ABSTRACT AI can have two purposes.

One is to use the power of computers to augment human thinking, just as we use motors to augment human or horse power. Robotics and expert systems are major branches of that. The other is to use a computer's artificial intelligence to understand how humans think. In a humanoid way. If you test your programs not merely by what they can accomplish, but how they accomplish it, they you're really doing cognitive science; you're using AI to understand the human mind." Herb Simon Recent studies concerning GIS show that it is the fastest growing segment (both hard & software) of the graphical computer market. 70% of private organizations expect to use GIS as a strategic tool within their company. Like a product, GIS in an organization has a life cycle. According to the model of Nolan this life cycle starts with awareness and ends when full integration with other information system is achieved. Until recently project management for GIS projects was mainly about projects which were considered to be experimental. The requirements for such projects differ from the requirements for projects which are strategic for a company. Strategic GIS projects require a project manager with thorough understanding of issues such as: planning, knowledge of the objectives of the project, project environment and politics. There is little experience with such GIS projects. However the question ― How to manage a GIS project effectively‖ has to be answered for strategically positioned GIS projects to be successful. It is important for project managers to understand the relationship between the position of GIS in an organisation (Nolan Model) in relationship to the importance of GIS for the organisation (Mc Farlan). The way a GIS project should be handled depends, to a large extend, on these two positionings. A combination of IT methodologies such as Structured Analysis and Design, project management methodologies such as PRINCE and Hewlett-Packards Customer Project Life Cycle 2 combined with best practices are proposed in order to provide a framework, for project managers, to handle GIS projects which are considered strategic for the organisation. This framework, based on prior experience and through evaluation of a complex GIS project has been shown, in some respects, to work. There is still some uncertainty since there is little experience in the market with strategic GIS projects so there are not a lot of ―best practices‖ to learn from and to further evaluate the proposed approach available.

Intelligence:• Intelligence:Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world. Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people, many animals and some machines.

―the capacity to learn and solve problems‖ (Websters dictionary) in particular, the ability to solve novel problems the ability to act rationally the ability to act like humans Artificial Intelligence:It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents"[1]where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.[2] John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955,[3] defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines."[4] AI research is highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other.[5] Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. There are subfields which are focused on the solution of specific problems, on one of several possible approaches, on the use of widely differing tools and towards the accomplishment of particular applications. The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.[6] General intelligence (or "strong AI") is still among the field's long term goals.[7] Currently popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI. There are an enormous number of tools used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others. The field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligence— the sapience of Homo sapiens—can be so precisely described that it can be simulated by a

machine.[8] This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings, issues which have been addressed by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity.[9] Artificial intelligence has been the subject of optimism,[10] but has also suffered setbacks[11] and, today, has become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most difficult problems in computer science.[12] History:Main articles: History of artificial intelligence and Timeline of artificial intelligence Thinking machines and artificial beings appear in Greek myths, such as Talos of Crete, the bronze robot of Hephaestus, and Pygmalion's Galatea.[13] Human likenesses believed to have intelligence were built in every major civilization: animated cult images were worshipped in Egypt and Greece[14] and humanoid automatons were built by Yan Shi, Hero of Alexandria and Al-Jazari.[15] It was also widely believed that artificial beings had been created by Jābir ibn Hayyān, Judah Loew and Paracelsus.[16] By the 19th and 20th centuries, artificial beings had become a common feature in fiction, as in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein or Karel Čapek's R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots).[17] Pamela McCorduck argues that all of these are examples of an ancient urge, as she describes it, "to forge the gods".[9] Stories of these creatures and their fates discuss many of the same hopes, fears and ethical concerns that are presented by artificial intelligence. Mechanical or "formal" reasoning has been developed by philosophers and mathematicians since antiquity. The study of logic led directly to the invention of the programmable digital electronic computer, based on the work of mathematician Alan Turing and others. Turing's theory of computation suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable (imaginable) act of mathematical deduction.[18][19] This, along with concurrent discoveries in neurology, information theory and cybernetics, inspired a small group of researchers to begin to seriously consider the possibility of building an electronic brain.[20] The field of AI research was founded at a conference on the campus of Dartmouth College in the summer of 1956.[21] The attendees, including John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell andHerbert Simon, became the leaders of AI research for many decades.[22] They and their students wrote programs that were, to most people, simply astonishing:[23] Computers were solving word problems in algebra, proving logical theorems and speaking English.[24] By the middle of the 1960s, research in the U.S. was heavily funded by the Department of Defense[25] and laboratories had been established around the world.[26] AI's founders were profoundly optimistic about the future of the new field: Herbert Simon predicted that "machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do" and Marvin Minsky agreed, writing that "within a generation ... the problem of creating 'artificial intelligence' will substantially be solved".[27] They had failed to recognize the difficulty of some of the problems they faced.[28] In 1974, in response to the criticism of Sir James Lighthill and ongoing pressure from the US Congress to fund more productive projects, both the U.S. and British governments cut off all undirected exploratory research in AI. The next few years, when funding for projects was hard to find, would later be called the "AI winter".[29]

S. the term "AI" no longer seems to apply to off-the-shelf solved computing-science problems. No one would any longer consider already-solved computing science problems like OCR "artificial intelligence" today. DARPA no longer provides significant funding for chess-playing computing system development. medical diagnosis and many other areas throughout the technology industry.[36] In February 2011.[32] In the 1990s and early 21st century. in a Jeopardy! quiz show exhibition match.[12] The success was due to several factors: the increasing computational power of computers (see Moore's law). defeated the two greatest Jeopardy! champions. and a new commitment by researchers to solid mathematical methods and rigorous scientific standards.[33] On 11 May 1997. Japan's fifth generation computer project inspired the U. problem solving . TheKinect which provides a 3D body–motion interface for the Xbox 360 uses algorithms that emerged from lengthy AI research. but are now commonplace consumer items and inexpensive intelligent toys. Deep Blue became the first computer chess-playing system to beat a reigning world chess champion. albeit somewhat behind the scenes. but today. AI applications are no longer the exclusive domain of U.S and British governments to restore funding for academic research in the field.In the early 1980s.Watson. In common usage. Garry Kasparov. by a significant margin. Artificial intelligence is used for logistics.[31] However. AI once again fell into disrepute. Department of Defense R&D. One pragmatic definition is: "AI research is that which computing scientists do not know how to do cost-effectively today.[35] Two years later. By 1985 the market for AI had reached over a billion dollars.[38] but few consumers realize the technology source. IBM's question answering system." For example. which may have originally emerged out of years of AI research. Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings. data mining. Low-cost entertaining chess-playing software is commonly available for tablet computers. Problems:The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into a number of specific sub-problems. sophisticated OCR software with a context-sensitive spell checker and grammar checkersoftware comes for free with most image scanners.[34] In 2005. reasoning.[6] [edit]Deduction. a greater emphasis on solving specific subproblems. These consist of particular traits or capabilities that researchers would like an intelligent system to display.[37] The leading-edge definition of artificial intelligence research is changing over time. AI achieved its greatest successes. AI research was revived by the commercial success of expert systems. The traits described below have received the most attention. the creation of new ties between AI and other fields working on similar problems. a Stanford robot won the DARPA Grand Challenge by driving autonomously for 131 miles along an unrehearsed desert trail. beginning with the collapse of the Lisp Machine market in 1987. in 1956 optical character recognition (OCR) was considered AI. At the same time. a team from CMU won the DARPA Urban Challenge when their vehicle autonomously navigated 55 miles in an Urban environment while adhering to traffic hazards and all traffic laws.[30] a form of AI program that simulated the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts. longer lasting AI winter began. and a second.

less well researched domains.[42] AI has made some progress at imitating this kind of "sub-symbolic" problem solving: embodied agent approaches emphasize the importance of sensorimotor skills to higher reasoning.[47] knowledge about knowledge (what we know about what other people know). AI research had also developed highly successful methods for dealing with uncertain or incomplete information. employing concepts from probability and economics. intuitive judgements rather than the conscious. properties. states and time. Knowledge representation An ontology represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts.[41] Human beings solve most of their problems using fast. most of these algorithms can require enormous computational resources – most experience a "combinatorial explosion": the amount of memory or computer time required becomes astronomical when the problem goes beyond a certain size.[49] Among the most difficult problems in knowledge representation are: . The search for more efficient problem-solving algorithms is a high priority for AI research. A representation of "what exists" is an ontology (borrowing a word from traditional philosophy). Among the things that AI needs to represent are: objects. neural net research attempts to simulate the structures inside the brain that give rise to this skill.[40] For difficult problems.[46] causes and effects.[45] situations.[48] and many other. of which the most general are called upper ontologies. events.Early AI researchers developed algorithms that imitated the step-by-step reasoning that humans use when they solve puzzles or make logical deductions. categories and relations between objects. step-by-step deduction that early AI research was able to model.[39] By the late 1980s and '90s. Many of the problems machines are expected to solve will require extensive knowledge about the world. statistical approaches to AI mimic the probabilistic nature of the human ability to guess. Main articles: Knowledge representation and Commonsense knowledge Knowledge representation[43] and knowledge engineering[44] are central to AI research.

if a bird comes up in conversation. if the agent is not the only actor. For example." For example. Cyc) require enormous amounts of laborious ontological engineering — they must be built. sings.[52] A major goal is to have the computer understand enough concepts to be able to learn by reading from sources like the internet.[58] However. Almost nothing is simply true or false in the way that abstract logic requires.[57] In classical planning problems. there tend to be a huge number of exceptions.[62] In 1956.[59] Multi-agent planning uses the cooperation and competition of many agents to achieve a given goal. it must periodically ascertain whether the world matches its predictions and it must change its plan as this becomes necessary. a chess master will avoid a particular chess position because it "feels too exposed"[53] or an art critic can take one look at a statue and instantly realize that it is a fake.Default reasoning and the qualification problem Many of the things people know take the form of "working assumptions. computational intelligence.[51] The breadth of commonsense knowledge The number of atomic facts that the average person knows is astronomical. Ray Solomonoffwrote a report on unsupervised probabilistic machine .[55] Knowledge like this informs. Emergent behavior such as this is used byevolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence.g. John McCarthy identified this problem in 1969[50] as the qualification problem: for any commonsense rule that AI researchers care to represent.[55] Planning:Intelligent agents must be able to set goals and achieve them.[60] [edit]Learning Main article: Machine learning Machine learning[61] has been central to AI research from the beginning. or statistical AI will provide ways to represent this kind of knowledge. As with the related problem of sub-symbolic reasoning. None of these things are true about all birds. Research projects that attempt to build a complete knowledge base ofcommonsense knowledge (e. at the original Dartmouth AI summer conference. by hand.[54] These are intuitions or tendencies that are represented in the brain non-consciously and sub-symbolically. requiring the agent to reason under uncertainty. conscious knowledge. supports and provides a context for symbolic.[citation needed] The subsymbolic form of some commonsense knowledge Much of what people know is not represented as "facts" or "statements" that they could express verbally. AI research has explored a number of solutions to this problem. and thus be able to add to its own ontology. it is hoped thatsituated AI.. and flies. the agent can assume that it is the only thing acting on the world and it can be certain what the consequences of its actions may be.[56] They need a way to visualize the future (they must have a representation of the state of the world and be able to make predictions about how their actions will change it) and be able to make choices that maximize the utility (or "value") of the available choices. people typically picture an animal that is fist sized. one complicated concept at a time.

