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CHAPTER ONE

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Even though the history of education in Ethiopia dates as far back as the introduction of
Christianity in Ethiopia during Ezana in 3300A.D, the first attempt to open school of
European style was for the first time made by the Jesuit in the 16th century. This attempt was
not continued due to the outstanding of Jesuits following the removal of emperor Susinyos.
Toward the end of the 19th century, several factors accentuated the need for modern
education. The establishment of strong central government and permanent urban seats of
modern development of modern sector economy like manufacturing activities, establishment
of foreign embassies of Adwa, are, among others, the main factors that have contributed for
the development of modern education in Ethiopia. Modern education has started at the
beginning of the 20th century and officially commenced in 1908 with opening of Menelik 1st
School in Addis Ababa. (Ministry of education, 2004),
Ethiopian education in general has two systems of main sub-sectors that are
institutionally separate:-
1. formal educational sub-sector, which consist of academic and technical and training at
primary, secondary and tertiary level ; and
2. non-formal education which includes:-
Technical vocational skills trained and extensive contact for youth and adults.
Between 1962 and 1994 the general education in Ethiopia divided into three these are:-
-primary school (grade1-6)
-junior secondary school (grade7-8)
-senior secondary school (grade9-12)
Education reforms in 1994 revised the structure so that it now cons in 1994 revised the
structure and modify the previous system of education so after 1994 consists of primary
education (grade1-8) which also consists of first cycle (grade 1-4) which aims at achieving
the functional literacy and the second cycles (grade5-8) prepares students for further
education, general secondary education and training, and second cycles of the secondary
education (grade11-12), that prepares student for higher education.

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1.1.1. Educational policies and strategies in Ethiopia.

Attempts to formulate the education sector policies during imperial regime were limited
to a proclamation (1943 and 1948) which deals with the organization and duties and
responsibilities of the ministry of education and its duties. It was made to adapt the Ethiopian
education to the needs of the country and expands the coverage of the activities in the
provision of special training for the sector and education system. (Ministry of Education of
Ethiopia, 2004),
1.1.2. Performance of education sector in the Ethiopia.
Education directly improves the productivity and rates of return and earnings of people. In
addition to this, education has or wide range of indirect effects, which instigate positive
changes in peoples attitudes toward work and society. It make easier to learn new skills
throughout their lives and hence facilitate their participation in modern economies and
societies. It also important factor which affects the health and life expectancy of individuals,
because if equips them with the knowledge and the means to present control and direct
disease. (Ministry of Education of Ethiopia, 2004).

1.1.3. Education in Oromia Regional states


Regarding to Oromia regional states of Ethiopia, it is one of the regions in the country
where both formal and non-formal education do not reach the majority of the population. The
school in the regions are unevenly distributed and mostly physically and materially and
deteriorated. This deterioration is due to cultural and other constraints there is a higher
dropout rate at the lower level which mostly affects girls’ participation in the education of the
region. (Finance and Development Bureau of Oromia, 2005),
Education system of Oromia regional state normally consists of formal and non-formal
education.
Formal education comprises of primary, secondary educations, technical and vocational
educations. The data that recorded in 2005 in Oromia regional bureau of educations shows
that, two teachers training institute (TTI), four teachers training college (TTC), 38 technical
and vocational education training (TTET), of which 36 and 2 are government and non-
government centers respectively. Moreover, there are 164 secondary schools, and 4893
primary schools in the Oromia regions. (Regional Education Bureau of Oromia, 2005),
1.3.1 Enrollment of education in Oromia regional state
The enrollment of education in oromia regional education in the past seven years
from 1987 to 1995 shows increasing in primary education which is 21%
(1987) to 66.7% in 1995. Generally, the primary education enrolment rate
was growing at an average rate of about 5.8% per annum. By and large,
the current level of enrolment as well as the annual growth rate compared
to the level of 1987 is encouraging. Nonetheless, the level of primary
education participation has remained low compared to the achievements
of some of the regional states (Tigray 77.6% and SNNP 67.5%). On the
other hand, the gender gap is getting wider growing from 12% in 1987 to
31% in 1995. Therefore, it is obvious that what has been achieved over
the past seven years has favored male than female signifying the required

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level of attention to be paid in order to improve female's participation in
primary education. Lack of proximity, lack of opportunity to go to the next
higher level of education, low income of parents, lack of awareness of the
benefits of education by some parents and poor facilities are among
factors contributing to lower enrolment rate at primary education level.
Similar to gender gap there is significant disparity of enrolment rate
among godina's. In line with this, Arsi has attained the highest enrollment
rate of 86.3% in 1995, whereas Hararge is standing at only 46.6%, which
is the lowest enrollment rate compared to all other godina's of Oromia.

