## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

ABSTRACT

This paper deals with a new family of quasi-Z-source converters applying to AC/AC power conversion called single phase quasi-Z-source AC/AC converter (q ZSAC). The proposed q ZSAC inherits all the advantages of the traditional single-phase Z-source ACIAC converter (ZSAC), which can realize buck-boost, reversing or maintaining phase angle. In addition, the proposed q ZSAC has the unique features; namely that the input. Voltage and output voltage is sharing the same ground; the operation IS In continuous current mode (CCM). Compared to the conventional ZSAC, the proposed q ZSAC has a lower harmonic distortion input current and a higher efficiency. The proposed q ZSAC can control to shape the input current to be sinusoidal and in phase with the input voltage. The operating principles of the proposed q ZSAC are described, and a circuit analysis is provided. Simulation results are shown in comparison to that of the conventional SZAC. Experimentation is implemented to verify the operational concept.

INTRODUCTION

For AC/AC power conversion, the most popular topologies are indirect ACIAC converters with DC link, matrix converters and direct pulse width modulation (PWM) ACIAC converters. The indirect ACIAC converters and matrix converters can provide variable output voltage and variable frequency. However, for the applications where only voltage regulation needs, the direct PWM ACIAC converters are used to perform as AC choppers or power line conditioners with following features: providing better a power factor and efficiency, low harmonic current in line, single-stage conversion, simple topology, easiness to control, smaller size and lower cost. It was reported that the use of safe-commutation switches with PWM control can significantly improve the performance of ac-ac converter.

Traditional single-phase Z-source ACIAC converters (ZSAC) proposed in as shown in Fig. 1 have merits such as providing a larger range of output voltage with buck boost mode, reversing or maintaining phase angle. However, the conventional voltage-fed ZSAC has some main drawbacks: the input voltage and output voltage is not sharing the same ground, thus the feature that the output voltage reverses or maintains phase angle with the input voltage is not supported well. In addition, the input current of the conventional ZSAC is operated in discontinuous current mode (DCM). In general, the peak of input current in DCM which gives rise to the device stress is higher than that in CCM. Moreover, the waveform of input current in CCM is more sinusoidal than that in DCM. Recently, quasi-Z-source inverters (qZSI) proposed in have applied to DCIAC voltage-fed inverters and DC/AC current-fed inverters. For DCIAC power conversion, the q ZSI when compared to the traditional Z-source inverter, features lower DC voltage on capacitor as well as continuous input current.

The q ZSI for photovoltaic (PV) applications is presented in When the q ZSI applies to DC/DC converter, a family of quasi-Z source DC/DC converters is proposed in with minimal number of switches and passive devices

Fig.1. Conventional single-phase Z-source ac-ac converter (ZSAC)

Fig.2. Proposed single-phase quasi-Z-source ac-ac converter (q ZSAC).

In this paper, a new family of quasi-Z-source converters applying to ACIAC power conversion is presented. The proposed converter called single-phase quasi-Z-source ACIAC converter (q ZSAC) inherits all the advantages of the traditional ZSAC, which can realize buckboost, reversing or maintaining phase angle.

The proposed q ZSAC can control to shape the input current to be sinusoidal and in phase with the input voltage. the experimental results show that the use of the safecommutation strategy is a significant improvement. In addition. and a higher efficiency in comparison to a conventional single-phase Z-source ac-ac converter. the proposed q ZSAC has the unique features. The operating principles. The proposed qZSAC can control to shape the input current to be sinusoidal and in phase with the input voltage. PSIM simulation and experimental results were performed with a low total harmonic distortion of input current and high input power factor. The experiment results verified that the converter has a lower input current total harmonic distortion. . To verify these described performance features. simulation results are presented. and a non-linear load. The operating principles and a steadystate analysis are presented. The proposed converter has the main features in that the output voltage can be bucked or boosted and be both in-phase and out-of-phase with the input voltage. QUASI Z-SOURCE AC\AC CONVERTER The qZSAC has following features: the input voltage and output voltage is sharing the same ground. the operation is in continuous current mode (CCM). The operating principles. and it operates in a continuous current mode. was constructed that used an input voltage of 70 Vrms/60 Hz in order to verify the performance of the modified single-phase quasi-Z-source ac-ac converter.In addition. tested using a resistive load. as it makes it possible to avoid voltage spikes on the switches. namely that the input voltage and output voltage is sharing the same ground. A laboratory prototype. A safe-commutation strategy for the modified single-phase quasi-Zsource ac-ac converter is used instead of a snubber circuit. simulation and experimental results are shown. the size of converter is reduced. a higher input power factor. a passive load. The input voltage and output voltage share the same ground. that the operation is in continuous current mode (CCM).

which is a capacitor C for the voltage DC-link or an inductor L for the current DC-link. The disadvantages of this solution are the relatively high mains distortion and high reactive power requirements (especially during inverter operation). to another AC waveform. The PWM rectifier is controlled in a way that a sinusoidal mains current is drawn. Due to the DC-link storage element. a braking resistor must be placed in the DC-link. As shown in Fig 1. 2) or current (Fig. An AC/AC converter with approximately sinusoidal input currents and bidirectional power flow can be realized by coupling a PWM rectifier and a PWM inverter to the DC-link. To accomplish braking operation of a motor. For the voltage DC-link. AC/AC converters can be categorized into Converters with a DC-link. For such AC-AC conversion today typically converter systems with a voltage (Fig. mains independent input quantity exists for the PWM inverter stage. a constant.AC/AC CONVERTER An AC/AC converter converts an AC waveform such as the mains supply. . The DC-link quantity is then impressed by an energy storage element that is common to both stages. there is the advantage that both converter stages are to a large extent decoupled for control purposes. where the output voltage and frequency can be set arbitrarily. which results in high utilization of the converter‘s power capability. which is in phase or anti-phase (for energy feedback) with the corresponding mains phase voltage. the mains coupling could be implemented by a diode bridge. Matrix Converters. Furthermore. an anti-parallel thyristor bridge must be provided on the mains side for feeding back energy into the mains. Cycloconverters Hybrid Matrix Converters. 3) DC-link are employed. Alternatively.

