CHAPTER ONE

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study

Even though the history of education in Ethiopia dates as far back as the introduction of Christianity in Ethiopia during Ezana in 3300A.D, the first attempt to open school of European style was for the first time made by the Jesuit in the 16th century. This attempt was not continued due to the outstanding of Jesuits following the removal of emperor Susinyos. Toward the end of the 19th century, several factors accentuated the need for modern education. The establishment of strong central government and permanent urban seats of modern development of modern sector economy like manufacturing activities, establishment of foreign embassies of Adwa, are, among others, the main factors that have contributed for the development of modern education in Ethiopia. Modern education has started at the beginning of the 20th century and officially commenced in 1908 with opening of Menelik 1st School in Addis Ababa. (Ministry of education, 2004), Ethiopian education in general has two systems of main sub-sectors that are institutionally separate:1. formal educational sub-sector, which consist of academic and technical and training at primary, secondary and tertiary level ; and 2. non-formal education which includes:Technical vocational skills trained and extensive contact for youth and adults. Between 1962 and 1994 the general education in Ethiopia divided into three these are:-primary school (grade1-6) -junior secondary school (grade7-8) -senior secondary school (grade9-12) Education reforms in 1994 revised the structure so that it now cons in 1994 revised the structure and modify the previous system of education so after 1994 consists of primary education (grade1-8) which also consists of first cycle (grade 1-4) which aims at achieving the functional literacy and the second cycles (grade5-8) prepares students for further education, general secondary education and training, and second cycles of the secondary education (grade11-12), that prepares student for higher education.

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1.1.1. Educational policies and strategies in Ethiopia. Attempts to formulate the education sector policies during imperial regime were limited to a proclamation (1943 and 1948) which deals with the organization and duties and responsibilities of the ministry of education and its duties. It was made to adapt the Ethiopian education to the needs of the country and expands the coverage of the activities in the provision of special training for the sector and education system. (Ministry of Education of Ethiopia, 2004), 1.1.2. Performance of education sector in the Ethiopia. Education directly improves the productivity and rates of return and earnings of people. In addition to this, education has or wide range of indirect effects, which instigate positive changes in peoples attitudes toward work and society. It make easier to learn new skills throughout their lives and hence facilitate their participation in modern economies and societies. It also important factor which affects the health and life expectancy of individuals, because if equips them with the knowledge and the means to present control and direct disease. (Ministry of Education of Ethiopia, 2004). 1.1.3. Education in Oromia Regional states Regarding to Oromia regional states of Ethiopia, it is one of the regions in the country where both formal and non-formal education do not reach the majority of the population. The school in the regions are unevenly distributed and mostly physically and materially and deteriorated. This deterioration is due to cultural and other constraints there is a higher dropout rate at the lower level which mostly affects girls’ participation in the education of the region. (Finance and Development Bureau of Oromia, 2005), Education system of Oromia regional state normally consists of formal and non-formal education. Formal education comprises of primary, secondary educations, technical and vocational educations. The data that recorded in 2005 in Oromia regional bureau of educations shows that, two teachers training institute (TTI), four teachers training college (TTC), 38 technical and vocational education training (TTET), of which 36 and 2 are government and nongovernment centers respectively. Moreover, there are 164 secondary schools, and 4893 primary schools in the Oromia regions. (Regional Education Bureau of Oromia, 2005), 1.3.1 Enrollment of education in Oromia regional state The enrollment of education in oromia regional education in the past seven years from 1987 to 1995 shows increasing in primary education which is 21% (1987) to 66.7% in 1995. Generally, the primary education enrolment rate was growing at an average rate of about 5.8% per annum. By and large, the current level of enrolment as well as the annual growth rate compared to the level of 1987 is encouraging. Nonetheless, the level of primary education participation has remained low compared to the achievements of some of the regional states (Tigray 77.6% and SNNP 67.5%). On the other hand, the gender gap is getting wider growing from 12% in 1987 to 31% in 1995. Therefore, it is obvious that what has been achieved over the past seven years has favored male than female signifying the required

