Acta Bot. Croat.

63 (2), 113–123, 2004

CODEN: ABCRA 25 ISSN 0365–0588

Vineyard weed flora in the Jastrebarsko area (NW Croatia)
DUBRAVKA DUJMOVI] PURGAR*, NADA HULINA
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Botany, HR-10000 Zagreb, Sveto{imunska cesta 25, Croatia Vineyard weed flora was surveyed over the wider Jastrebarsko area (a part of Ple{ivica Mountain, north-west part of Croatia), a well known wine-growing area. The survey was carried out in the years 2001 and 2002, in ten vineyards at six different localities. A hundred and nine (109) weed species were noted. The presence of segetal weeds such as Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Stellaria media (L.)Vill. was recorded in well cultivated vineyards. In addition, ruderal weed species such as Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. were found in vineyards, coming in from surrounding habitats. The species Arctium lappa L., Artemisia vulgaris L. and the others prevail in neglected and abandoned vineyards. It is interesting to record findings of Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Capsella bursa – pastoris (L.) Med. and Daucus carota L. because these species have result in bad grape and wine quality. Key words: vineyard, weed, segetal weeds, ruderal weeds, Jastrebarsko, flora, Croatia

Introduction
Vineyard weed flora in the north-west part of Croatia has been subject to little research (HULINA 1979, PLAV[I]-GOJKOVI] et al. 1986). As compared with the investigations of PLAV[I]-GOJKOVI] et al. (1986) there have been a lot of changes in the vineyards probably due to intensified anthropogenic activities. Some of the vineyards were abandoned and some have been newly established, and the agricultural technology has been changed. Consequently, weed flora has also been changed. This was the main reason for conducting research into weed flora in the vineyards in the Jastrebarsko area. The surveyed area, Jastrebarsko, is situated on the Ple{ivica hills in the north-west part of Croatia (Fig.1), an area suitable for viniculture due to orographic and soil characteristics as well as meteorological conditions. In the geological structure dolomites are predominant, and limestones are much less in evidence. Rendzinas, which developed on the dolomite bedrock, are a dominant pedotaxon

* Corresponding address: dupurgar@globalnet.hr
ACTA BOT. CROAT. 63 (2), 2004 113

because diseases are also a special problem in the vineyards. we investigated the weed flora of vineyards.Br. The insolation is also a very important factor and average annual exposure to the sun's rays is 1912 hours. for decreased soil erosion. a lot of different fungicides are in use. Some of the vineyards are small family estates for personal use and the others are large vineyards of vine growers famous for a high quality of wine production. Plants of the grape vine can be shaded by twining species that also obstruct photosynthesis. or Convolvulus arvensis L. with an average annual amount of precipitation of 924 mm. In addition. nutritive matters and light. some weed species a have deleterious influence on the quality of wine (HULINA 1998). while the new ones have a modern viniculture system with wire. Weeds are problem in vineyards. but there are different types of viniculture cultivation. (MAYER and VRBEK 1995). reduce yield and stimulate the development of different diseases. Some vineyards were fertilized with rotted manure in autumn and with chemical fertilizers in spring. Weed management practice applied in those vineyards was to hoe up once a year. Central European type. such as fertilizing and the agricultural techniques applied. 1999). White grape varieties such as Gra{evina. In very wet season the negative effects of increasing the level of soil moisture retained by weeds appear. 2004 . other vineyards were well fertilized only with rotted manure. Traditional vineyards have viniculture around stakes.e. which that creates a very moist habitat. at an inclination of 10% to more then 40% on the west and south exposed slopes of Ple{ivica hills. Many vineyards have an inter-row cover crop or other cover that is mown as mulch. Vineyards were planted up to an altitude of 400 m. They are competitors to the grape vine for water. Twining species such as Calystegia sepium (L. Inter-row cover crops in vineyards have a significant influence on the vigour of the grapevine (reducing the vigour). (KAROGLAN KONTI] et al.4 and 10. However. 63 (2). In the La{kovec area (a part of the Jastrebarsko area) there is usually a very high level of underground water. Furthermore. which is connected with chemical composition and the organoleptic evaluation of the wine. 114 ACTA BOT. The type of tillage was the same for the majority of vineyards.DUJMOVI] PURGAR D. have an impact on the appearance and growth of weeds (HULINA 1979). Hence. Kraljevina and [tajerska belina and red varieties such as Portugizac and Frankovka dominate the preferences of the growers. Vineyards cover approximately 1600 ha on the west and south exposed slopes of the Ple{ivica hills (LJUBLJANOVI] 2001). In the last years. knowledge of weed flora composition and its changes due to geographical and climatic conditions and husbandry management could benefit weed management. tillage).) R. The macroclimate in the wine-growing Jastrebarsko area is of the continental. husbandry practices are implemented with difficulty (i. An average annual temperature was of between 9. CROAT.9 °C.. The differences between intensive and extensive viniculture. HULINA N. in weedy vineyards. there is much less herbicide in use. In our research. and in addition an increased level of air moisture stimulates the development and expansion of different diseases. can obstruct the growth of sprouts.

