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1. General characteristics of the non-finite forms of the verbs.

Non-finite forms in English are singled out on the basis of the ability of the verb to perform the role of the predicate (the gerund, the infinitive, the participle are opposed to the finite forms of the verb, since they perform any function, but the predicate). They can not express the categories of person, number and mood. Non-finite forms can be also called verbals. There are 3 verbals in English: the participle, the gerund and the infinitive. The characteristic traits of the verbals: they have a double nature, nominal and verbal; they have only relative tenses; all the verbals can form predicative constructions, consisting of two elements, a nominal (noun/ pronoun) and a verbal (participle, gerund/ infinitive). 2. Characteristics of the infinitive; manifestation of its nominal and verbal nature. The infinitive is a phrase, consisting of the participle to which is followed by a bare infinitive. The infinitive like all non-finite verbs is of a double-nature. The nominal features of the Infinitive are revealed only in its syntactic function. In the sentence the Infinitive can be used as: 1) subject (to succeed takes courage); 2) object (I want to study English) 3) predicative (The purpose of lecture us to teach) The verbal characteristics : the Inf. of transitive verbs takes a direct object (I began to feel pain) can be modified by an adverb (to talk loudly) morphologically the Inf. Has the verb categories of voice (There is nothing to loose/ to be lost); aspect cont./ non-cont.(Now you happen to be sitting); relative simult./ prior ( I am glad to meet you/ I am sorry to have kept you waiting). 3. Grammatical forms and categories of the infinitive. Morphologically the infinitive has the verb category of: - Voice (active/passive) - Aspect (cont./non-cont.) Ex. Now you happen to be sitting. Im glad to have seen you. - Relative tense (simultaneous action/ prior action) Ex. Im sorry to have kept you waiting. (Prior) Im glad to meet you. (Simultaneous) So according to the grammatical categories the infinitive has the following grammatical forms: Vo Active Passive ice Cont No Cont No inuo ninuo nus co us co nt. nt. No to be to to nwriti wr be pe ng ite wr rfe itte ct n Pe to to to rfe have ha ha ct been ve ve writi wr be ng itt en en wr itte n

4. The use of the bare infinitive. Bare infinitive is the kind of infinitive which is used without a participle to. There are several cases when the bare infinitive is used: - after modal verbs except ought to (You should ask your mother first) - after auxiliary verbs (We will go there tomorrow) - after emphatic auxiliary do (I do love you) - when sentences begin with why/ why not (Why not go to the movie?) - verbs of causation (make, let, have/get) (I wont have you come late for classes. Lets go together. What makes you think this way?) - verbs of perception in active voice (the action finished) (I saw him cross the street) - Id better, Id rather, cannot but, nothing but, might just as well 5. Functions of the infinitive in the sentence. The infinitive can be used in different syntactic functions: - Subject (To read is useful), also when the sentence starts with an introductory it ( It is useless to discuss the question) - Predicative ( All I need is to be loved), also can be introduced by the conj. how, when, where, who (The question is what to do) - Part of a compound verbal predicate after modal verbs and those, which express modality ( You should do this work), also after verbs denoting beginning, duration, etc. (He began to work) - Object (I want to live. I found it stupid to leave everything just like that) - Complex object (Ive never seen you act this way before) - Attribute after abstract nouns, indefinite pronouns, class/ concrete nouns, ordinal numerals + last (There is a reason to believe. I need a house to live in. I have smth. to tell you. She is the first to come) - Adverbial modifier of: 1) purpose in order, so as ( Ive come to help you) result too, quite, enough, soas, suchas, as to ( I was too busy to see anyone. I was such a fool to think. He was so weak as to be unable to work. ) 3) comparison as if, as though (She moved her hand as if to stop him) 4) attendant circumstances - Parenthesis: to cut the long story short, so to speak, to tell the truth, to be frank, etc. 6. For-to-infinitive construction. For-to-infinitive construction is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicative relation to noun/ pronoun preceided by a prep. for. In the sentence it can be used as a: subject (It is hard for me to get up early) predicative (this is for you to do) object (I am sorry for you to think you) attribute ( There was nothing for him to do) adv. modifier of: 1. purpose (Its time for you to go home) 2. result (He spoke loud enough for you to hear)

