Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 71–80

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Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
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The last 40 ka tephrostratigraphic record of Lake Ohrid, Albania and Macedonia: a very distal archive for ash dispersal from Italian volcanoes
B. Wagner a, R. Sulpizio b,⁎, G. Zanchetta c, S. Wulf
a b c

d,1

, M. Wessels e, G. Daut f, N. Nowaczyk d

Institute for Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 49a, 50674 Köln, Germany CIRISIVU, c/o Dipartimento Geomineralogico, Univerity of Bari, via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, University of Pisa, via S. Maria 53, 56126, Pisa, Italy d Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany e Institut für Seenforschung, Landesamt für Umweltschutz Baden-Württemberg, Argenweg 50/1, D-88045 Langenargen, Germany f Institut für Geographie, Universität Jena, Löbdergraben 32, D-07743 Jena, Germany

A R T I C L E

I N F O

A B S T R A C T
A 1075 cm long core (Lz1120) was recovered in the south-eastern part of the Lake Ohrid (Republics of Macedonia and Albania) and sampled for identification of tephra layers. Magnetic susceptibility investigations show rather high magnetic values throughout the core, with peaks unrelated to the occurrence of tephra layers but instead to the relative abundance of detrital magnetic minerals in the sediment. Naked-eye inspection of the core allowed us to identify of two tephra layers, at 896–897 cm and 1070–1075 cm. Laboratory inspection of the grain-size fraction N 125 μm allowed for the identification of a third cryptotephra at 310–315 cm. Major element analyses on glass shards of the tephra layers at 896–897 cm and 1070–1075 cm show a trachytic composition, and indicate a correlation with the regionally dispersed Y-3 and Y-5 tephra layers, dated at ca 30 and 39 cal ka BP. The cryptotephra at 310–315 cm has a mugearitic– benmoreitic composition, and was correlated with the FL eruption of Mt. Etna, dated at 3370 ± 70 cal yr BP. These ages are in agreement with five 14C AMS measurements carried out on plant remains and macrofossils from the lake sediments at different depths along the core. The recognition of distal tephra from Italian volcanoes allows us to link the Lake Ohrid succession to other archives located in the Mediterranean area and in eastern Europe. The benmoreitic–mugearitic tephra layer at 310–315 cm is the first recognition in the Balkan area of a distal ash deposit from a mid-intensity explosive eruption of Mt. Etna, as far as 600 km from the source. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 5 January 2007 Accepted 24 August 2007 Available online 14 September 2007 Keywords: tephrostratigraphy tephrochronology Italian volcanoes Lake Ohrid Albania/Macedonia

1. Introduction The study of tephra layers in different environments is of growing importance in many fields of research, including volcanology (e.g. Sparks and Huang, 1980; Paterne et al., 1990), Quaternary science (e.g. Watts et al., 1996; Turney et al., 1997; Lowe et al., 2001), paleoceanography (e.g. Fontugne et al., 1989; Siani et al., 2001), and archaeology (e.g. Lowe et al., 2000; Pyle et al., 2006). Application of tephrochronology for these purposes has an exceedingly high potential in the Mediterranean region, owing to the intense explosive volcanic activity that occurred over the last 200 ka (Keller et al., 1978; Thunnell et al., 1979; McCoy, 1981; Paterne et al., 1986, 1988, 1990; Calanchi et al., 1998; Narcisi and Vezzoli, 1999; Siani et al., 2004).

⁎ Corresponding author. E-mail address: sulpizio@dst.unipi.it (R. Sulpizio). 1 Present address: Institute for Geophysics, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas, J.J. Pickle Research Campus, Bldg. 196, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, TX 78758–4445, USA. 0377-0273/$ – see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2007.08.018

In the last 30 years, Quaternary tephra layers have been used extensively to develop a high-resolution event stratigraphy for the late Pleistocene and Holocene across the central and eastern Mediterranean (e.g. Keller et al., 1978; Federman and Carey, 1980; Paterne et al., 1988; Narcisi and Vezzoli, 1999; Siani et al., 2004). While early work focussed mainly on samples from marine cores, recent work on terrestrial archives (including Italian volcanic lakes, Greek and Turkish lakes, and Bulgarian, Greeks and Italian cave sites; e.g. St. Seymour and Christianis, 1995; Narcisi and Vezzoli, 1999; St. Seymour et al., 2004; Wulf et al., 2004) has considerably advanced the development of a long, high-resolution tephrostratigraphy that will link marine and terrestrial records of Holocene–Pleistocene age across the Mediterranean region and mainland Europe. The recognition of tephra layers in distal archives may also improve our knowledge of past explosive activity of volcanoes in the Mediterranean region. In many cases, distal successions preserve a clear and undisturbed record of past mid-(sub-Plinian) to highintensity (Plinian) explosive eruptions, whose deposits are often difficult to recognise in proximal areas due to caldera-forming processes (e.g. Campi Flegrei; Orsi et al., 1996) or because they are

