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Introduction To Speech Processing

CSLU, OGI , OHSU June 2010

Outline
What is the Speech Processing Applications of Speech Processing Review of Signal Processing Fourier series Convolution Fourier Transform

What is the Speech Processing


Speech processing is the application of digital

signal processing ( DSP) technique to the processing and analysis of speech signals

Applications of Speech Processing


Speech Coding Speech recognition Speaker Verification\Identification Speech Enhancement Speech Synthesis ( Text to Speech) Disease Diagnosis

Speech Signal

/Southampton

/s/ /ou/ /th/ /aa/ /m/ /p/ /t/ /a/ /n/

Speech Signal
/seven o eight/

Review of Signal Processing


Analog Signal

Signals that are continuous in Time. Most environmental signals are continuous-time signals.
Digital Signal

These are created by quantizing and sampling continuoustime signals or as data signals (e.g., stock market price fluctuations).

Processing Real Signals


Most of the signals in our environment are analog such as

sound, temperature and light

To processes these signals with a computer, we must:

1. convert the analog signals into electrical signals, e.g., using a transducer such as a microphone to convert sound into electrical signal 2. digitize these signals, or convert them from analog to digital, using an ADC (Analog to Digital Converter)

Processing Real Signals


Analog Signal

Digital Signal
speech: 8 kbps (8bit * 1k sample)/s 256 kbps

Discrete-Time Signals
A sequence of numbers Mathematical representation:

x = {x[n]}, < n < Sampled from an analog signal, xa (t), at time t = nT, x[n] = xa (nT ), < n < T is called the sampling period, and its reciprocal,
F =1/T, is called the sampling frequency

SF =8000Hz T =1/8000=125sec SF =10000Hz T =1/10000=100sec SF =16000Hz T =1/16000=62.5sec SF =40000Hz T=1/40000=25sec

Processing Real Signals


Processed signal may need to be converted back to an

analog signal before being passed to an actuator (e.g., a loudspeaker)


Digitaltoanalog conversion can be done by a DAC

(DigitaltoAnalog Converter).

Speech Enhancement, Speech Synthesis

Signal Processing
Time-Domain Signal Processing

Analyzing of the signal with respect to time. A time-domain graph shows how a signal changes over time.
Frequency-Domain Signal Processing

Signals are converted from time domain to the frequency domain usually through the Fourier transform. The most common purpose for analysis of signals in the frequency domain is analysis of signal properties.

Fourier series
A Fourier series is an expansion of a periodic function in

terms of an infinite sum of sines and cosines.

The computation and study of Fourier series is known as

harmonic analysis and is extremely useful as a way to break up an arbitrary periodic function into a set of simple terms.

The periodic function can be represented in compact form.

Fourier series

Fourier series
N=1 N=3 N=5 N=7

Fourier series

Convolution
A convolution is an integral that expresses the amount of

overlap of one function x as it is shifted over another function h.

Visual explanation of convolution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convolution

Discrete-Time Convolution

Basic steps
1. Flip (reverse) one of the digital functions. 2. Shift it along the time axis by one sample. 3. Multiply the corresponding values of the two digital functions. 4. Summate the products from step 3 to get one point of the digital

convolution. 5. Repeat steps 1-4 to obtain the digital convolution at all times that the functions overlap.

LTI (Linear Time-Invariant) Systems


Convolution can describe the effect of an LTI system on a

signal Assume we have an LTI system H, and its impulse response h[n] Then if the input signal is x[n], the output signal is y[n] = x[n] * h[n]
x[n] H y[n] = x[n]*h[n]

Fourier Transform
Definition

The Fourier transform can be thought of as a function that measures

how much of each individual frequency is present in our function

A function can be described by a summation of waves with different

amplitudes and phases.

Fourier Transform

Discrete Fourier Transform


Definition

In practice, we often deal with discrete functions (digital signals, for

example)
Discrete version of the Fourier Transform is much more useful in

signal processing

Question?