ANGLES

Complementary Angles
Two angles are complementary angles if their degree measurements add up to 90°. That is, if we attach both angles and fit them side by side (by putting the vertices and one side on top of each other), they will form a right angle. We can also say that one of the angles is the complement of the other.

Complementary angles are angles whose sum is 90°

Supplementary Angles
Another special pair of angles is called supplementary angles. One angle is said to be the supplement of the other if the sum of their degree measurements is 180°. In other words, if we put the angles side by side, the result would be a straight line.

Another pair of vertical angles in the picture is ∠JKM and ∠LKN. Vertical angles always have equal measures. Alternate Interior Angles Alternate interior angles are formed when there exists a transversal.Supplementary angles are angles whose sum is 180° Vertical Angles Vertical angles are the angles opposite of each other at the intersection of two lines. Alternate interior angles are congruent to each other if (and only if) the two lines intersected by the transversal are parallel. . They are called vertical angles because they share a common vertex. They are the angles on opposite sides of the transversal. but inside the two lines the transversal intersects. An easy way of identifying alternate interior angles is by drawing the letter "Z" (forwards and backwards) on the lines as shown below. ∠JKL and ∠MKN are vertical angles.

The figure on the right has alternate interior angles that are congruent because there is a set of parallel lines. So are ∠CDB and ∠EHF.In the figure on the left. ∠ADH and ∠GHD are alternate interior angles. ∠ADB and ∠GHF are alternate exterior angles. The figure on the left does not have alternate enterior angles that are congruent. but the figure on the right does. Alternate Exterior Angles Similar to alternate interior angles. alternate exterior angles are also congruent to each other if (and only if) the two lines intersected by the transversal are parallel. In the figure on the left. Note that ∠CDH and ∠EHD are also alternate interior angles. . These angles are on opposite sides of the transversal. but outside the two lines the transversal intersects.

Drawing the letter "F" backwards helps us see that ∠ADH and ∠EHF are corresponding angles. It may help to draw the letter "F" (forwards and backwards) in order to help identify corresponding angles. These angles are equal in degree measure when the two lines intersected by the transversal are parallel. This method is illustrated below.Corresponding Angles Corresponding angles are the pairs of angles on the same side of the transversal and on corresponding sides of the two other lines. . Exercises (1) Find the value of x in the figure below. We have three other pairs of corresponding angles in this figure. let's practice applying some of their properties in the following exercises. Now that we have familiarized ourselves with pairs of angles.

Notice that the pair of highlighted angles are vertical angles. Thus. We can go one step further to make sure that the angles are equal by plugging 37 in for x. Because they have this relationship. when combined. The figure shows two angles that. we have . we have We have found that the value of x is 37. form straight angle ∠QRS. (2) Find the measures of ∠QRT and ∠TRS shown below. it will be important to use our knowledge of supplementary angles. which is 180°. the vertical angles highlighted above are equal. So. Indeed. In order to solve this problem. their angle measures are equal.

Thus. Since we were given that MG and NJ are parallel. we can reason that ∠GHI and ∠HIJ are supplements of each other: . Lines MG and NJ run parallel to each other. There are several ways to work this problem out. We get (3) Find the values of x and y using the figure below. we know that these angles are equal. We still have to plug in 15 for x.However. We know that the sum of the measure of ∠HIJ and ∠JIK must be 180°. Notice that ∠GHI and ∠JIK are corresponding angles. we write Next. Regardless of which path we decide to take it will be necessary to use supplementary angles. we must find a relationship between ∠GHI. we are still not done. and ∠JIK. Through the transitive property. ∠HIJ. The question asks for the measures of ∠QRT and ∠TRS.

we could have multiplied the top equation by -5 to cancel out y. In this case. we use the first equation.We can now add the measures of ∠GHI and ∠HIJ to get Solving a system of equations will ultimately allow us to solve for x and y. We have In order to eliminate a variable. .) We can solve for y by plugging our value for x into either of the equations we were given. which in this case will be y. (Note: Rather than multiplying the bottom equation by -1/5 in the previous step. Then we add the two equations and solve for x as shown below. We get x = 16 in either case. we multiply the bottom equation by -1/5.