variable-frequency. it is makes sense to consider Matrix Converters that achieve three-phase AC/AC conversion without any intermediate energy storage element. or for variable-speed applications such as cement kilns. but despite intensive research over the decades they have until now only achieved low industrial penetration. With switching elements such as SCRs. Matrix converters are often seen as a future concept for variable speed drives technology. and when electrolytic capacitors are used. Very large cycloconverters (on the order of 10 MW) are manufactured for compressor and wind-tunnel drives. separate stages are provided for voltage and current conversion. There is the alternative option of indirect energy conversion by employing the Indirect Matrix Converter (Fig. . 5) or the Sparse Matrix Converter which was invented by Prof. there is potentially a reduced system lifetime. the storage element in the DC-link is eliminated at the cost of a larger number of semiconductors. the output frequency must be lower than the input. In order to achieve higher power density and reliability. approximately sinusoid waveform by switching segments of the input waveform to the output. Kolar from the ETH Zurich. Conventional Direct Matrix Converters (Fig. 3). Generally. by employing matrix converters. A cycloconverter constructs an output. the DC-link energy storage element has a relatively large physical volume. in the case of a voltage DC-link.On the other hand. 4) perform voltage and current conversion in one single stage. The reason for this could be the higher complexity in modulation and analysis effort. Johann W. but the DC-link has no intermediate storage element. 2 and Fig. As with the DC-link based systems (Fig. there is no intermediate DC link.

AC /AC CONVERTER CLASSIFICATION .

Three Phase AC -AC voltage DC 3PAC current DC .

The converters are classified as: 1-rectifiers: from single-phase or three-phase ac to variable voltage dc 2-choppers: from dc to variable voltage dc 3-inverters: from dc to variable magnitude and variable frequency. how they operate and their applications. Usually constant voltage constant frequency single-phase or three-phase ac is readily available.CYCLOCONVERTERS In industrial applications. They are usually phase-controlled and they traditionally use thyristors due to their ease of phase commutation. 1). magnitudes and/or frequencies are required. This article explains what cyclo converters are. single-phase or three-phase ac The first three classes are explained in other articles. for different applications. These conversions are done by circuits called power converters. Traditionally. their types. There are four different conversions between dc and ac power sources.in two stages (ac-dc and then dc-ac) as in dc link converters or 2. ac-ac conversion using semiconductor switches is done in two different ways: 1. two forms of electrical energy are used: direct current (dc) and alternating current (ac). single-phase or three phase ac 4-cycloconverters: from single-phase or three-phase ac to variable magnitude and variable frequency. However. different forms. . Cycloconverters are used in high power applications driving induction and synchronous motors.in one stage (ac-ac) cycloconverters (Fig.

These converters.1 Block diagram of a cyclo converter There are other newer forms of cyclo conversion such as ac-ac matrix converters and high frequency ac-ac (hfac-ac) converters and these use self-controlled switches. are not popular yet.Fig. however. OPERATION PRINCIPLES: The following sections will describe the operation principles of the cyclo converter starting from the simplest one. single-phase to single-phase (1f-1f) cyclo converter. Some applications of cyclo converters are: · Cement mill drives · Ship propulsion drives · Rolling mill drives · Scherbius drives · Ore grinding mills · Mine winders 1. .

The current waveforms are not shown in the figures because the resistive load current will have the same waveform as the voltage but only scaled by the resistance. Note that the firing angles are named as aP for the positive converter and aN for the negative converter. This converter consists of back-to-back connection of two full-wave rectifier circuits. SINGLE-PHASE TO SINGLE-PHASE (1F-1F) CYCLO CONVERTER: To understand the operation principles of cyclo converters. thyristors act like diodes.1. the negative converter operates supplying current to the load in the reverse direction. fi as shown in Fig. vs is an ac voltage at a frequency. It rectifies the input voltage. 2) should be studied first. 3b. Consider the operation of the cyclo converter to get one-fourth of the input frequency at the output. i.1. so that there is no current circulating between the two rectifiers. 3a. The input voltage. For the first two cycles of vs. For easy understanding assume that all the thyristors are fired at a=0° firing angle. Fig 3 shows the operating waveforms for this converter with a resistive load. Note that when one of the converters operates the other one is disabled. therefore.e. 2 Single-phase to single phase cyclo converter . Fig. In the next two cycles. the positive converter operates supplying current to the load. the load sees 4 positive half cycles as seen in Fig. the single-phase to singlephase cycloconverter (Fig.

cycloconverters that have fo/fi>1 frequency relation are called step-up cycloconverters. Note that step-down cycloconverters are more widely used than the step-up ones. this is a step-down cycloconverter. d) Output voltage with varying firing angle The frequency of the output voltage. . Thus.Fig. 3 Single-phase to single-phase cyclo converter waveforms a) Input voltage b) Output voltage for zero firing angle c) Output voltage with firing angle p/3 rad. the input voltage.e. On the other hand. fo/fi=1/4. i. vo in Fig. 3b is 4 times less than that of vs.

Now. the harmonics would be reduced. If the square wave can be modified to look more like a sine wave. 3b and c show a square wave. the six-stepped dotted line is more like a sine wave with fewer harmonics. For =0. The more pulses there are with different a's. the fundamental Constant a operation gives a crude output waveform with rich harmonic content. Where If is increased to /3 as in Fig.The frequency of vo can be changed by varying the number of cycles the positive and the negative converters work. the 1f-1f cyclo converter can only supply a certain voltage at a certain firing angle a. . The dc value per half cycle is shown as dotted in Fig. It can only change as integer multiples of fi in 1f-1f cyclo converters. 3d. the less are the harmonics. 3d. 3d. The dc output of each rectifier is: Where V is the input rms voltage. Thus varying . For this reason a is modulated as shown in Fig. then output voltage can be controlled. With the above operation. The dotted lines in Fig. Then the peak of the fundamental output voltage is Above equation implies that the fundamental output voltage depends on .