1.3.2. Performance
As can be seen from the trend of growth of number of educational
facilities stated in the previous section, tremendous efforts were made to
improve access to education facilities over the past seven years (1987-
1995 E.C). According to the available data in this regard the number of
primary schools has increased from 4069 to 4893. Likewise, the number
of secondary schools has also increased from 108 to 164, which is a
commendable achievement over a shorter period of time. This generally
indicates that on an average the regional government has been
constructing and putting in operation about 103 primary and 7 secondary
schools each year. It is apparent from this, that the rate of increase in
senior secondary schools facilities is by far significantly lower than that of
primary schools affecting the quality of and access to secondary level
education.

Education in Aweday town

Aweday town is one of the towns of the Eastern Hararge Zone of Oromia which is located
between Harar town and Haramaya town. In this town there are for primary schools and
among this only one primary school is owned by public and the other three are private owned
schools. These four primary school are Dandi-Boru,

1.2. Statement of the problems

The number of school going children is increasing from year to year. Here is a need to
provide the educational facilities for them through opening of various types of educational
institutions. Because of different constraints like poverty, cultural factors majority of the

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population do not send their children to school at distant place. The characteristics of
education sector can be expressed mainly in terms of accessibility, affordability, adequacy
and quality. This factor can affect school attainment through their effect on enrollment
learning outcomes both directly and indirectly through of their effects on school attendance.
Private Tuitition and more generally the learning enhancing behavior of children and their
related home hold.
Accessibility to schools usually determine by distance from home to school for children.
Female student’s enrollment is negatively affected by cultural and gender related problems.

1.3. Objectives of the study.


The general objectives of this study are to be identifying the problems and prospects of
education in Ethiopia particularly in Aweday town. In addition to these general objectives
there are other specific objectives these are:-
1. To study the existing availability and capacity of various types of educational institutions
and number of admission seekers in Aweday town.
2. To identify the problems of available institutions and their causes and effects.
3. to explore the opportunities for expansion of various education in the near future.

1.4. Significance of the study


This research is significant in that it can add as pot of information to the existing body of
knowledge on the educational sectors in general and on factors affecting the development of
education sectors in particular. Besides, the result of the findings of this research paper will
serves as building block for any interested individuals or groups who are willing to carry out
further and detailed studies on related topics. And it could be help some how to imitate policy
concerns, which are necessary to tackle the problems of education.

1.5. Scope of the study.

As to the geographical coverage, this research is confined to the problems and prospects of
education in Aweday town in the year 2008. in terms of dimensional aspects of problems and
prospects of education it considers factors affecting prospects of educational sectors, on the
other hand focuses on the performance of educational sectors. The factors that affect
prospects of educational sectors are have various constraints such as poverty, economic
problems, family related barriers, cultural constraints; school related problems are the main
scope of this study.

1.6. Limitation of the study

The one that most limiting factors for the study is that the data requirements are not fully
satisfied due to lack of time series data on the problems and prospects of education sectors in
the zone of eastern Hararge which may make the study

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1.7. methodology of the study

1.7.1. Types and source of data.

On the problems and prospects of education, education bureau of Oromia, Federal ministry
of education, economic and development bureau of Aweday town, directors of kindergarten,
primary, secondary, high school and some written materials on educational problems and
prospects were used as a source of this study.
Regarding world problems and prospects the data that collected different documents like
internet

CHAPTER TWO

2. LITERATURE REVIEWS
This chapter contains two parts. The first part discussed related literatures
which is
theoretical while the second part explains empirical literature.
2.1. Theoretical literature
2.1.1 Constraints on the impact of formal education
Some of the major factors influencing the provision of formal education and
limiting its
effectiveness for poor and disadvantaged people are
1. Global economic relations: - these play a key role in determining the
effectiveness of
formal education in achieving development for society as a whole. Even
where the state
invests heavily in education and is committed to social equality and
development
2. Differentiated access and opportunities: - education promotes social
advancement,
raises the states of women and leads to improvements in health and
childcare. However,
educational opportunities is limited by the proximity to urban centers,
poverty, and by
discrimination based on gender, class race or cultures. For example, in Costa
Rica, the

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national figures for adult illiteracy in 1984 were 7 percent, but in the poorest
rural areas
was almost 20 percent. The discrimination suffered by the people because of
their
cultures or limits their access to education and their opportunities to use it
effectively.
They have to choose between potential alienation from their own culture,
and the need to
master language and cultural forms of the dominant society in order to
survive
successfully within it. These choices are experienced differently by women
and men.
(Eade and William, 1995).

