
!nd the fickle #multitude# 5the common folk6, who
were supposed to be the mainstay of Iesus's power and
popularity, betrayed him gleefully and with a clear
sense of relief and good riddance,
26hether of the twain will ye that ' release unto you@
#hey said0 "ara//as ... #hey all say unto him0 !et him
/e crucified ... they cried out the more0 saying0 !et him
/e crucified ... #hen answered all the people0 and
said0 is /lood /e on us0 and on our children ... And
they that passed /y re-iled him0 wagging their heads0
And saying0 #hou that destroyest the temple0 and
/uildest it in three days0 sa-e thyself. 'f thou /e the
Son of 3od0 come down from the cross. !i:ewise also
the chief priests moc:ing him0 with the scri/es and
elders0 said0 e sa-ed others; himself he cannot sa-e.
#he thie-es also0 which were crucified with him0 cast
the same in his teeth.2 *8atthew BF,
3eturn
/itler ! %he 0nverted *aint
28y feeling as a Christian points me to my !ord and Sa-ior as a
fighter. 't points me to the man who once in loneliness0
surrounded only /y a few followers0 recogni7ed these Kews for
what they were and summoned men to fight against them and
who0 3od+s truthJ was greatest not as a sufferer /ut as a fighter.
'n /oundless lo-e as a Christian and as a man ' read through the
passage which tells us how the !ord at last rose in is might and
sei7ed the scourge to dri-e out of the #emple the /rood of -ipers
and adders. ow terrific was his fight against the Kewish poison.
#oday0 after two thousand years0 with deepest emotion '
recogni7e more profoundly than e-er /efore the fact that it was
for this that e had to shed his /lood upon the Cross.
As a Christian ' ha-e no duty to allow myself to /e cheated0 /ut '
ha-e the duty to /e a fighter for truth and 9ustice . . .
And if there is anything which could demonstrate that we are
acting rightly0 it is the distress that daily grows. For as a
Christian ' ha-e also a duty to my own people. And when ' loo:
on my people ' see them wor: and wor: and toil and la/or0 and at
the end of the wee: they ha-e only for their wages wretchedness
and misery.
6hen ' go out in the morning and see these men standing in
their Aueues and loo: into their pinched faces0 then ' /elie-e '
would /e no Christian0 /ut a -ery de-il0 if ' felt no pity for them0
if ' did not0 as did our !ord two thousand years ago0 turn against
those /y whom today this poor people are plundered and
e4ploited.2
*Source: #he Straight Dope 5 Speech /y Adolf itler0 deli-ered
April <B0 <=BB0 pu/lished in 28y New >rder02 and Auoted in
Freethought #oday *April <==G,
/itler and %a0ism are often portrayed as an apocalyptic
and seismic break with 2uropean history. Met the truth
is that they were the culmination and reification of
2uropean 5and !merican6 history in the '(th century.
2urope's 5and the ?nited States'6 annals of colonialism
have prepared it for the range of phenomena associated
with the %a0i regime - from industrial murder to racial
theories, from slave labour to the forcible anneation of
territory.
4ermany was a colonial power no different to
murderous :elgium or :ritain or the ?nited States.
=hat set it apart is that it directed its colonial attentions
at the heartland of 2urope - rather than at !frica or !sia
or Katin and 9entral !merica. :oth =orld =ars were
colonial wars fought on 2uropean soil.
-oreover, %a0i 4ermany innovated by applying
prevailing racial theories 5usually reserved to non-
whites6 to the white race itself. 8t started with the Iews -
a non-controversial proposition - but then epanded
them to include #east 2uropean# whites, such as the
Poles and the 3ussians.
4ermany was not alone in its malignant nationalism.
1he far right in "rance was as pernicious. %a0ism - and
"ascism - were world ideologies, adopted
enthusiastically in places as diverse as 8ra7, 2gypt,
%orway, Katin !merica, and :ritain. !t the end of the
'(@<'s, liberal capitalism, communism, and fascism
5and its mutations6 were locked in mortal battle of
ideologies. /itler's mistake was to delusionally believe
in the affinity between capitalism and %a0ism - an
affinity enhanced, to his mind, by 4ermany's
corporatism and by the eistence of a common enemy,
global communism.
9olonialism always had discernible religious overtones
and often collaborated with missionary religion. #1he
=hite -an's burden# of civili0ing the #savages# was
widely perceived as ordained by 4od. 1he church was
the etension of the colonial power's army and trading
companies.
8t is no wonder that /itler's Kebensraum colonial
movement - %a0ism - possessed all the hallmarks of an
institutional religion, priesthood, rites, rituals, temples,
worship, catechism, mythology. /itler was this
religion's ascetic saint. /e monastically denied himself
earthly pleasures 5or so he claimed6 in order to be able
to dedicate himself fully to his calling. /itler was a
monstrously inverted Iesus, sacrificing his life and
denying himself so that 5!ryan6 humanity should
benefit. :y surpassing and suppressing his humanity,
/itler became a distorted version of %iet0sche's
#superman#.
:ut being a-human or super-human also means being a-
seual and a-moral. 8n this restricted sense, /itler was a
post-modernist and a moral relativist. /e pro+ected to
the masses an androgynous figure and enhanced it by
fostering the adoration of nudity and all things #natural#.
:ut what %a0ism referred to as #nature# was not natural
at all.
8t was an aesthetic of decadence and evil 5though it was
not perceived this way by the %a0is6, carefully
orchestrated, and artificial. %a0ism was about
reproduced copies, not about originals. 8t was about the
manipulation of symbols - not about veritable atavism.
8n short, %a0ism was about theatre, not about life. 1o
en+oy the spectacle 5and be subsumed by it6, %a0ism
demanded the suspension of +udgment,
depersonali0ation, and de-reali0ation. 9atharsis was
tantamount, in %a0i dramaturgy, to self-annulment.
%a0ism was nihilistic not only operationally, or
ideologically. 8ts very language and narratives were
nihilistic. %a0ism was conspicuous nihilism - and /itler
served as a role model, annihilating /itler the -an, only
to re-appear as /itler the stychia.
=hat was the role of the Iews in all thisL
%a0ism posed as a rebellion against the #old ways# -
against the hegemonic culture, the upper classes, the
established religions, the superpowers, the 2uropean
order. 1he %a0is borrowed the Keninist vocabulary and
assimilated it effectively. /itler and the %a0is were an
adolescent movement, a reaction to narcissistic in+uries
inflicted upon a narcissistic 5and rather psychopathic6
toddler nation-state. /itler himself was a malignant
narcissist, as "romm correctly noted.
1he Iews constituted a perfect, easily identifiable,
embodiment of all that was #wrong# with 2urope. 1hey
were an old nation, they were eerily disembodied
5without a territory6, they were cosmopolitan, they were
part of the establishment, they were #decadent#, they
were hated on religious and socio-economic grounds
5see 4oldhagen's #/itler's =illing 2ecutioners#6, they
were different, they were narcissistic 5felt and acted as
morally superior6, they were everywhere, they were
defenseless, they were credulous, they were adaptable
5and thus could be co-opted to collaborate in their own
destruction6. 1hey were the perfect hated father figure
and parricide was in fashion.
1his is precisely the source of the fascination with
/itler. /e was an inverted human. /is unconscious was
his conscious. /e acted out our most repressed drives,
fantasies, and wishes. /e provides us with a glimpse of
the horrors that lie beneath the veneer, the barbarians at
our personal gates, and what it was like before we
invented civili0ation. /itler forced us all through a time
warp and many did not emerge. /e was not the devil.
/e was one of us. /e was what !rendt aptly called the
banality of evil. Iust an ordinary, mentally disturbed,
failure, a member of a mentally disturbed and failing
nation, who lived through disturbed and failing times.
/e was the perfect mirror, a channel, a voice, and the
very depth of our souls.