4 3-1half-wave cycloconverter . Fig. the cycloconverter can operate in four quadrants: (+v.2. +i) inversion modes. but the positive converter can only supply positive current and the negative converter can only supply negative current. 4) and 3f-1f bridge cyclo converter (Fig. 6. the 3f-1f cyclo converter applies rectified voltage to the load. Like the 1f-1f case. Note that a is sinusoidally modulated over the cycle to generate a harmonically optimum output voltage. THREE-PHASE TO SINGLE-PHASE (3F-1F) CYCLO CONVERTER: There are two kinds of three-phase to single-phase (3f-1f) cyclo converters: 3f-1f halfwave Cyclo converter (Fig. +i) and (-v. -i) rectification modes and (+v. Both positive and negative converters can generate voltages at either polarity. -i) and (-v.1. Thus. 5). The modulation of the output voltage and the fundamental output voltage are shown in Fig.

To prevent this problem. Conventionally. . the firing angle for the positive converter is named aP. the converter previously supplying the current is disabled and the other one is enabled. and that of the negative converter is named aN. switching from one converter to the other one would cause an undesirable voltage jump. 5 3-1bridge cyclo converter Fig. Therefore. The load always requires the fundamental voltage to be continuous. Otherwise.Fig. When the polarity of the current changes. the converters are forced to produce the same average voltage at all times. 6 3-1half-wave cycloconverter waveforms a) + Converter output voltage b) Cosine timing waves c) – Converter output voltage The polarity of the current determines if the positive or negative converter should be supplying power to the load. the average voltage supplied by both of the converters should be equal. during the current polarity reversal.

6 can be given as: Where Vo is the rms value of the fundamental voltage At a time to the output fundamental voltage is The positive converter can supply this voltage if P satisfies the following condition.3 THREE-PHASE TO THREE-PHASE (3F-3F) CYCLOCONVERTER: If the outputs of 3 3f-1f converters of the same kind are connected in wye or delta and if the output voltages are 2p/3 radians phase shifted from each other. Where From the condition (3) (p=3 for half wave converter and 6 for bridge converter) The firing angles at any instant can be found from above two equations The operation of the 3f-1f bridge cyclo converter is similar to the above 3f-1f half-wave Cyclo converter. the following condition for the firing angles should be met. 1. the resulting converter is a three phase to three-phase (3f-3f) cycloconverter. 7 sand 8 with wye connections.Thus. The resulting cycloconverters are shown in Figs. The fundamental output voltage in Fig. Note that the pulse number for this case is 6. .

If the three converters connected are half-wave converters. bridge converters are used. Fig. the 3f-3f bridge cyclo converter is also called a 6-pulse cyclo converter or a 36-thyristor cyclo converter. 3f3f half-wave cyclo converter is also called a 3-pulse cyclo converter or an 18-thyristor cyclo converter. On the other hand. 7 3-3half-wave cyclo converter Fig. then the result is a 3f-3f bridge cyclo converter. 8 3-3bridge cycloconverter . then the new converter is called a 3f-3f half-wave cycloconverter. The operation of each phase is explained in the previous section. If instead.

induction machines can only draw lagging current. This operation is called the blocked mode operation. On the other hand. 9. BLOCKED MODE AND CIRCULATING CURRENT MODE: The operation of the cycloconverters is explained above in ideal terms. A cycloconverter can supply lagging. the positive converter supplies the required voltage and the negative converter is disabled. When the load current is positive. This current is called the circulating current. which will be discussed in the following sections. However. cycloconverters are used in Scherbius drives for speed control purposes driving wound rotor induction motors. These are called circulating current cycloconverters. leading.To avoid this short circuit. then a circulating current is produced.The three-phase cycloconverters are mainly used in ac machine drive systems running three phase synchronous and induction machines. if by any chance both of the converters are enabled. if they are both enabled. It is unidirectional because the thyristors allow the current to flow in only one direction. However. an intergroup reactor (IGR) can be connected between the converters as shown in Fig. 2. then the supply is shortcircuited. and the cycloconverters using this approach are called blocking mode cycloconverters. A synchronous machine can draw any power factor current from the converter. . so the cycloconverter does not have an edge compared to the other converters in this aspect for running an induction machine. This characteristic operation matches the cycloconverter to the synchronous machine. when the load current is negative. Instead of blocking the converters during current reversal. When cycloconverters are used to run an ac machine. the leakage inductance of the machine filters most of the higher frequency harmonics and reduces the magnitudes of the lower order harmonics. Some cycloconverters allow this circulating current at all times. Cycloconverters produce harmonic rich output voltages. They are more advantageous when used with a synchronous machine due to their output power factor characteristics. or unity power factor loads while its input is always lagging. then the negative converter supplies the required voltage and the positive converter is blocked. On the other hand.

During the delay time. They do not let circulating current flow. can be used for this purpose. Then. which was disabled before the zero crossing. which toggles when the current goes to zero. The converters stay off for a short delay time to assure that the load current ceases. .When the current goes to zero. This distortion means complex harmonics patterns compared to the circulating mode cycloconverters. the converter. is enabled.Fig. In addition to this. With each zero crossing of the current. 10.1 BLOCKING MODE CYCLOCONVERTERS: The operation of these cycloconverters was explained briefly before. and therefore they do not need a bulky IGR. both positive and negative converters are blocked. The blocking mode operation has some advantages and disadvantages over the circulating mode operation. the current reversal problem brings more control complexity. The operation waveforms for a three-pulse blocking mode cycloconverter are given in Fig. A toggle flip-flop. 9 Circulating current and IGR 2. depending on the polarity. one of the converters is enabled. the current stays at zero distorting the voltage and current waveforms.