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level of attention to be paid in order to improve female's participation in primary education. Lack of proximity, lack of opportunity to go to the next higher level of education, low income of parents, lack of awareness of the benefits of education by some parents and poor facilities are among factors contributing to lower enrolment rate at primary education level. Similar to gender gap there is significant disparity of enrolment rate among godina's. In line with this, Arsi has attained the highest enrollment rate of 86.3% in 1995, whereas Hararge is standing at only 46.6%, which is the lowest enrollment rate compared to all other godina's of Oromia. 1.3.2. Performance As can be seen from the trend of growth of number of educational facilities stated in the previous section, tremendous efforts were made to improve access to education facilities over the past seven years (19871995 E.C). According to the available data in this regard the number of primary schools has increased from 4069 to 4893. Likewise, the number of secondary schools has also increased from 108 to 164, which is a commendable achievement over a shorter period of time. This generally indicates that on an average the regional government has been constructing and putting in operation about 103 primary and 7 secondary schools each year. It is apparent from this, that the rate of increase in senior secondary schools facilities is by far significantly lower than that of primary schools affecting the quality of and access to secondary level education.

Education in Aweday town Aweday town is one of the towns of the Eastern Hararge Zone of Oromia which is located between Harar town and Haramaya town. In this town there are for primary schools and among this only one primary school is owned by public and the other three are private owned schools. These four primary school are Dandi-Boru,

1.2.

Statement of the problems

The number of school going children is increasing from year to year. Here is a need to provide the educational facilities for them through opening of various types of educational institutions. Because of different constraints like poverty, cultural factors majority of the

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population do not send their children to school at distant place. The characteristics of education sector can be expressed mainly in terms of accessibility, affordability, adequacy and quality. This factor can affect school attainment through their effect on enrollment learning outcomes both directly and indirectly through of their effects on school attendance. Private Tuitition and more generally the learning enhancing behavior of children and their related home hold. Accessibility to schools usually determine by distance from home to school for children. Female student’s enrollment is negatively affected by cultural and gender related problems. 1.3. Objectives of the study. The general objectives of this study are to be identifying the problems and prospects of education in Ethiopia particularly in Aweday town. In addition to these general objectives there are other specific objectives these are:1. To study the existing availability and capacity of various types of educational institutions and number of admission seekers in Aweday town. 2. To identify the problems of available institutions and their causes and effects. 3. to explore the opportunities for expansion of various education in the near future. 1.4. Significance of the study This research is significant in that it can add as pot of information to the existing body of knowledge on the educational sectors in general and on factors affecting the development of education sectors in particular. Besides, the result of the findings of this research paper will serves as building block for any interested individuals or groups who are willing to carry out further and detailed studies on related topics. And it could be help some how to imitate policy concerns, which are necessary to tackle the problems of education. 1.5. Scope of the study.

As to the geographical coverage, this research is confined to the problems and prospects of education in Aweday town in the year 2008. in terms of dimensional aspects of problems and prospects of education it considers factors affecting prospects of educational sectors, on the other hand focuses on the performance of educational sectors. The factors that affect prospects of educational sectors are have various constraints such as poverty, economic problems, family related barriers, cultural constraints; school related problems are the main scope of this study.

1.6.

Limitation of the study

The one that most limiting factors for the study is that the data requirements are not fully satisfied due to lack of time series data on the problems and prospects of education sectors in the zone of eastern Hararge which may make the study

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1.7.

methodology of the study

1.7.1. Types and source of data. On the problems and prospects of education, education bureau of Oromia, Federal ministry of education, economic and development bureau of Aweday town, directors of kindergarten, primary, secondary, high school and some written materials on educational problems and prospects were used as a source of this study. Regarding world problems and prospects the data that collected different documents like internet

CHAPTER TWO 2. LITERATURE REVIEWS This chapter contains two parts. The first part discussed related literatures which is theoretical while the second part explains empirical literature. 2.1. Theoretical literature 2.1.1 Constraints on the impact of formal education Some of the major factors influencing the provision of formal education and limiting its effectiveness for poor and disadvantaged people are 1. Global economic relations: - these play a key role in determining the effectiveness of formal education in achieving development for society as a whole. Even where the state invests heavily in education and is committed to social equality and development 2. Differentiated access and opportunities: - education promotes social advancement, raises the states of women and leads to improvements in health and childcare. However, educational opportunities is limited by the proximity to urban centers, poverty, and by discrimination based on gender, class race or cultures. For example, in Costa Rica, the

