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What is a phase? At its simplest, a phase can be just another term for solid, liquid or gas. If you have some ice floating in water, you have a solid phase present and a liquid phase. If there is air above the mixture, then that is another phase. But the term can be used more generally than this. For example, oil floating on water also consists of two phases - in this case, two liquid phases. If the oil and water are contained in a bucket, then the solid bucket is yet another phase. In fact, there might be more than one solid phase if the handle is attached separately to the bucket rather than moulded as a part of the bucket.
RAOULT'S LAW AND IDEAL MIXTURES OF LIQUIDS
This page deals with Raoult's Law and how it applies to mixtures of two volatile liquids. It covers cases where the two liquids are entirely miscible in all proportions to give a single liquid - NOT those where one liquid floats on top of the other (immiscible liquids)..
An ideal mixture is one which obeys Raoult's Law. but I want to look at the characteristics of an ideal mixture before actually stating Raoult's Law. The page will flow better if I do it this way around. Examples of ideal mixtures There is actually no such thing as an ideal mixture! However, some liquid mixtures get fairly close to being ideal. These are mixtures of two very closely similar substances. Commonly quoted examples include: hexane and heptane benzene and methylbenzene propan-1-ol and propan-2-ol Ideal mixtures and intermolecular forces In a pure liquid, some of the more energetic molecules have enough energy to overcome the intermolecular attractions and escape from the surface to form a vapour. The smaller the intermolecular forces, the more molecules will be able to escape at any particular temperature. If you have a second liquid, the same thing is true. At any particular temperature a certain proportion of the molecules will have enough energy to leave the surface.
In an ideal mixture of these two liquids, the tendency of the two different sorts of molecules to escape is unchanged.
the remaining gas would still be exerting its own partial pressure. For the purposes of this topic. If the temperature rises or falls when you mix the two liquids. Exactly the same thing is true of the forces between two blue molecules and the forces between a blue and a red. obviously only half as many will escape in any given time. Even if you took all the other gases away. If the proportion of each escaping stays the same.but the proportion of each escaping is still the same. two blue molecules or a red and a blue molecule must all be exactly the same if the mixture is to be ideal. The diagram is for a 50/50 mixture of the two liquids. each gas exerts its own pressure. This is why mixtures like hexane and heptane get close to ideal behaviour. 2 . If the forces were any different. In any mixture of gases. that must mean that the intermolecular forces between two red molecules must be exactly the same as the intermolecular forces between a red and a blue molecule. the tendency to escape would change. they aren't actually ideal. If the red molecules still have the same tendency to escape as before. PA and PB are the partial vapour pressures of the components A and B.and so although they get close to being ideal. the intermolecular attractions between two red molecules. then the mixture isn't ideal. they obviously aren't identical . However. In equation form. If all these attractions are the same.You might think that the diagram shows only half as many of each molecule escaping . and then remake new ones (which releases energy). getting close to ideal is good enough! Ideal mixtures and enthalpy change of mixing When you make any mixture of liquids. you have to break the existing intermolecular attractions (which needs energy). this reads: In this equation. Raoult's Law You may have come cross a slightly simplified version of Raoult's Law if you have studied the effect of a non-volatile solute like salt on the vapour pressure of solvents like water. That means that an ideal mixture of two liquids will have zero enthalpy change of mixing. This is called its partial pressure and is independent of the other gases present. If you follow the logic of this through. The total vapour pressure of the mixture is equal to the sum of the individual partial pressures. They must also be the same otherwise the blue ones would have a different tendency to escape than before. That means that there are only half as many of each sort of molecule on the surface as in the pure liquids. They are similarly sized molecules and so have similarly sized van der Waals attractions between them. for a mixture of liquids A and B. The partial vapour pressure of a component in a mixture is equal to the vapour pressure of the pure component at that temperature multiplied by its mole fraction in the mixture. The definition below is the one to use if you are talking about mixtures of two volatile liquids. Raoult's Law only works for ideal mixtures. there won't be any heat either evolved or absorbed.