Note 5 E4clusionary 'deas of Progress
9ommunism, "ascism, %a0ism, and 3eligious
"undamentalism are as utopian as the classical 8dea of
Progress, which is most strongly reified by =estern
science and liberal democracy. !ll four illiberal
ideologies firmly espouse a linear view of history, -an
progresses by accumulating knowledge and wealth and
by constructing ever-improving polities. Similarly, the
classical, all-encompassing, idea of progress is
perceived to be a #Kaw of %ature# with human
+urisprudence and institutions as both its manifestations
and descriptions. 1hus, all ideas of progress are pseudo-
scientific.
Still, there are some important distinctions between
9ommunism, "ascism, %a0ism, and 3eligious
"undamentalism, on the one hand, and =estern
liberalism, on the other hand,
!ll four totalitarian ideologies regard individual
tragedies and sacrifices as the inevitable lubricant of the
ineorable -arch "orward of the species. Met, they
redefine #humanity# 5who is human6 to eclude large
groups of people. 9ommunism embraces the =orking
9lass 5Proletariat6 but not the :ourgeoisie, %a0ism
promotes one Volk but denigrates and annihilates
others, "ascism bows to the 9ollective but viciously
persecutes dissidents, 3eligious "undamentalism posits
a chasm between believers and infidels.
8n these four intolerant ideologies, the eclusion of
certain reviled groups of people is both a prere7uisite
for the operation of the #%atural Kaw of Progress# and
an integral part of its motion forward. 1he moral and
spiritual obligation of #real# -an to future generations
is to #unburden# the Kaw, to make it possible for it to
operate smoothly and in optimal conditions, with all
hindrances 5read, undesirables6 removed 5read,
murdered6.
!ll four ideologies subvert modernity 5in other words,
Progress itself6 by using its products 5technology6 to
eclude and kill #outsiders#, all in the name of servicing
#real# humanity and bettering its lot.
:ut liberal democracy has been intermittently guilty of
the same sin. 1he same deranged logic etends to the
construction and maintenance of nuclear weapons by
countries like the ?S!, the ?., "rance, and 8srael, they
are intended to protect #good# humanity against #bad#
people 5e.g., 9ommunists during the 9old war, !rabs,
or failed states such as 8ran6. 2ven global warming is a
symptom of such eclusionary thinking, the rich feel
that they have the right to ta the #lesser# poor by
polluting our common planet and by disproportionately
ehausting its resources.
1he fact is that, at least since the '(><s, the very
eistence of -ankind is being recurrently threatened by
eclusionary ideas of progress. 2ven 9olonialism,
which predated modern ideologies, was inclusive and
sought to #improve# the %atives# and #bring them to the
=hite -an's level# by assimilating or incorporating
them in the culture and society of the colonial power.
1his was the celebrated 5and then decried6 #=hite
-an's :urden#. 1hat we no longer accept our common
fate and the need to collaborate to improve our lot is
nothing short of suicidal.
Also Read:
!atent Na7is 5 Con-ersation with $oung 3erman 'ntellectuals
Renaissance and Na7ism as 'deas of Progress
Fascism 5 #he #ensile Permanence
Narcissistic !eaders
'slam and !i/eralism
Democracy and New Colonialism
A Dialog a/out Anti5Semitism
3eturn
Putin and (ussia&s *econd 'm.ire
/istory teaches us little ecept how little we can learn
from it. Still, there is nothing new under the sun. 1hus,
drawing too many parallels between the
environmentalist movements of the late '(th century
and their counterparts in the second half of the twentieth
century - would probably prove misleading. Similarly,
every fin de siecle has its "ukuyama, proclaiming the
end of history and the victory of liberalism and
capitalism.
Kiberal parliamentarianism 5coupled with unbridled
individualistic capitalism6 seemed to irreversibly
dominate the political landscape by ';(< - when it was
suddenly and surprisingly toppled by the confluence of
revolutionary authoritarian nationalism and
revolutionary authoritarian socialism.
Met, every ostensibly modern 5or post-modern6
phenomenon has roots and mirrors in history. 1he
spreading of the occult, materialism, rationalism,
positivism, ethnic cleansing, regionalism, municipal
autonomy, environmentalism, alienation 5#ennui#6,
information networking, globali0ation, anti-
globali0ation, mass migration, capital and labour
mobility, free trade - are all new mantras but very old
phenomena.
Sometimes the parallels are both overwhelming and
instructive.
>-er-iew
.arl -ar regarded Kouis-%apoleon's Second 2mpire
as the first modern dictatorship - supported by the
middle and upper classes but independent of their
patronage and, thus, self-perpetuating. $thers went as
far as calling it proto-fascistic.
Met, the Second 2mpire was insufficiently authoritarian
or revolutionary to warrant this title. 8t did foster and
encourage a personality cult, akin to the #"uhrerprin0ip#
-but it derived its legitimacy, conservatively, from the
9hurch and from the electorate. 8t was an odd miture
of :onapartism, militarism, clericalism, conservatism
and liberalism.
8n a way, the Second 3epublic did amount to a secular
religion, replete with martyrs and apostles. 8t made use
of the nascent mass media to manipulate public opinion.
8t pursued industriali0ation and administrative
moderni0ation. :ut these features characteri0ed all the
political movements of the late '(th century, including
socialism, and other empires, such as the /absburg
!ustro-/ungary.
1he Second 2mpire was, above all, inertial. 8t sought to
preserve the bureaucratic, regulatory, and economic
frameworks of the "irst 2mpire. 8t was a rationalist,
positivist, and materialist movement - despite the
deliberate irrationalism of the young Kouis-%apoleon. 8t
was not affiliated to a revolutionary party, nor to
popular militias. 8t was not collectivist. !nd its demise
was the outcome of military defeat.
1he Second 2mpire is very reminiscent of Vladimir
Putin's reign in post-Meltsin 3ussia.
Kike the "rench Second 2mpire, it follows a period of
revolutions and counter-revolutions. 8t is not identified
with any one class but does rely on the support of the
middle class, the intelligentsia, the managers and
industrialists, the security services, and the military.
Putin is authoritarian, but not revolutionary. /is regime
derives its legitimacy from parliamentary and
presidential elections based on a neo-liberal model of
government. 8t is socially conservative but seeks to
moderni0e 3ussia's administration and economy. Met, it
manipulates the mass media and encourages a
personality cult.
Disparate $ouths
Kike %apoleon 888, Putin started off as president 5he was
shortly as prime minister under Meltsin6. Kike him, he
may be undone by a military defeat, probably in the
9aucasus or 9entral !sia.
1he formative years of Putin and Kouis-%apoleon have
little in common, though.
1he former was a cosseted member of the establishment
and witnessed, first hand, the disintegration of his
country. Putin was a .4: apparatchik. 1he .4: may
have inspired, conspired in, or even instigated the
transformation in 3ussian domestic affairs since the
early '(;<'s - but to call it #revolutionary# would be to
stretch the term.
Kouis-%apoleon, on the other hand, was a true
revolutionary. /e narrowly escaped death at the hands
of !ustrian troops in a rebellion in 8taly in ';@'. /is
brother was not as lucky. Kouis-%apoleon's claim to the
throne of "rance 5';@>6 was based on a half-baked
ideology of imperial glory, concocted, disseminated and
promoted by him. 8n ';@F and ';H< he even initiated
5failed6 coups d'etat. /e was epelled even from neutral
Swit0erland and eiled to the ?S!. /e spent si years
in prison.
An Eerie (erisimilitude
Still, like Putin, %apoleon 888 was elected president.
Kike him, he was regarded by his political sponsors as
merely a useful and disposable instrument. Kike Putin,
he had no parliamentary or political eperience. :oth of
them won elections by promising #order# and
#prosperity# coupled with #social compassion#. !nd,
like Putin, Kouis-%apoleon, to the great chagrin of his
backers, proved to be his own man - independent-
minded, determined, and tough.
Putin, like Kouis-%apoleon before him, proceeded to
epand his powers and installed loyalists in every corner
of the administration and the army. Kike Kouis-
%apoleon, Putin is a populist, travelling throughout the
country, posing for photo opportunities, responding to
citi0ens' 7ueries in N-and-! radio shows, siding with
the #average bloke# on every occasion, taking advantage
of 3ussia's previous economic and social disintegration
to pro+ect an image of a #strong man#.