If both of the converters are producing pure sine waves. 3). then there would not be any circulating current because the instantaneous potential difference between the outputs of the converters would be zero. both of the converters operate at all times producing the same fundamental output voltage. an IGR is connected between the outputs of two phase controlled converters (in either rectification or inversion mode). .2 CIRCULATING CURRENT CYCLOCONVERTERS: In this case. 10 blocking mode operation waveforms a) + Converter output voltage b) – Converter output voltage c) Load voltage 2. thus the load voltage ripple is reduced. no bulky IGRs are used. Note that it is zero when both of the converters produce the same instantaneous voltage. The voltage waveform across the IGR can be seen in Fig.However. The center tap voltage of IGR is the voltage applied to the load and it is the mean of the voltages applied to the ends of IGR. 11d. Fig. In reality. Another advantage is that only one converter is in conduction at all times rather than two this means less losses and higher efficiency. The firing angles of the converters satisfy the firing angle condition (Eq. so the size and cost is less than that of the circulating current case. thus when one converter is in rectification mode the other one is in inversion mode and vice versa. This is the difference of the instantaneous output voltages produced by the two converters.

the control is simple because there is no current reversal problem. In addition to this. When the current increases above a threshold in the other direction.Fig. Moreover. However. both of the converters are enabled. This hybrid cycloconverter operates in the blocking mode most of the time so a smaller IGR can be used. The blocked mode cycloconverter converter and the circulating current cycloconverter can be combined to give a hybrid system. but depending on the polarity of the output current only one converter is enabled and the other one is disabled as with the blocking mode cycloconverters. 11 circulating mode operation waveforms a) + Converter output voltage b) – Converter output voltage c) Load voltage d) IGR voltage The circulating current cycloconverter applies a smoother load voltage with less harmonics compared to the blocking mode case. . The efficiency is slightly higher than that of the circulating current cycloconverter but much less than the blocking mode cycloconverter. Thus. which has the advantages of both. The resulting cycloconverter looks like a circulating mode cycloconverter circuit. When the load current decreases below a threshold. the number of devices conducting at any time is twice that of the blocking mode converter. Due to these disadvantages. this cycloconverter is not attractive. the outgoing converter is disabled. the current has a smooth reversal. the bulky IGR is a big disadvantage for this converter.

Higher order harmonics are usually filtered by the machine inductance. no storage devices. Moreover. OUTPUT AND INPUT HARMONICS: The cycloconverter output voltage waveforms have complex harmonics. The output harmonics. Blocking mode operation produces more complex harmonics than circulating mode of operation due to the zero current distortion. the pulse number effects the harmonic content. and so on. 4fi for n=1. For this reason. Moreover. the output harmonics are found at "pnfi+Nfo". where p is the pulse number and n is an integer. the order of the input harmonics is "pn+1" and that of the output harmonics is "pn". 3.e. 7fi for n=2. Therefore. A greater number of pulses has less harmonic content. unlike other converters. low power factor and discontinuous conduction. 6fi. the instantaneous input power and the output power are equal.Moreover. on the other hand. For blocking mode operation. In addition to this. The modulation frequency is the same as the output frequency and sideband harmonics are induced at the output. a 6-pulse (bridge) cycloconverter produces less harmonics than a 3-pulse (half-wave) cycloconverter. the output waveform is expected to have harmonics at frequencies related to both the input and output frequencies. where N is an integer and pn+N=odd condition is satisfied. the control of the converter is still less complex than that of the blocking mode cycloconverter. For a typical p-pulse converter. both contribute to harmonics. therefore the machine current has less harmonics. Thus for a 3-pulse converter the input harmonics are at frequencies 2fi. if the output frequency gets closer to the input frequency. There are several factors affecting the harmonic content of the waveforms. Finally. Therefore. i. are at frequencies 3fi. … The firing angle a in cycloconverter operation is sinusoidal modulated. Note that in a cycloconverter. there are no inductors or capacitors. 5fi. Then the output harmonics for a 3-pulse cycloconverter in blocking mode will be found at frequencies . the distortion caused by the blocking mode operation disappears due to the circulating current operation around zero current. the harmonics increase. The remaining harmonics cause harmonic losses and torque pulsations.

9fi+2fo. The output voltage of a cycloconverter has many complex harmonics. 6fi+1fo. 4fi+15fo. 9fi+8fo.6. 3. 9fi+2fo. 2fi+9fo. 2fi+15fo … 4fi+3fo. According to calculations done in sub harmonics in this mode exist for fo/fi>0. These are called Sub harmonics.2. 5. 4fi+9fo. They are highly unwanted harmonics because the machine inductance cannot filter these. 6fi+9fo … n=3 9fi. … n=4. 3fi+2fo.n=1 3fi. 9fi+6fo.… . 9fi+10fo n=4. Thus. a 3-pulse cycloconverter has input current harmonics at the following frequencies: n=0 fi. the input current harmonics are at frequencies "(pn+1)fi+Mfo" where M is an integer and (pn+1)+M=odd condition is satisfied. but N is limited to (n+1). The input voltages of a cycloconverter are sinusoidal voltages. fi+6fo. Thus as expected. 5. but the output current is smoother due to heavy machine filtering. 6fi+5fo. 3fi+6fo. the harmonics are at the same frequencies as the blocking mode.For the blocking mode states that the sub harmonics exist for fo/fi>0. To maintain this balance on the input side with sinusoidal voltages. the input current is expected to have complex harmonic patterns. 6fi+5fo. fi+12fo. 9fi+10fo. 9fi+6fo. 6fi+3fo. 9fi+4fo.… Some of the above harmonics might coincide to frequencies below fi. 9fi+8fo. the output harmonics for a 3-pulse cycloconverter in circulating mode will be found at frequencies n=1 3fi. 6fi+3fo.… With N limited in the circulating mode. Thus. 9fi+4fo. 3fi+10fo … n=2 6fi. 6fi+7fo. 3fi+4fo. 6fi+7fo n=3 9fi. For the circulating mode operation.… n=2. 3fi+2fo. 3fi+8fo. there are fewer sub harmonics expected. 3fi+4fo n=2 6fi+1fo. As stated before the instantaneous output and input powers of a cycloconverter are balanced because it does not have any storage devices. … n=1 2fi+3fo.

