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Outline

What is the Speech Processing Applications of Speech Processing Review of Signal Processing Fourier series Convolution Fourier Transform

Speech processing is the application of digital

signal processing ( DSP) technique to the processing and analysis of speech signals

Speech Coding Speech recognition Speaker Verification\Identification Speech Enhancement Speech Synthesis ( Text to Speech) Disease Diagnosis

Speech Signal

/Southampton

Speech Signal

/seven o eight/

Analog Signal

Signals that are continuous in Time. Most environmental signals are continuous-time signals.

Digital Signal

These are created by quantizing and sampling continuoustime signals or as data signals (e.g., stock market price fluctuations).

Most of the signals in our environment are analog such as

1. convert the analog signals into electrical signals, e.g., using a transducer such as a microphone to convert sound into electrical signal 2. digitize these signals, or convert them from analog to digital, using an ADC (Analog to Digital Converter)

Analog Signal

Digital Signal

speech: 8 kbps (8bit * 1k sample)/s 256 kbps

Discrete-Time Signals

A sequence of numbers Mathematical representation:

x = {x[n]}, < n < Sampled from an analog signal, xa (t), at time t = nT, x[n] = xa (nT ), < n < T is called the sampling period, and its reciprocal,

F =1/T, is called the sampling frequency

Processed signal may need to be converted back to an

Digitaltoanalog conversion can be done by a DAC

(DigitaltoAnalog Converter).

Signal Processing

Time-Domain Signal Processing

Analyzing of the signal with respect to time. A time-domain graph shows how a signal changes over time.

Frequency-Domain Signal Processing

Signals are converted from time domain to the frequency domain usually through the Fourier transform. The most common purpose for analysis of signals in the frequency domain is analysis of signal properties.

Fourier series

A Fourier series is an expansion of a periodic function in

harmonic analysis and is extremely useful as a way to break up an arbitrary periodic function into a set of simple terms.

Fourier series

Fourier series

N=1 N=3 N=5 N=7

Fourier series

Convolution

A convolution is an integral that expresses the amount of

Discrete-Time Convolution

Basic steps

1. Flip (reverse) one of the digital functions. 2. Shift it along the time axis by one sample. 3. Multiply the corresponding values of the two digital functions. 4. Summate the products from step 3 to get one point of the digital

convolution. 5. Repeat steps 1-4 to obtain the digital convolution at all times that the functions overlap.

Convolution can describe the effect of an LTI system on a

signal Assume we have an LTI system H, and its impulse response h[n] Then if the input signal is x[n], the output signal is y[n] = x[n] * h[n]

x[n] H y[n] = x[n]*h[n]

Fourier Transform

Definition

Fourier Transform

Definition

example)

Discrete version of the Fourier Transform is much more useful in

signal processing

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