# Brandon Morehouse MTH 344 2/25/13 (resubmitted) Midterm Problems: Chapter 4 #13 Chapter 5 #6,19,25 Chapter 6 #3 Ch 4 #13) Find if U(n) is cyclic for

n≤20. If there is a conjecture to be made, can it be proven? n 2 3 4 5 6 7 *8 9 10 11 *12 13 14 *15 *16 17 18 19 *20 Order 1 2 2 4 2 6 4 6 4 10 4 12 6 8 8 16 6 18 8 1 2 2 4 2 6 2 6 4 10 2 12 6 4 4 16 6 18 4 Exponent Generators 1 2 3 2 5 3 7, 3 2 3 2 5, 7 2 3 14, 2 15, 3 3 5 2 19, 3

(Table 1: U(n) for n=1 to 20, with order, exponent and generating set)

From above, we can see that U(n) is cyclic for n≠8,12,15,16 and 20. Note that for n=8,12,15,16 and 20 the order and exponent are not equal. *Conjecture: U(n) is cyclic when the order and exponent are equal

Proof: (by contradiction) -Assume that U(n) is cyclic when the order and exponent are different (not equal) Consider U(3): *U(3) = {1,2} *21=2, 22=4=1 mod 3, 23=8=2 mod 3, 24=1...thus 2 is a generator for U(3) *Therefore U(3) is cyclic However, from the table above the order of U(3) = the exponent of U(3) = 2. →← Contradiction *U(3) is cyclic, but it's order and exponent are identical, therefore U(n) is cyclic when the order and exponent are the same by contradiction. QED ___________________________________________________________________________________ Ch 5 #6) ***Already graded, see attached*** Ch 5 #19) Prove that Dn is nonabelian for n≥3 Proof: (by induction) Base case: Let n=3 s,r ∈ D3 (s = reflection, r = rotation) *r(A) = B, r(B) = C, r(C) = A *s(A) = A, s(B) = C, s(C) = B rs(A) = B and sr(A) = C, thus sr≠rs, therefore D3 is nonabelian *Therefore, there exists a k≥3 such that Dk is nonabelian Consider k+1: since k≥3, then k+1≥3 s,r ∈Dk+1 *r(1) = 2, r(2) = 3, … , r(k) = k+1, r(k+1) = 1 *s(1) = 1, s(2) = k+1, s(3) = k, …

rs(1) = 2 and sr(1)= k+1, thus sr≠rs, therefore Dk+1 is nonabelian *Therefore Dn is nonabelian for n≥3 by induction QED ___________________________________________________________________________________ Ch 5 #25) Prove that An for n≥3, any permutation is a product of cycles with length 3. Proof: (by exhaustion) *Any permutation can be written as a product of even transpositions e.g. (a,b,c) = (ac)(ab) For transpositions of this form, there are three unique cases: *Case 1: Transpositions are disjointed WLOG, let (a,b)(c,d) represent a disjointed permutation. (a,b)(c,d) = (a,b,c)(b,c,d), therefore it is product of 3-length cycles also *Case 2: Transpositions have one repeated element WLOG, let b repeat, so let (a,b)(b,c) represent a permutation with one repeated element. (a,b)(b,c) = (a,b,c), therefore it is product of 3-length cycles also *Case 3: Transpositions have two repeated elements WLOG, let (a,b)(b,a) represent a permutation with two repeated elements. But (a,b) = (b,a), so (a,b)(b,a) = (a,b)(a,b) (a,b)(a,b) = id, which can also be written as a 3-length cycle For every transposition of these forms, the permutation is a product of cycles with length 3, therefore the statement is true by exhaustion. QED

Ch 6 #3) Prove or disprove that every subgroup of Z has a finite index. Proof: (by counterexample) The question does not clarify whether or not these are non-empty subgroups. The statement is false as read, since {0} has an infinite index. Therefore every subgroup of Z does not have a finite index by counterexample. QED