. Seymour et al. 30 km long and ca. Matzinger et al. The carbonates are intensely rugged.1). with the remaining 37% accounted for by evaporation (Watzin et al. 2. Located at an altitude of 693 m a.. 2001). but has not been observed so far. and can be useful for improving volcanic hazard mitigation in the Mediterranean region. In this framework. 3. Narcisi and Vezzoli.. Triassic carbonates and clastics are widely exposed to the southeast and northwest of the lake. 2006. The basin morphology is relatively simple and Core Lz1120 was recovered in the south-eastern part of the lake basin (Fig. The only surface outflow of Lake Ohrid is the river Crni Drim in the northern part of the lake. Paleozoic metamorphic and magmatic rocks form the country rock of the entire western Macedonian Zone (Watzin et al. 2000.l. which formed during an extensional phase that has affected the entire interior of Albania since Pliocene times (Aliaj et al. Paterne et al. Paterne et al. including the lake in its centre. The lake is located downwind of most of the Italian volcanoes that were active during late Quaternary (Campanian volcanoes.. 1). 1980.. Anovski et al. Location map of Lake Ohrid and drilling site (white dot). Materials and methods Transboundary Lake Ohrid is located at 40°54′− 41°10′ N and 20°38′− 20°48′ E (Fig. 2002). Site description maximum water depth is 286 m (e. Mount Etna).. including cryptotephra.... The lake is ca. the lake is mainly fed by ground water from karstic sources in the relatively small natural catchment area of 1042 km2. broken. From a volcanological point of view. which accounts for 63% of the water loss. Fig. are mainly exposed to the southwest of the lake (Stankovic. located 20 km to the east. 1) and is shared between the Republics of Macedonia and Albania. 1978. 2004). recognised in late Pleistocene–Holocene sediments of Lake Ohrid (Albania–Macedonia border). where a shallow seismic survey indicated a water depth of 105 m above undisturbed and largely horizontally bedded sediments. 1960). which was artificially enlarged to 1487 km2 in 1962 (Matzinger et al. Wagner et al. This is an indispensable precondition to understand and interpret its environmental history. 1990.g. in Greek and Bulgarian sites (St. Cainozoic sediments. Keller et al. because several surface springs and likely also some sub-aquatic inflows into Lake Ohrid are supplied from Lake Prespa. was formed during a later phase of the Alpine orogeny (Stankovic.. 1973. less frequently. 150 m above Lake Ohrid and separated by a mountain range (Stankovic. 1.. buried under younger products (Scheiddeger. Groundwater outflow cannot be completely excluded. Aeolian Islands. the tephras recognised in Lake Ohrid yield crucial information about ash dispersal during explosive eruptions. the effective size of the catchment is substantially larger. 1995. 1989. 2002). The lake is surrounded by mountains reaching approximately 1500 m altitude to the west (“Mokra Mountain” Chain) and more than 1750 m to the east (“Galiçica Mountain” Chain. Lake Ohrid has a strategic position that potentially links the very distal sites of the Aegean Sea and Greece mainland with the Adriatic and Ionian marine cores and the inland Italian sites. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 71–80 Fig.. 1). In this paper we present a study of tephra layers. 2004).15 km wide and covers an area of 360 km2. 1960). 1978.72 B. The Ohrid basin. Lake Ohrid is situated in a graben. Tephrochronology also has the potential to establish an independent and physically-based timeframe for sedimentary records of ancient Lake Ohrid. including Pliocene and Quaternary deposits. However. 2006). and... Siani et al. 1960. Fontugne et al. The products of explosive activity of these volcanoes were extensively recognised in Adriatic and Ionian sea cores (Keller et al. and karstified. Fretzdorff et al. 1988. Stankovic. Coring . Seymour and Christianis. 1988. Since Lake Ohrid is considered to be the oldest lake in Europe (Stankovic. 1960).s. Siani et al. 1999.. 1960). it is feasible to develop a reliable chronology in its sedimentary record using tephra layers whose ages extend well beyond the limits of radiocarbon dating. Fig. 2004). St.

glass shards. performing susceptibility readings every 1 mm. which resulted in a contiguous sedimentary succession of 1075 cm length (Fig. The sediment fraction b40 μm was collected using a paper filter. one half of the core was continuously sampled at 1 cm steps. the sampling of these highly magnetic layers did not yield positive results due to the abundance of highly magnetic clastic components (mainly oxide grains and Febearing crystals from methamorphic and plutonic rocks) in the cored sediments. Therefore. silty sediments. considering the uncertainties at ±2σ level. was carried out from a floating platform using a gravity corer for undisturbed surface sediments and a piston corer (both UWITEC Co. which was determined on U-channels applying a fully automated core logger developed at the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. Core description and photographic documentation were carried out immediately after core opening in the laboratory. After recovery. the cores were split into segments of up to 100 cm long. 2. Calibrated 14C ages are reported for both plant remains from lake sediments and dated tephra layers (Coltelli et al. magmatic crystals. 2000. composed of one gravity (G) and five piston (P) cores. GSD indicates grain-size distribution. Five samples with plant macrofossils and charcoal were collected and processed (Table 1). yr BP) using the updated version of the CalPal program (Jöris and Weninger. Germany.) for deeper sediments. The resulting radiocarbon ages were calibrated into calendar years before present (cal. 2). 14 C age measurements on core Lz1120 were performed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Leibniz Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research in Kiel. . volcanic lithics). Rel.B. with the exception of the older and deeper tephra layer that was dated using 40 Ar/39Ar methodology (De Vivo et al.. 1998). However. 2003). Succession of the studied sediments. For tephra identification.. and the sediment washed and sieved at 125 μm and 40 μm using distilled water. One of the core halves was used to measure magnetic susceptibility (MS). 2001). and stored in the laboratory under controlled climatic conditions (in the dark at 4 °C)..e. The sediment fraction N40 μm was carefully inspected under stereomicroscope for volcanic particles (i. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 71–80 73 Fig. A composite sediment succession was obtained by overlapping different cores. and progressively dried through a water pump. Deeper drilling was prevented by the occurrence of very compact. Wagner et al. peaks of magnetic susceptibility were first selected for the analyses. Germany. The fractions b40 μm were archived in the laboratory for future tephra inspection. This system is equipped with a Bartington MS2E sensor. Sulpizio et al.