7. The use of the complex object with the infinitive. Complex object consists of the verb in active voice and pronoun in the Genetive case or noun in the nominal case + inf. Is used after following group of words: sensitive watch, feel, notice, see, hear ( I saw him enter the room) mental activity, expressing supposition to suppose smb. to do smth., to believe, to think, to find, to expect, to imagine, to consider ( I know him to be a good person) wish and intention to wish smb. to do smth., to want, to desire, to mean, to intend (He wants me to marry him) denoting order/ permission/ causation ( to cause smb. to do, to allow, to order, to command, to tell, to ask ( The noise cause her to move) 8. The use of the complex subject with the infinitive. Complex subject is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case. Complex subject is used after: verbs of perception ( She was heard to sing) verbs of mental activity ( The car is reported to have been stolen)

the word groups to be likely/ certain / sure ( He is sure to come) the following verbs in the active voice to seem, to appear, to happen, to prove, to turn out, to happen ( He proved to be a real friend) to say and to report (Hes said to be the most handsome man around)


9. Characteristics of the gerund; manifestation of its nominal and verbal nature. The Gerund is a non-finite form, which is of a double-nature. Is formed by adding the suffix ing to the stem and coincides in form with Participle I. Nominal characteristics: it can function as a subject (Swimming is time), object (I like swimming), predicative ( My favourite sport is swimming) can be preceded by a preposition (I am sick and tired of working) can be modified by a possessive pronoun (I insist on your coming) Verbal characteristics: can be modified by an adverb ( She started laughing loudly) the gerund of transitive verbs can have a direct object ( Reading this book is interesting) morphologically the gerund has the verb categories of: 1.relative tense ( simple gerund -simultaneous He told me of writing a report), perfect gerund priority ( He told me of having written a report) 2.the gerund of tr. verbs have the category of voice (I like being invited by my friends) The gerund is avoided after verbs - to remember, to excuse, to thank, to forgive (I remember taking exams), prepositions on, upon, after, without( After signing that song, I felt in love with him) The Gerund is used in the active after the verbs to need, to want, to deserve, to be worth, to require ( Curtains need cleaning).

