kumar (kk24268) – HW01 - Thermo 1 – mccord – (51580) This print-out should have 10 questions.
Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page – ﬁnd all choices before answering. 001 10.0 points Which of the following is true of a general thermodynamic state function? 1. The change of the value of a state function is independent of the path of a process. correct 2. The change in the value of the state function is always positive for endothermic processes. 3. The change in the value of a state function is always negative for a spontaneous reaction. 4. The value of the state function remains constant. 5. The value of a state function does NOT change with a change in temperature of a process. Explanation: A change in a state function describes a diﬀerence between the two states. It is independent of the process or pathway by which the change occurs. 002 10.0 points An isolated system can only exchange energy with the surroundings. 1. True 2. False correct Explanation: An isolated system cannot exchange energy nor matter with the surroundings. 003 10.0 points An endothermic reaction corresponds to one in which
1. change in energy is positive; heat is evolved. 2. change in energy is negative; heat is evolved. 3. change in energy is positive; heat is absorbed. correct 4. change in energy is negative; heat is absorbed. Explanation: Endothermic reactions require energy to ﬂow from the surroundings into the system. In other words, heat is absorbed by the system. ∆H, or the change in energy, is positive for endothermic reactions since the amount of energy in the system increased. 004 10.0 points Consider the reaction 2 H2(g) + O2 (g) → 2 H2O(g) at constant pressure. Which response is true for the reaction? 1. Work may be done on or by the system as the reaction occurs, depending upon the temperature. 2. Work is done by the system as it occurs. 3. No work is done as the reaction occurs. 4. Work is done on the system as it occurs. correct Explanation: ni = 3 mol gas For P = const, nf = 2 mol gas
w = −P ∆V = −(∆n) R T , ∆n = nf − ni = −1 . Therefore w will be positive. When w is positive, work is done on the system, and progresses as the reaction progresses. 005 10.0 points
if q had been equal but opposite in sign to w).7 g of water at 22◦ C.162 atm.0 points A piece of metal of mass 20 g at 109 ◦ C is placed in a calorimeter containing 41.kumar (kk24268) – HW01 . At the same time.2046 kJ 009 10.79543 kJ) = 44. then the total amount of heat transferred to the cylinder will be q = (100 J/s) (8 min) (60 s/min) = 48000 J = 48 kJ Work will be given by w = −Pext ∆V in this case because it is an expansion against a constant opposing pressure: w = −(4.0 points Will the pressure of the gas be higher or lower when these changes are completed? 1.79543 kJ The internal energy change is ∆U = q + w = 48 kJ + (−3. We must be careful. and consequently the pressure of the gas would be lower at the end.162 atm) (10 L − 1 L) = −37..325J/L · atm) = −3795. however. What is the change in internal energy of the gas during this process? Correct answer: −156 kJ.e. however.458 L · atm)(101.325 J Vﬁnal = 10 L If the heater operates as rated. the temperature of the gas would have had to decrease. in this case.0 points A gas sample in a piston assembly expands. then ∆ U would have been 0 and the temperature of the gas would not have changed. Because less heat was added.Thermo 1 – mccord – (51580) A chemical reaction takes place in a container of cross-sectional area 100 cm2 . internal energy will be added to the gas sample by heating (so q is positive). What is the change in internal energy of the gas? Correct answer: 44. and the gas was allowed to expand
further. What is the speciﬁc heat
. The ﬁnal temperature of the mixture is 55 ◦ C. but the gas does work on its surroundings as it expands (so w is negative): w = −540 kJ q = 384 kJ ∆U = q +w = 384 kJ + (−540 kJ) = −156 kJ . that the signs on the energy changes are appropriate. 007 (part 2 of 2) 10.43 J = −3.458 L · atm Convert to kilojoules (kJ) w = (−37. Explanation: The change in internal energy ∆ U is given simply by summing the two energy terms involved in this process. doing 540 kJ of work on its surroundings at the same time that 384 kJ heat is added to the gas.162 atm Vini = 1 L 1 L · atm = 101. a piston is pushed out through 23 cm against an external pressure of 573 torr. higher Explanation: If the heat added had exactly matched the amount of energy lost due to the work of the gas (i. the gas expands from 1 L to 10 L against a constant atmospheric pressure of 4. Explanation: 006 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points A 100 W electric heater (1 W = 1 J/s) operates for 8 min to heat the gas in a cylinder. What is the value for w for this reaction? (Sign does matter.2046 kJ.) Correct answer: −176 J. 008 10. As a result of the reaction. lower correct 2. Explanation: Pext = 4.
222◦ C HC = 3.33111 ◦ .184 J/g ·◦C. Correct answer: 5.kumar (kk24268) – HW01 . and the MW of X is 56. which is mass/MW. g ·◦ C mH2 O = 41.746 kJ/mol. The speciﬁc heat of water is 4.7 g Tﬁnal = 55◦ C J CH2 O = 4. the reaction must be exothermic and the value of q (and therefore ∆E) is negative. qrxn = −qcal
.473 g of compound X is burned completely in a bomb calorimeter containing 3000 g of water.222 ◦C is observed.33111 Explanation: mmetal = 20 g TH2 O = 22◦ C Tmetal = 109◦ C J .0 g/mol. Also remember that because the temperature increased in the calorimeter.0 points When 0. g· C
J g·◦ C 109◦ C)
010 10.Thermo 1 – mccord – (51580) capacity of the metal? Assume that there is no energy lost to the surroundings. Explanation: mX = 0.0 g/mol ∆T = 0. Correct answer: −418.184 J/g ·◦C MWX = 56.38 kJ/◦ C
qcal = qwater + qhardware qcal = Cs · mwater · ∆T + Chardware · ∆T Then divide the heat by the number of moles.38 kJ/◦ C.473 g mwater = 3000 g Cs = 4.7 g) 4.184 =− (20 g) (55◦ C − × (55◦ C − 22◦ C) J = 5.184 ◦ g· C
qlost metal = −qgained water mm Cm ∆Tm = −mH2 O CH2 O ∆TH2 O mH2 O CH2 O (Tﬁnal − TH2 O ) Cmetal = − mmetal (Tﬁnal − Tmetal ) (41. What is ∆Urxn for the combustion of compound X? The hardware component of the calorimeter has a heat capacity of 3. a temperature rise of 0.