a second liquid has a low vapour pressure. it means that its molecules aren't escaping so easily. Let's focus on one of these liquids . you need to add the values for A and B together at each composition.the fraction of the total number of moles present which is A or B. That is exactly what it says it is . these straight lines become curves. its partial vapour pressure will triple . xA and xB are the mole fractions of A and B. for example: Vapour pressure / composition diagrams Suppose you have an ideal mixture of two liquids A and B.The Po values are the vapour pressures of A and B if they were on their own as pure liquids. Suppose you double the mole fraction of A in the mixture (keeping the temperature constant). For a nearly ideal mixture. the partial vapour pressure of A at a particular temperature is proportional to its mole fraction. B is the more volatile liquid. The net effect of that is to give you a straight line as shown in the diagram. You calculate mole fraction using. According to Raoult's Law. Now we'll do the same thing for B. In other words.and so on. you will double its partial vapour pressure. If you triple the mole fraction. its vapour pressure will fall at the same rate. The less ideal the mixture is.as we've seen above. For non-ideal mixtures. it means that its molecules are escaping easily from the surface. As the mole fraction of B falls. That means that molecules must break away more easily from the surface of B than of A. Boliling point / composition diagrams The relationship between boiling point and vapour pressure If a liquid has a high vapour pressure at a particular temperature.A. they are near enough straight lines . To get the total vapour pressure of the mixture. If.that's the assumption we are working on here. Each of A and B is making its own contribution to the overall vapour pressure of the mixture . If you plot a graph of the partial vapour pressure of A against its mole fraction. The mole fraction of B falls as A increases so the line will slope down rather than up. the more curved the lines become. Notice that the vapour pressure of pure B is higher than that of pure A. you will get a straight line. What does that imply about the boiling points of the two liquids? Don't read on until you have tried to think this out! 3 . for example. at the same temperature.
Or: Liquids boil when their vapour pressure becomes equal to the external pressure. Not so! In fact. 4 .There are two ways of looking at this. it turns out to be a curve. If that isn't obvious to you. go back and read the last section again! For mixtures of A and B. If a liquid has a high vapour pressure at some temperature.we've just ended up with this vapour pressure / composition diagram: We're going to convert this into a boiling point / composition diagram.it is the result that is important. B has the higher vapour pressure. On the other hand if the vapour pressure is low. it must mean that the intermolecular forces are relatively weak. Don't go on until you are sure about this: For two liquids at the same temperature: The one with the higher vapour pressure is the one with the lower boiling point. you will have to heat it up a lot more to reach the external pressure. you won't have to increase the temperature very much until the vapour pressure reaches the external pressure. Constructing a boiling point / composition diagram To remind you . The liquid with the higher vapour pressure at a particular temperature is the one with the lower boiling point. you might perhaps have expected that their boiling points would form a straight line joining the two points we've already got. Choose whichever seems easiest to you. It doesn't matter how you work this out . That means that it will have the lower boiling point. Either: If the molecules are escaping easily from the surface. That means that you won't have to supply so much heat to break them completely and boil the liquid. We'll start with the boiling points of pure A and B. The liquid with the higher vapour pressure at a particular temperature is the one with the lower boiling point.
That means that in the case we've been talking about. All you have to do is to use the liquid composition curve to find the boiling point of the liquid. The diagram just shows what happens if you boil a particular mixture of A and B. Notice again that the vapour is much richer in the more volatile component B than the original liquid mixture was. you would expect to find that the more volatile substance escapes to form a vapour more easily than the less volatile one. Notice that the vapour over the top of the boiling liquid has a composition which is much richer in B . you can find out the temperature it boils at. and the composition of the vapour over the boiling liquid. if you boil a liquid mixture C1. you can plot a second curve .… giving a vapour with this composition The liquid boils at this temperature.a vapour composition line. You can discover this composition by condensing the vapour and analysing it.the more volatile component. you would expect to find a higher proportion of B (the more volatile component) in the vapour than in the liquid. it will boil at a temperature T1 and the vapour over the top of the boiling liquid will have the composition C 2. For example.T1 Composition of the vapour C2 Composition of the liquid C1 The second line C2 shows the composition of the vapour over the top of any particular boiling liquid. 5 . That would give you a point on the diagram. and then look at what the vapour composition would be at that temperature. Using the phase diagram The diagram is used in exactly the same way as it was built up. If you repeat this exercise with liquid mixtures of lots of different compositions. in the diagram above. If you boil a liquid mixture. If you boil a liquid mixture.