11. Syntactic functions of the gerund. In the sentence gerund can be:

subject its no use, its useless, its no good (Its no use crying over a spilled milk) predicative to be on the point of, to be on the verge of, to be far from/ for, against ( All you need is having a good rest. I am on the point of crying) a part of a compound verbal predicate with the verbs, denoting beginning, duration, etc. go on, keep on, to finish, to leave off, to stop (They kept on talking); with verbs/phrases denoting modality need, want, require, cant held doing smth. ( The desk needs repairing) object - direct (I cant stand eating animals) - prepositional indirect object (I am proud of being a student) attribute pleasure of, surprise at, fear of, objection to, possibility of, apology for ( She found an opportunity of visiting classes) adverbial modifier of: time on, upon, after, before, in, at ( At hearing the news, she turned pale) manner by, in ( He improved it by attending classes) attended circumstances without, instead of, besides, apart from ( He left without saying good bye) purpose for , for the purpose of, with a view to ( For the purpose of improving students results, they gave them extra home task.) condition without, in case of, but for, in the event of ( You wont speak correct English without learning grammar) cause because of, owing to, on account of ( I couldnt sleep for worrying) concession in spite of (In spite of being left alone, she succeeded.) 13. The Gerund and the infinitive compared. to advise, to allow, to consider, to contemplate, to forbid, to permit, to recommend is followed by an object, they require Infinitive (They advised us not to enter the room. He advised reading that book). Hate, love, prefer, like/ dislike Infinitive is used with reference to different occasions (I dont like to be interrupted right now. I hate to think that may happen tomorrow). Gerund is a characteristic for general statement ( I dont like interrupting people. This is my nature) Forget, remember Infinitive is used to talk about the future form (I remember to go to work , ) Gerund is used when looking back in time(I remember going to work , ) Cant bear Infinitive is used with a reference to a definite situation (I cant bear to see you falling to sleep), Gerund expresses general, permanent preference of the speaker (I cant bear being pushed in the bus) Regret/ to be sorry for Infinitive to express a polite apology (We regret to inform you, that), Gerund to express that you are sorry for what you have done (I very much regret saying that) Stop Infinitive has a function of an adv. modifier of purpose (He stopped to talk to me ()), Gerund expresses the end of the action (They stopped talking, when the lecture began) Try Infinitive is used when a subject makes an effort to do smth. (Please, try to remember to post the letter), Gerund when the subject is testing to see what might happen ( I have tried being strict, but) Mean Infinitive is used to show an intention (I didnt mean to scare you), Gerund to express the meaning of the action, the involvement of the doer into the action (Achieving success means working hard). 14. Characteristics of the Participle I PI is formed by adding ing to the stem of the word. PI has a verbal and adjectival character. Its adjectival character is manifested in its syntactic function of an attribute. Verbal characteristics of PI: PI of trans. verbs can take a direct object (Seeing Jane, I rushed to meet her) It can be modified by an adverb (Getting up early, youll make the fruitful day) It has the verbal categories of relative tense and voice (trans. verbs only) Tense distinction denotes a simultaneous action expressed by the finite verb, referring either to the present/past/future (Being left alone, he will fall/falls/felt asleep), PI Perfect denotes a prior action (Having written the letter, I go/went/will go somewhere). With come, go, arrive, enter, turn, leave PI is used only if we have a big lapse of time. PI as an attribute can not express the priority (A man, who wrote the article) Voice distinction PI of transit. verbs can have active voice (When translating the article, you should be exact) passive voice (Being translated the article is known) active perfect (Having analyzed the problem, they made new conclusions)

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

10. Grammatical forms and categories of the gerund. Morphologically the gerund has the verb category of:

Relative tense (perfect/nonperfect). The simple gerund is used, when the action expressed by the gerund is simultaneous with the main verb. The perfect gerund is used to show the priority of action. Voice Indefinite Perfect Active Writing Having written Passive Being written Having been written

12. Gerundial predicative constructions. Gerundial predicative constructions are used in cases, when the subject of gerundial process differs from the subject of the finite verb. The verbal element is in the predicative relation to a nominal element, expressed by a noun in the gen. case/ common case or by a possessive pronoun. There are 4 gerundial predicative constructions in English: 1. Complex subject (His being rude like this is awful) 2. Complex object (I insist on your arriving at time) 3. Complex attribute (There is no hope of our winning the lottery) 4. Complex adverbial modifier ( On the lecturers appearing in this room everybody stood up)

passive perfect (Having been given all the instructions he started to do smth)

15. Grammatical categories and forms of Participle I. Tense. P1 simple denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb, referring to the present, past or future.P1 perfect denotes an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb. Voice. P1 of transitive verbs can have both active and passive voice, simple and perfect. Indefinite Perfect Active Writing Having written Passive Being written Having been written