3. Gender: - this is crucial factor in determining educational opportunities;


girl’s often
fore worse than boys’ interims of primary school enrollment. There are
considerable
differences in the level of the males and females education in most arts of
the world. In
the Afghanistan, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Somalia, and Nepal, females’
illiteracy in 1990
was twice as high as the figures for males. In Salvadoran rural women’s
organization
founded by Oxfam only one percent of the members could read one percent
of the
members could read and write. Bangladesh is an extreme example, where of
the 60
percent of all children who enroll fewer than 10 percent are girls the ratios
are generally
worse at secondary level and above. Fewer than have as many girls as boys
are enrolled
in secondary school in Sub-Saharan Africa 15 percent and 44 percent
respectively. There are many factors for unequal educational opportunities of
girls and boys. Mothers are likely to have received inadequate schooling
themselves, and their daughters generally bear the burden of domestic work
and childcare from an early age. The expectation of early marriage or (fact of
teenage pregnancy) is also used to justify cutting short girl’s education. In
self-fulfilling cycle, since greater employment opportunities exists for men
than women, boys’ education takes priority over girls’ education because
they are more likely to be able to use it. Cultural factors can reinforce gender
based discrimination women are often regarded as bearers of traditional
culture, particularly, culture identifies are threatened. In such circumstances,
they may be formal education (Eade and William, 1995)

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4. Poverty:-the poorest people are hardest hit inflation, unemployment, and
cuts in
services. They cannot always afford to keep children at school, particularly at
the
secondary level. Costs of education including clothes, books, equipment and
maintenance, and fees. The economic difficulties of poor families increase
the pressure
on children to earn money either instead of or in addition to going to school.
A further
formal education is irrelevant to their economic and cultural need which in
often born out
by a chronic lack of employment opportunities which make use of skills
gained at school. In addition, poor children live in environment where study
is difficult and where poor health, over work, and malnutrition may leave
them without energy and concentration to learn. (Eade and William, 1995).

2.1.2. The Gender gap in education.


Low adult literacy rates prevail throughout the developing world. In fourteen
developing
countries where literacy dates are available, only one in five adult women
can read, where as the literacy rates for men ate as low in only five of these
countries. Recent estimates suggest that only one out of two women in Asia
is literate and only out of three in sub-Saharan Africa (UNESCO, 1992).
School enrollment rates have been raising for both girls and boys at all levels
in the past
two decades. Primary school enrolment, in particular, has out paced the
growth of youth
population, although a few low income countries especially, in sub-Saharan
Africa
experienced decline in primary enrollments in the 1980’s. (UNESCO, 1992).
Many countries have no universal primary education for males and females.
But girls
enrollments continuous to lag behind in many others, most dramatically in
south Asian,
west Asia, north Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. With exception of Sri Lanka,
all south Asian nations have much lower gross enrollment ratios (GER) for
girls than for boys.
In Bhutan, girls’ enrollment in 1983 was 19 percent compared to 34 percent
for boys; in Nepal, 49 percent for girls’ and compared with 110 percent for
boys’, in Pakistan, 38 percent versus 73 percent; in Bangladesh, 50 percent
versus 110 percent. Where as in Latin America and nearly all east Asia
countries such large male-female differences had disappeared by 1985
(UNESCO,1992).
At post primary levels, the gender gap widens in some countries, but
narrows in others, why does the gender gap exist? The supply of schools has