You can see that we now have a vapour which is getting quite close to being pure B. and the vapour over the top of it would have a composition C3. That would boil at a new temperature T2.a modified version of diagrams from the previous page. The next diagram is new . and then reboiling the liquid produced) you will eventually get pure B.The beginnings of fractional distillation Suppose that you collected and condensed the vapour over the top of the boiling liquid and reboiled it. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF IDEAL MIXTURES OF LIQUIDS Using the phase diagram On the last page. This is obviously the basis for fractional distillation. I want to start by looking again at material from the last part of that page. However. 6 . and unless you could arrange to produce and condense huge amounts of vapour over the top of the boiling liquid. which you can condense to give a liquid of that same composition (the pale blue lines). Real fractionating columns (whether in the lab or in industry) automate this condensing and reboiling process. we looked at how the phase diagram for an ideal mixture of two liquids was built up. doing it like this would be incredibly tedious. you will get a vapour with composition C2. If you boil a liquid mixture C1. If you keep on doing this (condensing the vapour. the amount of B which you would get at the end would be very small. You would now be boiling a new liquid which had a composition C2.
Again you can condense that to give a liquid of the same new composition (the red lines). That will become clearer in a while. You will see why this is important in a minute. The secret of getting the more volatile component from a mixture of liquids is obviously to do a succession of boiling-condensing-reboiling operations. The vapour over the top of the boiling liquid will be richer in the more volatile component. still be C2. Relating what happens in the fractionating column to the phase diagram Suppose you boil a mixture with composition C1. and will have the composition C2. It isn't quite so obvious how you get a sample of pure A out of this. That vapour now starts to travel up the fractionating column.If you reboil that liquid C2. it will give a vapour with composition C3. 7 . Notice that the thermometer bulb is placed exactly at the outlet from the fractionating column. of course. you would be able to collect a liquid which was virtually pure B. The mixture is heated at such a rate that the thermometer is at the temperature of the boiling point of the more volatile component. Fractional distillation in the lab The apparatus A typical lab fractional distillation would look like this: Some notes on the apparatus The fractionating column is packed with glass beads (or something similar) to give the maximum possible surface area for vapour to condense on. Eventually it will reach a height in the column where the temperature is low enough that it will condense to give a liquid. You can see that if you were to do this once or twice more. The composition of that liquid will. Some fractionating columns have spikes of glass sticking out from the sides which serve the same purpose. Reboiling the liquid C3 will give a vapour still richer in the more volatile component B (the green lines).
as B passes out of the top of the column into the condenser.So what happens to that liquid now? It will start to trickle down the column where it will meet new hot vapour rising. Finally. The closer they are together. The diagram shows a simplified cross-section through a small part of a typical column. As the condensed liquid trickles down the column constantly being reboiled by up-coming vapour. it has to happen over and over again. if the vapour is richer in the more volatile component. 8 . each reboiling makes it richer and richer in the less volatile component . All that is different is what the fractionating column looks like. this liquid will start to trickle back down the column where it will be reboiled by up-coming hot vapour. A. what is the point of the packing in the column? To make the boiling-condensing-reboiling process as effective as possible. That will cause the already condensed vapour to reboil. By the time the liquid drips back into the flask. you aim to have the maximum possible contact between the liquid trickling down and the hot vapour rising. it will be very rich in A indeed. while most of the vapour would be going up the middle and never come into contact with it. the longer the column has to be. Whether or not this is possible depends on the difference between the boiling points of the two liquids. Let's concentrate first on that new vapour and think about the unvaporised part of the liquid afterwards. If you are very. Each time this happens the new vapour will be richer in the more volatile component. The aim is to balance the temperature of the column so that by the time vapour reaches the top after huge numbers of condensing and reboiling operations. Fractional distillation industrially There is no difference whatsoever in the theory involved. If you didn't have the packing. The vapour This new vapour will again move further up the fractionating column until it gets to a temperature where it can condense. the liquid would all be on the sides of the condenser. Then the whole process repeats itself. Each time the vapour condenses to a liquid. So. By having a lot of surface area inside the column. the liquid left behind must be getting richer in the other one. it consists only of the more volatile component . the liquid in the flask will become richer in A. The liquid So what about the liquid left behind at each reboiling? Obviously. very careful over temperature control.in this case. over time.in this case. eventually you will have separated the mixture into B in the collecting flask and A in the original flask. B. Some of the liquid of composition C2 will boil to give a vapour of composition C3.