16. Functions of Participle I in the sentence. Syntactic function of PI: 1. Predicative (Your story is amazing) 2. As a part of a verbal predicate find, keep, leave (She was found working) 3. An attribute (A student writing an article) 4. An adv. modifier of: time. Can be introduced by when, while (When speaking English, mind your articles) reason. Usually used with verbs denoting emotions and mental states+ being/having. (Knowing English well, he translated the article. Having plenty of time, we went out) attendant circumstances (parallel actions) (He sat in the armchair, reading a newspaper) manner (He came up to me, carrying a book) comparison - as if, as though (As if obeying him, she turned around) 5.Parenthesis (Generally speaking, putting it mildly) 17. Characteristics of the Participle II PII is a single form which implicitly conveys the grammatical meaning of the perfect and passive. Its adverbial features are realized in the function of an adverbial modifier. Verbal characteristics of PII: PII can be modified by an adverb (Deeply affected, he rose and left the room) PII of terminative words express priority and non-terminative simultaneity. 18. Functions of Participle II in the sentence. In the sentence PII may have the function of: Attribute (a needly written letter; These are letters sent by her lover) Detached attribute (Greatly excited the students followed the lecturer) Predicative (She looks puzzled) Adverbial modifier of: time when, while, until (He is very polite when spoken to) condition if, unless (If required I will give you all the facts) concession though, although (Though occupied by his thoughts, he answered the questions) comparison as if, as though (She looked at me as if puzzled)

19. The use of the complex object with PI. CO with PI consists of a noun in the common case/ pronoun in the objective case+ PI. (I saw him playing). CO with PI is used after: - verbs of sense perception like to see/hear/find/feel etc. (Do you smell smth. burning?) - verbs of mental activity: to consider, to understand (I consider myself engaged to Mr. Black) - verbs to find, to catch, to discover, to leave (I left him working) - verbs of causative meaning to keep, to have, to start, to set (Dont keep me waiting) to have + obj. + participle is also a causative form. It means to encourage/ persuade/ teach smb. doing smth. is used in interr./affirm. sentences also. (Ill have you driving the car in three days) Rare with the verbs like, want (I dont want you talking back to me)

20. The use of the complex object with PII. CO with PII is used after: - verbs denoting wish to wish, to prefer, to want, to desire (I want it done right now) - verbs of perception and the verb to find (I found the door locked. I saw the student addresses by the dean) to get, to make, to have(I must have my watch mended) have + object + PII expresses smth. done by smb. else (I have had my hair cut) 21. The use of the complex subject. The subjective participial construction is a construction in which the participle (mostly Participle. I) is in the predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case, which is the subject of a sentence. The peculiarity of this construction is that it does not serve as a part of the sentence: one of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other forms part of a compound verbal predicate. Ex. They were heard talking together. (with verbs of perception) The horse was seen galloping down the hill. , .

22. The nominative and prepositional absolute participial constructions. 1) The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle stands in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case; the noun or pronoun is not the subject of the sentence. Ex. The door of the living-room being open, we looked in. In NAPC Participle II is used. It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier: (a) of time Ex. The lamp having been lit, Jenny started reading the letter. (b) of cause Ex. It being now pretty late, we packed our belongings and left. (c) of attendant circumstances NAPC is mostly placed at the end of the sentence in this function. Ex. He turned and went, we, as before, following him. (d) of condition Occurs very seldom, used with the participles permitting and failing. Ex. Weather permitting, we shall start tomorrow. 2) The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction (further PAPC) is a construction which may be introduced by the preposition with. It is in the most cases used as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances. Ex. They were walking on again, with John calmly drawing at his pipe. She was sitting still, with her eyes fixed on the ground. 23. Syntax as a part of grammar, its general characteristics. The grammatical structure of language comprises two major parts morphology and syntax. Syntax deals with the way words are combined. It is concerned with the external functions of words and their relationship to other words within the linearly ordered units word-groups, sentences and texts. Syntax studies the way in which the units and their meanings are combined. It also deals with peculiarities of syntactic units, their behaviour in different contexts.