Intelligence is required for robots to be able to handle such tasks as object manipulation[69] andnavigation. mapping (learning what is around you. Increases in processing speeds and the drop in the cost of data storage makes indexing large volumes of abstractions of the users input much more efficient. after seeing a number of examples of things from several categories. Regression is the attempt to produce a function that describes the relationship between inputs and outputs and predicts how the outputs should change as the inputs change.[67] A common method of processing and extracting meaning from natural language is through semantic indexing. Main article: Natural language processing Natural language processing[66] gives machines the ability to read and understand the languages that humans speak.learning: "An Inductive Inference Machine". building a map of . In reinforcement learning[64] the agent is rewarded for good responses and punished for bad ones. Supervised learning includes both classification and numerical regression. or finding out where other things are). with sub-problems of localization (knowing where you are. Classification is used to determine what category something belongs in. [edit]Motion and manipulation Main article: Robotics The field of robotics[68] is closely related to AI. using concepts like utility.[63] Unsupervised learning is the ability to find patterns in a stream of input.[65] Natural language processing A parse tree represents the syntacticstructure of a sentence according to someformal grammar. The mathematical analysis of machine learning algorithms and their performance is a branch of theoretical computer scienceknown as computational learning theory. such as Internet texts. Some straightforward applications of natural language processing include information retrieval (or text mining) and machine translation. A sufficiently powerful natural language processing system would enable natural language user interfaces and the acquisition of knowledge directly from human-written sources. These can be analyzed in terms of decision theory.

[77][78] It is an interdisciplinary field spanning computer sciences. as well as the ability to model human emotions and the perceptual skills to detect emotions.[80] the more modern branch of computer science originated with Rosalind Picard's 1995 paper[81] on affective computing. in an effort to facilitate human-computer interaction. it must be able to predict the actions of others. A few selected subproblems are speech recognition.) Also. process. First. (This involves elements of game theory. Computer vision. psychology.[82][83] A motivation for the research is the ability to simulate empathy. microphones. and cognitive science. Emotion and social skills[84] play two roles for an intelligent agent. decision theory.[75] Social intelligence Main article: Affective computing Kismet. sonar and others more exotic) to deduce aspects of the world. and motion planning (figuring out how to get there) or path planning (going from one point in space to another point.[74] facial recognition and object recognition. The machine should interpret the emotional state of humans and adapt its behaviour to them. which may involve compliant motion .[79] While the origins of the field may be traced as far back as to early philosophical enquiries into emotion. [edit]Creativity . Computer vision[73] is the ability to analyze visual input. an intelligent machine might want to be able to display emotions—even if it does not actually experience them itself—in order to appear sensitive to the emotional dynamics of human interaction.[70][71] [edit]Perception Main articles: Machine perception. interpret. by understanding their motives and emotional states.where the robot moves while maintaining physical contact with an object). and Speech recognition Machine perception[72] is the ability to use input from sensors (such as cameras. giving an appropriate response for those emotions. and simulate human affects.the environment). a robot with rudimentary social skills[76] Affective computing is the study and development of systems and devices that can recognize.

[93][94] [edit]Cybernetics and brain simulation Main articles: Cybernetics and Computational neuroscience In the 1940s and 1950s. Researchers disagree about many issues. although elements of it would be revived in the 1980s. combining all the skills above and exceeding human abilities at most or all of them. who coined the term GOFAI (Good Old-Fashioned Artificial Intelligence).[85][86] Many of the problems above are considered AI-complete: to solve one problem.[20] By 1960. Many of these researchers gathered for meetings of the Teleological Society at Princeton University and the Ratio Club in England. also proposed that AI should more properly be referred to as synthetic intelligence. specific task like machine translation requires that the machine follow the author's argument (reason). Some of them built machines that used electronic networks to exhibit rudimentary intelligence. therefore. Related areas of computational research are Artificial intuition and Artificial imagination. a number of researchers explored the connection between neurology.[7] A few believe that anthropomorphic features like artificial consciousness or an artificial brain may be required for such a project. similar to words and ideas? Or does it require "sub-symbolic" processing?[91] John Haugeland. or systems that identify and assess creativity). and cybernetics. For example. Machine translation. such as W. even a straightforward. [edit]Symbolic . elegant principles (such as logic or optimization)? Or does it necessarily require solving a large number of completely unrelated problems?[90] Can intelligence be reproduced using high-level symbols.[92] a term which has since been adopted by some non-GOFAI researchers. you must solve them all. information theory. this approach was largely abandoned. is believed to be AIcomplete: it may require strong AI to be done as well as humans can do it.[citation needed] [edit]General intelligence Main articles: Strong AI and AI-complete Most researchers hope that their work will eventually be incorporated into a machine with general intelligence (known as strong AI).[88] A few of the most long standing questions that have remained unanswered are these: should artificial intelligence simulate natural intelligence by studying psychology or neurology? Or is human biology as irrelevant to AI research as bird biology is toaeronautical engineering?[89] Can intelligent behavior be described using simple. Grey Walter's turtles and the Johns Hopkins Beast.Main article: Computational creativity A sub-field of AI addresses creativity both theoretically (from a philosophical and psychological perspective) and practically (via specific implementations of systems that generate outputs that can be considered creative.[87] [edit]Approaches There is no established unifying theory or paradigm that guides AI research. know what is being talked about (knowledge). and faithfully reproduce the author's intention (social intelligence).

Cognitive simulation Economist Herbert Simon and Allen Newell studied human problem-solving skills and attempted to formalize them. researchers from all three traditions began to build knowledge into AI applications. operations research and management science. including knowledge representation.[30] The knowledge revolution was also driven by the realization that enormous amounts of knowledge would be required by many simple AI applications.[103] This "knowledge revolution" led to the development and deployment of expert systems (introduced by Edward Feigenbaum). .[95] During the 1960s. This tradition. since they must be built by hand. the first truly successful form of AI software. and each one developed its own style of research.[90] Commonsense knowledge bases (such as Doug Lenat's Cyc) are an example of "scruffy" AI. AI research began to explore the possibility that human intelligence could be reduced to symbol manipulation. and their work laid the foundations of the field of artificial intelligence.[89] His laboratory at Stanford (SAIL) focused on using formal logic to solve a wide variety of problems. centered at Carnegie Mellon University would eventually culminate in the development of the Soar architecture in the middle 80s. planning and learning.[102] Knowledge-based When computers with large memories became available around 1970. Their research team used the results of psychological experiments to develop programs that simulated the techniques that people used to solve problems. regardless of whether people used the same algorithms. one complicated concept at a time. John Haugeland named these approaches to AI "good old fashioned AI" or "GOFAI". John McCarthy felt that machines did not need to simulate human thought. as well as cognitive science.[96] Researchers in the 1960s and the 1970s were convinced that symbolic approaches would eventually succeed in creating a machine with artificial general intelligence and considered this the goal of their field. Roger Schank described their "anti-logic" approaches as "scruffy" (as opposed to the "neat" paradigms at CMU and Stanford).[99] Logic was also focus of the work at the University of Edinburgh and elsewhere in Europe which led to the development of the programming languageProlog and the science of logic programming.[97][98] Logic-based Unlike Newell and Simon. but should instead try to find the essence of abstract reasoning and problem solving. Stanford and MIT. The research was centered in three institutions: CMU. Approaches based on cybernetics or neural networks were abandoned or pushed into the background. symbolic approaches had achieved great success at simulating high-level thinking in small demonstration programs.Main article: GOFAI When access to digital computers became possible in the middle 1950s.[100] "Anti-logic" or "scruffy" Researchers at MIT (such as Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert)[101] found that solving difficult problems in vision and natural language processing required ad-hoc solutions – they argued that there was no simple and general principle (like logic) that would capture all the aspects of intelligent behavior.