Putin is as little dependent on the Duma as %apoleon 888
was on his parliament. :ut Putin reaped what :oris
Meltsin, his predecessor, has sown when he established
an imperial presidency after what amounted to a coup
d'etat in '((@ 5the bombing of the Duma6. %apoleon had
to organi0e his own coup d'etat all by himself in ';)>.
#he "alancing Act
%apoleon 888 - as does Putin now - faced a delicate
balancing act between the legitimacy conferred by
parliamentary liberalism and the need to maintain a
police state. =hen he sought to strengthen the enfeebled
legislature he reaped only growing opposition within it
to his domestic and foreign policies alike.
/e liberali0ed the media and enshrined in "rance's legal
code various civil freedoms. :ut he also set in motion
and sanctioned a penumbral, all-pervasive and
clandestine security apparatus which regularly gathered
information on millions of "renchmen and foreigners.
8oderni7ation and Reform
Putin is considerably less of an economic moderni0er
than was %apoleon 888. Putin also seems to be less
interested in the social implications of his policies, in
poverty alleviation and in growing economic
ine7ualities and social tensions. %apoleon 888 was a man
for all seasons - a buffer against socialism as well as a
utopian social and administrative reformer.
:usiness flourished under %apoleon 888 - as it does
under Putin. 1he ';)<'s witnessed rapid technological
change - even more rapid than today's. "rance became a
popular destination for foreign investors. %apoleon 888
was the natural ally of domestic businessmen until he
embarked on an unprecedented trade liberali0ation
campaign in ';F<. Similarly, Putin is nudging 3ussia
towards =1$ membership and enhanced foreign
competition - alienating in the process the tycoon-
oligarchs, the industrial comple, and the energy
behemoths.
Foreign Policy
%apoleon 888 was a free trader - as is Putin. /e believed
in the beneficial economic effects of free markets and in
the free echange of goods, capital, and labour. So does
Putin. :ut economic liberalism does not always
translate to a pacific foreign policy.
%apoleon 888 sought to annul the decisions of the
9ongress of Vienna 5';')6 and reverse the trend of
post-%apoleonic "rench humiliation. /e wanted to
resurrect #4reat "rance# pretty much as Putin wants to
restore 3ussia to its #rightful# place as a superpower.
:ut both pragmatic leaders reali0ed that this
rehabilitation cannot be achieved by force of arms and
with a dilapidated economy. %apoleon 888 tried to co-opt
the tidal wave of modern, revolutionary, nationalism to
achieve the revitali0ation of "rance and the concomitant
restoration of its glory. Putin strives to eploit the
=est's aversion to conflict and addiction to wealth.
%apoleon 888 struggled to establish a new, inclusive
2uropean order - as does Putin with %!1$ and, to a
lesser degree, with the 2uropean ?nion today.
Putin artfully manipulated 2urope in the wake of the
September '' terrorist attacks on the ?S!, his new
found ally. /e may yet find himself in the enviable
position of 2urope's arbitrator, %!1$'s most weighty
member, a bridge between 9entral !sia, the 9aucasus,
%orth .orea and 9hina - and the ?S!. 1he longer his
tenure, the more likely he is to become 2urope's elder
statesman. 1his is a maneuver reminiscent of Kouis-
%apoleon's following the 9rimean =ar, when he
teamed up with 4reat :ritain against 3ussia.
Kike Putin, %apoleon 888 moderni0ed and
professionali0ed his army. :ut, unlike Putin hitherto, he
actually went to war 5against !ustria6, moved by his
5oft-thwarted6 colonial and mercantilist aspirations.
Putin is likely to follow the same path 5probably in
9entral !sia, but, possibly, in the :altic and east 2urope
as well6. 3einvigorated armies 5and industrialists6 often
force epansionary wars upon their reluctant ostensible
political masters.
Should Putin fail in his military adventures as %apoleon
888 did in his and be deposed as he was - these eerie
similarities will have come to their natural conclusion.
Also Read:
Communism and Feudalism
Russia: Russian Roulette
!uc:y Russia
Foreigners and the New Russian Economy
#he Kanus !oo:
#he False 8aps of 8as:iro-:a
#he #ragedy of Errors *"oo: Re-iew,
#he "etrayal of istory *"oo: Re-iew,
Russia+s Second Empire
Russian Roulette 5 #he Security Apparatus
Russian Roulette 5 #he Energy Sector
Russian Roulette 5 #he Financial Sector
Russian Roulette 5 #he Russian De-olution
Russian Roulette 5 Russian Agriculture
Russia as a Creditor
Pin:s in Space 5 #he Space 'ndustry
Russia+s (od:a 6ars
!u:oil+s Changing Fortunes
Russia+s "ritish #urning Point
!et 8y People 3o 5 #he Kac:son5(ani: Contro-ersy
Fimaco 6ouldn+t Die 5 Russia+s 8issing "illions
#he Chechen #heatre #ic:et
Russia+s 'sraeli >il "ond
Russia+s 'dled Spies
Russia+s !ast >ligarch
Dimitry 3oes to 6ashington
Russia+s 8iddle Class
Russia in BGGH
Russia Straddles the Euro5Atlantic Di-ide
Russia+s Stealth Diplomacy
#he A4is of >il
Russian Synergies 5 $u:osSi/neft
3eturn
Gruevs-i&s "acedonia+ Greece+ and
Ale5ander the Great
/istory&s Forgotten "adman
1he government of -acedonia has recently changed the
name of its puny airport to #!leander the 4reat#. 1his
was only the latest symptom of a growing cult of
personality. -odern-day -acedonians, desperately
looking for their ancient roots in a region hostile to their
nationhood, have latched onto their putative predecessor
with a 0eal that defies both historical research and the
howls of protest from their neighbor, 4reece.
8n a typical :alkan tit-for-tat, 4reece blocked
-acedonia's long-sought entry into %!1$, citing,
among a litany of reasons, the #irredentist provocation#
that was the renaming of the airport. -acedonia has
designs on a part of 4reece, 4reek politicians claim
with a straight face, and the deni0ens of this tiny polity
have no right to the heritage of 4reece of which
!leander the 4reat is an integral part.
%ot to be outdone, -acedonian television is now awash
with a lengthy ad depicting the precocious leader
berating his pusillanimous and craven commanders
ahead of a crucial battle. /e speaks fluent -acedonian
5the current day, Slav language6 and ignores their wise
counsel. 1his pathetic abuse of screen time is supposed
to indoctrinate latter-day -acedonians to dare, be
decisive, and to face challenges. !leander the 4reat
would have greatly disliked contemporary
-acedonians, they are peace-loving, overly-cautious,
consensual, and compromise-seeking. 8t seems that their
own government finds these laudable 7ualities e7ually
offensive.
8t is beyond me why both -acedonia and 4reece wish
to make a deranged mass murderer their emblem and
progenitor. 1here is little that is commendable in both
!leander's personality or his eploits. /aving shed the
blood of countless thousands to fulfill his grandiose
fantasies of global con7uest, he declared himself a god,
suppressed other religions bloodily, massacred the bulk
of his loyal staff, and betrayed his countrymen by hiring
the former enemy, the Persians, to supplant his
-acedonian infantry.
!leander the 4reat was clearly insane, even by the
cultural standards of his time. !ccording to Diodorus, a
month before he mercifully died 5or, more likely, was
assassinated6 his own generals invited :abylonian
priests to eorcise the demons that may have possessed
him. Plutarch calls him #disturbed#. /e describes
etreme mood swings that today would re7uire
medication to 7uell and control. 1he authoritative
2ncyclopedia :ritannica attributes to him
#megalomania and emotional instability#. 8t says,
2e was swift in anger0 and under the strain of his
long campaigns this side of his character grew more
pronounced. Ruthless and self5willed0 he had
increasing recourse to terror0 showing no hesitation in
eliminating men whom he had ceased to trust0 either
with or without the pretense of a fair trial. $ears after
his death0 Cassander0 son of Antipater0 a regent of the
8acedonian Empire under Ale4ander0 could not pass
his statue at Delphi without shuddering.2
!leander was paranoid and brooked no criticism, or
disagreement. =hen 9leitus, his deputy, had a petty
argument with him in @>; :9, !leander simply ran a
lance through his trusted general and had the army
declare him a traitor and, thus, +ustify the slaying. 1he
same fate befell 9leitus's unfortunate successors as
second in command.