9 . the forces between the particles in the mixture are exactly the same as those in the pure liquids. In these. because of Raoult's Law. That leads to simpler mixtures such as gasoline. Positive deviations from Raoult's Law In mixtures showing a positive deviation from Raoult's Law. If you have a mixture of lots of liquids to separate (such as in petroleum fractionation). Raoult's Law only works for ideal mixtures. kerosene and so on. Vapour pressure / composition diagrams for non-ideal mixtures You will remember that. NON-IDEAL MIXTURES OF LIQUIDS This page looks at the phase diagrams for non-ideal mixtures of liquids. That's not true in non-ideal mixtures. you get a straight line graph like this: In this case. It goes on to explain how this complicates the process of fractionally distilling such a mixture. This all makes the boiling-condensing-reboiling process as efficient as possible. it is possible to tap off the liquids from some of the trays rather than just collecting what comes out of the top of the column. and introduces the idea of an azeotropic mixture (also known as an azeotrope or constant boiling mixture).The column contains a number of trays that the liquid collects on as the vapour condenses. The overflow pipes are simply a controlled way of letting liquid trickle down the column. The tendency for the particles to escape is the same in the mixture and in the pure liquids. the vapour pressure of the mixture is always higher than you would expect from an ideal mixture. if you plot the vapour pressure of an ideal mixture of two liquids against their composition. This is the final page in a sequence of three pages. pure A has the higher vapour pressure and so is the more volatile component. This produces the maximum possible contact between the vapour and liquid. The up-coming hot vapour is forced through the liquid on the trays by passing through a number of bubble caps.
Negative deviations from Raoult's Law In exactly the same way. The example of a major negative deviation that we are going to look at is a mixture of nitric acid and water. this minimum occurs with 95. compared with the boiling point of pure ethanol at 78. Boiling point / composition diagrams for non-ideal mixtures A large positive deviation from Raoult's Law: ethanol and water mixtures If you look back up the page. You can see this when you mix the liquids. This produces a highly distorted curve with a maximum vapour pressure for a mixture containing 95. That is because the intermolecular forces between molecules of A and B are less than they are in the pure liquids.5°C. The molecules are escaping easily and you won't have to heat the mixture much to overcome the intermolecular attractions completely. New stronger forces must exist in the mixture than in the original liquids.2°C. In the case of mixtures of ethanol and water.3°C doesn't matter much. You can recognise this happening because heat is evolved when you mix the liquids . The next diagram shows the boiling point / composition curve for ethanol / water mixtures. Heat will therefore be absorbed when the liquids mix. The boiling point of this mixture is 78. Many (although not all) examples of this involve actual reaction between the two liquids. The enthalpy change of mixing is endothermic.more heat is given out when the new stronger bonds are made than was used in breaking the original weaker ones. The classic example of a mixture of this kind is ethanol and water. but it has huge implications for the separation of ethanol / water mixtures. but in others they are much greater giving a minimum value for vapour pressure lower than that of either pure component. In some cases. If a mixture has a high vapour pressure it means that it will have a low boiling point. 10 .6% by mass of ethanol in the mixture. Less heat is evolved when the new attractions are set up than was absorbed to break the original ones. You now have strong ionic attractions involved. You might think that this 0.Explaining the deviations The fact that the vapour pressure is higher than ideal in these mixtures means that molecules are breaking away more easily than they do in the pure liquids. you can have mixtures with vapour pressures which are less than would be expected by Raoult's Law. you will remember that a large positive deviation from Raoult's Law produces a vapour pressure curve with a maximum value at some composition other than pure A or B. the deviations are small. The implication of this is that the boiling point / composition curve will have a minimum value lower than the boiling points of either A or B. These two covalent molecules react to give hydroxonium ions and nitrate ions. and water at 100°C.6% of ethanol by mass. Explaining the deviations These are cases where the molecules break away from the mixture less easily than they do from the pure liquids.