29 8.00 2.24 0.12 2.43 7.80 8. Chemical analyses on glass shards of tephras from 310–315 cm and 896–897 cm were performed at the Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra (University of Pisa).98 K2O/Na2O 0.07 0.94 8.25 54.49 0.00 0.28 0.12 5.25 0.6 0.29 61.31 3.22 8.44 1.72 0.00 100.59 0.65 61.44 8.00 12.22 6.42 1.01 1.95 2.38 0.29 17.51 0.58 0.36 17.97 18.38 0.25 1.00 100.98 2.00 0.44 0.38 62.98 100. Wagner et al.19 0.00 99.61 3.27 1.00 100. depth (cm) 398 454 462 500 552 Material Plant remains Plant remains Charcoal Plant remains Plant remains C weight (mg) 1.83 1.85 4.44 0.77 3.44 Na2O 5.95 3.56 17.92 3.88 1.04 2.15 62.48 Cl 0.02 62.19 2.86 8.18 2.65 0.00 100.26 8. 20× 10− 9 A beam current.12 13.65 0.81 0.88 7.00 99.11 0.57 .57 0.63 5.32 4.50 0.00 3.10 13.23 0.27 19.26 0.99 99.24 12.94 2.58 2.74 2.97 5.81 6.00 MgO 2.00 0.07 6.74 53.00 11.37 5.31 0.49 54.58 2.22 0.64 8.08 19.37 0. ZAF correction).36 18.39 16.38 9.11 0.57 6.70 2.09 4.38 0.00 0.67 0.24 5.03 CaO 5.71 18.05 0.09 0.59 0.18 54.76 1.01 100.74 B.31 62.97 Al2O3 17.21 12.95 1.15 2.94 6.23 0.71 0.03 0.08 17.22 4.84 1.50 0.33 18.84 55.27 0.00 0.00 100.27 18.44 61.47 0.75 2.36 0.4 17.42 0.35 0.98 8.81 2.45 0.40 4.46 18.77 2.94 13. The major-element chemistry of crystal-free glass shards were used to classify the different tephra layers and for correlating among different archives. Instrument calibration and performance are described in Marianelli and Sbrana (1998).79 18.59 3.04 18.44 8.57 −32.% were excluded from our data set and all of the accepted analyses were recalculated to 100 wt.65 0.18 0.00 0. grain-size.10 2.02 99.55 0.01 2.00 0.31 6.35 0.42 0.10 62.38 8.80 0. Peak counting times were 20 s for each element.35 0.51 0.00 0.26 P2O5 0.38 0.66 3.07 8.27 7.56 0.82 3.55 2.28 0.74 1.38 18.74 1.44 8.46 0.00 0.39 0.00 99.3 0.05 1.04 18.92 FeOtot 8.00 0.46 5.00 0.80 0.31 3.99 100.59 100.81 0. SEM back-scattering images were used to describe the texture of the groundmass and to select micro-crystals for future microanalyses.20 0.00 0.05 9.36 16.61 18.00 0.00 0.35 0.29 0.79 12.51 0.43 0.60 8.98 4.46 5.72 K2O 3.15 5.81 2.49 12.2 1.83 2.48 1.24 0.99 99.6 0.28 0. Chemistry of tephra layers at 310–315 and 896–897 cm were obtained using SEM-EDS analyses.00 0.00 100.64 0.00 0.94 17.80 61.74 6.84 1.88 1. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 71–80 Table 1 Radiocarbon measurements of charcoal and plant remains collected at different depths along core Lz 1120 Sample KIA27394 KIA27393 KIA27395 KIA27396 KIA27423 Core Lz1120-5 Lz1120-4 Lz1120-6 Lz1120-6 Lz1120-6 Corr.82 14 C age (yr BP) Calendar age (cal.00 0. using an EDAX-DX micro-analyser (EDS analyses) mounted on a Philips SEM 515 (operating conditions: 20 kV acceleration voltage.28 7.16 −29. Table 2 Major elements glass chemistry of the three tephra layers recognised in core Lz 1120.74 53.00 0.2 0.22 8. while EPMA-WDS analyses were carried out on sample at 1070–1075 cm Sample 310–315 cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 SiO2 53.00 0.01 1.93 61.00 0.06 0.59 18.7 17.87 2.12 3.59 0. which differ significantly in colour.26 62.19 0.25 61.24 1.34 0.16 0.00 0.66 2.95 3.57 8.82 0.00 100.19 61.30 12.43 19.81 1.53 0.00 0.79 8.43 5. Glass analysis with a sum of total oxides less than 95 wt.07 0.03 12.40 4.8 2.35 0.00 2.35 0.88 5. where we used a counting time of 10 s.87 2.68 0.00 2. and organic matter content.32 61.4 1.22 0.00 0.1.83 19.65 0.94 4.44 17.00 100.94 12.13 19.42 0.00 100.83 7.83 3.06 0.15 2.53 0.61 53.09 0.68 9.29 18.13 11.80 2.11 1.00 100.45 0.00 13.32 Total 100.89 3.83 54.85 7.95 1.41 0.14 62.66 3.35 0.99 99.23 2.00 0.88 3.19 8.11 54.71 2.28 0.76 1.89 3.37 99.44 3.36 3.62 8. 4. 100 s live time counting.64 0.93 2.23 0.32 2.13 18.87 13.29 0.39 2.38 2.01 100.28 0.03 19.61 0. 10− 9 A beam current.54 3.04 0.99 100.41 9.02 2.14 3.00 100.46 0. yr BP) 5170 ± 130 7055 ± 110 7020 ± 135 7800 ± 130 14665 ± 450 4490 ± 35 6145 ± 35 6095 ± 30 6930 ± 60 12570 ± 110 Volcanic material was recognised at 310–315.91 6.25 0. Electron microprobe major-element analyses (WDS) on the sample at 1070–1075 cm of depth was carried out at Geo Forschungs Zentrum (Potsdam) using a Cameca SX-100 electron microprobe (operating conditions: 15 kV accelerating voltage.83 2.95 3.25 0.44 0.26 0.08 −24. 20 μm beam diameter).04 0.96 5.39 12.00 0.26 0.58 0.61 0.09 0.69 0.99 99.54 0.48 7.00 0.25 61.00 100.10 2.76 7.40 0.41 2. 896–897 and 1070– 1075 cm.92 5.34 0.26 4.11 0.41 4.73 54.95 2.66 0.23 13.00 99.18 61.83 13.94 5.06 2.27 6.02 4.64 0.3 3.00 0.75 8.60 0.98 6.15 3.20 0.39 1.%.62 MnO 0.09 1.00 100. Results 4.91 12.91 1.61 0.96 18.26 3.98 100.1 5.00 0.30 9.91 53.32 17.44 0.92 6.75 54.56 2.82 6.37 0.55 3.99 99.61 1.35 0.50 4.55 5.25 TiO2 1. except for Na.46 7.18 5.00 0.35 0.83 5.1 53.71 18.83 1.36 8.41 0.73 8.08 8.69 896–897 cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1070–1075 cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 62.18 55.00 100. Lithostratigraphy and magnetic susceptibility of the core sediments Core Lz1120 can be grossly separated into lower and upper parts.99 13.92 8.99 99.89 18.69 5.48 0.52 1.38 0.00 0.87 8.81 0.99 13.02 12.10 2.17 8.98 100.44 9.94 3.39 0.00 0.54 0.13 61.00 100.22 6.43 0.32 0.00 6.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 9.74 1.89 6.18 2.65 3.16 −29.69 1.44 8.51 18.78 1.00 0.35 5.42 6.77 0.60 8.36 0.44 2.93 60. Alkali 9.10 3.42 0.85 1.30 4.01 Tot.72 1.19 0.07 3.52 4.76 4.92 3.69 2.36 62.88 1.47 2.49 8.38 1.80 18.83 0.6 δ13C (‰) −28.73 0.19 62.