"rom his early youth, !leander has been reckless
5though fortunate6 and unusually bloodthirsty. /e used
the fortuitous occasion of his father's murder to li7uidate
anyone who opposed him, even implicitly. /e then went
on a rampage that alienated and united all the 4reeks
against him. 2ven his famed campaign against the
Persians owed its success to the latter's precipitous
decline rather than merely to !leander's military
genius. Kong before he came on the scene, other 4reeks
5the 1en 1housand, !gesilaus of Sparta6 have defeated
the Persians decisively. /is bloodlust never abated,
when his army mutinied in 8ndia and forced him to
return to :abylon, once there, he eecuted scores of his
satraps, military commanders, and other functionaries.
!leander was known for his hubris and unmitigated
narcissism. ?sing humiliating language, he twice
re+ected offers of peace from Darius the 4reat .ing of
Persia, whose family he held captive. =hen Parmenio
advised him to accept the second offer by saying, #8
would accept, if 8 were !leander#, he retorted, #So
would 8, were 8 Parmenio#. Parmenio paid for his
independence of mind with his life, !leander later
ordered him assassinated and his son eecuted. /e also
murdered anyone who had anything to do with the two.
=hen he tried to impose on his free-spirited troupes the
obligation to prostrate themselves in his presence, he
was sub+ected to such ridicule that he reversed his
decision. :ut, he kept on wearing the Persian royal garb
and he did eecute 9alisthenes, an hitherto obse7uious
historian 5and nephew of !ristotle6 who wouldn't bow
to him. 1he Spartans held !leander in derision. 1hey
published a decree that read, #Since he 5!leander6
wishes to be a god, let him be a god#.
=herever he went, !leander was escorted by scribes
whose +ob it was to embellish history and manufacture
legends about their employer. 9onse7uently, most of
what is commonly #known# about !leander is false.
:ut, even so, numerous accounts of his drunken and
violent reveries remain, in which he habitually
murdered people and tore down cultural treasures 5such
as the palace of Reres6. 1hat !leander was a
prodigious imbiber of wine cannot be denied. Virtually
all the eyewitnesses concur, Ptolemy, !leander's
bodyguardC %earchus, his admiralC 2umenes the scribe,
his secretaryC 9hares, his chamberlainC !ristobulus, his
military engineer. So do historians who relied on such
accounts, Diodorus, Plutarch, !rrian, and the
anonymous author of #/istoria !leandri -agni#
5/istory of !leander the 4reat#6.
$ne could only fervently hope that the government of
-acedonia fails in its campaign to transform its citi0ens
into mini-versions of this monster.
3eturn
Narcissistic
And Psychopathic
Leaders
ele#rity Narcissists
%he Narcissist&s Addiction to
Fame and ele#rity
%arcissists are addicted to being famous. 1his, by far, is
their predominant drive. :eing famous encompasses a
few important functions, it endows the narcissist with
power, provides him with a constant Source of
%arcissistic Supply 5admiration, adoration, approval,
awe6, and fulfils important ego functions.
1he image that the narcissist pro+ects is hurled back at
him, reflected by those eposed to his celebrity or fame.
1his way he feels alive, his very eistence is affirmed
and he ac7uires a sensation of clear boundaries 5where
the narcissist ends and the world begins6.
1here is a set of narcissistic behaviours typical to the
pursuit of celebrity. 1here is almost nothing that the
narcissist refrains from doing, almost no borders that he
hesitates to cross to achieve renown. 1o him, there is no
such thing as #bad publicity# D what matters is to be in
the public eye.
:ecause the narcissist e7ually en+oys all types of
attention and likes as much to be feared as to be loved,
for instance D he doesn't mind if what is published about
him is wrong 5#!s long as they spell my name
correctly#6. 1he narcissist's only bad emotional stretches
are during periods of lack of attention, publicity, or
eposure.
1he narcissist then feels empty, hollowed out,
negligible, humiliated, wrathful, discriminated against,
deprived, neglected, treated un+ustly and so on. !t first,
he tries to obtain attention from ever narrowing groups
of reference 5#supply scale down#6. :ut the feeling that
he is compromising gnaws at his anyhow fragile self-
esteem.
Sooner or later, the spring bursts. 1he narcissist plots,
contrives, plans, conspires, thinks, analyses, synthesises
and does whatever else is necessary to regain the lost
eposure in the public eye. 1he more he fails to secure
the attention of the target group 5always the largest6 D
the more daring, eccentric and outlandish he becomes.
"irm decision to become known is transformed into
resolute action and then to a panicky pattern of attention
seeking behaviours.
1he narcissist is not really interested in publicity per
se. %arcissists are misleading. 1he narcissist appears to
love himself D and, really, he abhors himself. Similarly,
he appears to be interested in becoming a celebrity D
and, in reality, he is concerned with the 32!918$%S to
his fame, people watch him, notice him, talk about him,
debate his actions D therefore he eists.
1he narcissist goes around #hunting and collecting#
the way the epressions on people's faces change when
they notice him. /e places himself at the centre of
attention, or even as a figure of controversy. /e
constantly and recurrently pesters those nearest and
dearest to him in a bid to reassure himself that he is not
losing his fame, his magic touch, the attention of his
social milieu.
1ruly, the narcissist is not choosy. 8f he can become
famous as a writer D he writes, if as a businessman D he
conducts business. /e switches from one field to the
other with ease and without remorse because in all of
them he is present without conviction, bar the
conviction that he must 5and deserves to6 get famous.
/e grades activities, hobbies and people not according
to the pleasure that they give him D but according to
their utility, can they or can't they make him known and,
if so, to what etent. 1he narcissist is one-track minded
5not to say obsessive6. /is is a world of black 5being
unknown and deprived of attention6 and white 5being
famous and celebrated6.
3eturn
"istreating ele#rities
An 0nterview Granted to
*u.erinteressante "aga6ine in )ra6il
Question: "ame and 1V shows about celebrities
usually have a huge audience. 1his is understandable,
people like to see other successful people. :ut why
people like to see celebrities being humiliatedL
Answer: !s far as their fans are concerned, celebrities
fulfil two emotional functions, they provide a mythical
narrative 5a story that the fan can follow and identify
with6 and they function as blank screens onto which the
fans pro+ect their dreams, hopes, fears, plans, values,
and desires 5wish fulfilment6. 1he slightest deviation
from these prescribed roles provokes enormous rage and
makes us want to punish 5humiliate6 the #deviant#
celebrities.
:ut whyL
=hen the human foibles, vulnerabilities, and frailties
of a celebrity are revealed, the fan feels humiliated,
#cheated#, hopeless, and #empty#. 1o reassert his self-
worth, the fan must establish his or her moral
superiority over the erring and #sinful# celebrity. 1he
fan must #teach the celebrity a lesson# and show the
celebrity #who's boss#. 8t is a primitive defence
mechanism D narcissistic grandiosity. 8t puts the fan on
e7ual footing with the eposed and #naked# celebrity.
Question: 1his taste for watching a person being
humiliated has something to do with the attraction to
catastrophes and tragediesL
Answer: 1here is always a sadistic pleasure and a
morbid fascination in vicarious suffering. :eing spared
the pains and tribulations others go through makes the
observer feel #chosen#, secure, and virtuous. 1he higher
celebrities rise, the harder they fall. 1here is something
gratifying in hubris defied and punished.
Question: Do you believe the audience put themselves
in the place of the reporter 5when he asks something
embarrassing to a celebrity6 and become in some way
revengedL
Answer: 1he reporter #represents# the #bloodthirsty#
public. :elittling celebrities or watching their
comeuppance is the modern e7uivalent of the gladiator
rink. 4ossip used to fulfil the same function and now
the mass media broadcast live the slaughtering of fallen
gods. 1here is no 7uestion of revenge here D +ust
Schadenfreude, the guilty +oy of witnessing your
superiors penalised and #cut down to si0e#.