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national figures for adult illiteracy in 1984 were 7 percent, but in the poorest rural areas was almost 20 percent. The discrimination suffered by the people because of their cultures or limits their access to education and their opportunities to use it effectively. They have to choose between potential alienation from their own culture, and the need to master language and cultural forms of the dominant society in order to survive successfully within it. These choices are experienced differently by women and men. (Eade and William, 1995). 3. Gender: - this is crucial factor in determining educational opportunities; girl’s often fore worse than boys’ interims of primary school enrollment. There are considerable differences in the level of the males and females education in most arts of the world. In the Afghanistan, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Somalia, and Nepal, females’ illiteracy in 1990 was twice as high as the figures for males. In Salvadoran rural women’s organization founded by Oxfam only one percent of the members could read one percent of the members could read and write. Bangladesh is an extreme example, where of the 60 percent of all children who enroll fewer than 10 percent are girls the ratios are generally worse at secondary level and above. Fewer than have as many girls as boys are enrolled in secondary school in Sub-Saharan Africa 15 percent and 44 percent respectively. There are many factors for unequal educational opportunities of girls and boys. Mothers are likely to have received inadequate schooling themselves, and their daughters generally bear the burden of domestic work and childcare from an early age. The expectation of early marriage or (fact of teenage pregnancy) is also used to justify cutting short girl’s education. In self-fulfilling cycle, since greater employment opportunities exists for men than women, boys’ education takes priority over girls’ education because they are more likely to be able to use it. Cultural factors can reinforce gender based discrimination women are often regarded as bearers of traditional culture, particularly, culture identifies are threatened. In such circumstances, they may be formal education (Eade and William, 1995)

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4. Poverty:-the poorest people are hardest hit inflation, unemployment, and cuts in services. They cannot always afford to keep children at school, particularly at the secondary level. Costs of education including clothes, books, equipment and maintenance, and fees. The economic difficulties of poor families increase the pressure on children to earn money either instead of or in addition to going to school. A further formal education is irrelevant to their economic and cultural need which in often born out by a chronic lack of employment opportunities which make use of skills gained at school. In addition, poor children live in environment where study is difficult and where poor health, over work, and malnutrition may leave them without energy and concentration to learn. (Eade and William, 1995). 2.1.2. The Gender gap in education. Low adult literacy rates prevail throughout the developing world. In fourteen developing countries where literacy dates are available, only one in five adult women can read, where as the literacy rates for men ate as low in only five of these countries. Recent estimates suggest that only one out of two women in Asia is literate and only out of three in sub-Saharan Africa (UNESCO, 1992). School enrollment rates have been raising for both girls and boys at all levels in the past two decades. Primary school enrolment, in particular, has out paced the growth of youth population, although a few low income countries especially, in sub-Saharan Africa experienced decline in primary enrollments in the 1980’s. (UNESCO, 1992). Many countries have no universal primary education for males and females. But girls enrollments continuous to lag behind in many others, most dramatically in south Asian, west Asia, north Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. With exception of Sri Lanka, all south Asian nations have much lower gross enrollment ratios (GER) for girls than for boys. In Bhutan, girls’ enrollment in 1983 was 19 percent compared to 34 percent for boys; in Nepal, 49 percent for girls’ and compared with 110 percent for boys’, in Pakistan, 38 percent versus 73 percent; in Bangladesh, 50 percent versus 110 percent. Where as in Latin America and nearly all east Asia countries such large male-female differences had disappeared by 1985 (UNESCO,1992). At post primary levels, the gender gap widens in some countries, but narrows in others, why does the gender gap exist? The supply of schools has