"[33] Critics argue that these techniques are too focused on particular problems and have failed to address the long term goal of general intelligence. The simplest intelligent agents are programs that solve specific problems. A number of researchers began to look into "sub-symbolic" approaches to specific AI problems. in the sense that their results are both measurable and verifiable. The paradigm also gives researchers a common language to communicate with other fields—such as decision theory and economics—that also use concepts of abstract agents.[edit]Sub-symbolic By the 1980s progress in symbolic AI seemed to stall and many believed that symbolic systems would never be able to imitate all the processes of human cognition.[105] These and other sub-symbolic approaches. especially perception.[91] Bottom-up.[2] Agent architectures and cognitive architectures .[107] [edit]Integrating the approaches Intelligent agent paradigm An intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximize its chances of success. are now studied collectively by the emerging discipline of computational intelligence. some are sub-symbolic neural networks and others may use new approaches. economics or operations research). Computational Intelligence Interest in neural networks and "connectionism" was revived by David Rumelhart and others in the middle 1980s. rejected symbolic AI and focused on the basic engineering problems that would allow robots to move and survive. AI researchers developed sophisticated mathematical tools to solve specific subproblems. More complicated agents include human beings and organizations of human beings (such as firms).[104]Their work revived the non-symbolic viewpoint of the early cybernetics researchers of the 50s and reintroduced the use of control theory in AI. situated. The shared mathematical language has also permitted a high level of collaboration with more established fields (likemathematics.robotics. such as Rodney Brooks. behavior-based or nouvelle AI Researchers from the related field of robotics. Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig describe this movement as nothing less than a "revolution" and "the victory of the neats. The paradigm gives researchers license to study isolated problems and find solutions that are both verifiable and useful. The intelligent agent paradigm became widely accepted during the 1990s.[106] [edit]Statistical In the 1990s. perception and visualization) are required for higher intelligence. such as fuzzy systems andevolutionary computation. learning and pattern recognition. and they have been responsible for many of AI's recent successes. An agent that solves a specific problem can use any approach that works – some agents are symbolic and logical. This coincided with the development of theembodied mind thesis in the related field of cognitive science: the idea that aspects of the body (such as movement. These tools are truly scientific. without agreeing on one single approach. embodied.

For many problems. Simple exhaustive searches[114] are rarely sufficient for most real world problems: the search space (the number of places to search) quickly grows to astronomical numbers.[113] Robotics algorithms for moving limbs and grasping objects use local searches in configuration space. Mathematical optimization. Other optimization algorithms are simulated annealing.[109] Rodney Brooks' subsumption architecture was an early proposal for such a hierarchical system.[115] A very different kind of search came to prominence in the 1990s. where each step is the application of an inference rule. we keep moving our guess uphill.Researchers have designed systems to build intelligent systems out of interacting intelligent agents in a multi-agent system. A hierarchical control system provides a bridge between sub-symbolic AI at its lowest. AI has developed a large number of tools to solve the most difficult problems in computer science. it is possible to begin the search with some form of a guess and then refine the guess incrementally until no more refinements can be made. where relaxed time constraints permit planning and world modelling. reactive levels and traditional symbolic AI at its highest levels. by jumps or steps. For example. logical proof can be viewed as searching for a path that leads from premises to conclusions. is to use "heuristics" or "rules of thumb" that eliminate choices that are unlikely to lead to the goal (called "pruningthe search tree").[112] Planning algorithms search through trees of goals and subgoals. they may begin with a population of organisms (the guesses) and then allow them to mutate and recombine. selectingonly the fittest to survive each generation (refining the guesses). attempting to find a path to a target goal.[116] Evolutionary computation uses a form of optimization search. and the study of such systems is artificial intelligence systems integration. The solution. until we reach the top. For example.[69] Many learning algorithms use search algorithms based on optimization. The result is a search that is too slow or never completes. a process called means-ends analysis. and then. A few of the most general of these methods are discussed below. beam search and random optimization. These algorithms can be visualized as blind hill climbing: we begin the search at a random point on the landscape. Forms of evolutionary computation include swarm intelligence algorithms (such as ant colony or particle swarm optimization)[117]and evolutionary algorithms (such as genetic algorithms and genetic programming).[108] A system with both symbolic and sub-symbolic components is a hybrid intelligent system.[118] [edit]Logic .[110] Tools In the course of 50 years of research. and Evolutionary computation Many problems in AI can be solved in theory by intelligently searching through many possible solutions:[111] Reasoning can be reduced to performing a search. [edit]Search and optimization Main articles: Search algorithm. for many problems. based on the mathematical theory of optimization. Heuristics supply the program with a "best guess" for the path on which the solution lies.

[132] information value theory. hidden Markov models or Kalman filters). For example. and Utility theory Many problems in AI (in reasoning. By this method. Default logics.[131] A key concept from the science of economics is "utility": a measure of how valuable something is to an intelligent agent.[47] belief calculus. Propositional or sentential logic[122] is the logic of statements which can be true or false.[124] is a version of first-order logic which allows the truth of a statement to be represented as a value between 0 and 1.[131] game theory and mechanism design.[131] Probabilistic algorithms can also be used for filtering. Decision theory. non-monotonic logics and circumscription[51] are forms of logic designed to help with default reasoning and the qualification problem. helping perception systems to analyze processes that occur over time (e. decision analysis.[48] [edit]Probabilistic methods for uncertain reasoning Main articles: Bayesian network. smoothing and finding explanations for streams of data. using decision theory. Kalman filter. Fuzzy systems can be used for uncertain reasoning and have been widely used in modern industrial and consumer product control systems.[133] dynamicdecision networks. perception and robotics) require the agent to operate with incomplete or uncertain information. the satplan algorithm uses logic for planning[120] and inductive logic programming is a method for learning. planning..g. and can express facts about objects. AI researchers have devised a number of powerful tools to solve these problems using methods from probability theory and economics.[128] learning (using the expectation-maximization algorithm). First-order logic[123] also allows the use ofquantifiers and predicates. and modal logics. ignorance can be distinguished from probabilistic statements that an agent makes with high confidence. such as: description logics. their properties. Fuzzy logic. Precise mathematical tools have been developed that analyze how an agent can make choices and plan. and their relations with each other.[129] planning (using decision networks)[130] and perception (using dynamic Bayesian networks). but it can be applied to other problems as well.[134] [edit]Classifiers and statistical learning methods . rather than simply True (1) or False (0).[45] situation calculus. Several extensions of logic have been designed to handle specific domains of knowledge.[126] Bayesian networks[127] are a very general tool that can be used for a large number of problems: reasoning (using the Bayesian inference algorithm). prediction. Subjective logic[125] models uncertainty in a different and more explicit manner than fuzzy-logic: a given binomial opinion satisfies belief + disbelief + uncertainty = 1 within a Beta distribution. Hidden Markov model. learning.[46] causal calculus.Main articles: Logic programming and Automated reasoning Logic[119] is used for knowledge representation and problem solving.[57] These tools include models such as Markov decision processes.[121] Several different forms of logic are used in AI research. event calculus and fluent calculus (for representing events and time).

[139] naive Bayes classifier. When a new observation is received. Classifiers are functions that use pattern matching to determine a closest match. These examples are known as observations or patterns. The study of artificial neural networks[136] began in the decade before the field AI research was founded.[137] k-nearest neighbor algorithm. Statistical classification. Determining a suitable classifier for a given problem is still more an art than science. akin to the vast network ofneurons in the human brain. In supervised learning.Main articles: Classifier (mathematics).[143] The main categories of networks are acyclic or feedforward neural networks (where the signal passes in only one direction) and recurrent neural networks (which allow feedback). there are many statistical and machine learning approaches.[140] and decision tree. Controllers do however also classify conditions before inferring actions. A class can be seen as a decision that has to be made. Other important early researchers were Frank Rosenblatt. making them very attractive for use in AI.[138] Gaussian mixture model.[142] [edit]Neural networks Main articles: Neural network and Connectionism A neural network is an interconnected group of nodes. this is also referred to as the "no free lunch" theorem. They can be tuned according to examples. and Machine learning The simplest AI applications can be divided into two types: classifiers ("if shiny then diamond") and controllers ("if shiny then pick up"). in the work of Walter Pitts and Warren McCullough. Classifier performance depends greatly on the characteristics of the data to be classified. who invented the perceptron and Paul Werbos who developed thebackpropagation algorithm. All the observations combined with their class labels are known as a data set. that observation is classified based on previous experience.[136] kernel methods such as thesupport vector machine. There is no single classifier that works best on all given problems. and therefore classification forms a central part of many AI systems. Among the most popular .[141] The performance of these classifiers have been compared over a wide range of tasks. each pattern belongs to a certain predefined class. The most widely used classifiers are the neural network.[135] A classifier can be trained in various ways.

Smaller problems provide more achievable goals and there are an ever-increasing number of positive results. However. which was first described by John Hopfield in 1982. Alan Turing proposed a general procedure to test the intelligence of an agent now known as the Turing test.[150] [edit]Evaluating progress Main article: Progress in artificial intelligence In 1950. hand-writing recognition and game-playing. Strong super-human: performs better than all humans. including Lisp[149] and Prolog. the grandchild of cybernetics. the most famous is the Hopfield net. especially in robotics. Super-human: performs better than most humans.feedforward networks are perceptrons. multi-layer perceptrons and radial basis networks. a form of attractor network. Sub-human: performs worse than most humans. performance at draughts is optimal. using such techniques as Hebbian learning and competitive learning. This procedure allows almost all the major problems of artificial intelligence to be tested.[145]Neural networks can be applied to the problem of intelligent control (for robotics) or learning. has many important applications. Such tests have been termed subject matter expert Turing tests. .[152] One classification for outcomes of an AI test is:[153] Optimal: it is not possible to perform better.[148] [edit]Languages Main article: List of programming languages for artificial intelligence AI researchers have developed several specialized languages for AI research. For example.[151] Artificial intelligence can also be evaluated on specific problems such as small problems in chemistry.[154] performance at chess is super-human and nearing strong super-human (see computer chess: computers versus human) and performance at many everyday tasks (such as recognizing a face or crossing a room without bumping into something) is sub-human. it is a very difficult challenge and at present all agents fail.[144]Among recurrent networks.[146] Hierarchical temporal memory is an approach that models some of the structural and algorithmic properties of the neocortex.[147] [edit]Control theory Main article: Intelligent control Control theory.

g. it is often programmed to compare what it sees with a pattern.[155] Two major advantages of mathematical definitions are their applicability to nonhuman intelligences and their absence of a requirement for human testers. [McC96b] lists some of the concepts involved in logical aI. More complex patterns. These more complex patterns require quite different methods than do the simple patterns that have been studied the most.wikipedia. pattern recognition When a program makes observations of some kind. or in the history of some event are also studied. Usually languages of mathematical logic are used. representation Facts about the world have to be represented in some way. logical AI What a program knows about the world in general the facts of the specific situation in which it must act.A quite different approach measures machine intelligence through tests which are developed from mathematical definitions of intelligence. What are the branches of AI? A. Examples of these kinds of tests start in the late nineties devising intelligence tests using notions from Kolmogorov complexity and data compression. in a chess position. e. Discoveries are continually made about how to do this more efficiently in various domains. Some of these may be regarded as concepts or topics rather than full branches. moves in a chess game or inferences by a theorem proving program. inference .org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence Branches of AI Q. search AI programs often examine large numbers of possibilities.g. [McC89] is a more recent summary. Here's a list. because no-one has identified them yet. The program decides what to do by inferring that certain actions are appropriate for achieving its goals. and its goals are all represented by sentences of some mathematical logical language. The first article proposing this was [McC59]. a vision program may try to match a pattern of eyes and a nose in a scene in order to find a face. For example. but some branches are surely missing. http://en. [Sha97] is an important text. in a natural language text. e.