Question: 8n your country, who are the celebrities
people love to hateL
Answer: 8sraelis like to watch politicians and wealthy
businessmen reduced, demeaned, and slighted. 8n
-acedonia, where 8 live, all famous people, regardless
of their vocation, are sub+ect to intense, proactive, and
destructive envy. 1his love-hate relationship with their
idols, this ambivalence, is attributed by psychodynamic
theories of personal development to the child's emotions
towards his parents. 8ndeed, we transfer and displace
many negative emotions we harbour onto celebrities.
Question: 8 would never dare asking some 7uestions
the reporters from Panico ask the celebrities. =hat are
the characteristics of people like these reportersL
Answer: Sadistic, ambitious, narcissistic, lacking
empathy, self-righteous, pathologically and
destructively envious, with a fluctuating sense of self-
worth 5possibly an inferiority comple6.
Question: Do you believe the actors and reporters
want themselves to be as famous as the celebrities they
teaseL :ecause 8 think this is almost happeningP
Answer: 1he line is very thin. %ewsmakers and
newsmen and women are celebrities merely because
they are public figures and regardless of their true
accomplishments. ! celebrity is famous for being
famous. $f course, such +ournalists will likely to fall
prey to up and coming colleagues in an endless and self-
perpetuating food chainP
Question: 8 think that the fan-celebrity relationship
gratifies both sides. =hat are the advantages the fans
get and what are the advantages the celebrities getL
Answer: 1here is an implicit contract between a
celebrity and his fans. 1he celebrity is obliged to #act
the part#, to fulfil the epectations of his admirers, not
to deviate from the roles that they impose and he or she
accepts. 8n return the fans shower the celebrity with
adulation. 1hey idolise him or her and make him or her
feel omnipotent, immortal, #larger than life#,
omniscient, superior, and sui generis 5uni7ue6.
=hat are the fans getting for their troubleL
!bove all, the ability to vicariously share the
celebrity's fabulous 5and, usually, partly confabulated6
eistence. 1he celebrity becomes their #representative#
in fantasyland, their etension and proy, the reification
and embodiment of their deepest desires and most secret
and guilty dreams. -any celebrities are also role models
or fatherJmother figures. 9elebrities are proof that there
is more to life than drab and routine. 1hat beautiful D
nay, perfect D people do eist and that they do lead
charmed lives. 1here's hope yet D this is the celebrity's
message to his fans.
1he celebrity's inevitable downfall and corruption is
the modern-day e7uivalent of the medieval morality
play. 1his tra+ectory D from rags to riches and fame and
back to rags or worse D proves that order and +ustice do
prevail, that hubris invariably gets punished, and that
the celebrity is no better, neither is he superior, to his
fans.
Question: =hy are celebrities narcissistsL /ow is this
disorder bornL
Answer: %o one knows if pathological narcissism is
the outcome of inherited traits, the sad result of abusive
and traumatising upbringing, or the confluence of both.
$ften, in the same family, with the same set of parents
and an identical emotional environment D some siblings
grow to be malignant narcissists, while others are
perfectly #normal#. Surely, this indicates a genetic
predisposition of some people to develop narcissism.
8t would seem reasonable to assume D though, at this
stage, there is not a shred of proof D that the narcissist is
born with a propensity to develop narcissistic defences.
1hese are triggered by abuse or trauma during the
formative years in infancy or during early adolescence.
:y #abuse# 8 am referring to a spectrum of behaviours
which ob+ectify the child and treat it as an etension of
the caregiver 5parent6 or as a mere instrument of
gratification. Dotting and smothering are as abusive as
beating and starving. !nd abuse can be dished out by
peers as well as by parents, or by adult role models.
%ot all celebrities are narcissists. Still, some of them
surely are.
=e all search for positive cues from people around us.
1hese cues reinforce in us certain behaviour patterns.
1here is nothing special in the fact that the narcissist-
celebrity does the same. /owever there are two ma+or
differences between the narcissistic and the normal
personality.
1he first is 7uantitative. 1he normal person is likely to
welcome a moderate amount of attention D verbal and
non-verbal D in the form of affirmation, approval, or
admiration. 1oo much attention, though, is perceived as
onerous and is avoided. Destructive and negative
criticism is avoided altogether.
1he narcissist, in contrast, is the mental e7uivalent of
an alcoholic. /e is insatiable. /e directs his whole
behaviour, in fact his life, to obtain these pleasurable
titbits of attention. /e embeds them in a coherent,
completely biased, picture of himself. /e uses them to
regulates his labile 5fluctuating6 sense of self-worth and
self-esteem.
1o elicit constant interest, the narcissist pro+ects on to
others a confabulated, fictitious version of himself,
known as the "alse Self. 1he "alse Self is everything
the narcissist is not, omniscient, omnipotent, charming,
intelligent, rich, or well-connected.
1he narcissist then proceeds to harvest reactions to
this pro+ected image from family members, friends, co-
workers, neighbours, business partners and from
colleagues. 8f these D the adulation, admiration,
attention, fear, respect, applause, affirmation D are not
forthcoming, the narcissist demands them, or etorts
them. -oney, compliments, a favourable criti7ue, an
appearance in the media, a seual con7uest are all
converted into the same currency in the narcissist's
mind, into %arcissistic Supply.
So, the narcissist is not really interested in publicity
per se or in being famous. 1ruly he is concerned with
the 32!918$%S to his fame, how people watch him,
notice him, talk about him, debate his actions. 8t
#proves# to him that he eists.
1he narcissist goes around #hunting and collecting#
the way the epressions on people's faces change when
they notice him. /e places himself at the centre of
attention, or even as a figure of controversy. /e
constantly and recurrently pesters those nearest and
dearest to him in a bid to reassure himself that he is not
losing his fame, his magic touch, the attention of his
social milieu.
3eturn
Ac7uired *ituational Narcissism
1he %arcissistic Personality Disorder 5%PD6 is a
systemic, all-pervasive condition, very much like
pregnancy, either you have it or you don't. $nce you
have it, you have it day and night, it is an inseparable
part of the personality, a recurrent set of behaviour
patterns.
3ecent research 5'((F6 by 3oningstam and others,
however, shows that there is a condition which might be
called #1ransient or 1emporary or Short-1erm
%arcissism# as opposed to the full-fledged version.
2ven prior to their discovery, #3eactive %arcissistic
3egression# was well known, people regress to a
transient narcissistic phase in response to a ma+or life
crisis which threatens their mental composure.
3eactive or transient narcissism may also be triggered
by medical or organic conditions. :rain in+uries, for
instance, have been known to induce narcissistic and
antisocial traits and behaviours.
:ut can narcissism be ac7uired or learnedL 9an it be
provoked by certain, well-defined, situationsL
3obert :. -illman, professor of psychiatry at %ew
Mork /ospital D 9ornell -edical School thinks it can.
/e proposes to reverse the accepted chronology.
!ccording to him, pathological narcissism can be
induced in adulthood by celebrity, wealth, and fame.
1he #victims# D billionaire tycoons, movie stars,
renowned authors, politicians, and other authority
figures D develop grandiose fantasies, lose their
erstwhile ability to empathise, react with rage to slights,
both real and imagined and, in general, act like tetbook
narcissists.
:ut is the occurrence of !c7uired Situational
%arcissism 5!S%6 inevitable and universal D or are only
certain people prone to itL
8t is likely that !S% is merely an amplification of
earlier narcissistic conduct, traits, style, and tendencies.
9elebrities with !S% already had a narcissistic
personality and have ac7uired it long before it
#erupted#. :eing famous, powerful, or rich only
#legitimised# and conferred immunity from social
sanction on the unbridled manifestation of a pre-eisting
disorder. 8ndeed, narcissists tend to gravitate to
professions and settings which guarantee fame,
celebrity, power, and wealth.
!s -illman correctly notes, the celebrity's life is
abnormal. 1he adulation is often +ustified and plentiful,
the feedback biased and filtered, the criticism muted and
belated, social control either lacking or ecessive and
vitriolic. Such vicissitudinal eistence is not conducive
to mental health even in the most balanced person.