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expanded greatly in the past twenty five years, leading to accommodating the increase in primary school enrollment over that period. Moreover, there are few restrictions to the admission of girls at the primary school level. To understand why, despite this expansion, a large proportion of school or dropout early in many developing countries, one need to consider the many factors affect the education of girls and boys differently. For many families the differed possible benefits do not seem large enough to offset immediate costs like school fees or the loss of child labor parents do not often consider the less obvious benefits that education generates (like improved productivity ) when deciding whether to send children to school or to favor sons, partly because they are the ones expected to go out and earn more family income, so this may be the cost of efficient response by parents to constraints of family resources. One less or from experience is that expanding access simply by building more schools, relating admission policies or instituting quotas for girls may lead to higher levels of female enrollment at margin. Distortion with labor market due to discriminating employment practice against women reduce, their attempt earning and benefits that women can expect to gain from education even when jobs are available. Example, restriction against the living of married in wage paying-jobs in manufacturing or service sectors. Explicit or implicit entry barriers against women in certain occupations serve as obstacles to education. Some of these barriers begin at the primary school level, with teachers and text book projecting attitudes that discourage school attendance and performance of girls. Stereotype may persist of girls not being as good as boy in technical subjects or mathematics. Even obstacles which begin at the post primary level can nevertheless inhibit girls’ school attendance and motivation at the primary stage. In Dominica Republic, three of the most important schools for middle level technology training bar women even though they have stipends from the national governments. In Pakistan, women are also allowed to enroll in seventy-two of the secondary school, vocational institution because of strict sex segregation. (UNESCO, 1992). In some societies, customs dictates that son take possibility for their parents, whilst girls marry out of their families at the early age and into their husband’s families. The earlier marriage age, the fewer parents enjoy the benefits of their daughter’s education. In Bangladesh, 75 percent married women living in rural areas were married by the age of seventeen. In India, 75 percent of this group were married by the age twenty-two some evidences suggests that when girls do not marry so early, but spend some of their time working in the labor force, parents are more willing to educate their daughters. In Hong Kong women who tend to marry at a later ages and help their parents in the interims appear to reach higher educational levels than others. In parts of southern India, because the more educated women are

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recognized as having a higher potential for earning, some grooms parents are willing to accept pre-payment of dormitories in the form of higher level schooling of the perspective daughters in law. (UNESCO,1993). Parents also may have poor knowledge of the benefits of education to the family’s current health and welfare and prosperity of their grand children. They may not be aware that the benefit of education are inter generational and accumulates over time. Or of families may not be appreciating the benefits of girls’ education in countries where the “Suitable” of educated women to be good wives in held in doubt. A balance must be starve between providing courses that help women. Fulfill traditional roles, but at the same time not allowing curricula to lock women out of wider educational opportunities. Education itself, along with economic change, can and should be powerful force in modifying traditional view points on girls’ schooling. (UNESCO, 1992). Even if they are aware of potential long-range benefits of education, parents may be unable to afford the tuition, materials, transportation, boarding fees and others. Costs of sending girls to school. Location, distance and even clothing requirements can make the effective cost of school attendance higher for girls. Gender differences enter in when, for instance, parents are more reluctant to send girls to school without proper clothing of young daughters’ in some cultures deters them from allowing girls’ to attend distant schools requiring long travel daily or residence away from home. (UNESCO,1992) In countries where religion requires seclusion of women parents allow girls’ to attend only single sex schools with female teachers, or they withdraw girls at the onset of puberty. Thus, the availability of schools with female teachers may be of decisive importance, in low-income countries. Only one third of primary, less than one fourth of secondary, and just over one tenth of tertiary education teachers are women. The shortage largely reflects the limited pool of potential women teachers, as a result of low schooling levels of girls, and the reluctance of young women teachers to work in rural areas. This reason is because cultural attitudes discourage young, single women from moving far from home and living alone. The shortage supply of safe dormitories for women even in technical training institute exacerbates the situation. Also women from rural areas usually do not qualify to enroll in teacher training schools in the cities, and there are few programme in rural areas to identify, recruit and train girls to become teachers. Finally, parents may not feel able to afford to send girls to school if it means their labor cannot be used in traditional ways. Although in some countries boys perform a large share of family labor such as livestock herding, with few exception girls do more work than boys in the home and in the market place. In Nepal and Java (Indonesia) most young girls’ spend at least a third more hours per day working at home and in the market than boys of the same age groups as much as 85 percent more hours. 129-150 percent more hours than boys. Clearly, girls who work more