2 ha. ACTA BOT. Prho~.27 ha of vineyards were surveyed and the presence of weed species was recorded on the total area. 4. Field observations were carried out every two weeks during the growing season in which the floral composition was researched.3 – Bukovac.15 to 1. In total. 1. Investigated area: Ple{ivica and Jastrebarsko with investigated localities (1 – 10). 2004 115 . 6. Prho~ and Prilipje). Zdihovo locations (Fig. Fig. In the Svetojansko – Slaveti~ko region the vineyards at the Bukovac and Petrovina locations were chosen and in the Ple{iv~ko – Oki}ko region.9 – Prilipje. Prilipje. 8. CROAT.7 – Prho~. 1 – Petrovina. 4. the La{kovec. 1). One of them was cultivated in the manner of traditional viniculture (on stakes) and the second was cultivated in the manner of modern viniculture (along a wire espalier). The researched vineyards varied in size from 0.5 – La{kovec.VINEYARD WEED FLORA IN JASTREBARSKO Materials and Methods The wine-growing area Jastrebarsko includes two regions: Ple{ivi~ko – Oki}ko and Svetojansko – Slaveti~ko. 2. 63 (2). La{kovec. 10 – Zdihovo Two vineyards were investigated at each of the four different localities (Bukovac.

116 1 1 1 2 5 2 5 1 1 1 6 3 1 1 2 5 1 4 1 2 1 2 1 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ACTA BOT. 3 – Bukovac – stakes. 1993. The nomenclature of plants is according to EHRENDORFER (1973). 8 Heracleum sphondyllium L. 4 Amaranthus hybridus L.)Bernh.DUJMOVI] PURGAR D. 6 – Prho~ – wire. APIACEAE 6 Aegopodium podagraria L. 22 Tussilago farfara L. 12 Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Our taxonomic analysis includes the distribution of weeds on dicotyledons and monocotyledons. 21 Tanacetum vulgare L. 9 – Prilipje – stakes.) Link. 5 – La{kovec – stakes. AMARANTHACEAE 3 Amaranthus lividus L. 14 Artemisia vulgaris L. G – geophytes. Tab. 9 Pastinaca sativa L. TUTIN et al. DOMAC 1994). The results are presented in alphabetic order of families to which the species belong (Tab. 63 (2). CROAT. 2 – Bukovac – wire. HULINA N. 1. 10 Torilis arvensis (Huds. KNE@EVI] 1988. HORVAand TRINAJSTI] 1967–1981. P – phanerophytes. The spectrum of life forms for each species is based on GARCKE (1972). T – therophytes. Total – frequency of findings No. The list is supplemented with the life forms: H – hemicryptophytes. 15 Centaurea jacea L. ASTERACEAE 11 Achillea millefolium L. ACERACEAE 2 Acer campestre L. which is in practice well-known as »broad leafed« and »narrow leafed« weeds. 17 Conyza canadensis (L) Cronq. Family/Plant species Life form 1 G P T T T H H H H T H T H H H G T H H H H G H + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Localities 5 6 7 Total 2 3 4 + 8 9 10 EQUISETACEAE 1 Equisetum arvense L. 18 Erigeron annuus (L) Pers. 5 Amaranthus retroflexus L. 7 Daucus carota L. 13 Arctium lappa L. 8 – Prilipje – wire.1). 10 – Zdihovo. 19 Leucanthemum maximum (Ramond)DC 20 Pulicaria dysenterica (L.. Localities: 1 – Petrovina. 7 – Prho~ – stakes. 4 – La{kovec – wire. BORAGINACEAE 23 Symphytum officinale L. 2004 . The list of weed species in the vineyards in the Jastrebarsko area. TI] The usual keys and iconography for identification were used (HEGI 1906–1931. 16 Cirsium arvense (L) Scop.