1he confluence of a person's narcissistic
predisposition and his pathological life circumstances
gives rise to !S%. !c7uired Situational %arcissism
borrows elements from both the classic %arcissistic
Personality Disorder D ingrained and all-pervasive D and
from 1ransient or 3eactive %arcissism.
9elebrities are, therefore, unlikely to #heal# once their
fame or wealth or might are gone. 8nstead, their basic
narcissism merely changes form. 8t continues unabated,
as insidious as ever D but modified by life's ups and
downs.
8n a way, all narcissistic disturbances are ac7uired.
Patients ac7uire their pathological narcissism from
abusive or overbearing parents, from peers, and from
role models. %arcissism is a defence mechanism
designed to fend off hurt and danger brought on by
circumstances D such as celebrity D beyond the person's
control.
Social epectations play a role as well. 9elebrities try
to conform to the stereotype of a creative but spoiled,
self-centred, monomaniacal, and emotive individual. !
tacit trade takes place. =e offer the famous and the
powerful all the %arcissistic Supply they crave D and
they, in turn, act the consummate, fascinating albeit
repulsive, narcissists.
3eturn
Narcissistic
And Psychopathic
Leaders
Narcissists and God
%he (eligious Narcissist
For the ,ove o$ God
2< "ut :now this0 that in the last days perilous times will come: B
For men will /e lo-ers of themsel-es0 lo-ers of money0 /oasters0
proud0 /lasphemers0 diso/edient to parents0 unthan:ful0 unholy0
H unlo-ing0 unforgi-ing0 slanderers0 without self5control0 /rutal0
despisers of good0 C traitors0 headstrong0 haughty0 lo-ers of
pleasure rather than lo-ers of 3od0 I ha-ing a form of godliness
/ut denying its power. And from such people turn awayJ D For of
this sort are those who creep into households and ma:e capti-es
of gulli/le women loaded down with sins0 led away /y -arious
lusts0 F always learning and ne-er a/le to come to the :nowledge
of the truth. E Now as Kan+nes and Kam+/res resisted 8oses0 so do
these also resist the truth: men of corrupt minds0 disappro-ed
concerning the faith; = /ut they will progress no further0 for their
folly will /e manifest to all0 as theirs also was.2
#he Second Epistle of Paul the Apostle to #imothy H:<5=
4od is everything the narcissist ever wants to be,
omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, admired, much
discussed, and awe inspiring. 4od is the narcissist's wet
dream, his ultimate grandiose fantasy. :ut 4od comes
handy in other ways as well.
1he narcissist alternately idealises and devalues
figures of authority.
8n the idealisation phase, he strives to emulate them,
he admires them, imitate them 5often ludicrously6, and
defends them. 1hey cannot go wrong, or be wrong. 1he
narcissist regards them as bigger than life, infallible,
perfect, whole, and brilliant. :ut as the narcissist's
unrealistic and inflated epectations are inevitably
frustrated, he begins to devalue his former idols.
%ow they are #human# 5to the narcissist, a derogatory
term6. 1hey are small, fragile, error-prone,
pusillanimous, mean, dumb, and mediocre. 1he
narcissist goes through the same cycle in his
relationship with 4od, the 7uintessential authority
figure.
:ut often, even when disillusionment and iconoclastic
despair have set in D the narcissist continues to pretend
to love 4od and follow /im. 1he narcissist maintains
this deception because his continued proimity to 4od
confers on him authority. Priests, leaders of the
congregation, preachers, evangelists, cultists,
politicians, intellectuals D all derive authority from their
allegedly privileged relationship with 4od.
3eligious authority allows the narcissist to indulge his
sadistic urges and to eercise his misogynism freely and
openly. Such a narcissist is likely to taunt and torment
his followers, hector and chastise them, humiliate and
berate them, abuse them spiritually, or even seually.
1he narcissist whose source of authority is religious is
looking for obedient and un7uestioning slaves upon
whom to eercise his capricious and wicked mastery.
1he narcissist transforms even the most innocuous and
pure religious sentiments into a cultish ritual and a
virulent hierarchy. /e preys on the gullible. /is flock
become his hostages.
3eligious authority also secures the narcissist's
%arcissistic Supply. /is coreligionists, members of his
congregation, his parish, his constituency, his audience
D are transformed into loyal and stable Sources of
%arcissistic Supply. 1hey obey his commands, heed his
admonitions, follow his creed, admire his personality,
applaud his personal traits, satisfy his needs 5sometimes
even his carnal desires6, revere and idolise him.
-oreover, being a part of a #bigger thing# is very
gratifying narcissistically. :eing a particle of 4od,
being immersed in /is grandeur, eperiencing /is
power and blessings first hand, communing with him D
are all Sources of unending %arcissistic Supply. 1he
narcissist becomes 4od by observing /is
commandments, following /is instructions, loving /im,
obeying /im, succumbing to /im, merging with /im,
communicating with /im D or even by defying him 5the
bigger the narcissist's enemy D the more grandiosely
important the narcissist feels6.
Kike everything else in the narcissist's life, he mutates
4od into a kind of inverted narcissist. 4od becomes his
dominant Source of Supply. /e forms a personal
relationship with this overwhelming and overpowering
entity D in order to overwhelm and overpower others.
/e becomes 4od vicariously, by the proy of his
relationship with /im. /e idealises 4od, then devalues
/im, then abuses /im. 1his is the classic narcissistic
pattern and even 4od himself cannot escape it.
3eturn
%he Narcissist and *ocial 0nstitutions
1he narcissist is prone to magical thinking. /e regards
himself in terms of #being chosen# or of #being destined
for greatness#. /e believes that he has a #direct line# to
4od, even, perversely, that 4od #serves# him in certain
+unctions and con+unctures of his life, through divine
intervention. /e believes that his life is of such
momentous importance, that it is micro-managed by
4od. 1he narcissist likes to play 4od to his human
environment. 8n short, narcissism and religion go well
together, because religion allows the narcissist to feel
uni7ue.
1his is a private case of a more general phenomenon.
1he narcissist likes to belong to groups or to
frameworks of allegiance. /e derives easy and
constantly available %arcissistic Supply from them.
=ithin them and from their members he is certain to
garner attention, to gain adulation, to be castigated or
praised. /is "alse Self is bound to be reflected by his
colleagues, co-members, or fellows.
1his is no mean feat and it cannot be guaranteed in
other circumstances. /ence the narcissist's fanatic and
proud emphasis of his membership. 8f a military man,
he shows off his impressive array of medals, his
impeccably pressed uniform, the status symbols of his
rank. 8f a clergyman, he is overly devout and orthodo
and places great emphasis on the proper conduct of
rites, rituals and ceremonies.
1he narcissist develops a reverse 5benign6 form of
paranoia, he feels constantly watched over by senior
members of his group or frame of reference, the sub+ect
of permanent 5avuncular6 criticism, the centre of
attention. 8f a religious man, he calls it divine
providence. 1his self-centred perception also caters to
the narcissist's streak of grandiosity, proving that he is,
indeed, worthy of such incessant and detailed attention,
supervision and intervention.
"rom this mental +unction, the way is short to
entertaining the delusion that 4od 5or the e7uivalent
institutional authority6 is an active participant in the
narcissist's life in which constant intervention by /im is
a key feature. 4od is subsumed in a larger picture, that
of the narcissist's destiny and mission. 4od serves this
cosmic plan by making it possible.
8ndirectly, therefore, 4od is perceived by the narcissist
to be at his service. -oreover, in a process of
holographic appropriation, the narcissist views himself
as a microcosm of his affiliation, of his group, or his
frame of reference. 1he narcissist is likely to say that he
8S the army, the nation, the people, the struggle, history,
or 5a part of6 4od.
!s opposed to healthier people, the narcissist believes
that he both represents and embodies his class, his
people, his race, history, his 4od, his art D or anything
else he feels a part of. 1his is why individual narcissists
feel completely comfortable to assume roles usually
reserved to groups of people or to some transcendental,
divine 5or other6, authority.