It is noteworthy that tephra layers and cryptotephras were recognised at depths not strictly correlated to peaks in the magnetic susceptibility curve. The sorting of the sediment is relatively poor. These characteristics and the age of sample KIA27423 (14. while the other is classified as mugearite–benmoreite (310–315 cm.B. 2). These characteristics along with the results of the 14C age measurements (samples KIA27393-KIA27396. Fig. apparently unrelated to a significant change in grain-size or in the amount of organic matter. b) plot of single analyses. 4. Table 1) imply that this part was deposited during the Holocene (Fig. the age of sample KIA27423 has to be regarded critically. Total Alkali diagram (TAS. Le Bas et al. The volcanic fragments of the cryptotephra at 310–315 cm depth appear abruptly at the base of the interval. The transition to the upper part is confined within a few centimetres and is marked by a darkening of the colour (dark grey) and by an increase in grain-size (Fig. 2004) of 1070–1075 cm tephra.) and analyses from literature (FL from Coltelli et al. 2). Table 3) elongated. 1960). and progressively vanish toward the top (310 cm). since periglacial conditions are in general characterized by unstable soils. Chemical composition of glass shards and micropumice fragments (Table 2) was classified using the Silica vs.2. highly vesicular fragments. High transport energies are probably the result of a greater influence of inlets close to the coring location.. Chemical classification of identified tephra using the Total Alkali vs. the magnetic signal is higher in the Pleistocene part of the core. Tephra A and B Prg from Sadori and Narcisi. TM18 from Wulf et al. 3. b). The groundmass comprises small crystals of plagioclase and minor olivine (Fig. . 2). 2008-this issue. mainly in the size of medium-coarse silt with minor sand particles and occasionally granules (drop stones).. average analysis (labelled av. Calcareous and plant fossils are absent. although the magnetic susceptibility has a minimum between ca. Single-shard analyses show dispersion between mugearitic and benmoreitic fields (Fig. greyish. 3a). Tephra layers Tephra were recognised at 310–315 cm.) and analyses from literature (CI fall from Di Vito et al. 780 and 700 cm depth. blocky fragments with few spherical or ovoid vesicles. The layer at 896–897 cm shows a clear basal contact... Silica diagram. The accumulation of sand could also be due to erosion of fine-grained sediments by subaquatic currents. They comprise dark brown (colour 5YR 2/2 dusky brown. and sediment re-deposition is common. which derive from the erosion of metamorphic rocks exposed in the south-western part of the catchment (Watzin et al. d) plot of single analyses. 500 and 350 cm. Table 3). 2001) of 310–315 cm tephra.. High transport energies also occur during mass movement processes. 2002). The dominance of sand in this horizon suggests that high transport energies prevailed during deposition. Two tephra layers are visible as discrete sandy–silty layers (at 896–897 cm and 1070–1075 cm). / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 71–80 75 The lower part of the core (from the very base up to 552 cm) comprises massive. yr BP. which would likely have led to a hiatus in the sedimentary succession. Table 1) imply that this part of the core was deposited during the Late Pleistocene. a) General classification using average glass analyses of the three tephra. average analysis (labelled av. which would also indicate the existence of a hiatus. 3a). 545 cm are characterized by repeated colour changes from light-grey to brownish-black. when periglacial conditions prevailed around the lake and the higher plateaus on the surrounding mountains were covered by local ice caps (Stankovic. increasing to values similar to the lower part of the core from 350 cm to the top. c) plot of single analyses. This is due to the high content of magnetic minerals (mainly small oxides) in the sediments. Generally. Wagner et al. Fig. However. Vesicles are mainly tubular Fig. such as that caused by distinct lower lake levels or by increased melt-water input from the local ice caps. and the amount of fine organic material is significantly greater than in the lower part of the core. 896–897 cm and 1070– 1075 cm along the studied core. The sediments above ca. clastic material (Fig. The Holocene part of the core shows a low magnetic signal between ca. average analysis (labelled av. Two minima between 320 and 250 cm and 150 and 115 cm depth (Fig. Sand particles and granules (drop stones) are absent. Two samples (896– 897 cm and 1070–1075 cm) plot in the field of trachytes.665 ± 450 cal. The grain-size comprises medium-coarse silt with some inter-bedding of fine silt and clay. 4a. 2) are in correspondence with layers enriched in organic matter. Remains of ostracodes and/or molluscs can be macroscopically observed. whereas the third is a cryptotephra (310–315 cm) mixed with lake and clastic sediments. 2000. 3a). and comprises light coloured (colour 5Y 8/1-yellowish grey.) and analyses from literature (Di Vito et al. 1986. 2008-this issue) of 896–897 cm tephra.