e. For example. Emphasis on ontology begins in the 1990s. in developing systems of non-monotonic reasoning and theories of action. epistemology This is a study of the kinds of knowledge that are required for solving problems in the world. may be more useful. the programs and sentences deal with various kinds of objects. planning Planning programs start with general facts about the world (especially facts about the effects of actions). From these. common sense knowledge and reasoning This is the area in which AI is farthest from human-level. It is the possibility that a conclusion may have to be withdrawn that constitutes the non-monotonic character of the reasoning. The Cyc system contains a large but spotty collection of common sense facts. when we hear of a bird. [Mit97] is a comprehensive undergraduate text on machine learning. the strategy is just a sequence of actions. Ordinary logical reasoning is monotonic in that the set of conclusions that can the drawn from a set of premises is a monotonic increasing function of the premises. in spite of the fact that it has been an active research area since the 1950s. ontology Ontology is the study of the kinds of things that exist. e. constitutes an advance toward the goal. heuristics A heuristic is a way of trying to discover something or an idea imbedded in a program. and unfortunately learning systems are almost all based on very limited abilities to represent information. i. but this conclusion can be reversed when we hear that it is a penguin. others can be inferred. Mathematical logical deduction is adequate for some purposes. yet more new ideas are needed. we man infer that it can fly. learning from experience Programs do that. There is also learning of laws expressed in logic. In the most common cases. The approaches to AI based on connectionism and neural nets specialize in that. and we study what these kinds are and what their basic properties are.From some facts. [My opinion]. While there has been considerable progress. but new methods of non-monotonic inference have been added to logic since the 1970s. Programs can only learn what facts or behaviors their formalisms can represent. they generate a strategy for achieving the goal. facts about the particular situation and a statement of a goal. In AI. Heuristic functions are used in some approaches to search to measure how far a node in a search tree seems to be from a goal. Circumscription is another form of non-monotonic reasoning. . Heuristic predicates that compare two nodes in a search tree to see if one is better than the other. The simplest kind of non-monotonic reasoning is default reasoning in which a conclusion is to be inferred by default. but the conclusion can be withdrawn if there is evidence to the contrary.g. The term is used variously in AI.

speech recognition In the 1990s. there were many disappointing results. What are the applications of AI? A. How well this works depends on whether the intellectual mechanisms required for the task are within the present state of AI. Some useful programs can work solely in two dimensions. but the inputs to the human eye and computers' TV cameras are two dimensional. computer speech recognition reached a practical level for limited purposes. but full computer vision requires partial three-dimensional information that is not just a set of two-dimensional views. and they are not as good as what humans evidently use. On the the other hand. expert systems A ``knowledge engineer'' interviews experts in a certain domain and tries to embody their knowledge in a computer program for carrying out some task. while it is possible to instruct some computers using speech. It is being developed by John Koza's group http://www-formal. and this is presently possible only for very limited domains. To beat a world champion by brute force and known reliable heuristics requires being able to look at 200 million positions per second. It is quite convenient. Thus United Airlines has replaced its keyboard tree for flight information by a system using speech recognition of flight numbers and city names.stanford. which diagnosed bacterial infections of the blood and suggested treatments.edu/jmc/whatisai/node2. most users have gone back to the keyboard and the mouse as still more convenient. computer vision The world is composed of three-dimensional objects. understanding natural language Just getting a sequence of words into a computer is not enough. The computer has to be provided with an understanding of the domain the text is about. but they play well against people mainly through brute force computation--looking at hundreds of thousands of positions. Parsing sentences is not enough either. Here are some. One of the first expert systems was MYCIN in 1974. game playing You can buy machines that can play master level chess for a few hundred dollars.genetic programming Genetic programming is a technique for getting programs to solve a task by mating random Lisp programs and selecting fittest in millions of generations. When this turned out not to be so.html Applications of AI Q. There is some AI in them. At present there are only limited ways of representing three-dimensional information directly. It did better than medical students or .

and treatments and did not include patients. death. These efforts have apparently been the result of increasing demands by users for the data and information of a spatial nature. it is clear that the knowledge engineers forced what the experts told them into a predetermined framework. application). The difference between the above descriptions are considerable and shows that the field of GIS are broad and complex. and events occurring in time. checking.html What is so special about GIS? There are several descriptions of GIS. 1991). This rapidly evolving technology has come to be known as― Geographic Information Systems (GIS)‖. analyzing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth (Departement of the Environment.‖ A Geographic Information System is a decision support system that integrates spatially referenced data in a problem-solving environment (i. ¨ ―A System for capturing. application software. a host of professions have been in the process of developing automated tools for efficient storage.‖ ― The total of actions and tools that will lead in doing task and taking decisions in relation to spatial questions to the supply of relevant information. hospitals. its ontology included bacteria. 1990). death. transforming and displaying spatial data from the real word. modeling. and personnel designed to . The usefulness of current expert systems depends on their users having common sense. etc.edu/jmc/whatisai/node3. it also includes analysis. 1986)‖.g. (Grupe.e. (Burrough. http://www-formal.. An example is advising whether to accept a proposed credit card purchase. recovery. this has to be true. (translated from Scholten. doctors. Its interactions depended on a single patient being considered. and prediction. geographic data. symptoms. about whether there have been previous credit card frauds at this establishment). his record of payment and also about the item he is buying and about the establishment from which he is buying it (e. According to the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). Namely.1987). analysis and presentation of geographic data.stanford. a GIS is defined as ―an organized collection of computer hardware. provided its limitations were observed. recovery. Information is available about the owner of the credit card. Geographic information system goes beyond description. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) In the past twenty-five years.practicing doctors. doctors. storing. manipulating. Since the experts consulted by the knowledge engineers knew about patients. In the present state of AI. retrieving at will. heuristic classification One of the most feasible kinds of expert system given the present knowledge of AI is to put some information in one of a fixed set of categories using several sources of information.: ¨ ―A GIS is a powerful set of tools for collecting..

we refer to its location (i. querying. Thus.efficiently capture. Attribute Data: Describes characteristics of spatial features. manipulate. and display all forms of geographic referenced information. Discrete features include points (wells).e.‖ Kang Tsung Chang describes GIS is a computer system for capturing. also called geometry or shape. which may be discrete or continuous. The location.. lines (roads) and areas (land-use types).store. represents spatial data.Geographically referenced data separates GIS from other information systems. analyzing and displaying geographically referenced data. in addition to the handful of special publications devoted to GIS (Oloufa et al. The coordinate location of a Land parcel would be spatial data. owner name. Spatial Data: Describes the location of spatial features. land use etc. Discrete features are individually distinguishable features that don’t exist between observations. storing. while its characteristics. Continuous features are features that exist spatially between observations (elevation and precipitation). This fact is illustrated by the growing number of articles finding their way into civil engineering and construction journals and conference proceedings.). area. update. the amount of attribute data is associated with a spatial feature can vary significantly. speed limit etc. Thus a geographically referenced data has two components: spatial data and attribute data. e. name.g. each cell value should correspond to the attribute of the spatial feature at that location. a GIS is both a database system with specific capabilities for spatially referenced data. would be attribute data. A GIS represents these spatial features on a plane surface. vacant/ built-up. Let us take an example of road. GIS APPLICATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY GIS applications have proliferated in the construction industry in recent years. For raster data. For raster data. 1994) GIS can be used for: • Progress monitoring system in construction • Networking solutions • 3-D data analysis • Site location and Client Distance • Comparison of data • Construction scheduling and progress control with 3-D visualization • Government Regulations . GIS is essentially a marriage between computerized mapping and database management systems. This transformation involves two main issues: the spatial reference system and the data model. To describe a road. A cell is tightly bound to a cell value. whereas characteristics are attribute data. where it is) and its characteristics (length. analyze. as well as a set of operations for working with the data.

The PBS has already established four such GIS Laboratories in all the provincial capitals including Karachi.It is pertinent to mention here that GIS captures. Technically GIS is geographic information systems which includes mapping software and its application with remote sensing. the system can helpful for municipality and local self government. manages and presents data that is linked to location. land revenue and land records. The GIS is the merging of graphic map entities and database and it allows view.The Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS) Monday introduced Geographical Information System (GIS) Laboratory here at its newly established Statistics House with an objective to bring credibility and transparency in the overall census data collection system and make it at par with international standards. . aerial photography. The tool can be used for census purposes by preparing census maps with geo reference and scale and delimit census areas by remote sensing and GPS collected filed data can be used with GIS for more cutting edge analysis. the UN Agency Promoting Sustainable Urbanization & Clean Water Access. patterns and trends in the form of maps. land surveying. government administration. geography and tools that can be implemented with GIS software. stores. telecommunication. reports and charges. Quetta. globes.These labs have been established in collaboration with UNFPA. The system also helps answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared. UNFPA representative also spoke on the occasion and the system would help transparency and accuracy in the data collection. "The GIS Laboratory would certainly bring international-standard credibility and transparency in census data." Suhail Ahmed said while addressing the inaugural ceremony. Suhail Ahmed who was accompanied by representative UNFPA and IM-HABITAT and Chief Census Commissioner and other officials of the PBS. town planning. question. disaster management and for agriculture purposes. analyzes. mathematics. public health engineering. photogrametric. The GIS technology can be integrated into any enterprise information system framework and consumer users would likely be familiar with applications for finding their required information. forestry. He said that GIS project team has vigorously worked to make the it success and said that there was need to sustain it for the benefit of the country. He said that the GIS would not only help the country adopt the latest technology but would also enable it to use it to the optimum benefit. crime control and law. understand. interpret and visualize data in may ways that reveal relationships. the United Nations Population Fund and UN-HABITAT. The lab in the federal capital was formally inaugurated here on Monday by Secretary Statistics Division. Lahore and Peshawar and all these labs have already been functional. In addition. education.