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expanded greatly in the past twenty five years, leading to accommodating
the increase in primary school enrollment over that period. Moreover, there
are few restrictions to the admission of girls at the primary school level. To
understand why, despite this expansion, a large proportion of school or
dropout early in many developing countries, one need to consider the many
factors affect the education of girls and boys differently. For many families
the differed possible benefits do not seem large enough to offset immediate
costs like school fees or the loss of child labor parents do not often consider
the less obvious benefits that education generates (like improved
productivity ) when deciding whether to send children to school or to favor
sons, partly because they are the ones expected to go out and earn more
family income, so this may be the cost of efficient response by parents to
constraints of family resources. One less or from experience is that
expanding access simply by building more schools, relating admission
policies or instituting quotas for girls may lead to higher levels of female
enrollment at margin.
Distortion with labor market due to discriminating employment practice
against women reduce, their attempt earning and benefits that women can
expect to gain from education even when jobs are available. Example,
restriction against the living of married in wage paying-jobs in manufacturing
or service sectors. Explicit or implicit entry barriers against women in certain
occupations serve as obstacles to education. Some of these barriers begin at
the primary school level, with teachers and text book projecting attitudes
that discourage school attendance and performance of girls. Stereotype may
persist of girls not being as good as boy in technical subjects or
mathematics. Even obstacles which begin at the post primary level can
nevertheless inhibit girls’ school attendance and motivation at the primary
stage.
In Dominica Republic, three of the most important schools for middle
level technology training bar women even though they have stipends from
the national governments. In Pakistan, women are also allowed to enroll in
seventy-two of the secondary school, vocational institution because of strict
sex segregation. (UNESCO, 1992).
In some societies, customs dictates that son take possibility for their
parents, whilst girls marry out of their families at the early age and into their
husband’s families. The earlier marriage age, the fewer parents enjoy the
benefits of their daughter’s education. In Bangladesh, 75 percent married
women living in rural areas were married by the age of seventeen. In India,
75 percent of this group were married by the age twenty-two some
evidences suggests that when girls do not marry so early, but spend some of
their time working in the labor force, parents are more willing to educate
their daughters.
In Hong Kong women who tend to marry at a later ages and help their
parents in the interims appear to reach higher educational levels than
others. In parts of southern India, because the more educated women are

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recognized as having a higher potential for earning, some grooms parents
are willing to accept pre-payment of dormitories in the form of higher level
schooling of the perspective daughters in law. (UNESCO,1993).
Parents also may have poor knowledge of the benefits of education to the
family’s current health and welfare and prosperity of their grand children.
They may not be aware that the benefit of education are inter generational
and accumulates over time. Or of families may not be appreciating the
benefits of girls’ education in countries where the “Suitable” of educated
women to be good wives in held in doubt. A balance must be starve between
providing courses that help women. Fulfill traditional roles, but at the same
time not allowing curricula to lock women out of wider educational
opportunities. Education itself, along with economic change, can and should
be powerful force in modifying traditional view points on girls’ schooling.
(UNESCO, 1992).
Even if they are aware of potential long-range benefits of education,
parents may be unable to afford the tuition, materials, transportation,
boarding fees and others. Costs of sending girls to school. Location, distance
and even clothing requirements can make the effective cost of school
attendance higher for girls. Gender differences enter in when, for instance,
parents are more reluctant to send girls to school without proper clothing of
young daughters’ in some cultures deters them from allowing girls’ to attend
distant schools requiring long travel daily or residence away from home.
(UNESCO,1992)
In countries where religion requires seclusion of women parents allow
girls’ to attend only single sex schools with female teachers, or they
withdraw girls at the onset of puberty. Thus, the availability of schools with
female teachers may be of decisive importance, in low-income countries.
Only one third of primary, less than one fourth of secondary, and just over
one tenth of tertiary education teachers are women. The shortage largely
reflects the limited pool of potential women teachers, as a result of low
schooling levels of girls, and the reluctance of young women teachers to
work in rural areas. This reason is because cultural attitudes discourage
young, single women from moving far from home and living alone. The
shortage supply of safe dormitories for women even in technical training
institute exacerbates the situation. Also women from rural areas usually do
not qualify to enroll in teacher training schools in the cities, and there are
few programme in rural areas to identify, recruit and train girls to become
teachers. Finally, parents may not feel able to afford to send girls to school if
it means their labor cannot be used in traditional ways.
Although in some countries boys perform a large share of family labor such
as livestock herding, with few exception girls do more work than boys in the
home and in the market place. In Nepal and Java (Indonesia) most young
girls’ spend at least a third more hours per day working at home and in the
market than boys of the same age groups as much as 85 percent more
hours. 129-150 percent more hours than boys. Clearly, girls who work more

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than their brothers will less likely to attend school, perform less well. In
addition to lost labor, parents in many countries feel that girls will lose
important training at home in childcare, household and crafts if they go to
school. (UNESCO,1992)