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than their brothers will less likely to attend school, perform less well. In addition to lost labor, parents in many countries feel that girls will lose important training at home in childcare, household and crafts if they go to school. (UNESCO,1992) 2.1.3 Gender literacy and cultural difference Gender literacy and cultural difference one area of apparent controllers concerns the extent to which the obstacles to girls and women’s education are similar across cultures. One view is that in all cultures, although in varying degree, male/female relationship place obstacles in the way of girls’ and women’s full participation in education. Patriarchy is manifested in two ways: the sexual division of labor, and control over women’s sexuality. Both these factors so condition a women’s world-view that marriage, husband, and family become the be-all and-all for the existence. They also limit women’s mental horizons and push education from her attention. As girl’s grow up, socialized into their future roles as sexual division of labor the second components, control over women’s sexuality, ensures that women maintain their roles as wives and mothers and is the cause of women’s inability to control their fertility and its associated consequences, including unwanted pregnancies, the practice of early marriage, restricted physical mobility for women, and domestic violence. (UNESCO, 1992), Who benefits from all this? Whose interests are served as by these existing conditions? In feminist theory, it is undoubtedly men who benefit. Does this mean that feminists are setting women against men and women and men against women? The answer is no most feminists seem to be seeking a more egalitarian society in which women are treated as equals with men “According to feminist theory, the problem of women’s illiteracy will not be solved merely underlying problem is not technical. For change to occur, individual men in a maledominated state will have to re-examine and modify their own values and attitudes. An alternative view is that cultural difference between countries is more important than some feminist would accept. For example, successful literacy ventures in Pakistan are often community based; the important thing is to change total attitudes. In Feriur-ban Karachi this has been done.

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Successfully using flexible working hours both formal and non-formal teaching methods, and education both parents and children, adults are motivated to learn via primary economic interests (functional literacy) who has become the subject of the basic education curriculum. Residential facilities for teachers based in community have led to greater school community interaction and help facilitates more opportunities for girls and for more women. The whole programme has helped produce a positive, confident self concept of women. However, cultural constraints are undeniably powerful. For, example, the word “child”, which is gender is neutral in English language, has masculine connection in south Asia. Here the stark reality is that, by and large, girls are denied that joyful care free period of growing and learning that is called child hood. Very little value is attached to girls she is caught in a men of cultural practices and social prejudices from the moment of her birth. Although she works twice as hard as her brother, and her labor contributes to the survival of the family, neglect and malnutrition, treated as lesser human being and brought up to believe that she does not count. Therefore, in any society that aims to social justice in any policy that seeks to move towards quality of educational opportunity, attention has to be focused is contrary to entrenched cultural values. Changes in education that do not enhance the states of women are not likely either to be generally accepted or to reduce women’s present state of under development.

2.1.4. Problems that female student face in Addis Ababa high schools Another researcher (Emebet, 2003) classified problems of girl’s education under subheadings of economic constraints, family related barriers and cultural barriers economic constraints. The impact of poverty on women’s education can be studied at two levels: Country level and family level. Although the degree of poverty in country affects the education and in general the life of its citizens, the effect can be moderated by the socioeconomic status a family has within the society (Emebet, 2003 p.33)

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In discussing the effects of poverty on the education of women, Njeuman (1993) explained that much improvement has been observed in the education of women since the 1960’s (Emebet, 2003). However, poverty is still slowing the progress. Discussing African, the pointed out that among thirty poorest countries in the world, twenty are found in Africa. Under these circumstances, the major concern is the provision of education for children in general; it is difficult to give special attention to girl’s, she further pointed out that although many developing countries put sign out amounts of money and energy into education, several of them were not able to provide it for all school age children. (Emebet, 2003 p.34), Enrollment of girls in school does not guarantee success and completion in these poor countries. Strongest (1990) noted that in all developing countries were the United Nations under took studies, during recession years; girl’s often experienced a change in parental plans for enrollment. In such years parents choose retain daughters at home assist with work and income generating activities, which would result in lower female attainment. (Emebet, 2000). Because of this fiscal strait, the inequality of males and females in the area of education is quite staggering. Hyde (1993:101) pointed out that in SubSaharan Africa, one of the most enduring kinds of educational inequality is one observed between males and females

Prepared by Naser ousman

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