What is GIS? A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware. Azad Kashmir. understand. Sukkur and Multan as and when funds are available. A GIS helps you answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared. UN-HABITAT representative said that 5 GIS labs have been established in the country and the agency would also cooperate in establishing GIS in Gilgit Baltistan. and trends in the form of maps. reports. and charts. software. GIS allows us to view. He said that the agency would also provide capacity building training to the PBS and Population officials to enable them use the latest technology and acquire desired results for the country's benefit. Coupled with GIS. organizing this data. interpret. plan. managing. Step 1: Ask Step 2: Acquire . Top Five Benefits of GIS GIS benefits organizations of all sizes and in almost every industry. The outcome is the emergence of The Geographic Approach—a new way of thinking and problem solving that integrates geographic information into how we understand and manage our planet. and analyzing and modeling various processes and their relationships. and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. There is a growing awareness of the economic and strategic value of GIS. The benefits of GIS generally fall into five basic categories: Cost Savings and Increased Efficiency Better Decision Making Improved Communication Better Recordkeeping Managing Geographically The Geographic Approach Geography is the science of our world. This approach allows us to create geographic knowledge by measuring the earth. globes. patterns. The Geographic Approach also allows us to apply this knowledge to the way we design. and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships. geography is helping us to better understand the earth and apply geographic knowledge to a host of human activities. question. analyzing. and data for capturing. and change our world.Speaking on the occasion. GIS technology can be integrated into any enterprise information system framework.

it may be necessary to create or calculate the new data. If the method of analysis requires detailed and/or high-level information. and where is it located? Being as specific as possible about the question you're trying to answer will help you with the later stages of The Geographic Approach. The type of data and the geographic scope of your project will help direct your methods of collecting data and conducting the analysis.Step 3: Examine Step 4: Analyze Step 5: Act Act: Frame the Question Approaching a problem geographically involves framing the question from a location-based perspective. . Creating new data may simply mean calculating new values in the data table or obtaining new map layers or attributes but may also require geoprocessing. which analytic methods to use. What is the problem you are trying to solve or analyze. when you're faced with deciding how to structure the analysis. and how to present the results to the target audience. Acquire: Find Data After clearly defining the problem. it is necessary to determine the data needed to complete your analysis and ascertain where that data can be found or generated.

and the story of where the data came from (its metadata). or whether you should rerun the analysis using different parameters or even a different method. how well the data corresponds to other datasets and the rules of the physical world (its topology). Looking at the results can help you decide whether the information is valid or useful. . Do not underestimate the power of "eyeballing" the data. GIS modeling tools make it relatively easy to make these changes and create new output.Examine the Data You will not know for certain whether the data you have acquired is appropriate for your study until you thoroughly examine it. This includes visual inspection. as well as investigating how the data is organized (its schema). Analyze the Data The data is processed and analyzed based on the method of examination or analysis you choose. which is dependent on the results you hope to achieve.

maps. And you can tailor the results for different audiences. What Can You Do with GIS? GIS gives us a new way to look at the world around us. For example. tables. Another audience may need an interactive format that allows them to ask what-if questions or pursue additional analysis. and charts and delivered in printed form or digitally over a network or on the Web. You can compare the results from different analyses and see which method presents the information most accurately. You need to decide on the best means for presenting your analysis. The results can be shared through reports.Act: Share Your Results The results and presentation of the analysis are important parts of The Geographic Approach. one audience might require a conventional report that summarizes the analyses and conveys recommendations or comparable alternatives. With GIS you can: Map Where Things Are .

a meteorologist might study the paths of hurricanes to predict where and when they might occur in the future. which vary greatly in size. Map Quantities People map quantities to find places that meet their criteria and take action. DaleelTeq (Pvt) Ltd Pakistan was established in 2006 . stiffer penalties apply. or to evaluate the results of an action or policy. decide on a course of action. For example. you can gain insight into how they behave. such as census tracts or counties.000 feet of a school—if so. Map Densities A density map lets you measure the number of features using a uniform areal unit so you can clearly see the distribution.000 people in each census tract to identify which areas are adequately served. For example. By mapping where and how things move over a period of time. Find What's Nearby GIS can help you find out what's occurring within a set distance of a feature by mapping what's nearby. On maps showing the number of people per census tract. Public health officials might want to map the numbers of physicians per 1. a district attorney would monitor drug-related arrests to find out if an arrest is within 1. Map Change Map the change in an area to anticipate future conditions. This is especially useful when mapping areas. and which are not.Map Quantities Map Densities Find What's Inside Find What's Nearby Map Change Map Where Things Are Mapping where things are lets you find places that have the features you're looking for and to see patterns. the larger tracts might have more people than smaller ones. A children's clothing company might want to find ZIP Codes with many young families with relatively high income. But some smaller tracts might have more people per square mile—a higher density. Find What's Inside Use GIS to monitor what's happening and to take specific action by mapping what's inside a specific area.

DaleelTeq has its offices in Saudi Arabia. DMS (Documents Management System) and ERP solutions. DaleelTeq envisions growth ensured by customer satisfaction. application development and planning. We have most enriched map of Pakistan available with us covering more than 50 cities of Pakistan. DaleelTeq offers a range of visual geographical information services to the customers. DaleelTeq has the experience and knowledge to develop various solutions for a diversity of environments. Pakistan. Consistently achieved customer delight by focusing on value adding activities throughout our value chain effective and responsive systems and processes that will . cost-effective in-time delivery by qualified & experienced personnel with varied project experience coupled with state-of-the-art infrastructure. To facilitate our valuable clients through superior Solutions / Services. Tunis. Our Vision DaleelTeq's vision is: To become the most enriched Map data provider of Pakistan. Since the demand for geographical based decisions is highly enhanced so acknowledging that. DaleelTeq has vast experience in GIS based field survey to create the digital and navigable maps. GIS programming. Sudan and Mali.to carry on the advancement in the field of GIS (Geographical Information System). To become the global leader providing excellent GIS Solutions / Services. The company employs highly professional experts with extensive experience in various fields such as: GIS Survey and Mapping. DaleelTeq specializes in developing and providing Geographical Information System (GIS) knowledge.

we are persistently devising to accomplish the highest levels of client satisfaction and are very much focused in contributing further to the overall growth and development of the whole world. Our continuous mission is to provide quality mapping services and solutions that meet the needs of each client.underpin our business decisions to manage risks. Our Services Survey & Digitizing Services Survey for creation of Digital Maps and collection of landmarks using GPS devices Creation of digital & navigational maps for vehicle navigation systems GIS Services like digitization. A strong global supply base for world class goods and services and become a proactive. integral and responsible member of our environment and communities. Our mission is to be a quality conscious global player in spatial technology industry. become an exciting organization which attracts and retains best talent worldwide for global competitiveness. Mission Statement With a professional approach towards work and a team of highly qualified technical and managerial experts. .

high bandwidth throughput per subscriber and high concurrency. Emergency Points. etc. georeferencing. Triple Play Services The Fiberline Triple Play Service is an end-to-end solution that integrates high speed broadband access. IP Telephone and ―Digital‖ Crystal Clear Cable Channels at your home or Business Premises. It addresses the mass-market requirements for triple play service delivery. remote sensing etc. Mosques. Fiberline is committed to provide . Manifold. etc. OmniSTAR Subscriptions DaleelTeq is a dealer of OmniSTAR in Pakistan and provides the subscriptions of OmniSTAR services. providing high subscriber scale. Vehicle Tracking Services Offering Sate of the Art Vehicle Tracking and Fleet Management Services Have options for Web Based Tracking as well as command center based tracking Updated high scale/resolution maps for Complete Pakistan are available including all motorways. ERDAS. mosaicing. streets of cities. POIs like Banks. using AutoCAD.tracing. Conversion of Raster images into vectors. Click here for detail. MapInfo. Education Points. highways. Fuel Stations. ArcGIS9.

LAN/WAN networking. For more information www. Hardware Supply. . vehicle tracking. DSL. On Wireless Network Telephone & Internet Service are available. Maintenance and Support. For more information www. Fiber Optics installation. Installation.com. Triple Play Service Provides three type of Services : Internet Telephone Cable For more information www.fiberline.fiberline.Quality of Service ―QoS‖ to its every valued customer.com.com.fiberline.pk Wireless Internet We are providing wireless Network Services in Rawalpindi / Islamabad cities.pk Free Internet We are providing free Dialup Internet Service.pk Other Services Data related Services like video conferencing.

if we look at the near past. The concept started getting popularity with the evolution of computer industry. but will also cover information of almost all popular places. strengthen business relationships and reduce expenses by using these Internet-based solutions to collaborate and access online services. and partners can remove geographical boundaries. for which computers systems will be utilized for not only searching destination. the professionals started considering it seriously and began to convert this impossibility into a real world application. read more GIS Products Trimble Mapping & GIS Products Daleel Track & Trace (Vehicle Tracking System) GIS based Decision Support system Daleel MAP/GIS Framework . With the introduction of software customization and availability of precise satellite maps. GIS Solution is yet another profound web based effort in this regard. Your employees. User will log on to our application to go through a true geographic information system of the entire world.(Our own SDK for Maps management system development) Daleel City Explorers (Vector based map viewing software) Asset tracking solution (AVL) Hajj Pilgrims Monitoring System Entreprise Municipal Suite Bravo ICT Management Route optimization solutions . customers.Products Geomectis The idea of Global Village was considered as inconceivable one.

Navigation solutions Customized GIS Applications GIS Based software for Waste Management System Office Automation Products Banking Solutions (with Online and eBanking) Correspondence Management System RxDoX .eOffice Enterprise BPM & Workflow Management System .eDoX Correspondence Management System .eFaX Ultimate Learning .eOffice Digital Library Management Solution .Medical Imaging Litigation Document Management System Other Products Document Management & Archiving Solution eDoX Enterprise Contents Management System .eDoX Electronic Fax Management .