The liquid collected by condensing the vapour from the top of the fractionating column can't be pure ethanol.6% ethanol. To summarise: Distilling a mixture of ethanol containing less than 95. it will produce a new vapour with composition C3. still have the composition C 2. The vapour produced will have that same composition of 95. it will still have that same composition. pure water in the boiling flask. It will boil at a temperature given by the liquid curve and produce a vapour with composition C2. As ethanol rich vapour is given off from the liquid boiling in the distillation flask. of course.6% of ethanol by mass lets you collect: a distillate containing 95. you would eventually end up with a vapour with a composition of 95. If you condense it again.6% ethanol. If you reboil that. The best you can produce by simple fractional distillation is 95. It has a constant boiling point. What if you distil a mixture containing more than 95. What happens if you reboil that liquid? The liquid curve and the vapour curve meet at that point.Using the diagram Suppose you are going to distil a mixture of ethanol and water with composition C 1 as shown on the above diagram. You have hit a barrier.6% ethanol? Work it out for yourself using the phase diagram. When that vapour condenses it will. You can see that if you carried on with this boiling-condensing-reboiling sequence.6% ethanol. it will eventually lose all the ethanol to leave just water.6% of ethanol in the collecting flask (provided you are careful with the temperature control. The implications of this for fractional distillation of dilute solutions of ethanol are obvious. and starting with a composition to the right of the 11 . and the fractionating column is long enough). This particular mixture of ethanol and water boils as if it were a pure liquid. What you can get (although it isn't very useful!) from the mixture is pure water.6% ethanol. If you condense that you obviously get a liquid with 95. It is impossible to get pure ethanol by distiling any mixture of ethanol and water containing less than 95. It is known as a constant boiling mixture or an azeotropic mixture or an azeotrope.6% of ethanoll. and the vapour composition is exactly the same as the liquid.
it becomes more concentrated. At that point. pure ethanol in the boiling flask. and water at 100°C. because the two curves meet. You produce a constant boiling mixture (or azeotropic mixture or azeotrope). A large negative deviation from Raoult's Law: nitric acid and water mixtures Nitric acid and water form mixtures in which particles break away to form the vapour with much more difficulty than in either of the pure liquids. there is a maximum boiling point of 120. You should find that you get: a distillate containing 95. That compares with the boiling point of pure nitric acid at 86°C. Fractional distillation of dilute nitric acid will enable you to collect pure water from the top of the fractionating column. If you distil dilute nitric acid. The vapour produced is richer in water than the original acid. Distilling nitric acid more concentrated than 68% by mass This time you are starting with a concentration C2 to the right of the azeotropic mixture. 12 . In the case of mixtures of nitric acid and water.5°C when the mixture contains 68% by mass of nitric acid. As the acid loses water. the vapour produced has exactly the same concentration as the liquid. Its concentration gradually increases until it gets to 68% by mass of nitric acid. If you condense the vapour and reboil it. that's what you will eventually be left with in the distillation flask.azeotropic mixture. That means that mixtures of nitric acid and water can have boiling points higher than either of the pure liquids because it needs extra heat to break the stronger attractions in the mixture. You can't produce pure nitric acid from the dilute acid by distilling it. The phase diagram looks like this: Using the diagram Distilling dilute nitric acid Start with a dilute solution of nitric acid with a composition of C1and trace through what happens. the new vapour is even richer in water.6% of ethanol in the collecting flask (provided you are careful with the temperature control. You can see this from the vapour pressure / composition curve discussed further up the page. and the fractionating column is long enough). Notice the much bigger difference this time due to the presence of the new ionic interactions (see above).
one floats on top of the other.The vapour formed is richer in nitric acid. IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS AND STEAM DISTILLATION This page looks at systems containing two immiscible liquids. Once it reaches that. Its concentration drifts down towards the azeotropic composition. It explains the background to steam distillation and looks at a simple way of carrying this out. there can't be any further change. Immiscible liquids are those which won't mix to give a single phase. There is no way that the bottom liquid can turn to vapour. 13 . The vapour pressure of mixtures of immiscible liquids Obviously if you have two immiscible liquids in a closed flask and keep everything still. we always assume that the mixture is being stirred or agitated in some way so that the two liquids are broken up into drops. because it then boils to give a vapour with the same composition as the liquid. you can get pure nitric acid out of the top. At any one time there will be drops of both liquids on the surface. The top one is sealing it in. For the purposes of the rest of this topic. If you continue to do this all the way up the fractionating column. Oil and water are examples of immiscible liquids . you will get a still richer vapour. As far as the liquid in the distillation flask is concerned. That means that both of them contribute to the overall vapour pressure of the mixture. it is gradually losing nitric acid. Distilling a nitric acid / water mixture containing more than 68% by mass of nitric acid gives you pure nitric acid from the top of the fractionating column and the azeotropic mixture left in the distillation flask. If you condense and reboil this. the vapour pressure you measure will simply be the vapour pressure of the one which is floating on top.