DIPSACACEAE 45 Knautia arvensis (L. Cardamine hirsuta L.) Besser Life form 1 H T T H T H T T T T T H H H T G T H G G P H H T H G H T H H H + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 2 3 Localities 4 5 6 7 + + + + + + + + + + 8 + + + 9 10 Total 24 25 26 27 28 29 + 2 1 5 1 1 1 1 5 1 6 1 1 1 4 3 4 3 2 5 4 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 2 1 1 6 117 CARYOPHYLLACEAE 30 Arenaria serpyllifolia L. 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 CICHORIACEAE Cichorium inthybus L. 43 Convolvulus arvensis L. Rorippa sylvestris (L. Medicago sativa L. 1. 63 (2). Family/Plant species BRASSICACEAE Armoratia rusticana Gaert.VINEYARD WEED FLORA IN JASTREBARSKO Tab. 31 Stellaria media (L.K. CORNACEAE 44 Cornus sanguinea L. Lathyrus tuberosus L. Sonchus oleraceus L. Trifolium pratense L.) Coult. 47 Euphorbia helioscopia L. Crepis biennis L. Diplotaxis muralis (L. Taraxacum officinale Wiggers + + + + + + + + + + + CONVOLVULACEAE 42 Calystegia sepim (L) R.Br. CHENOPODIACEAE 32 Atriplex patula L. 34 Chenopodium polyspermum L. CROAT. 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 FABACEAE Lathyrus pratensis L. Capsella bursa – pastoris (L) Med. 33 Chenopodium album L.)DC. Lotus corniculatus L.)Vill. Senecio vulgaris L. Picris hieracioides L. Medicago falcata L. Brassica rapa L. EUPHORBIACEAE 46 Euphorbia villosa W. Sonchus arvensis L. 2004 . Medicago lupulina L. + ACTA BOT. – continued No.

Dactylis glomerata L.) A. Cynodon dactylon (L.DUJMOVI] PURGAR D. 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 LAMIACEAE Calamintha vulgaris (L. Setaria faberi Herrm. OXALIDACEAE 69 Oxalis fontana Bunge PLANTAGINACEAE 70 Plantago lanceolata L.)Pers. 118 + ACTA BOT. Stachys palustris L. 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 POACEAE Agropyron repens (L. Lamium purpureum L. – continued No. + + + + + + + + LYTHRACEAE 67 Lythrum salicaria L. 71 Plantago major L.B. 56 Vicia cracca L. Poa pratensis L. 2004 . Mentha arvensis L. 63 (2).) PB.) Pers. Setaria glauca (L. MALVACEAE 68 Malva sylvestris L.. Love 86 Polygonum aviculare L. HULINA N. + + POLYGONACEAE 85 Fallopia convolvulus (L. Echinochloa crus – galli (L. Salvia verticillata L. Prunella vulgaris L.)P. GERANIACEAE 57 Geranium dissectum L. et K. Setaria verticillata (L. Sorghum halepense (L. 58 Geranium molle L. Lamium maculatum L.Presl.) PB. CROAT. Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Arrhenatherum elatius (L. Family/Plant species Life Localities form 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H + + + + T + T T H H H H H H H H H H T H H G H G H T H T H H T T T G T T + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 8 9 10 + Total 4 2 1 1 1 2 1 6 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 1 1 2 4 1 1 3 1 1 2 3 2 2 3 55 Trifolium repens L.) PB.)J. Lolium multiflorum Lam. Tab.)Druce Glechoma hederacea L. 1. Poa trivialis L.