GIS and ERP based software solutions. Payroll/Personnel. Object Oriented technology and Internet. For us these technologies represent general. DaleelTeq offers unique program to customize in-house developed modules to 100% suite your business requirements. Client/Server technology. logical models which can be applied to a wide range of applications. You will feel more constraints along the road. Intranet and Extranet based applications. Intranet and Extranet applications. These modules will not only be for current size or business setup but keep on growing with your environment. Inventory. We have been designing and developing business modules including Accounts Payable. Accounts Receivable. mostly as a part of Internet. you can always be confident that we are the business problem solvers. RDBMS take up a large portion of our Client/Server technology efforts. It is not always feasible to buy off-the-shelf packages and put your business at risk. the more you use those non-customized software packages without proper training and technical support. We specialize in RDBMS.Solution . Costing and Project Management. Our software division has experience in a variety of application areas such as: . With our solid company resources and commitment to designing solutions that work for any size of business. there could be hidden shortcuts and glitches.eCollege Front-end applications to the Archiving Solutions Software Development Our main strength lies in customized software solutions and software conversion projects. Currently we are working on DMS.

Fedora Databases MS SQL Server Oracle IBM DB/2 My SQL Programming Languages .Banking & Finance Telecommunications Education Institutions Manufacturing & Construction Municipal & Rural Affairs Construction Petrochemical Healthcare Transportation Food Sector Tourism Tools & Technologies Operating Systems MS Windows XP/ Vista.Net ) Visual C++ Visual Basic Java ASP Cold Fusion . VB.Net (C Sharp. Linux.

DaleelTeq applications address the following business needs: DMS Solution . we provide integrated e-business solutions to help you. vendors. hence maximizing overall efficiency. and partners in persistently evolving environment. Automate the essential .The Archiving Power Document Management System for complete paperless office automation is available in online and desktop versions.Business Solutions Whatever your business needs. comprising of customizable workflow and archival system. and the people who work for you. Our products and services make it easier for your team to do business with your customers.

and assist in turning your service operations into a profitable center. A broad range of flexible. hence increasing your customer satisfaction. searching and reporting. options—from advanced consolidation analysis to simple reporting requests— helps the decision-makers and workers across your company to transform data into valuable information. Vehicle Tracking System . let your team to archive data in organized manner and retrieve them efficiently. customizable archiving.functions of organizations from small scale to enterprise level and maximize your staff's time.

compact. Its small size makes it easy to install and access. affordable and easy to use. Locate a Vehicle Vehicle group Management Geo Fencing . finally used for report generation and vehicle maintenance system Battery Backup Command Centers Software Features Web Based Monitoring Dynamic Map Loading Options Layers Control Map Display Features like Zoom. trains . Pan. General Features Optimized for Vehicle security system Easy installation similar to existing car alarm systems Geo Fencing status GSM-SMS and GPRS connectivity Multiple I/Os for Sensors integration Like fuel level indication. delivery services and concerned parents of teenage children. trailers. trucks. This integrated system with Web Based & local Command Centre is very useful for Organizations who are maintaining a number of vehicles/fleet specially for field duties. The user can track their vehicle in real time using internet/intranet from their home or office location. containers. reliable. GSM-GPRS/GPS Vehicle Tracker system is self-reliant. distance travel indication. and Measure Distance etc.Overview The GPS AVL Unit is a general purpose tracking device that adds security and tracking capability to assets such as cars. Busses.police department.

Automatic Vehicle Locator Architecture Web Based Interface with office users and field Staff of NHA Partners Company Profile .

The application will base on digital and navigational maps and will certainly be helpful for all concerned users. Fleet Management includes the . GIS (Geographical Information System). awarded data clause license to DaleelTeq for AJK Regions. it is for the management of company's vehicle Fleet. prepared Navigational maps of all Highways & Motorways of Pakistan. ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) and Networks based solutions. launched its Fleet Management Solution "Track & Trace".DaleelTeq Private Limited is a Pakistan established organization that is striving to carry on the advancement in the field of DMS (Document Management System). The company is also focusing on the development of the VTS (Vehicle Tracking System) for Pakistan that requires profound field surveys of entire country. Latest News appointed as Trimble's MGIS Dealer for Pakistan.

Fleet Management can include a range of fleet Management function such as Vehicle Tracking & Monitoring Security Milleage Maintenence .management of motor vehicles such as cars. vans. & trucks.

Trimble Mapping & GIS .Products & Services Product s& Services Handhel d Comput ers with GNSS GNSS Receive rs Handhel d Comput ers Softwar e Referen ce Stations Trimble VRS Trimble Product .

Together with the latest field software enhancements and GNSS innovations—including Trimble Floodlight™ satellite shadow reduction technology—the GeoXH handheld establishes a new standard for GNSS system performance and handheld data capture. The GeoXH handheld is the best high accuracy hardware platform for any organization needing to map information at decimeter (10 cm / 4 inch) accuracy. and many other organisations. the GeoXH™ handheld delivers real-time decimeter (10 cm / 4 inch) accuracy positioning. high quality photo capture. . and integrated Internet connectivity options. municipalities. Applications Features & Benefits Technical Specs Designed for work For utility companies. timely accurate information is paramount to good decision making.Compar ison Table Request Quote Handheld Computers with GNSS GeoExplorer 6000 series Introducing the new GeoXH handheld The Trimble® GeoExplorer® 6000 series takes GNSS productivity to a whole new level. Bringing together the essential functionality for high-accuracy field work in one device. environmental management agencies.

The GeoXH handheld is an ideal solution in any industry requiring a mobile decimeter accuracy mapping data collection and maintenance solution. as-built mapping of lines/cable installations. and incident/outage reporting. including utility companies. To discuss the opportunities for a customised high accuracy data collection or maintenance solution for your industry using the Trimble GeoExplorer 6000 series GeoXH handheld. Introducing the new GeoXT handheld The Trimble® GeoExplorer® 6000 series takes GNSS productivity to a whole new level. and repeatable results. the GeoXH handheld is the ideal platform for: Utilities: Underground asset mapping and inspection. Local government: High-density urban asset mapping. contact your local Trimble reseller. water debris management. wireless Internet. local government organizations. Combining submeter accuracy GNSS. high quality photo capture. and federal agencies. sample gathering. or for anyone needing dependable submeter accuracy GNSS data. agricultural subsidy determination. Together with the latest field software enhancements and GNSS innovations— including Trimble Floodlight™ satellite shadow reduction technology—the GeoXT handheld is the ideal submeter field solution for any industry. water network modelling. Environmental management: Weed management. pollution mapping. simple operation. underground asset relocation.In conjunction with a Trimble Mapping & GIS field software application or a custom application developed by a Trimble Mapping & GIS Business Partner. Applications Designed for work . and connectivity options in a single product. the GeoXT™ handheld is the ideal field device for organizations mapping critical assets and infrastructure. municipal asset inventory and inspection. environmental incident mapping.

with the optional ability to track both GPS and GLONASS satellites. and many other organisations. Trimble Floodlight satellite shadow reduction More positions and increased accuracy in tough environments With the optional Trimble Floodlight satellite shadow reduction technology option installed. wildlife monitoring. In conjunction with a Trimble Mapping & GIS field software application or a custom application developed by a Trimble Mapping & GIS Business Partner. Local government: High density urban asset mapping.For utility companies. municipalities. incident and outage reporting. environmental management agencies. the GeoXT handheld delivers consistent submeter accuracy in real time and 50 cm accuracy after postprocessing. Environmental management: Weed management. Floodlight technology increases the . The GeoXT handheld is the ideal field device for organizations mapping critical assets and infrastructure. the GeoXT receiver can compute positions even with very weak satellite signals. Applications Features & Benefits Technical Specs 220 channel GNSS receiver Submeter real-time and 50 cm postprocessed accuracy Integrating the latest in Trimble GNSS receiver technology. urban forest management. the GeoXT handheld is the ideal platform for: Utilities: Asset surveys. environmental incident mapping. pollution mapping. sample gathering. or for anyone needing dependable submeter accuracy GNSS data. municipal asset inventory and inspection. and repeatable results. meter inspections. simple operation. Even higher levels of postprocessed accuracy are possible if GNSS carrier data is logged for extended periods. timely accurate information is paramount to good decision making.

With the GeoXT handheld. It maintains exceptional clarity in all outdoor conditions. field crews can now work with fewer disruptions. meaning means better data. and maps—even in direct sunlight The GeoXT handheld includes a sunlight-optimized display designed specifically for outdoor operation. and without sacrificing productivity. so the touch panel is spacious and easier to control. At 4. the display is also big. the GNSS receiver can calculate the optimal accuracy each second without imposing strict masks.2" (10. Bluetooth. so photo capture and linking of images to GIS features is seamless and simple to integrate with existing data capture workflows. photos. Integrated Wi-Fi.7 cm). and boosts accuracy in those places where normally only low accuracy data is available.5G cellular modem . Integrated 5 megapixel autofocus camera Capture high quality photos and link directly to features A photo is often the best way to capture information about an asset. The camera can be controlled by the TerraSync™ software and other third-party applications. Using Smart Settings. event.2" polarized display Crystal clear text. and optional 3. at less cost. There is no need to adjust settings from one location to the next—simply activate Smart Settings. or site. Background maps and photos are rich and vibrant. The GeoXT handheld includes a 5 megapixel autofocus camera with geotagging capability. 4.number of positions that are gathered in difficult locations. Text is crisp and easy to read. including direct sunlight. and let the receiver do the rest. Read more: Smart Settings Set and forget GNSS configuration for better results in all conditions The GeoXT handheld is fully supported by the latest versions of Trimble field software which include seamless out-of-the-box receiver configuration and Smart Settings. faster.

cable-free With the GeoXT handheld. Lightning-fast processing power and expandable storage Work with large. Wi-Fi®. . Bluetooth technology also enables wireless connection to other external devices such as Bluetooth-enabled laser range finders. Windows Mobile 6. the GeoXH handheld is fully compatible with the latest releases of Trimble Mapping & GIS field software as well as a large variety of third-party data collection and maintenance applications. VRS™ corrections. barcode scanners.Work online.5 Professional edition. or underground pipe locators.5 A proven mobile platform with the latest features and functionality Powered by Windows Mobile® 6. and Bluetooth® technology ensure that field workers can remain in contact with the office and each other. Field swappable battery More than 11 hours operation on a single charge and swap-and-go battery replacement in the field The Lithium-Ion battery can provide more than 11 hours of GNSS operation on a single charge and can be swapped on-the-go without shutting down the device—enabling near-continuous operation and minimizing field worker downtime.5G cellular modem allows continuous network and Internet access to real-time map data. the GeoXT handheld has the capacity and power needed to work with high resolution maps and the most complex datasets. even from remote locations. With 2 GB of internal storage and the capacity to add an additional 32 GB via SDHC card. An optional integrated 3. complex datasets without compromising performance The GeoXT handheld is powered by a super-fast OMAP-3503 series processor and 256 MB RAM. web-based services. anywhere. wireless connectivity options including cellular. and live update of field information.