12 Matrix Converter This direct frequency changer is not commonly used because of the high device count.2 SINGLE-PHASE TO THREE-PHASE (1F-3F) CYCLOCONVERTERS: Recently. 4. These converters are usually controlled by PWM to produce three-phase variable voltages at variable frequency. Any input phase can be connected to any output phase at any time depending on the control. NEWER TYPES OF CYCLOCONVERTERS: 4. single-phase to three-phase cycloconverters (1f-3f) started drawing more research interest. However.1 MATRIX CONVERTER: The matrix converter is a fairly new converter topology. which was first proposed in the beginning of the 1980s.e. with the decrease in the size and the price of power electronics switches. 18 switches compared to 12 of a dc link rectifier-inverter system. A matrix converter consists of a matrix of 9 switches connecting the three input phases to the three output phases directly as shown in Fig. no two switches from the same phase should be on at the same time. Fig. . 12. i. However. otherwise this will cause a short circuit of the input phases. the devices used are smaller because of their shorter ON time compared to the latter.4.

If a transformer is used.2. There might be zero voltage intervals for control purposes or zero voltage commutation.Usually. 13 shows the circuit diagram of a typical hfac link converter. only two of them will be addressed here: 4. the command signal and the output phase voltage are integrated and the latter result is subtracted from the former. They are in the research state. Therefore. the lower (upper) switch is turned on. For the positive (negative) input half-cycle. The single-phase high frequency ac (hfac) voltage can be either sinusoidal or trapezoidal. Every half-cycle of the input signal. For integral pulse modulation. additional taps from the transformer can be used to power other converters producing a high frequency ac link. . Note that this converter can only work at output frequencies which are multiples of the input frequency. Fig.1 INTEGRAL PULSE MODULATED (1F-3F) CYCLOCONVERTERS: The input to these cycloconverters is single-phase high frequency sinusoidal or square waveforms with or without zero voltage gaps. it isolates the inverter from the cycloconverter. an H-bridge inverter produces a high frequency single-phase voltage waveform. Among several kinds. In addition to this. These converters are not commercially available yet. a negative pulse is required. and vice versa for the negative difference. otherwise. the three-phase output voltage consists of positive and negative half-cycle pulses of the input voltage. the upper (lower) switch is turned on. For a positive difference. which is fed to the cycloconverter either through a high frequency transformer or not. the control for each phase decides if it needs a positive pulse or a negative pulse using integral pulse modulation. if a positive pulse is required.

the most commonly known cycloconverter schemes are introduced.2 PHASE-CONTROLLED (1F-3F) CYCLOCONVERTER: This cycloconverter converts the single-phase high frequency sinusoidal or square wave voltage into three-phase voltages using the previously explained phase control principles. The voltage command is compared to a sawtooth waveform to find the firing instant of the switches. the next switch to be turned on is determined.2. the following references can be used. on the other hand. but voltage dividers waste energy. Buck converters. With recent device advances. The simplest way to reduce a DC voltage is to use a voltage divider circuit. output voltage isn't regulated (varies with input voltage). BUCK CONVERTER A buck converter is a step-down DC to DC converter. SUMMARY: Cycloconverters are widely used in industry for ac-to-ac conversion. 5. also. . For more detailed information.Fig. Its design is similar to the stepup boost converter. and their operation principles are discussed. an inductor and a capacitor. In this article. since they operate by bleeding off excess power as heat. can be remarkably efficient (easily up to 95% for integrated circuits) and self-regulating. 13 High frequency ac link converter (1f hf inverter + (1f-3f) Cycloconverter) 4. These newer forms are drawing more research interest. making them useful for tasks such as converting the 12–24 V typical battery voltage in a laptop down to the few volts needed by the processor. Depending on the polarity of the current and the input voltage. and like the boost converter it is a switched-mode power supply that uses two switches (a transistor and a diode). Compared to the previous one. this converter has more complex control but it can work at any frequency. newer forms of cycloconversion are being developed.

sTheory of operation

Fig: Buck converter circuit diagram.

Fig: The two circuit configurations of a buck converter: On-state, when the switch is closed, and Off-state, when the switch is open.

Fig: Naming conventions of the components, voltages and current of the buck converter.

Fig: Evolution of the voltages and currents with time in an ideal buck converter operating in continuous mode. The operation of the buck converter is fairly simple, with an inductor and two switches (usually a transistor and a diode) that control the inductor. It alternates between connecting the inductor to source voltage to store energy in the inductor and discharging the inductor into the load. Continuous mode A buck converter operates in continuous mode if the current through the inductor (IL) never falls to zero during the commutation cycle. In this mode, the operating principle is described by the chronogram in figure:

When the switch pictured above is closed (On-state, top of figure 2), the voltage across the inductor is VL = Vi − Vo. The current through the inductor rises linearly. As the diode is reverse-biased by the voltage source V, no current flows through it;

When the switch is opened (off state, bottom of figure 2), the diode is forward biased. The voltage across the inductor is VL = − Vo(neglecting diode drop). Current IL decreases.