665 cal yr BP.1. Dark-coloured glass shards (5RP 2/2 very dusky red purple) are abundant. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 71–80 Table 3 Main characteristics of tephra layers recognised in core Lz 1120. According to its age (younger than 5170 cal yr BP. raw and calibrated ages. (2004). Both samples have similar content in silica. Colour from GSA Rock Color Chart (1991) Layer 310–315 cm 896–897 cm 1. Composition of single shards shows a limited variability within the trachytic field (Fig. scoria fragments of the proximal deposits used for XRF analyses (Coltelli et al.76 B. glassy sets. Discussion 5. Kieffer. 3 Wulf et al. Groundmass is almost aphiric. almost aphiric (bt+ san). because the coring was inhibited by the resistance of this layer. a. including lithology and composition of volcanic fragments. 5. micropumice and colourless glass shards. The apparent discrepancy between bulk rock and EDS analyses can be explained by the presence of plagioclase and minor clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts in the coarse grained. Cristofolini and Romano. especially when Fig.. Table 3) glass shards and micropumice also occur. Groundmass is glassy. Minor dark coloured (colour 5RP 2/2 very dusky red purple. which is the only known source of this magma in the central Mediterranean area active during Holocene (e. 4d). In both typologies of volcanic fragments the vesicles are spherical or ovoidal. 2000). 2 Sulpizio et al. Proximal deposits of the FL eruption comprise lithic-rich scoria fall. even if small sanidine crystals sometimes occur on larger sets among bubbles. Correlation with proximal deposits The mugearitic–benmoreitic composition of tephra at 310–315 cm constrains the correlation to the activity of Etna volcano. highly to extremely esicular. Light-coloured micropumice (5Y 7/2 yellowish grey to 5Y 5/2 Light olive grey). d) 1070–1075 cm tephra. (Fig. (1978). Table 3). Coltelli et al. 4. Inferred source Mt.070–1. 2) and composition. aphiric. which were entrained in plagioclase phenocrysts (Table 4).820 ± 270 yr BP2 27. 1982. 2001). Trachytic composition. .075 cm Raw age 3150 ± 60 yr BP1 25. aphiric. Since EDS analyses were carried out on glassy fragments. Poorly vesicular. 3b). and inferred source. 2000).. 3d). b) SEM pictures of volcanic glass fragments from 310–315 cm tephra. central Sicily (Table 4. and can be correlated with late Pleistocene explosive activities of Campanian volcanoes. which was correlated with the deposits of eruption FL of Etna (dated at 3150 ± 60 yr BP or 3370 ± 70 cal yr BP.670 ± 230 yr BP – Lithology of juvenile fragments Dark-coloured glass fragments (5YR 2/2 dusky brown). The composition of the younger ash layer matches closely the composition of the Y-3 tephra of Keller et al. Single shard composition show a trend from the trachytic to the phonolitic fields (Fig. Volcanic fragments comprise mainly light coloured (colour 5Y 7/2 yellowish grey. c) 896–897 cm tephra. The base of the lower tephra (1070–1075 cm depth) was not reached. (2001). the obtained compositions are especially depleted in calcium and alumina. Sadori and Narcisi. Etna Campi Flegrei Campi Flegrei 1 Coltelli et al. 3c). (2000). highly vesicular fragments (Fig. Highly-vesicular. Trachytic composition. Fig. with very few elongated microcrystals of sanidine. this layer can be correlated to the tephra layer recognised in the Holocene sediments of Lago di Pergusa. Colour: 5Y 8/1-Yellowish grey.. The other two trachytic tephra layers are older than 14. 3a).g. 4c) and form channels throughout the entire length of the pyroclastic fragments.280 ± 110 yr BP4 36. separated by thin.670 yr BP3 Calibratated age 3370 ± 70 yr BP 30. Benmoreitic composition. Wagner et al. Fig. Coltelli et al. 1979. (2003). 4 De Vivo et al. 2000). and bulk rock chemical analyses classify these products as mugearites (Table 4. but the tephra at 896–897 cm shows a slightly higher content in alkali (Fig.256 yr BP3 39.