1his kind of #enlargement# or #inflation# also sits well
with the narcissist's all-pervasive feelings of
omnipotence, omnipresence, and omniscience. 8n
playing 4od, for instance, the narcissist is completely
convinced that he is merely being himself. 1he
narcissist does not hesitate to put people's lives or
fortunes at risk. /e preserves his sense of infallibility in
the face of mistakes and mis+udgements by distorting
the facts, by evoking mitigating or attenuating
circumstances, by repressing memories, or by simply
lying.
8n the overall design of things, small setbacks and
defeats matter little, says the narcissist. 1he narcissist is
haunted by the feeling that he is possessed of a mission,
of a destiny, that he is part of fate, of history. /e is
convinced that his uni7ueness is purposeful, that he is
meant to lead, to chart new ways, to innovate, to
modernise, to reform, to set precedents, or to create
from scratch.
2very act of the narcissist is perceived by him to be
significant, every utterance of momentous conse7uence,
every thought of revolutionary calibre. /e feels part of a
grand design, a world plan and the frame of affiliation,
the group, of which he is a member, must be
commensurately grand. 8ts proportions and properties
must resonate with his. 8ts characteristics must +ustify
his and its ideology must conform to his pre-conceived
opinions and pre+udices.
8n short, the group must magnify the narcissist, echo
and amplify his life, his views, his knowledge, and his
personal history. 1his intertwining, this enmeshing of
individual and collective, is what makes the narcissist
the most devout and loyal of all its members.
1he narcissist is always the most fanatical, the most
etreme, the most dangerous adherent. !t stake is never
merely the preservation of his group D but his very own
survival. !s with other %arcissistic Supply Sources,
once the group is no longer instrumental D the narcissist
loses all interest in it, devalues it and ignores it.
8n etreme cases, he might even wish to destroy it 5as
a punishment or revenge for its incompetence in
securing his emotional needs6. %arcissists switch groups
and ideologies with ease 5as they do partners, spouses
and value systems6. 8n this respect, narcissists are
narcissists first and members of their groups only in the
second place.
3eturn
Guide to o.ing with
Narcissists and Psycho.aths
Save for later referenceQ "orward to interested parties and relevant
discussion and mailing groupsQ
9lick with your mouse on the links 5the blue tet6.
o.ing with Narcissistic and Psychopathic Abusers
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Strategies for Coping with Abusers (General)
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Wor-ing with the *ystem and with Pro$essionals
http,JJsamvak.tripod.comJabusefamily'<.html
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How to Cope with Stalkers and Paranoids
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3eturn
Narcissistic a#use in the wor-.lace and
Narcissism o$ authority $igures
9lick on the links,

http,JJmalignantselflove.tripod.comJfa7;'.html

http,JJmalignantselflove.tripod.comJ+ournalA(.html

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.html

http,JJwww.healthyplace.comJpersonality-
disordersJtranscriptsJnarcissism-in-the-workplaceJmenu-id-F>J

http,JJmalignantselflove.tripod.comJpp''H.html

http,JJwww.tipsofallsorts.comJbully.html

http,JJopen-
site.orgJSocietyJ8ssuesJViolenceSandS!buseJ=orkplaceJ

http,JJwww.nypress.comJ'FJAJnewsTcolumnsJfeature.cfm

http,JJwww.bullyonline.orgJworkbullyJnpd.htm

http,JJwww.freepint.comJissuesJ>H<A<@.htm

http,JJmalignantselflove.tripod.comJ+ournalH).html

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tm

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3eturn
%/' A2%/O(
*hmuel (*am) 3a-nin
urriculum 3itae
:orn in '(F' in Niryat-Mam, 8srael.
Served in the 8sraeli Defence "orce 5'(A(-'(;>6 in
training and education units.
'ducation
9ompleted a few semesters in the 1echnion D 8srael
8nstitute of 1echnology, /aifa.
Ph.D. in Philosophy 5ma+or, Philosophy of Physics6 D
Pacific =estern ?niversity, ali$ornia, ?S!.
4raduate of numerous courses in "inance 1heory and
8nternational 1rading.
9ertified 2-9ommerce 9oncepts !nalyst by
:rainbench.
9ertified in Psychological 9ounselling 1echni7ues by
:rainbench.
9ertified "inancial !nalyst by :rainbench.
"ull proficiency in /ebrew and in 2nglish.
)usiness '5.erience
<=EG to <=EH
"ounder and co-owner of a chain of computerised
information kiosks in 1el-!viv, 8srael.
<=EB to <=EI
Senior positions with the %essim D. 4aon 4roup of
9ompanies in 4eneva, Paris and %ew-Mork 5%$4!
and !P3$"8- S!6,
D 9hief !nalyst of 2dible 9ommodities in the 4roup's
/ead7uarters in Swit0erland
D -anager of the 3esearch and !nalysis Division
D -anager of the Data Processing Division
D Pro+ect -anager of the %igerian 9omputerised
9ensus
D Vice President in charge of 3%D and !dvanced
1echnologies
D Vice President in charge of Sovereign Debt "inancing
<=EI to <=ED
3epresented 9anadian Venture 9apital "unds in 8srael.
<=ED to <=EF
4eneral -anager of 8P2 Ktd. in Kondon. 1he firm
financed international multi-lateral countertrade and
leasing transactions.
<=EE to <==G
9o-founder and Director of #-ikbats-1esuah#, a
portfolio management firm based in 1el-!viv.
!ctivities included large-scale portfolio management,
underwriting, fore trading and general financial
advisory services.
<==G to Present
"reelance consultant to many of 8srael's :lue-9hip
firms, mainly on issues related to the capital markets in
8srael, 9anada, the ?. and the ?S!.
9onsultant to foreign 3%D ventures and to
4overnments on macro-economic matters.
"reelance +ournalist in various media in the ?nited
States.
<==G to <==I
President of the 8srael chapter of the Professors =orld
Peace !cademy 5P=P!6 and 5briefly6 8srael
representative of the #=ashington 1imes#.
<==H to <==C
9o-owner and Director of many business enterprises,
D 1he $mega and 2nergy !ir-9onditioning 9oncern
D !VP "inancial 9onsultants
D /andiman Kegal Services
1otal annual turnover of the group, '< million ?SD.
9o-owner, Director and "inance -anager of 9$S18
Ktd. D 8srael's largest computerised information vendor
and developer. 3aised funds through a series of private
placements locally in the ?S!, 9anada and Kondon.
<==H to <==D
Publisher and 2ditor of a 9apital -arkets %ewsletter
distributed by subscription only to do0ens of subscribers
countrywide.
8n a legal precedent in '(() D studied in business
schools and law faculties across 8srael D was tried for
his role in an attempted takeover of 8srael's !griculture
:ank.
=as interned in the State School of Prison =ardens.
-anaged the 9entral School Kibrary, wrote, published
and lectured on various occasions.
-anaged the 8nternet and 8nternational %ews
Department of an 8sraeli mass media group, #/a-
1ikshoret and %amer#.
!ssistant in the Kaw "aculty in 1el-!viv ?niversity 5to
Prof. S.4. Shoham6.
<==D to <===
"inancial consultant to leading businesses in
-acedonia, 3ussia and the 90ech 3epublic.
2conomic commentator in #%ova -akedoni+a#,
#Dnevnik#, #-akedoni+a Denes#, #80vestia#,
#!rgumenti i "akti#, #1he -iddle 2ast 1imes#, #1he
%ew Presence#, #9entral 2urope 3eview#, and other
periodicals, and in the economic programs on various
channels of -acedonian 1elevision.
9hief Kecturer in courses in -acedonia organised by
the !gency of Privati0ation, by the Stock 2change, and
by the -inistry of 1rade.
<=== to BGGB
2conomic !dvisor to the 4overnment of the 3epublic
of -acedonia and to the -inistry of "inance.
BGG< to BGGH
Senior :usiness 9orrespondent for ?nited Press
8nternational 5?P86.