102 103 104 105 SCROPHULARIACEAE Antirrhinum oronitum L. CROAT. ACTA BOT. + + + SOLANACEAE 106 Solanum nigrum L.) Dum. 100 Galium mollugo L. Rumex acetosella L. PRIMULACEAE 93 Anagallis arvensis L. 1. Rumex conglomeratus Muray Rumex crispus L. 97 Potentilla reptans L. Rumex obtusifolius L. RESEDACEAE 95 Reseda lutea L. 98 Rubus caesius L. 2004 119 . ROSACEAE 96 Geum urbanum L. URTICACEAE 107 Urtica dioica L. VALERIANACEAE 108 Valeriana officinalis L. RANUNCULACEAE 94 Ranunculus repens L. Kickxia spuria (L. Veronica persica Poir. 87 88 89 90 91 Family/Plant species Polygonum lapathifolium L. – continued No. SALICACEAE 101 Salix alba L. Life Localities Total form 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T + 1 H + 1 H + 1 H + + + + 4 H + 1 T T H H H H P T H P T T G T T H H T + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 1 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 1 1 2 PORTULACACEAE 92 Portulaca oleracea L. RUBIACEAE 99 Galium aparine L. VERBENACEAE 109 Verbena officinalis L. Linaria vulgaris Mill.VINEYARD WEED FLORA IN JASTREBARSKO Tab. 63 (2).

50 4.42 6.92 0.75 1.92 0. HULINA N.92 0.DUJMOVI] PURGAR D.34 6.92 0. 1 family of monocotyledons and 1 family of pteridophytes (Tab. 2004 120 .93 11.83 1. Tab.59 3.92 100.92 0.00 ACTA BOT.92 0. Results and Discussion In the vineyards surveyed in the Jastrebarsko region a total of 109 weed species within 35 families were recorded..67 2.83 1.92 0.01 8. composed of 33 families of dicotyledons.92 0.83 1. The list of families supplemented with the number of species and percentages of the total number of species (%) Family Poaceae Asteraceae Fabaceae Lamiaceae Cichoriaceae Polygonaceae Brassicaceae Apiaceae Scrophulariaceae Amaranthaceae Chenopodiaceae Rosaceae Caryophyllaceae Convolvulaceae Euphorbiaceae Geraniaceae Plantaginaceae Rubiaceae Aceraceae Boraginaceae Cornaceae Dipsacaceae Equisetaceae Lythraceae Malvaceae Oxalidaceae Portulacaceae Primulaceae Ranunculaceae Resedaceae Salicaceae Solanaceae Urticaceae Valerianaceae Verbenaceae No. CROAT.26 7.92 0. of species 13 12 9 8 7 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 109 % of total 11.92 0. 63 (2).83 0. 2. 2).92 0.92 0.75 2.75 2.83 1.92 0.92 0.42 5.83 1.92 0.92 0.