24. Characteristics of syntactic theories. There are several syntactic theories. Transformational Generative grammar (Syntax Grammar). The main point of the TransformationalGenerative Grammar is that the endless variety of sentences in a language can be reduced to a finite number of kernels by means of transformations. These kernels serve the basis for generating sentences by means of syntactic processes. Different language analysts recognize the existence of different number of kernels (from 3 to 39). The following 6 kernels are commonly associated with the English language: (1) NV John sings. (2) NVAdj. John is happy. (3) NVN John is a man. (4) NVN John hit the man. (5) NVNN John gave the man a book. (6) NVPrep.N The book is on the table. Ex. It should be noted that (3) differs from (4) because the former admits no passive transformation. Transformational method proves useful for analysing sentences from the point of their deep structure: Flying planes can be dangerous. This sentence is ambiguous, two senses can be distinguished: a) the action of flying planes can be dangerous, b) the planes that fly can be dangerous. Therefore it can be reduced to the following kernels: a) Planes can be dangerous b) Planes can be dangerous X (people) fly planes Planes fly 2) Constructional Analysis. This analysis deals with the constructional significance/insignificance of a part of the sentence for the whole syntactic unit. The theory is based on the obligatory or optional environment of syntactic elements. Ex. I saw him there yesterday. obligatory optional 3) Communicative syntax. It is primarily concerned with the analysis of utterances from the point of their communicative value and informative structure. Deals with the actual division of the sentence the theme (known info) and the rheme (new info). Ex. Who is at home? John is at home. (We can just say John is.) rheme theme Where is John? John is at home. (We can just say At home.) theme rheme RHEME is always obligatory. THEME is optional.


25. Modern approaches to analysing syntactic units: pragmatics, discourse analysis, cognitive linguistics. 1) Pragmatic approach. Pragmatic approach to the study of syntactic units can briefly be described as the study of the way language is used in particular contexts to achieve particular goals, or to influence the interlocutor. I just state the fact; I want you to do something about it (close the window); Ex. Its cold here Im threatening you; Im seeking for an excuse for not doing something; I want you to feel guilty of it; 2) Discourse analysis. DA studies the text in use with the reference to extralinguistics reality (all the outer factors that influence), social and psychological factors, that influence the communication. 3) Cognitive linguistics This approach is based on the assumption that linguistic units reflect a particular way of the speakers world perception. 4) Text linguistics Studies the text as a syntactic unit, its main features, the way its elements are linked with the help of language units (cohesion) and the way it forms logical and semantic whole (coherence). 26. Basic syntactic notions: syntactic unit, syntactic form, syntactic meaning, syntactic function. The syntactic language level can be described with the help of special linguistic terms and notions: syntactic unit, syntactic form, syntactic meaning, syntactic function, syntactic position, and syntactic relations. Syntactic unit is always a combination that has at least two constituents. The basic syntactic units are a word-group, a clause, a sentence, and a text. Syntactic meaning is the way in which separate word meanings are combined to produce meaningful word-groups and sentences. Syntactic form may be described as the distributional formula of the unit (pattern). John hits the ball N1 + V + N2. Syntactic function is the function of a unit on the basis of which it is included to a larger unit. This term also denotes the function of a unit in the sentence. 40. The complex sentence. Types of subordinate clauses. A complex sentence consists of a principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses. A subordinate clauses may follow, precede or interrupt the principal clause. According to their grammatical function subordinate clauses are divided into subject, predicative, attributive, object, and adverbial clauses.