Engineered with Trimble H-Star™ technology. Because high accuracy positions are available in real-time. contact your local Trimble reseller. the Trimble® GeoXH™ handheld from the GeoExplorer® 3000 series is the perfect integrated solution. Decimeter accuracy can be achieved in real-time with the optional Tornado™ external antenna. the GeoXH handheld delivers the accuracy you need when you need it. GeoExplorer 3000 series GeoExplorer 3000 Series GeoXH Handheld For high-accuracy GIS data collection and asset relocation. and excavate cables and pipes without . It is ideal for electric and gas utilities. or decimeter (10 cm / 4 inch) accuracy after postprocessing. The GeoXH handheld provides real-time subfoot (<30 cm) accuracy with the internal antenna. you can track down buried and hidden assets with ease. land reform projects. they can take the GeoXT handheld with the confidence that the equipment can handle the toughest conditions The GeoXT handheld is an ideal solution in any industry requiring a mobile submeter accuracy mapping data collection and maintenance solution.Designed for work Reliable rugged design The fully ruggedized IP65 construction is designed to withstand the harshest environments. and other applications where on-the-spot positioning is crucial. water and wastewater services. To discuss the opportunities for a customised high accuracy data collection or maintenance solution for your industry using the Trimble GeoExplorer 6000 series GeoXT handheld. Wherever field workers go.

so you know your GIS has the information that others can depend on. It's ideal for use by utility companies. the GeoXH handheld is a high performance device designed to work as hard as you do. Read more GeoExplorer 3000 Series GeoXM Handheld The Trimble® GeoXM™ handheld from the GeoExplorer® 3000 series is the affordable. With a powerful 520 MHz processor. relocating assets with confidence and fulfilling work orders efficiently. the GeoXT handheld is optimized to provide reliable location data. in urban canyons. federal agencies. The handheld gives you all the power you need to work with maps and large data sets in the field. A high performance GPS receiver combined with a rugged handheld computer. local government organizations. .wasted effort or risk of damage to nearby assets. and 1 GB of onboard storage. your crews will collect reliable 1 to 3 meter GPS data for your GIS. and with shorter occupations. With a GeoXM handheld. Back-office data processing is eliminated. and its high resolution VGA display allows for crisp and clear viewing of your data. or anyone managing assets or mapping critical infrastructure who needs accurate data to do the job right—the first time. When you postprocess with Trimble office software you can be confident of achieving decimeter level accuracy with greater consistency at longer baselines. Read more GeoExplorer 3000 Series GeoXT Handheld The Trimble® GeoXT™ handheld from the GeoExplorer® 3000 series is the essential tool for maintaining your GIS. and in all the everyday environments you work in. when and where you need it. streamlining asset inventories and as-built mapping jobs. With EVEREST™ multipath rejection technology onboard. 128 MB RAM. the GeoXT handheld records quality GPS positions even under canopy. in tougher environments. all-in-one solution for mobile workers who need to take your GIS to the field.

it's never been easier to use GPS in your application. a 3. compact field computer with an integrated high-yield GPS receiver. Read more Juno Series Juno SA Handheld The Juno® SA handheld* is a durable.1 platform. Use the integrated SBAS receiver to get WAAS. With a 533 MHz processor.Because the GPS receiver and antenna are built into the handheld computer.1 platform High-sensitivity GPS receiver Long life battery for all-day use Lightweight and compact . and support for 10 languages. The Juno SA handheld is an economical solution. the Juno SA handheld is a powerful and versatile field tool. or use the integrated Bluetooth® wireless technology to connect to a Trimble GeoBeacon™ receiver to reliably navigate back to assets. It is the affordable way to arm an entire data collection workforce with a reliable and accurate professional GPS handheld incorporating an industry standard Windows Mobile® 6. or to record new data to keep your GIS up to the minute. ideal for large deployments Industry standard Windows Mobile 6. EGNOS. ideal for asset management and inspection applications. ideally suited to organizations that are looking to equip their entire field workforce— while managing strict budgets—by combining the Juno SA handheld with the required field application software at of a cost-effective price point. Key features: Cost-effective solution. or MSAS corrections. 128 MB RAM.5 inch display.

Juno SB Handheld Arm your crew with the durable, compact field computer that integrates a rich array of functionality, including photo capture and high-yield GPS receiver with 2 to 5 meter positioning accuracy in real time or 1 to 3 meter postprocessed. The Juno™ SB handheld is the affordable way to maximize the productivity of your entire workforce. While minimizing expenditure, you won't have to compromise on features or functionality. The Juno SB handheld includes a 533 MHz processor, 3.5 inch display, and a 3 megapixel camera. Now each member of your workforce has the ability to augment their GPS information with photographs while performing GIS data collection, maintenance, and inspection activities. Read more

Juno SC Handheld The Juno® SC handheld is a durable, lightweight field computer that integrates an array of powerful features. Providing photo capture, cellular data transmission, and high yield GPS receiver with 2 to 5 meter positioning accuracy in real time or 1 to 3 meter postprocessed, the Juno SC is an affordable solution that will increase the productivity of your entire mobile workforce. The integrated 3.5G HSDPA cellular modem provides high-speed internet connectivity worldwide. Your entire field workforce will be able to quickly and reliably access the data they need in the field—work-orders, map data, reference files, emails, and even the Internet. The Juno SC handheld also enables connections to networks and other devices with its integrated Bluetooth® and wireless LAN capabilities. Read more

Juno SD Handheld The Juno® SD handheld is a durable, lightweight handheld that integrates an array of powerful features. Providing integrated cellular data and voice call capability, photo capture, and high yield GPS positioning, the Juno SD handheld will empower and increase the efficiency of your entire mobile workforce.

Whether you are managing critical assets, responding to emergencies, or updating your enterprise GIS, the Juno SD is the ultimate solution. The integrated 3.5G HSDPA cellular capability keeps your entire field workforce in contact with the office and the data they need. The Juno SD provides a high-speed Internet connection, enabling your team to access crucial information in the field—work-orders, map data, reference files, emails, and even the Internet. Field workers can stay in touch with cellular voice capability, enabling them to relay live updates of the situation back to the office, call the office for their next job, or to request assistance—a must for worker safety. The integrated camera enables field workers to store a visual record of jobs, and with the microSD card slot in Juno SD handheld, they need never worry about running out of memory in the field.

Yuma Series Yuma Rugged Tablet Computer The Trimble® Yuma® rugged tablet computer is built to withstand even the most challenging work environment. Safeguard your software and data in the face of dust, sand, mud, humidity, and extreme temperature. Conduct inspections, collect information, capture photos, and communicate with headquarters, all with the assurance that your data is protected. Overcoming the elements presents an initial challenge, since water, dust, and dirt easily threaten the internal components of all but the most rugged of outdoor computers. The Yuma tablet features an ingress

protection rating of 67 (IP67), meaning it is sealed against dust and has been water immersion tested for 30 minutes at a depth of one meter (3.28 ft). Water and dust won't sideline the Yuma tablet. Shock, vibration, and extreme temperature fluctuation present a second level of challenges to outdoor computing. The rugged design of the Yuma tablet incorporates a solid state hard drive, eliminating internal moving parts and providing protection against stress from impact and vibration. In addition, MIL-STD810F specifications ensure that the Yuma tablet survives bitter cold, blistering desert heat, and everything in between—even accidentally launching the Yuma tablet off the tailgate of your truck.

Nomad G series

Nomad G series handhelds

They offer full compatibility with Trimble Mapping & GIS software and a choice of configurations to match your existing workflow. the Nomad 900G series provides a range of all-inone solutions for field data collection and asset management activities. a laser bar code scanner.5 inch (8. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth® wireless technology connectivity. a powerful 806 MHz processor. and with the option of GLONASS . Combining H-Star™ technology. 5 megapixel digital camera with integrated flash.The Trimble® Nomad® 900G series of integrated GPS handhelds offer all-in-one convenience in a device engineered for superior performance in harsh environments. GNSS Receivers GPS Pathfinder Series GPS Pathfinder ProXRT Receiver Whether you need to relocate buried pipes and cables. 128 MB of RAM. or accurately map underground assets and critical infrastructure. and CompactFlash (CF) and USB expansion options. giving you the confidence to know the job was done right while you're still on site. The Nomad 900G series handhelds feature a huge 6 GB of Flash storage. and a 3.9 cm) VGA display. including a cellular modem. OmniSTAR support. the Trimble® GPS Pathfinder® ProXRT receiver has it all. With a variety of configuration options. a SecureDigital (SD) slot for removable cards. This real-time receiver can achieve decimeter (10 cm / 4 inch) accuracy.