Chenopodium album. and the other was planted in the year 2002 (La{kovec – 38 species).. Also. Galium aparine L. because it grows on wet soils (OBERDORFER 1949). and Salix alba L. were recorded. is one of the most common weeds in Croatia. Only 10 of these species were noted in our vineyards and only three species in more than three vineyards: Trifolium pratense (6). The rest were monocotyledons with 11. T. and Aegopodium podagraria L. The findings of Achillea millefolium. The seeds of Amaranthus spp. the inter-row cover in vineyards has a significant influence on the chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of the wine such as contents of sugar. because these species have a deleterious impact on grape and wine quality. Arctium lapa L.. in research into the impact of hoeing on vineyards weed flora. Euphorbia helioscopia L. repens L. VRBEK (2000) determined 66 weed species in the vineyards in the wider @umberak area. 2004 121 .15%. These findings reflect the influence of the indigenous flora (HULINA 1991).). In vineyards that were fertilized with rotted manure in autumn and with chemical fertilizers in spring Capsella bursa-pastoris. The abandoned vineyard also has species that were noted only in this vineyard (for example. which explains the finding of Stachys palustris in vineyard on the Jastrebarsko area. which concluded that the first five years after abandonment are characterised by ruderal species that come up from the seed bank or from propagule sources next to the former vineyards. This confirms the findings of SENDTKO (1999). have a particularly bad influence on the quality of wine (HULINA 1998). PUJADAS SALVÁ and ACTA BOT. Both were free of herbicide use. The highest number of species was found in two vineyards: one of them was abandoned (Zdihovo – 35 species). In vineyards that were well fertilized only with rotted manure Heracleum sphonyllium L. The very dangerous weed with an allergenic pollen Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed). (3). especially hoeing. Ambrosia artemisiifolia expanded from ruderal habitats to habitats with hoe cultures such as vine and maize (TOPI] 1984) The number of species mentioned here is in agreement with HULINA (1979) who determined 89 species in the viniculture areas. repens L. containing phenols. was recorded in the vineyard of La{kovec. Poa pratensis L. Cirsium arvense... Trifolium pratense and T. were also found in this vineyard. The species Stachys palustris L. which belongs to the class Pteridophyta. 63 (2).VINEYARD WEED FLORA IN JASTREBARSKO Our taxonomic analysis shows that weed flora was predominantly composed of dicotyledons with 87. But in La{kovec the soil has an impermeable layer that makes for a very moist habitat. native to North America. (4). This is an unusual species for vineyards. It is interesting to point out the findings of Amaranthus retroflexus (5) Artemisia vulgaris (1). Geum urbanum L. The most important families according to the number of species were Poaceae. In addition. 1999).). PLAV[I]-GOJKOVI] et al. were recorded.93% and only one species (Equisetum arvense L. (1986) in the Jastrebarsko district noted 72 species in vineyards where herbicides were used and in those with classical farming techniques. CROAT. Daucus carota and Trifolium pratense correlate with data by HULINA (1979) for vineyards that were hoed up once a year. In ecological grape growing (KAROGLAN KONTI] and KAROGLAN TODOROVI] 1996) 41 species were recommended for the inter-row cover crop. Cornus sanguinea L. Asteraceae and Fabaceae. on the eastern part of Medvednica. In the Jastrebarsko area. Capsella bursa – pastoris (5) and Daucus carota (5). Artemisia vulgaris L. must acidity and the balance of tataric and malic acids (KAROGLAN KONTI] et al..

HORVATI]... 122 ACTA BOT. P – phanerophytes) The existence of weed flora in vineyards as well as in the other agro-ecosystems is dependent on environmental conditions and the influence of agricultural techniques. References DOMAC. München. The domination of hemicryptophytes is in line with the continental Central European geographical position of Croatia. I. R. T – therophytes. geffasskryptogamen und Blutenpflanzen. 2). G – geophytes. and also a consequence of extensive agriculture. There farmers make probably more extensive use of herbicides and ploughing in the Jastrebarsko area.86 Fig.67%) (Fig.F. P – phanerophytes) 2. G. F. The spectrum of life forms – total (H – hemicryptophytes.21 T Fig. [kolska knjiga. Berlin..09%) and phanerophytes (3. Zagreb. G – geophytes. T – therophytes. We can also conclude that the finding of the highest number of therophytes in a new vineyard (La{kovec. 63 (2). 1973: Liste der Gefässpflanzen Mitteleuropas.63 47.37 15. Sveu~ili{na naklada Liber.DUJMOVI] PURGAR D. Lehmans Verlag. Gustav Fischer Verlag.. followed by therophytes (34.38%). EHRENDORFER. Zagreb. J..86%). TRINAJSTI]. 1994: Flora Hrvatske: priru~nik za odre|ivanje bilja. The spectrum of life forms for La{kovec wire cultivation (H – hemicryptophytes.. 3. 1–7. 1967–1981: Analiti~ka flora Jugoslavije 1. 1906 – 1931: Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. 3.3) is a consequence of intensive tillage. geophytes (10. 2. Stuttgart.67 10. CROAT. Fig. HULINA N.. 1972: Illustrierte Flora Deutschland und angrenzende gebiete.09 P G T H 51. HERNÁNDEZ BERMEJO (1988) quote 119 species that were found in vineyards of southern Spain. S.38 34. 2004 . HEGI. GARCKE. A. No-plough tillage management has increased the abundance of weeds.79 P G H 34. The spectrum of life forms of the weeds in the vineyards of the Jastrebarsko area shows the predomination of hemicryptophytes (51.