Wulf et al.88 0. especially in the lateral parts of the lake basin (Wagner.. carbonaceous bedrock is widely exposed in the southeast and northwest parts of the lake catchment (e.. Thunnell et al.02 2.08 0.47 1.20 0.10 CI fall sd N = 10 TM–18 sd N = 43 1070–1075 cm sd N = 10 N = 10 1.09 0. Several age measurements were performed on the Campanian Ignimbrite deposits (e.01 8.06 0.58 – 100.03 0.91 0.13 0.83 0.48 8. 1994. which can be split in sub-sets on the basis of tephra occurrence.29 0.02 0. TM18 = composition of tephra layer TM18 from the Monticchio succession (Wulf et al. which at present occurs only sporadically every few years and hampers gas exchange with the bottom waters.670 ± 230 yr BP.21 0.35 20.40 3. 1979.00 0. Y3 = composition of tephra layer Y3 in core RC9–191 (Ionian sea. with the most reliable radioisotopic age being 39. 2004). FL = composition of FL unit from Etna (Coltelli et al.11 – 2.42 19.85 2. This is because the occurrence of a dated tephra layer is an independent time marker in the sediment succession. dated at 27..61 1.55 0. Importance for Quaternary studies 61. 1960).B. Furthermore.51 0.29 0.71 5. 2001.64 0.22 0..03 0.05 0.09 0. 2004). 2004.35 1. Table 4).14 0..15 0.16 0.95 1.61 0.34 0.23 5.19 3.53 0.05 – – 61. Local ice caps on mountains east and west of the lake (Stankovic.27 0.67 6.36 0.00 12.15 0.2.. Regarding point ii).98 5. Deino et al.43 – – 54.36 0. Thon-That et al.. Sulpizio et al.50 0.280± 110 yr BP (40Ar/39Ar measurement on sanidine crystals.27 0. De Vivo et al.12 0.05 0..98 0. macrofossil remains are the most commonly used material for age determinations.46 100.92 0. mass wasting processes are common in Lake Ohrid.44 1.32 7.05 0.97 7.91 1.85 8.22 0.07 4.21 – 1.256 varve-age BP (Wulf et al.08 0.09 – – 55.00 0.12 0.96 2.18 0.49 100.60 18. 2004) and the widespread marine tephra layers Y-5 and C-13 in central and eastern Mediterranean Sea (Keller et al. 2003. The absence of macrofossils in the Pleistocene part of the recovered sediments would require using of bulk sediment for radiocarbon dating.61 – 0.61 2.45 – 1.07 0.78 100. Point i) is relevant even in case of the unknown age of the recognised tephra.28 0. Sulpizio et al..08 0.82 0. For lake sediments.36 3. Type A and B Prg = compositions of the Etnean tephra layer recognised in Lago di Pergusa (Sadori and Narcisi.05 0.17 0.47 0.14 – – 61.00 8.73 0.17 – – 61.03 0. 50.. sd N = 11 Type A Prg.57 0.19 0. Colder temperatures during the last Glacial. 1978.. 2001.61 1.13 0..33 0.g. 2004). As an example.22 0.38 18.61 17. The oldest tephra layer found at 1070–1075 cm depth shows a good match with the composition of pyroclastic fall deposits of the Campanian Ignimbrite (Table 4). unpublished data).33 0.11 – – 62.19 0. Pyle et al. sd N = 14 310–315 cm N = 15 SiO2 TiO2 Al2O3 FeOtot MnO MgO CaO Na2O K2O P2O5 Cl Total Tot.06 0.02 0.35 8.820 ± 270 yr BP (calibrated age 30.48 0.21 0.00 0.000 yr BP and numerous sources of error can occur (e. 2001).06 0. the recognition of the three tephra layers in the lacustrine sedimentary succession provides an independent time scale not influenced by local or environmental issues... Björck and Wohlfarth. 2008-this issue). Thon-That et al. which can validate the age model obtained from sediments.59 0. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 71–80 Table 4 Comparison of major elements compositions of the three tephra layers recognised in core Lz 1120 with proximal deposits and/or regional tephra layers. which correlates well with tephra layer TM-18 recognised in the Lago Grande di Monticchio succession (Wulf et al.34 0.17 0. but has an exceeding importance in case the tephra age is well constrained..00 0. probably led to a mixing of the entire water column in spring and autumn..50 62. Stankovic. and iii) they are physical markers of sedimentary successions.20 0.74 5.65 6.12 0.39 0.00 13.02 0.g.16 3..31 100.44 XRF 2.03 0.00 7.02 8.99 12.19 0.09 0.18 0.44 0. 5.06 – – sd 77 0. These processes are usually triggered by the frequent earthquakes that characterise the Albanian–Macedonian corridor (Sulstarova et al. Zanchetta et al.75 – – 100.39 – 0. Zanchetta et al. and allow correlations among different archives.00 2.18 8.49 1. Munno and Petrosino.52 0. 2007)..99 50.71 0.. substituted by bulk sediment samples when macrofossils are absent from recovered sediments.27 8.15 0.23 0.50 – The recognition of tephra layers in Quaternary successions is relevant for three main reasons: i) they are independent time markers. Wagner et al.41 0.35 0.48 0.04 0.78 1.00 0.11 7.29 0.23 0.69 sd TM 15 sd N = 20 896–897 cm N = 12 FL Etna sd Type B Prg..21 0. 2008this issue) 0.52 0.65 5.75 – 1.68 100.21 0. on the other hand.50 2.49 1.13 0..03 0. 1960) may have supplied during the last Glacial melt-water with old CO2 to the lake.85 0.06 – – 54.44 8.52 0.00 12. 2000).63 2. TM15 = composition of tephra layer TM15 from the Monticchio succession (Wulf et al. 2006). the chemistry of this layer matches that of TM 15 tephra layer in Lago Grande di Monticchio (Wulf et al. 2004) or by significant lake-level fluctuations.00 13.29 18. dated at 25.46 0.. 2001). 2004).40 0.00 0.76 17. and delivers old carbon into the lake.25 2. 2007.18 3. 2001).20 4.25 0. However.00 12.36 18.04 0.85 6.05 3.15 2.52 100.28 0. Aliaj et al. 2008-this issue).54 0.00 0. Table 3. 2003..04 0.81 0.02 5.26 – – – – EDS analyses on single glass shards are considered (Munno and Petrosino.62 6. Di Vito et al. 2003.85 0.00 0. Alkali K2O/ Na2O 0.27 0. which often produces older ages compared to those of terrestrial plant remains and aquatic bryophytes (Björck and Wohlfarth. Hence.94 0.25 0.g. 2003.20 0.95 0.94 5.90 5.21 2.07 0.43 19. In particular.58 16. 2004. unpublished data).17 – .10 0.16 0. Radiocarbon dating is the most common method used for the establishment of reliable chronologies of Upper Pleistocene–Holocene sediments. CI fall = EDS analyses of glass of pumice fragments from Campanian Ignimbrite fall deposits (Di Vito et al.11 0.54 99.00 0. Tephra Y3 has been correlated with proximal deposits of the SMP1-e eruption from Campi Flegrei (Sulpizio et al.79 3.22 0.53 – 0. ii) tephra layers (or cryptotephra) are sediments deposited in a very short time range (it can be considered as an instantaneous process for most research purposes) over large areas. 2001)..08 0.88 0.37 0.45 100. radiocarbon dating is limited to the past ca.24 0.76 0. 2008-this issue.12 0.78 0.15 0.16 3.00 2.24 0.24 1. the recognition of well known and widespread Y-3 and Y-5 tephra layers allows the precise correlation of the Lake Y3 0. Wulf et al.