BGGF 5
!ssociate 2ditor, 4lobal Politician
"ounding !nalyst, 1he !nalyst %etwork
9ontributing =riter, 1he !merican 9hronicle -edia
4roup
2pert, Self-growth.com
BGGE
9olumnist and analyst in #%ova -akedoni+a#, #"okus#,
and #.apital# 5-acedonian papers and newsweeklies6.
Seminars and lectures on economic issues in various
forums in -acedonia.
BGGE5
!dvisor to the -inister of /ealth of -acedonia on
healthcare reforms
We# and 4ournalistic Activities
!uthor of etensive =eb sites in,
D Psychology 5#-alignant Self Kove#6 - !n $pen
Directory 9ool Site for ; years.
D Philosophy 5#Philosophical -usings#6,
D 2conomics and 4eopolitics 5#=orld in 9onflict and
1ransition#6.
$wner of the %arcissistic !buse Study Kists and the
!busive 3elationships %ewsletter 5more than F,<<<
members6.
$wner of the 2conomies in 9onflict and 1ransition
Study Kist , the 1oic 3elationships Study Kist, and the
Kinks and "actoid Study Kist.
2ditor of mental health disorders and 9entral and
2astern 2urope categories in various =eb directories
5$pen Directory, Search 2urope, -entalhelp.net6.
2ditor of the Personality Disorders0 %arcissistic
Personality Disorder, the Verbal and 2motional !buse,
and the Spousal 5Domestic6 !buse and Violence topics
on Suite '<' and :ellaonline.
9olumnist and commentator in #1he %ew Presence#,
?nited Press 8nternational 5?P86, 8nternet9ontent,
e:ook=eb, Pop-atters, 4lobal Politician, 1he !nalyst
%etwork, 9onservative Voice, 1he !merican 9hronicle
-edia 4roup, e:ook%et.org, and #9entral 2urope
3eview#.
Pu#lications and Awards
#-anaging 8nvestment Portfolios in States of
?ncertainty#, Kimon Publishers, 1el-!viv, '(;;
#1he 4ambling 8ndustry#, Kimon Publishers, 1el-!viv,
'((<
#3e7uesting -y Koved $ne D Short Stories#, Medioth
!haronot, 1el-!viv, '((A
#1he Suffering of :eing .afka# 5electronic book of
/ebrew and 2nglish Short "iction6, Prague, '((;-><<H
#1he -acedonian 2conomy at a 9rossroads D $n the
=ay to a /ealthier 2conomy# 5dialogues with %ikola
4ruevski6, Skop+e, '((;
#1he 2porters' Pocketbook#, -inistry of 1rade,
3epublic of -acedonia, Skop+e, '(((
#-alignant Self Kove D %arcissism 3evisited#,
%arcissus Publications, Prague, '(((-><<A 53ead
ecerpts - click here6
1he %arcissism Series 5e-books regarding relationships
with abusive narcissists6, Prague, '(((-><<A
Personality Disorders 3evisited 5e-book about
personality disorders6, Prague, ><<A
#!fter the 3ain D /ow the =est Kost the 2ast#,
%arcissus Publications in association with 9entral
2urope 3eviewJ922%-8, Prague and Skop+e, ><<<
=inner of numerous awards, among them 8srael's
9ouncil of 9ulture and !rt Pri0e for -aiden Prose
5'((A6, 1he 3otary 9lub !ward for Social Studies
5'(AF6, and the :ilateral 3elations Studies !ward of the
!merican 2mbassy in 8srael 5'(A;6.
/undreds of professional articles in all fields of finance
and economics, and numerous articles dealing with
geopolitical and political economic issues published in
both print and =eb periodicals in many countries.
-any appearances in the electronic media on sub+ects in
philosophy and the sciences, and concerning economic
matters.
Write to "e8
palmaVunet.com.mk
narcissisticabuse-ownerVyahoogroups.com
"y We# *ites8
EconomyNPolitics:
http,JJceeandbalkan.tripod.comJ
Psychology:
http,JJwww.narcissistic-abuse.comJ
Philosophy:
http,JJphilosophos.tripod.comJ
Poetry:
http,JJsamvak.tripod.comJcontents.html
Fiction:
http,JJsamvak.tripod.comJsipurim.html
3eturn
Abused? Stalked? Harassed? Bullied? Victimized?
Afraid? Confused? Need HELP? DO SOE!H"N# ABO$! "!%
Had a Narcissistic Parent?
Married to a Narcissist – or Divorcing One?
Afraid your children will turn out the same?
Want to cope with this pernicious !affling condition?
O"
Are #ou a Narcissist – or suspect that #ou are one$
%his !oo& will teach you how to$
'ope (urvive and Protect #our )oved Ones*
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Self !o"e # Narcissis$ %e"isited" are availa!le as well as a free
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(lectronic 0ooks (e&books) fro$ the Publisher
An electronic book is a computer file sent to you as an attachment to an
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ore about the 0ooks and Additional %esources
%he +ighth "evised ,mpression /0anuary 12234 of the Print +dition
of "alignant Self !o"e # Narcissis$ %e"isited" includes6
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O%he full te5t of :21 Are;uently As&ed Muestions and Answers
O'overing all the dimensions of Pathological Narcissism and A!use
in "elationships
OAn +ssay – %he NarcissistBs point of view
O Fi!liography
O<22 printed pages in a ;uality paper !oo&
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previous edition from the Pu!lisher4 – Fi!liography three e9
!oo&s additional AAMs appendices and more – hundreds of
additional pages*
,esti$onials and Additional %esources
#ou can read "eadersB "eviews at the Farnes and No!le We! page
dedicated to =Malignant (elf )ove= – H+"+6
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-o5ens of !inks and %esources
'lic& on these lin&s6
%he Narcissistic A!use (tudy )ist
http677groups8yahoo8com7group7narcissistica!use
%he %o5ic "elationships (tudy )ist
http677groups8yahoo8com7group7to5icrelationships
A!usive "elationships Newsletter
http677groups8google8com7group7narcissistica!use
Participate in -iscussions about Abusi"e %elationships
http677personalitydisorders8suite:2:8com7discussions8cfm
http677groups8yahoo8com7group7NarcissisticLPersonalityLDisorder
http677groups8msn8com7NA"',((,(%,'P+"(ONA),%#D,(O"D+"
!inks to ,herapist -irectories' Psychological ,ests' NP-
%esources' Support Groups for Narcissists and ,heir :icti$s'
and ,utorials
http677health8groups8yahoo8com7group7narcissistica!use7message7@?@G
Support Groups for :icti$s of Narcissists and Narcissists
http677dmoI8org7Health7MentalLHealth7Disorders7Personality7Narcissistic
http677www8narcissistic9a!use8com7free!oo&s8html
BE &ELL' SA(E AND &A) &HE)EVE) *O$ A)E%
Sa$ :aknin
4alinant )elf Love
%arcissism 3evisited
,he 0ook
"Narcissists live in a state of constant rage, repressed
aggression, envy and hatred. They firmly believe that
everyone is like them. As a result, they are paranoid,
aggressive, haughty and erratic. Narcissists are
forever in pursuit of Narcissistic Supply.
They know no past or future, are not constrained by any
behavioural consistency, 'rules' of conduct or moral
considerations. ou signal to a narcissist that you are a willing
source ! and he is bound to e"tract his supply from you.
This is a refle".
#e would have reacted absolutely the same to any other
source. $f what is needed to obtain supply from you is
intimations of intimacy ! he will supply them liberally."
%his !oo& is comprised of two parts8
%he first part contains :21 Are;uently As&ed Muestions
related to the various aspects of pathological narcissism
relationships with a!usive narcissists and the
Narcissistic Personality Disorder /NPD48
%he second part is an e5position of the various psychodynamic
theories regarding pathological narcissism and
a proposed new voca!ulary8
,he Author
(am .a&nin was !orn in ,srael in :C<:8 A financial consultant
and columnist he lived /and pu!lished4 in :1 countries8
He is a pu!lished and awarded author of short fiction and
reference and an editor of mental health categories in various
We! directories8 %his is his twelfth !oo&8

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