The energy stored in inductor L is

Therefore, it can be seen that the energy stored in L increases during On-time (as IL increases) and then decreases during the Off-state. L is used to transfer energy from the input to the output of the converter. The rate of change of IL can be calculated from:

With VL equal to Vi − Vo during the On-state and to− Vo during the Off-state. Therefore, the increase in current during the On-state is given by:

Identically, the decrease in current during the Off-state is given by:

If we assume that the converter operates in steady state, the energy stored in each component at the end of a commutation cycle T is equal to that at the beginning of the cycle. That means that the current IL is the same at t=0 and at t=T (see figure 4). Therefore, So we can write from the above equations:

It is worth noting that the above integrations can be done graphically: In figure 4, is proportional to the area of the yellow surface, and to the area of the

orange surface, as these surfaces are defined by the inductor voltage (red) curve. As these surfaces are simple rectangles, their areas can be found easily: for the yellow

rectangle and − Votoff for the orange one. For steady state operation, these areas must be equal. As can be seen on figure 4, a value between 0 and 1. This yields and . D is a scalar called the duty cycle with

in our theoretically ideal circuit. some effect on the previous equations. it can be seen that the output voltage of the converter varies linearly with the duty cycle for a given input voltage. This has. In this case. the amount of energy required by the load is small enough to be transferred in a time lower than the whole commutation period. stepping 12 V down to 3 V (output voltage equal to a fourth of the input voltage) would require a duty cycle of 25%. referred to as step-down converter. This is why this converter is Fig: Evolution of the voltages and currents with time in an ideal buck converter operating in discontinuous mode. it cannot be more than 1. So. Therefore. for example. As the duty cycle D is equal to the ratio between tOn and the period T. .From this equation. the current through the inductor falls to zero during part of the period. however. . The only difference in the principle described above is that the inductor is completely discharged at the end of the commutation cycle. Discontinuous mode In some cases.

That means that ILmax is equal to: Substituting the value of ILmax in the previous equation leads to: . This implies that the current flowing through the capacitor has a zero average value. As can be seen in figure. Therefore. i. This means that the average value of the inductor voltage (VL) is zero.We still consider that the converter operates in steady state. the average value of IL can be sorted out geometrically as follow: The inductor current is zero at the beginning and rises during ton up to ILmax.. This yield: So the value of δ is: The output current delivered to the load (Io) is constant. Therefore. Therefore.e. it is zero). the energy in the inductor is the same at the beginning and at the end of the cycle (in the case of discontinuous mode. as we consider that the output capacitor is large enough to maintain a constant voltage across its terminals during a commutation cycle. that the area of the yellow and orange rectangles in figure are the same. we have: Where is the average value of the inductor current. the inductor current waveform has a triangular shape.

And substituting δ by the expression given above yield: This latter expression can be written as: It can be seen that the output voltage of a buck converter operating in discontinuous mode is much more complicated than its counterpart of the continuous mode. Furthermore. From discontinuous to continuous mode (and vice versa) Fig: Evolution of the normalized output voltages with the normalized output current. the commutation period (T) and the output current (Io). . the output voltage is now a function not only of the input voltage (Vi) and the duty cycle D. but also of the inductor value (L).

It is zero when Vo = 0. defined by when Vo = Vi . the output current (equal to the average inductor current) at the limit between discontinuous and continuous modes is: Substituting ILmax by its value: On the limit between the two modes. the output voltage obeys both the expressions given respectively in the continuous and the discontinuous sections. In particular. the converter operates in discontinuous mode when low current is drawn by the load. with the notations of figure.As told at the beginning of this section. The limit between discontinuous and continuous modes is reached when the inductor current falls to zero exactly at the end of the commutation cycle. and in continuous mode at higher load current levels. . this corresponds to : Therefore. . the former is Vo = DVi So Iolim can be written as: Let's now introduce two more notations: The normalized voltage. defined by . and 1 The normalized current.

in steady state operation of the converter. the output voltage does only depend on the duty cycle. the locus of the limit between continuous and discontinuous modes is given by: These expression have been plotted in figure 6. The term is equal to the maximum increase of the inductor current during a cycle. this means that the converter can deliver. it is obvious that in continuous mode. Using these notations. This is important from a control point of view . the increase of the inductor current with a duty cycle D=1. we have: equals 0 for no output current. So. i.e.. and 1 for the maximum current In continuous mode: In discontinuous mode: The current at the limit between continuous and discontinuous mode is: Therefore. From this. whereas it is far more complex in the discontinuous mode.

output capacitance.Non ideal circuit Fig: Evolution of the output voltage of a buck converter with the duty cycle when the parasitic resistance of the inductor increases. At the most basic level the output voltage will rise and fall as a result of the output capacitor charging and discharging: . The voltage drop across the diode when forward biased is zero No commutation losses in the switch nor in the diode These assumptions can be fairly far from reality. and the imperfections of the real components can have a detrimental effect on the operation of the converter. The previous study was conducted with the following assumptions: The output capacitor has enough capacitance to supply power to the load (a simple resistance) without any noticeable variation in its voltage. switching frequency. Output voltage ripple Output voltage ripple is the name given to the phenomenon where the output voltage rises during the On-state and falls during the Off-state. inductor. load and any current limiting features of the control circuitry. Several factors contribute to this including. but not limited to.