and ii) the recognition of SMP1-e/Y-3 tephra significantly enlarged towards east the known dispersal area of this eruption..3. In this framework. Wulf et al. Ischia and Somma–Vesuvius volcanoes. About point i). Volcanological significance Tephra fallout is one of the most important hazards from volcanic eruptions. Calanchi et al. This provides a control on the radiocarbon dating carried out on plants from the lake sediments (Fig.. 1990. Scollo et al. 2004.. 2003). 1999. Zanchetta et al. Lake Ohrid is located more than 550 km eastward of Campi Flegrei.g. The recognition of CI deposits (1070–1075 cm tephra layer) in the Balkan area is not surprising. SMP1-e/Y-3 and CI/Y-5 tephra layers is important for at least two main reasons: i) it is the first time that tephra from a mid-intensity explosive eruption of Etna is recognised at 600 km from the source. 5 indicates that a hiatus of several thousand years likely occurred at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. Etna (Coltelli et al. 5.. 5. Narcisi and Vezzoli. Pyle et al... the only significantly widespread tephra layer from Etna volcano is that associated with the Biancavilla Ignimbrite (De Rita et al. recurrent explosive activity occurred in the past has been documented in recent years (Calvari et al. 1998. Wulf et al. The main eruptive activity of this volcano is generally effusive or weekly explosive (Hawaiian to Strombolian type).. Age-depth model for Lake Ohrid sedimentary succession as obtained by using ages from 14C ages of plant remains and radiometric datings of tephra layers.78 B. Blong. Paterne et al. the recognition of coarse ash (grain size N125 μm) from the FL eruption in Lake Ohrid highlights the hazard posed in distal areas by dispersal of ash from mid-intensity explosive eruption from Etna. which corresponds to the Plinian fall deposit of the final eruptions of Ellittico volcano stage of Mt. the occurrence of the FL tephra layer from Etna volcano is also important because it adds a marker for the middle–late Holocene in the central Mediterranean region and correlates a southern Mediterranean lacustrine succession with the Balkan area. 2003). 2006.g. Inspection of the sedimentation curve of Fig.. 5). 1984. Blong... with less than a metre often resulting in complete collapse (e. 1978. 2006). The recognition of the other two tephra layers related to SMP1-e/ Y3 and CI/Y5 eruptions draws our attention to process of ash dispersal attributed to Campanian volcanic activities. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 71–80 Ohrid succession to many other continental and marine successions over the central and eastern Mediterranean region (e. because fine ash in- halation can cause silicosis or pulmonary oedema (e.g. 2 and Table 1). Sadori and Narcisi. the recognition of the FL. Nevertheless. to date.. using the three tephra layers the Lake Ohrid succession can be split into three sub-sets of constrained ages. It is also known as tephra layer Y-1 recognised in both marine and terrestrial archives across the central Mediterranean area (e. 2008-this issue)..g. This is noteworthy if we consider that Y-3 tephra layer is a marker of the middle of the marine Heinrich Event 3 (Zanchetta et al. Keller et al.. Plotting the ages of the radiocarbon-dated macrofossils and of the tephra layers versus the depths of the sediments reveals that the sedimentation rate in core Lz1120 increases with the depth (Fig. 2004)... Regarding point iii). 1991). Baxter. 1996. 2003. Cronin et al. Spence et al. 2000. 2001. 2006). but pyroclastic deposits of these eruptions are described only in a range of a few tens of km around the volcano. MEV=Mount Etna tephra layer.g. Even very few millimeters of ash can represent a serious threat for human health. Ash thickness of the order of hundreds of millimetres represents a major hazard for buildings. 1988. 2000). 2003. Horwell et al.. because volcanic ash can cause significant problems in terms of disruption to communications. Cioni et al.. Coltelli et al.. Horwell and Baxter. Although less recognised in Holocene sediments (it is the second finding after that of Lago di Pergusa. Wagner et al. 2003). Therefore. 2001). 1991. as also demonstrated by the fall of fine ash on Cefalonia Island (Ionian sea. Giaccio et al. 2007). ash clean-up costs and destructive effects on agriculture over very large areas (e. . and confirms the wide Fig. 2004.. more than 500 km eastward of Etna) during the paroxistic phases of the 2002 eruption (Dellino and Kiriakopulos. and represents a very distal site for tephras originated from these sources. Siani et al. and can be used to obtain more detailed information about the sedimentation rate in the lake.. 2008-this issue) and Y-5 tephra layer can be considered a good marker for the onset of the Heinrich event 4 (Ton-That et al. 1996.

