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Digital Logic Design

Nikil Dutt UC Irvine


ICS 151 Winter 2005

ICS151 WQ05 (Dutt)

Introduction

Welcome to ICS 212


Instructor
Nikil Dutt dutt@ics.uci.edu

Course Page
http://www.ics.uci.edu/~dutt/ics151 Visit regularly for updates and announcements Visit eee web site for noteboard

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Introduction

Course Outline
DATE 1/6 1/11 1/13 1/18 1/20 1/21 TOPIC Intro, Number Systems, Arithmetic FP Numbers, Codes, Boolean Algebra Canonical Forms, Gates, K-Maps, Dont Cares QUIZ 1 (covers Chs 1-3) in lecture K-Map,Tabulation Method Last day to drop class READING Sec 1.1-1.7, 2.1-2.8 Sec 2.9-2.16, 3.1-3.4 Sec 3.5-3.9, 3.12-3.14, 4.1-4.3

Sec 4.2-4.4

1/25 Technology Mapping 1/27 Combinatorial Components 1/27 and 1/28 QUIZ 2 (covers Ch 4) in discussion section 2/1 2/3 Combinatorial Components Combinatorial Components, SR Latch

Sec 4.5-4.10 Sec 5.1-5.4

Sec 5.5-5.10 Sec 5.11-5.16, 6.1 Sec 6.2-6.4 Sec 6.5-6.6 Sec 6.5-6.6

2/8 Seq Logic: gated SR, gated D, FF 2/8 and 2/9 QUIZ 3 (covers Ch 5) in discussion section 2/10 Sequential Logic Design: Analysis 2/15 Sequential Logic Design: Analysis 2/17 MIDTERM (covers Chs 1-6.4) in lecture 2/22 2/24 3/1 3/3 3/8 3/10 3/15 3/16 3/24 ICS151 WQ05 (Dutt) Sequential Logic Design: Minimization, Encoding Sequential Logic Design: Opt, Timing, Registers Counters, Register Files, RAMs, Stacks, Queues Simple DPs QUIZ 4 (covers Ch 6.5-7.2) in lecture Datapaths, Control Units Course review Last discussion section Comprehensive Final Examination, 8 10 am IERF 101 Introduction

Sec 6.7-6.11 Sec 6.11-7.2 Sec 7.3-7.9 Sec 7.10

Sec 7.10-7.15

Digital => Digitization


3 2 1 0 samples analog signal on wire

wire

Volts
microphone

V olts

00 01 10 10 11 11 11 01 10 10 00 time digitized signal stored on tape, CD, etc. analog signal speaker reproduced from 3 digitized signal 2 1 0
wire

00 01 10 10 11 11 11 01 10 10 00 time

Figure 1.1 Converting an analog signal to digital signal and vice-versa. (From Vahid)
ICS151 WQ05 (Dutt) Introduction

Digital Gadgets/Devices

TVs Cameras Video DVD recorders players

Cell phones Satellites Portable music players 1995 1997 1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

Figure 1.2 Going digital more and more analog products are becoming digital (Source: G. Spirakis, Intel, DATE04 conference keynote presentation)

ICS151 WQ05 (Dutt)

Introduction

An Example: Digital Camera


Digital Camera Block Diagram

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Hardware vs. Software Implementation

Task Read Compre ss Store

Microprocessor 5 8 1

Custom digital circuit .1 .5 .8

Table 1.2: Sample digital camera task execution times (in seconds) on a microprocessor versus a digital circuit.
ICS151 WQ05 (Dutt) Introduction

Story of the Humble Transistor


1947 Shockley, Brattain, and Bardeen invented the transistor at Bell Labs 1961 First commercial IC by Fairchild/TI 1963 CMOS invented 1965 Moores law 1968 State of the art: 64 transistor chip 1978 IA 8086: ~10K transistors 1986 IA 386: ~100K transistors 1990 IA 486: ~1 M transistors 1998 IA P2: ~ 10 M transistors 2004 IA P6: ~ 1 B transistors
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Moores Law
Transistor capacity doubles every 18 months

Source: Intel

Driving force behind


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Electronic systems research and industry Proliferation of embedded computing systems Introduction

Embedded Applications ICS212 Lecture 2


(from Givargis)

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Overview
Hybrid embedded systems
Aerospace, automobiles, robotics, process control, and sensor nets

Consumer electronics
Appliances, office electronics, and home/office automation

Network components
Bridges, routers, switches, and hubs

Medical instruments
Patient monitoring, MRI, and artificial hearts

E-Business
ATM, vending machines

Distributed & grid computing


ICS151 WQ05 (Dutt) Introduction

Hybrid Embedded Systems


Computation systems whose behavior is tightly integrated with the physical world
E.g., the behavior of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be modeled by a combination of differential equations (the aerodynamics and low level feedback controllers) and a finite state automata (high level flight path decisions, such as to ascend or descend).

Behavior is governed by both continuous-state dynamics from the physical world and discrete-state dynamics from the computation Passage of time during computation affects the state of the physical world Inherently concurrent (inherent vs. built-in concurrency?)

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OVERLAPPING
11 12

Multimedia

Aerospace
Flight control
Stability: real-time differential feedback loops

Positioning & navigation


GPS, INS

Instrumentation
Data acquisition, display, processing, and archive

Radar Communication

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Automobiles
Engine management
Fuel, ignition, timing

Emission control Instrumentation


Data acquisition, display, processing, and archive

Safety & stability


Airbags, active control

Entertainment & comfort


Radio, A/C,

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Robotics
Implies autonomous operation N physical degree of freedom Artificial intelligence Control heavy Mission oriented
Repair, search, rescue, investigate, and perform physically difficult tasks

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Process Control

Industrial automation Plant monitoring and production control Similar to control systems but with emphasis on management

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Sensor Nets
Many sensor nodes each capable (but limited) of sensing, computation/storage, and communication
Structure safety Search and rescue Military use

Modern Sensor Nodes

UC Berkeley: COTS Dust UC Berkeley: COTS Dust UC Berkeley: Smart Dust

Self organization Energy Efficient Distributed


UCLA: W INS

Rockwell: W INS

JPL: Sensor W ebs

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Multimedia
An exercise in
Signals, analog to digital conversion, quantization, sampling, processing, and digital to analogue conversion Information theory, entropy, Huffman codes, compression, lossless compression Images, audio, video

Virtual Reality Presentation Quality of service Think lots of data (formats and standards too)!

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Consumer Electronics
Home appliances
Yesterdays appliances: add computation Tomorrows appliances: add networking (Internet)

Office electronics
Integration Electronic paper (filing, printing, sending, and receiving)

Home/office automation
Common fantasy about the automated home or office of the future with lights and appliances that operate by themselves or with minimal effort

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Network Components
Stitching LANs
Bridge
Connects two parts of the same network

Router
Link networks using different network identities

Extending ports
Switch
Transmit to recipient only

Hub
Transmit to all

Handle large volume of highly structured data with little transformation

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Medical Instruments
Perform diagnosis (screening/evaluation)
Data collection Appraisal of that data Developing a plan of action

Observation or monitoring Sensing and instrumentation


Accuracy and precision

Other applications:
Radiation therapy Artificial hearts, arms, legs,
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E-Business
Information processing systems
ATM Cash registers Scanners Credit-card readers

Often the interface behind a database Automation and convenience

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