etc. Static power losses include I2R(conduction) losses in the wires or PCB traces. such as the charging and discharging of the switch gate. Output voltage ripple is typically a design specification for the power supply and is selected based on several factors. as well as in the switches and inductor. In the On-state the current is the difference between the switch current (or source current) and the load current. For the On-state: For the Off-state: Qualitatively. inductors. Dynamic power losses occur as a result of switching. the magnitude of the ripple decreases. as described above. Capacitor selection is normally determined based on cost. does not account for nonidealities of the circuit components nor does it account for the required control circuitry. as described below in Effects of non-ideality on the efficiency. Effects of non-ideality on the efficiency A simplified analysis of the buck converter. the current in this equation is the load current. as in any electrical circuit. The duration of time (dT) is defined by the duty cycle and by the switching frequency. Switching frequency selection is typically determined based on efficiency requirements. physical size and non-idealities of various capacitor types. diodes. . and are proportional to the switching frequency.) The non-idealities of the power devices account for the bulk of the power losses in the converter. Output voltage ripple is one of the disadvantages of a switching power supply. as the output capacitor or switching frequency increase. Power losses due to the control circuitry are usually insignificant when compared with the losses in the power devices (switches. and can also be a measure of its quality.During the Off-state. which tends to decrease at higher operating frequencies. Higher switching frequency can also reduce efficiency and possibly raise EMI concerns. Both static and dynamic power losses occur in any switching regulator.

based on the properties of the selected device. In addition. Switch resistance. VSYNCHSW is the voltage drop on the synchronous switch or diode. The careful reader will note that the duty cycle equation is somewhat recursive. which is: Where: VSWITCH is the voltage drop on the power switch. and RDCR is the DC resistance of the inductor. for components such as theinsulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) can be determined by referring to datasheet specifications. and . The voltage drops described above are all static power losses which are dependent primarily on DC current.It is useful to begin by calculating the duty cycle for a non-ideal buck converter. and can therefore be easily calculated. A rough analysis can be made by first calculating the values VSWITCH and VSYNCHSW using the ideal duty cycle equation. and forward voltage. For a transistor in saturation or a diode drop. This power loss is simply PLEAKAGE = ILEAKAGEV where: ILEAKAGE is the leakage current of the switch. VSWITCH = ISWITCHRON = DIoRON VSYNCHSW = ISYNCHSWRON = (1 − D)IoRON VL = ILRDCR where: RON is the ON-resistance of each switch (RDSON for a MOSFET). and VL is the voltage drop on the inductor. power loss occurs as a result of leakage currents. for components such as the power MOSFET. VSWITCH and VSYNCHSW may already be known.

Power loss on the body diode is also proportional to switching frequency and is PBODYDIODE = VFIotNOfSW Where: VF is the forward voltage of the body diode. . IGBTs. tRISE and tFALL are the switch rise and fall times. when the body diode of the low-side MOSFET conducts the output current. etc. This time. V is the voltage across the switch. a condition in which both switches are simultaneously turned on. and T is the switching period. Then. known as the nonoverlap time. additional losses may occur during the time between the turn-off of the high-side switch and the turn-on of the low-side switch. But this doesn't take into account the parasitic capacitance of the MOSFET which makes the Miller plate. These losses include turn-on and turn-off switching losses and switch transition losses. prevents "shootthrough". Dynamic power losses are due to the switching behavior of the selected pass devices (MOSFETs.). and tNO is the selected non-overlap time. Proper selection of non-overlap time must balance the risk of shootthrough with the increased power loss caused by conduction of the body diode. the switch losses will be more like: When a MOSFET is used for the lower switch. power transistors. Switch turn-on and turn-off losses are easily lumped together as where: V is the voltage across the switch while the switch is off. The onset of shootthrough generates severe power loss and heat.

a converter operating at a high duty cycle requires a low-side switch with low conduction losses. or by operating at a lower frequency. for N-MOSFETs. and VGS is the peak gate-source voltage. these losses are dominated by the gate charge. essentially the energy required to charge and discharge the capacitance of the MOSFET gate between the threshold voltage and the selected gate voltage. For MOSFET switches. Therefore VG will nearly always be different for the high-side and low-side switches. by driving the MOSFET gate to a lower voltage (at the cost of increased MOSFET conduction losses). and can be minimized by selecting MOSFETs with low gate charge. Specific structures Synchronous rectification . It is essential to remember that.Finally. These switch transition losses occur primarily in the gate driver. A complete design for a buck converter includes a tradeoff analysis of the various power losses. PGATEDRIVE = QGVGSfSW Where: QG is the gate charge of the selected MOSFET. Designers balance these losses according to the expected uses of the finished design. power losses occur as a result of the power required to turn the switches on and off. A converter expected to have a low switching frequency does not require switches with low gate transition losses. the high-side switch must be driven to a higher voltage than Vi.

shortly after the switch turns off. S2 A synchronous buck converter is a modified version of the basic buck converter circuit topology in which the diode. D.3 V. It stands to reason that the power loss on the freewheeling diode or lower switch will be proportional to its on-time. and for such systems it is advantageous to consider a synchronous buck converter design. the freewheeling diode turns on. Without actual numbers the reader will find the usefulness of this substitution to be unclear. the converter efficiency can be improved. D is the duty cycle. This modification is a tradeoff between increased cost and improved efficiency. and the load current is 10A. power loss is strongly dependent on the duty cycle. D. For example. on its own. as a result of the rising voltage across the diode. By replacing diode D with switch S2. which is advantageously selected for low losses.Fig: Simplified schematic of a synchronous converter. and Io is the load current. a MOSFET with very low RDSON might be selected for S2. is replaced by a second switch. Therefore. providing power loss on switch 2 which is By comparing these equations the reader will note that in both cases. S2. where the input is 5 V. In a standard buck converter. in which D is replaced by a second switch. systems designed for low duty cycle operation will suffer from higher losses in the freewheeling diode or lower switch. Consider a computer power supply. This voltage drop across the diode results in a power loss which is equal to PD = VD(1 − D)Io Where: VD is the voltage drop across the diode at the load current Io. . the output is 3.