B.. Geotherm. The Geological Society of America Rock-Color Chart with genuine Munsell color chips. Paterne. 2006. 2469. 89. The restless. Res. Southon. Vezzoli. 1095–1098. Sulpizio. References Aliaj. K. Sbrana. Scrivano. 247–266. Tyrrhenian Sea tephrachronology of the oxygen isotope record for the past 60 000 years.. 43–54.. J. 2000. Bull. P. Analysis of three strong explosive episodes in recent activity at Mount Etna volcano (Italy). Gasparotto. B. Horwell. Duplessy. 532–544. Phlegrean fields.. 14C chronostratigraphic techniques in paleolimnology. 1979. Calvari. Coltelli.. Sparks. 1988. Romano. F. 1981. The Campanian Ignimbrite (c. 20. Pompilio. 13. B.. Assessing pyroclastic fall hazard through field data and numerical simulations: the example from Vesuvius. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Albania. Carey.. Geotherm. The Biancavilla–Montalto Ignimbrite (Etna. Petrologic features of the Etnean volcanic rocks.. the identification of SMP1-e/Y-3 tephra layer in Lake Ohrid represents the first recognition in the Balkan area of this deposit. Glob.. Volcanol. G.A. 93. Conclusion The recognition of three tephras in the Lake Ohrid sediments provides time constraints for the sedimentary succession and permits us to establish a first. 14C and 39Ar/ 40 Ar dating of the Campanian Ignimbrite. Risultati di misure di standard di minerali e di vetri naturali in microanalisi a dispersione di energia. F. G. 2000. A. Terrasi. 8. Fluctuations of the Campanian explosive volcanic activity (south Italy) during the past 190.. Zanettin. P. S. Sulstarova. 495–504. 1991.. R.. 2008. 2001. S. Inter-regional correlation of palaeoclimatic records for the last Glacial–interglacial transition: a protocol for improved precision recommended by the INTIMATE project group. Sicily). Volcanic hazards: a sourcebook on the effects of eruptions. 1175–1187. Federman.. M.J. I. Mem.. 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