GPS Pathfinder ProXH Receiver The GPS Pathfinder® ProXH™ receiver introduces a new era in GPS for GIS data collection. the GPS Pathfinder ProXRT receiver is a truly versatile solution offering you the accuracy you need. add a Tornado™ antenna to your ProXH receiver for decimeter (10 cm / 4 .support on top of dual frequency GPS. The OmniSTAR antenna is integrated so there's no need to carry any extra equipment—just purchase a subscription and wait for the over the air corrections. OmniSTAR HP can be used to achieve real-time decimeter accuracy. And when high accuracy is critical to your application. antenna. Alternatively. The GPS Pathfinder ProXRT receiver is also capable of using the OmniSTAR XP (20 cm accuracy) and VBS (instantaneous submeter accuracy) services. and all-day battery in one. A GPS receiver. The GPS Pathfinder ProXRT receiver brings Trimble H-Star technology to the field in real time. the ProXH receiver delivers subfoot (<30 cm) accuracy with the revolutionary Trimble H-Star™ technology. just connect to a VRS™ network or a local base station correction source and you can collect decimeter to subfoot (<30 cm) positions in the field. worldwide.

the ProXT receiver delivers consistent. Read more . For the very best results. Back in the office. or wherever accuracy is crucial. postprocessing is easy with Trimble® GPS Pathfinder Office software or the Trimble GPS Analyst™ extension for ESRI ArcGIS Desktop software. the ProXT receiver is totally cablefree. the GPS Pathfinder Office software or the Trimble GPS Analyst™ extension for ESRI ArcGIS Desktop software guides you through the H-Star correction process and displays the accuracy you've achieved. in urban environments. Working together with the Trimble TerraSync™ software and Trimble® GPScorrect™ extension for ESRI ArcPad software. the ProXH receiver quickly and efficiently logs the data you need to achieve subfoot accuracy. and even higher levels of postprocessed accuracy are possible when you log GPS carrier data for extended periods. Bringing together advanced GPS receiver design and a powerful new postprocessing engine. the integrated SBAS receiver or optional GeoBeacon™ receiver provides submeter accuracy in real time. H-Star technology is in a class of its own. so you can work under canopy. With an advanced design and features like EVEREST™ multipath rejection technology. A precision GPS receiver. the GPS Pathfinder® ProXT™ receiver sets new standards for ease of use. making data collection more straightforward than ever before. reliable accuracy. If you need to be sure of your accuracy in the field. GPS Pathfinder ProXT Receiver Purpose-built for GIS data collection. These office processing suites use Trimble DeltaPhase™ technology to achieve 50 cm accuracy for GPS code measurements after postprocessing. antenna. and all-day battery in one.inch) postprocessed accuracy.

and inside the rugged casing it's packed with new connectivity options. barcode scanners. you now have the option of builtin Bluetooth® and wireless LAN. The system provides two CompactFlash (CF) slots. Cellular connectivity can be . open operating system. The Recon handheld features a high-performance 400 MHz processor. it's impervious to water and dust. And if you are within range of a WiFi network. or memory cards. letting you add peripherals such as GPS cards. and an industrystandard. such as your work depot. you can quickly and securely transfer large amounts of data into the network. built-in Bluetooth wireless technology. With an IP67 rating. a mobile phone for connection to the Internet. and built-in wireless LAN. the built-in wireless LAN in your Recon handheld makes it very easy to send and receive data.Handheld Computers Recon Handheld The new-generation Trimble® Recon® handheld is as tough as ever. As soon as you arrive at a WiFi hotspot. You can use Bluetooth to connect wirelessly to other devices such as a laser rangefinder. or Trimble's GPS Pathfinder® receivers. As well as increased memory.

Read more Software TerraSync Software The Trimble® TerraSync™ software is designed for fast and efficient field GIS data collection and maintenance.added to the Recon handheld via the TDL 3G cellular modem. The TerraSync software makes the field data collection workflow seamless by including intelligent features such as map-centric operation. The software also includes the ability to use a data dictionary previously created in the Trimble GPS Pathfinder® Office software. based on the . it’s a powerful system for the collection of high quality feature and position data for GIS update and maintenance. graphical status display. and live update of field information. the TDL 3G provides continuous network/internet access to real-time map data. web-based services. and the ability to record a position offset at the field worker’s fingertips. The TerraSync software also makes it easy to incorporate photo capture into the data collection workflow using a Trimble handheld with an integrated camera or the Trimble TrimPix™ Pro system. Paired with a supported Trimble GNSS receiver and field computer. Connecting via wireless LAN or Bluetooth.

The GPScorrect extension ensures that you have the most reliable and accurate data for your GIS. Or use the popular GPS Pathfinder® Office software to effortlessly correct the data you collected in the field for extra precision. For differential correction of your field data you have a choice of postprocessing software. you can improve the accuracy of your GNSS positions from 10 meters to submeter or even decimeter-level (10 cm / 4 inch) accuracy. it's easier than ever to bring GNSS and GIS data together. depending on the environment and your GNSS receiver. Read more Trimble GPScorrect Extension for Esri ArcPad Software The Trimble® GPScorrect™ extension for Esri ArcPad software lets you take full control of your Trimble GNSS receiver. Use the Trimble GPS Analyst™ extension for Esri ArcGIS Desktop software for a stream-lined workflow between the field and the office.Read more .enterprise GIS to preserve data integrity. With postprocessed differential correction. With the GPScorrect extension and ArcPad software. and adds the power of differential correction to ArcPad.

or a ProXT™ receiver. Decimeter accuracy can be achieved with the GPS Pathfinder ProXH™ and ProXRT receivers or the GeoXH™ handheld. Alternatively. optimal GNSS code processing accuracy is possible with the Trimble DeltaPhase technology using a GeoXM™. which incorporate Trimble H-Star™ technology. and accurate from GNSS data collected in the field. allowing previously collected GIS data to be taken back to the field for verification and update. designed to develop GIS information that is consistent. Data can be imported to the GPS Pathfinder Office software from a number of GIS and database formats. reliable. The software's Data Dictionary Editor creates custom lists of features and attributes for . depending on the environment and the GNSS receiver. GeoXT™ or Juno® series handheld.GPS Pathfinder Office Software The Trimble® GPS Pathfinder® Office software is a powerful and easy-to-use software package of GNSS postprocessing tools incorporating Trimble® DeltaPhase™ differential correction technology. Postprocessing with the GPS Pathfinder Office significantly improves the autonomous accuracy of data collected in the field all the way down to decimeter (10 cm / 4 inch) level.

as a Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) receiver or portable base station for Real-time Kinematic (RTK) applications. . In addition.field data collection and supports the development of conditional attribute data capture forms in Trimble TerraSync™ software that dynamically adapt to previously entered attribute values for maximum data collection efficiency. Read more Reference Stations NetR9 Reference Station Overview Features Support The Trimble NetR9—a highly versatile. A full-feature. the Trimble NetR9 was designed to provide the network operator with maximum features and functionality from a single receiver. top-ofthe-line receiver with an industry-leading 440 channels for unrivaled GNSS multiple constellation tracking performance. it can be used as a campaign receiver for post-processing. and as scientific reference station. ground-breaking GNSS reference receiver for infrastructure and network applications.

With instant access to H-Star corrections in-the-field and on demand. a cellular connection. decimeter accurate positions consistently and directly from the job site.Virtual Reference Stations Trimble VRS Now H-Star Service Trimble® VRS Now™ H-Star™ service gives field workers the ability to produce real-time. government and research organization/institutions. . worker productivity is increased and high-accuracy mapping projects can be up and running in minutes. you increase efficiencies across your organization and achieve immediate ROI. Trimble Product Comparison Table Home | About Us | Picture Gallery | Business Solutions | Our Services Clients | Partners | Products | Software Development | Contact Us | Request Quote :: Copyrights @ 2011 DALEELTEQ :: Digital Maps of Pakistan Overview In Future There is no Decision without GIS DaleelTeq Pvt Ltd is an ISO certified Multinational Company working in the field of GIS having computer based solutions for improving situational awareness and enabling better decision making. The company's products and solutions are today used extensively in strategic and tactical applications by the defense. and a subscription to this breakthrough Trimble service. Subscribe today and discover how with only a Trimble H-Star compatible receiver (either the GeoXH™ 6000 series handheld receiver or GPS Pathfinder® ProXRT receiver).

These maps include all the required navigational information and wide range of Landmarks/POIs which are needed for automatic navigation on the roads. Our Survey Teams are always on the road to update these maps. we have highly accurate upto-date navigational maps for major cites of Pakistan. In cities we have collected all the information for Navigation System. Daleel Digital Topographic Maps We have developed Topographic Maps of Pakistan . On our inventory.Maps Availability DaleelTeq has following up-to-date maps: Navigational Maps for Cities of Pakistan DaleelTeq is pioneer in producing navigational maps. Our navigational maps are built based upon highly accurate GPS devices and road survey. and in future over target is whole Pakistan. These navigational maps are built on high resolution Satellite images: with the help of GPS Survey and updated resources. Islamabad City Rawalpindi City Lahore City Peshawar City Faisalabad City Karachi City AJK and other cities All Highways and Motorways of Pakistan We have navigational maps for Motorways & Highways of Pakistan.

Busses. Vehicle Tracking System Overview The GPS AVL Unit is a general purpose tracking device that adds security and tracking capability to assets such as cars. Its small size makes it easy to install and access. reliable.on different scales. road network. GSM-GPRS/GPS Vehicle Tracker system is self-reliant. affordable and easy to use. contours. rivers and water features. Digital maps are available in different layers. etc.police department. like Administrative boundries. containers. finally used for report generation and vehicle maintenance system Battery Backup . General Features Optimized for Vehicle security system Easy installation similar to existing car alarm systems Geo Fencing status GSM-SMS and GPRS connectivity Multiple I/Os for Sensors integration Like fuel level indication. trailers. delivery services and concerned parents of teenage children. distance travel indication. trucks. compact. This integrated system with Web Based & local Command Centre is very useful for Organizations who are maintaining a number of vehicles/fleet specially for field duties. International Standard Parameters are used to build this data. trains . The user can track their vehicle in real time using internet/intranet from their home or office location.

Locate a Vehicle Vehicle group Management Geo Fencing Automatic Vehicle Locator Architecture Web Based Interface with office users and field Staff of NHA . Pan. and Measure Distance etc.Command Centers Software Features Web Based Monitoring Dynamic Map Loading Options Layers Control Map Display Features like Zoom.

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