H. Hrvatski centar Znanje za okoli{... 1949: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora für Südwestdeutschland und die angrenzenden Gebiete. 141–149.. University Press. S. Weed Res.. 54. Sveu~ili{te u Osijeku Poljoprivredni fakultet. 1999: Die Xerothermvegetation brachhgefallener Rebflächen im Raum Tokaj (Nordost – Ungarn) – pflanzensoziologische und populationsbiologische Untersuchungen zur Sukzession. 1999: The influence of inter-row cover cropping on mean characteristics of grapevine. Matica srpska. S. 28. KAROGLAN TODOROVI].).... 2004 123 . Gartenbau und Naturwissenschaften.. VRBEK. Acta Bot. E. Proc. DUBRAVEC. 2001: Hrvatski vinski vodi~. Osijek. KNE@EVI]. B. A. 20. MIRO[EVI].. J. ruderalne i travnja~ke flore. Agric. FRANJEVI]. M. PUJADAS SALVÁ. Croat. J. TUTIN. HULINA. 1979: Korovna vegetacija vinogradarskih povr{ina u isto~nom dijelu Medvednice.. 345 – 448. HERNÁNDEZ BERMEJO. KAROGLAN KONTI]. 1988: Floristic composition and agricultural importance of weeds in southern Spain. 2000: Ruderalna i korovna flora @umberka. HEYWOOD. 1984: Phytocenological and phytogeographical characteristics of the hoe weed vegetation in the continental part of Croatia.... 1991: Taksonomski i drugi aspekti segetalne i ruderalne flore u podru~ju Turopolja. E. Cambridge.VINEYARD WEED FLORA IN JASTREBARSKO HULINA. Phytocoenologia 29... KAROGLAN KONTI].. Proc. LJUBLJANOVI]. N. 64. 1988: Atlas korovne.Croat. MAYER. 273–284. A. 1–5.. N. J.. Acta Bot. T. OBERDORFER. 43. 187–198. 551–557. B. University of Zagreb... 21–33. 1998: Korovi. TOPI]. KOZINA. B. Zagreb. J. Novi Sad. K. Symp. E. N. 175–180 SENDTKO. B. S.(eds. Msc Thesis. 527–535. ACTA BOT. 1964–1980: Flora Europaea. Sci. Frag. VRBEK. ^ovek i biljka. Stuttgart PLAV[I]-GOJKOVI]. Zagreb. Conspec. Herbol. 1995: Structure of soil cover on dolomites of Samobor and @umberak hills. 1986: Prilog flori korova u vinogradima Oki}ko – Ple{ivi~kog vinogorja. G.. 1996: Ekolo{ko vinogradarstvo. [kolska knjiga. 2 Congr. V. Yugosl. N. Verlag Exkursionsflora für Landwirtschaft.. M. N. Zagreb. 63 (2). Ecol. Ljubljanovi}.. MALETI]... Zagreb. HULINA. CROAT.

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