27. Types of syntactic relations and syntactic connections. Illustrate the answer with your own examples. Syntactic relations are syntagmatic relations observed between syntactic units. They can be of three types coordination (can be of 2 types: symmetric and asymmetric: for ex. pens and pencils; ladies and gentlemen), subordination and predication. Types of connection: Forms of connection within coordination may be copulative (you and me), disjunctive (you or me), adversative (strict but just) and causative-consecutive (sentence and text level only). Forms of subordination may also be different agreement (this book these books), government (help us), adjournment (the use of modifying particles just, only, even, etc.) and enclosure (the use of modal words and their equivalents really, after all, etc.). Predication may be of two kinds primary (sentence level) and secondary (phrase level). Primary predication is observed between the subject and the predicate of the sentence while secondary predication is observed between non-finite forms of the verb and nominal elements within the sentence. Secondary predication serves the basis for gerundial, infinitive and participial wordgroups (predicative complexes). 28. General characteristics of the wordgroup. Word-group classification. The word-group is a combination of at least two notional words which do not constitute the sentence but are syntactically connected. General characteristics of the word-group are: 1) As a naming unit it differs from a compound word because the number of constituents in a word-group corresponds to the number of different denotions: a black bird (2), a blackbird (1); a loud speaker (2), a loudspeaker (1). 2) Each component of the word-group can undergo grammatical changes without destroying the identity of the whole unit: to see a house - to see houses. 3) A word-group is a dependent syntactic unit, it is not a communicative unit and has no intonation of its own. Classification of word-groups. Word-groups can be classified on the basis of several principles: a) According to the type of syntagmatic relations: coordinate (you and me), subordinate (to see a house, a nice dress), predicative (him coming, for him to come), b) According to the structure: simple (all elements are obligatory), expanded (to read and translate the text expanded elements are equal in rank), extended (a word takes a dependent element and this dependent element becomes the head for another word: a beautiful flower a very beautiful flower). 29. Noun-phrases with pre-posed and postposed adjuncts. In noun-phrases with pre-posed modifiers we generally find adjectives, pronouns, numerals, participles, gerunds, nouns, nouns in the genitive case. NPs with post-posed adjuncts may be classified according to the way of connection into prepositionless and prepositional. The basic prepositionless NPs with post-posed adjuncts are: Nadj. tea strong, NVen the

shape unknown, NVing the girl smiling, ND the man downstairs, NVinf a book to read, NNum room ten. 33. Semantic and structural characteristics of the sentence. The most essential features of the sentence as a linguistic unit are a) its structural characteristics subject-predicate relations (primary predication), and b) its semantic characteristics it refers to some fact in the objective reality. It is represented in the language through a conceptual reality: conceptual reality proposition

The predicate is the second principal part of the sentence which expresses an action, state, or quality of the person or thing denoted by the subject. It is grammatically independent upon the subject. 37. General characteristics of the secondary parts of the sentence. In a sentence we distinguish the principal parts, secondary parts and independent elements. The principal parts of the sentence are the subject and the predicate. The secondary parts are the attribute, the object and the adverbial modifier. The object is a secondary part of the sentence which completes or restricts the meaning of a verb or sometimes an adjective, a word denoting state, or a noun. The attribute is a secondary part of the sentence which qualifies a noun, a pronoun, or any other part of speech that has a nominal character. The adverbial modifier is a secondary part of the sentence which modifies a verb, an adjective or an adverb. According to their meaning we distinguish the following kinds of adverbial modifiers: - of time - of frequency - of place and direction - of manner - of attendant circumstances - of degree and measure - of cause - of result (consequence) - of condition - of comparison - of concession - of purpose 38. General characteristics of the independent parts of the sentence. The independent elements of the sentence are words and word-groups which are not grammatically dependent on any part of the sentence. They are: 1) Interjections, such as ah, oh, hurrah, eh, hallo, goodness gracious, good heavens, etc. 2) Direct address. Ex. Good morning, sweet child! 3) Parenthesis, like probably, speaking seriously, to begin with, to be sure, unfortunately, indeed, surely, actually, thus, nevertheless, on the one hand, to tell the truth etc. A parenthesis either shows the speakers attitude towards the thought expressed in the sentence or connects a given sentence with another one. Ex. Unfortunately, we didnt manage to get there. 39. The compound sentence. Types of coordination. A compound sentence is a sentence which consists of two or more clauses coordinated with each other. We distinguish the following types of coordination: 1) Copulative coordination, expressed by the conjunctions and, nor, neithernor, not onlybut. With the help of these conjunctions the statement expressed in one clause is simply added to that expressed in another. 2) Disjunctive coordination, expressed by the conjunctions or, else, or else, either or , and the conjunctive adverb otherwise. By these a choice is offered between the statements expressed in two clauses. 3) Adversative coordination, expressed by the conjunctions but, while, whereas, and the conjunctive adverbs nevertheless, still, yet.