2.1.3 Gender literacy and cultural difference

Gender literacy and cultural difference one area of apparent controllers


concerns the
extent to which the obstacles to girls and women’s education are similar
across cultures.
One view is that in all cultures, although in varying degree, male/female
relationship
place obstacles in the way of girls’ and women’s full participation in
education.
Patriarchy is manifested in two ways: the sexual division of labor, and control
over
women’s sexuality. Both these factors so condition a women’s world-view
that marriage,
husband, and family become the be-all and-all for the existence. They also
limit women’s
mental horizons and push education from her attention. As girl’s grow up,
socialized into
their future roles as sexual division of labor the second components, control
over
women’s sexuality, ensures that women maintain their roles as wives and
mothers and is the cause of women’s inability to control their fertility and its
associated
consequences, including unwanted pregnancies, the practice of early
marriage, restricted physical mobility for women, and domestic violence.
(UNESCO, 1992),
Who benefits from all this? Whose interests are served as by these existing
conditions?
In feminist theory, it is undoubtedly men who benefit. Does this mean that
feminists are
setting women against men and women and men against women? The
answer is no most feminists seem to be seeking a more egalitarian society in
which women are treated as equals with men “According to feminist theory,
the problem of women’s illiteracy will not be solved merely underlying
problem is not technical. For change to occur, individual men in a male-
dominated state will have to re-examine and modify their own values and
attitudes. An alternative view is that cultural difference between countries is
more important than some feminist would accept. For example, successful
literacy ventures in Pakistan are often community based; the important thing
is to change total attitudes. In Feriur-ban Karachi this has been done.

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Successfully using flexible working hours both formal and non-formal
teaching methods,
and education both parents and children, adults are motivated to learn via
primary
economic interests (functional literacy) who has become the subject of the
basic
education curriculum. Residential facilities for teachers based in community
have led to
greater school community interaction and help facilitates more opportunities
for girls and
for more women. The whole programme has helped produce a positive,
confident self
concept of women. However, cultural constraints are undeniably powerful.
For, example, the word “child”, which is gender is neutral in English
language, has masculine
connection in south Asia. Here the stark reality is that, by and large, girls are
denied that
joyful care free period of growing and learning that is called child hood. Very
little value
is attached to girls she is caught in a men of cultural practices and social
prejudices from the moment of her birth. Although she works twice as hard
as her brother, and her labor contributes to the survival of the family, neglect
and malnutrition, treated as lesser
human being and brought up to believe that she does not count. Therefore,
in any society that aims to social justice in any policy that seeks to move
towards quality of educational opportunity, attention has to be focused is
contrary to entrenched cultural values. Changes in education that do not
enhance the states of women are not likely either to be generally accepted
or to reduce women’s present state of under development.

2.1.4. Problems that female student face in Addis Ababa high


schools
Another researcher (Emebet, 2003) classified problems of girl’s education
under
subheadings of economic constraints, family related barriers and cultural
barriers
economic constraints.
The impact of poverty on women’s education can be studied at two levels:
Country level and family level. Although the degree of poverty in country
affects the
education and in general the life of its citizens, the effect can be moderated
by the socioeconomic status a family has within the society (Emebet, 2003
p.33)

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In discussing the effects of poverty on the education of women, Njeuman
(1993)
explained that much improvement has been observed in the education of
women since the 1960’s (Emebet, 2003). However, poverty is still slowing
the progress. Discussing
African, the pointed out that among thirty poorest countries in the world,
twenty are
found in Africa. Under these circumstances, the major concern is the
provision of
education for children in general; it is difficult to give special attention to
girl’s, she
further pointed out that although many developing countries put sign out
amounts of
money and energy into education, several of them were not able to provide it
for all
school age children. (Emebet, 2003 p.34),
Enrollment of girls in school does not guarantee success and completion in
these poor
countries. Strongest (1990) noted that in all developing countries were the
United Nations under took studies, during recession years; girl’s often
experienced a change in parental plans for enrollment. In such years parents
choose retain daughters at home assist with work and income generating
activities, which would result in lower female attainment. (Emebet, 2000).
Because of this fiscal strait, the inequality of males and females in the area
of education is quite staggering. Hyde (1993:101) pointed out that in Sub-
Saharan Africa, one of the most enduring kinds of educational inequality is
one observed between males and females

Prepared by Naser ousman

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