where po refers to the saturated vapour pressure of the pure liquid.in other words lower than the boiling point of pure water (100°C) and much lower than the phenylamine (184°C). All you need is enough of each so that both can exist in equilibrium with their vapour. 101. Quite a lot of molecules of this sort will be broken up by heating at high temperatures. During the preparation of phenylamine it is produced as a part of a mixture containing a solution of all sorts of inorganic compounds. That's what steam distillation achieves. Exactly the same sort of argument could be applied to any other mixture of immiscible liquids. Their combined vapour pressures are bound to reach the external pressure before the vapour pressure of either of the individual components get there. STEAM DISTILLATION Notice that in the presence of water. Its total vapour pressure is fractionally higher than the normal external pressure.07 kPa 94. Distilling them in the presence of water avoids this by keeping the temperature low. . I've chosen the phenylamine-water mixture just because I happen to have some figures for it! Important conclusion Agitated mixtures of immiscible liquids will boil at a temperature lower than the boiling point of either of the pure liquids. (That isn't actually true. On the whole these tend to be big molecules we are talking about. Compare that with the figure we have just got for the total vapour pressure of a mixture of water and phenylamine at 98°C. Notice that this is independent of the amount of each sort of liquid present. phenylamine and water can be treated as if they were completely immiscible. This means that such a mixture would boil at a temperature just a shade less than 98°C .in other words.37 kPa Boiling point of the mixture Liquids boil when their vapour pressure becomes equal to the external pressure. . It is 14 . but they are near enough immiscible to be usable as an example. then both of the liquids will be in equilibrium with their vapours. Carrying out steam distillation We will carry on with the phenylamine example for now.) At 98°C.325 kPa. The total vapour pressure is then simply the sum of the individual vapour pressures: . phenylamine (or any other liquid which is immiscible with water) boils well below its normal boiling point. the saturated vapour pressures of the two pure liquids are: phenylamine water 7. For example. Normal atmospheric pressure is 101.Total vapour pressure of the mixture Assuming that the mixture is being agitated.30 kPa The total vapour pressure of an agitated mixture would just be the sum of these . This has an important advantage in separating molecules like this from mixtures. Normal distillation of these liquids would need quite high temperatures.
usually water and an organic solvent. For large volumes.removed from this by steam distillation.(P) or distribution coefficient (D) is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in the two phases of a mixture of two immiscible solvents at equilibrium. Steam is blown through the mixture and the water and phenylamine turn to vapour. SOLVENT EXTRACTION . releasing heat. The phrase "Partition Coefficient" is now considered obsolete by IUPAC. Petroleum. and to extract oils used in perfumes from various plant materials. citrus oils from lemon or orange peel. brewing and fragrance industries 15 . It is an extraction of a substance from one liquid phase into another liquid phase. This will be enough to boil the mixture of water and phenylamine at 98°C provided the volume of the mixture isn't too great. "partition ratio" or "distribution ratio") should be used as appropriate. Hence these coefficients are a measure of differential solubility of the compound between these two solvents. If these were truly immiscible. rum. Some other applications of steam distillation Steam distillation can be used to extract some natural products . and the appropriate alternative ("partition constant". The steam can be generated by heating water in another flask (or something similar). is a method to separate compounds based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids. where it is performed using a separatory funnel. As the hot steam passes through the mixture it condenses. it is better to heat the flask as well to avoid having to condense too much steam and increase the volume of liquid in the flask too much. a partition. to extract eucalyptus oil from eucalyptus.for example. they would form two layers which could be separated using a separating funnel. The condensed vapour will consist of both water and phenylamine. Applications of distillation methods in industries Cite examples of the Applications of distillation methods used in various industries. In chemistry and the pharmaceutical sciences. Hence both the partition and distribution coefficient are measures of how hydrophilic ("water loving") or hydrophobic ("water fearing") a chemical substance is. These aren't relevant to this topic. This vapour can be condensed and collected. In fact. the phenylamine has a slight solubility in water and various other techniques have to be used in this particular case to get the maximum yield of phenylamine. It is a basic technique in chemical laboratories. [ Normally one of the solvents chosen is water while the second is hydrophobic such as octanol.
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