30. Verbal word combos. Types of verbal complements. VPs can be classified according to the nature of their complements verb complements may be nominal (to see a house) and adverbial (to behave well). Consequently, we distinguish nominal, adverbial and mixed complementation. Nominal complementation takes place when one or more nominal complements (nouns or pronouns) are obligatory for the realization of potential valency of the verb: to give smth. to smb., to phone smb., to hear smth.(smb.), etc. Adverbial complementation occurs when the verb takes one or more adverbial elements obligatory for the realization of its potential valency: He behaved well, I live in Kyiv (here). Mixed complementation both nominal and adverbial elements are obligatory: He put his hat on he table (nominal-adverbial). According to the structure VPs may be basic or simple (to take a book) all elements are obligatory; expanded (to read and translate the text, to read books and newspapers) and extended (to read an English book). 31. The notion of predication. Types of predicative relations. Predicative wordgroups. Predication is the connection between situation in the utterance and reality. Predicative relations are the relations of interdependence: primary and secondary predication. As mentioned above, SR may be observed in utterances, which is impossible when we deal with PR. Therefore, PR are identified with language while SR are identified with speech. Predicative word combinations are distinguished on the basis of secondary predication. The predicative word-group consists of a nominal element (noun, pronoun) and a nonfinite form of the verb: N + Vnon-fin. There are Gerundial, Infinitive and Participial wordgroups (complexes) in the English language: his reading, for me to know, the boy running, etc.) 32. General characteristics of the sentence. Sentence proposition utterance. The sentence is the central syntactic construction used as the minimal communicative unit that has its primary predication, actualises a definite structural scheme and possesses definite intonation characteristics. The sentence is a unit of language while the utterance is a unit of speech. We may define the proposition as the main predicative form of thought. Basic predicative meanings of the typical English sentence are expressed by the finite verb that is immediately connected with the subject of the sentence (primary predication). To sum it up, the sentence is a syntactic level unit, it is a predicative language unit which is a lingual representation of predicative thought (proposition). The utterance as opposed to the sentence is the unit of speech. The main categories of the utterance from the point of view of its informative structure are considered to be the theme and the rheme.

objective reality lingual representation objective situation predicative unit 34. General characteristics of the communicative types of the utterance. Informative structure of the utterance is one of the topics that still attract the attention of language analysts nowadays. It is well recognized that the rheme marking devices are: 1. Position in the sentence. As a rule new information in English generally comes last: The cat ate the rat. 2. Intonation. 3. The use of the indefinite article. However, sometimes it is impossible (as in 1): A gentleman is waiting for you. 4. The use of there is, there are. There is a cat in the room. 5. The use of special devices, like as for, but for, etc.: As for him, I dont know. 6. Inverted word order: Here comes the sun. 7. The use of emphatic constructions: It was the cat that ate the rat. 35. The simple sentence. Its paradigm. The sentence is a unit of speech whose grammatical structure conforms to laws of language and which serves as the chief means of conveying a thought. A sentence is not only a means of communicating something about reality but also a means of showing the speakers attitude to it. Paradigm of the simple sentence. Senten ce can be of 2 types. 1 member 2 member - nominal (by a noun) - complete (both principal parts) - verbal (inf./ gerund) - incomplete (elliptical)

ext ended/ unextended 36. General characteristics of the principal parts of the sentence. In a sentence we distinguish the principal parts, secondary parts and independent elements. The principal parts of the sentence are the subject and the predicate. The secondary parts are the attribute, the object and the adverbial modifier. The subject is the principal part of the twomember sentence which is grammatically independent and may denote a living being, a lifeless thing or an idea.

These are conjunctions and adverbs connecting two clauses contrasting in meaning. 4) Causative-consecutive coordination, expressed by the conjunctions for, so and the conjunctive adverbs therefore, accordingly, consequently, hence.