When the switch node voltage passes a preset threshold. a fault known as "shootthrough. setting this time delay long enough to ensure that S1 and S2 are never both on will itself result in excess power loss.51 W in conduction loss. the lower switch typically costs more than the freewheeling diode." The simplest technique for avoiding shootthrough is a time delay between the turn-off of S1 to the turn-on of S2. A typical diode with forward voltage of 0. The driver can thus adjust to many types of switches without the excessive power loss this flexibility would cause with a fixed non-overlap time.015 Ω. However. Such a driver must prevent both switches from being turned on at the same time. When power is transferred in the "reverse" direction. which lends itself to applications requiring regenerative braking. it acts much like a boost converter. the complexity of the converter is vastly increased due to the need for a complementary-output switch driver. Another advantage of the synchronous converter is that it is bi-directional. . S2 and L are joined) is sensed to determine its state. A well-selected MOSFET with RDSON of 0.In this case.38 W. The advantages of the synchronous buck converter do not come without cost. and vice versa. First. the time delay is started. An improved technique for preventing this condition is known as adaptive "non-overlap" protection. This translates to improved efficiency and reduced heat loss. would waste only 0. however. Second. the duty cycle will be 66% and the diode would be on for 34% of the time.7 V would suffer a power loss of 2. in which the voltage at the switch node (the point where S1.

. Fig: Closeup picture of a multiphase CPU power supply for an AMD Socket 939 processor. The smaller inductor below the heat sink is part of an input filter. The three phases of this supply can be recognized by the three black toroidal inductors in the foreground.Multiphase buck Fig: Schematic of a generic synchronous n-phase buck converter.

This technique is considered lossless because it relies on resistive losses inherent in the buck converter topology. less than 10mV. the switching ripple goes to 0. the rate at which the inductor current is increasing in the phases which are switched on exactly matches the rate at which it is decreasing in the phases which are switched off. Typical motherboard power supplies use 3 or 4 phases. Modern CPU power requirements can exceed 200W. This load splitting allows the heat losses on each of the switches to be spread across a larger area. Another advantage is that the load current is split among the n phases of the multiphase converter. but incurs several costs—space. across the upper switch. Voltage can be measured losslessly. efficiency and money. Finally. This approach is more accurate and adjustable. such as modern microprocessors. Not only is there the decrease due to the increased effective frequency. Current can be measured "losslessly" by sensing the voltage across the inductor or the lower switch (when it is turned on). suitable for the CPU.The multiphase buck converter is circuit topology where the basic buck converter circuit are placed in parallel between the input and load. The primary advantage of this type of converter is that it can respond to load changes as quickly as if it switched at n times as fast. This circuit is typically used with the synchronous buck topology. This current balancing can be performed in a number of ways. the current can be measured at the input. There is also a significant decrease in switching ripple. it can respond to rapidly changing loads. and have very tight ripple requirements. to approximate the current being drawn. but any time that n times the duty cycle is an integer. described above. Another technique is to insert a small resistor in the circuit and measure the voltage across it. One major challenge inherent in the multiphase converter is ensuring the load current is balanced evenly across then phases. Each of the n "phases" is turned on at equally spaced intervals over the switching period. although control IC manufacturers allow as many as 6 phases. without the increase in switching losses that that would cause. . or using a power resistor. This circuit topology is used in computer power supplies to convert the 12 VDC power supply to a lower voltage (around 1 V). Thus. can change very rapidly.

and controller standby consumption. since switching noise cannot be easily filtered out.4 V for schottky diode) Inductor winding resistance Capacitor equivalent series resistance Switching losses: Voltage-Ampere overlap loss Frequencyswitch*CV2 loss Reverse latence loss Losses due driving MOSFET gate and controller consumption. EFFICIENCY FACTORS Conduction losses that depend on load: Resistance when the transistor or MOSFET switch is conducting. However. An application of this is in a "maximum power point tracker" commonly used in photovoltaic systems. By the equation for electric power: Where: Vo is the output voltage Io is the output current η is the power efficiency (ranging from 0 to 1) Vi is the input voltage Ii is the input current . Diode forward voltage drop (usually 0. it is less expensive than emplacing a sense resistor for each phase. Impedance matching A buck converter can be used to maximize the power transfer through the use of impedance matching.This approach is technically more challenging.7 V or 0. Transistor leakage current losses.

. yields: which reduce to: and finally: This shows that it is possible to adjust the impedance ratio by adjusting the duty cycle.By Ohm's Law: where: Zo is the output impedance Zi is the input impedance these expressions for Io and Ii into the power equation yields: Substituting As was previously shown for the continuous mode. This is particularly useful in applications where the impedance(s) are dynamically changing. (where IL > 0): where: D is the duty cycle Substituting this equation for Vo into the previous equation.

* This energy would otherwise remain untapped because in most low-frequency applications. Since power (P = VI or P = UI in Europe) must be conserved. the output current is lower than the source current. and is aimed at the ability of a boost converter to 'steal' the remaining energy in a battery. Filters made of capacitors (sometimes in combination with inductors) are normally added to the output of the converter to reduce output voltage ripple. It is a class of switching-mode power supply (SMPS) containing at least two semiconductor switches (a diode and a transistor) and at least one energy storage element. rectifiers and DC generators. A boost converter may also be referred to as a 'Joule thief'. A boost converter is a DC to DC converter with an output voltage greater than the source voltage.BOOST CONVERTER A boost converter (step-up converter) is a power converter with an output DC voltage greater than its input DC voltage. solar panels. This term is usually used only with very low power battery applications. Power can also come from DC sources such as batteries. This energy would otherwise be wasted since a normal load wouldn't be able to handle the battery's low voltage. currents will not flow through a load without a significant difference of potential between the two poles of the source (voltage.) . A process that changes one DC voltage to a different DC voltage is called DC to DC conversion. A boost converter is sometimes called a step-up converter since it ―steps up‖ the source voltage.

BLOCK DIAGRAM The basic building blocks of a boost converter circuit are shown in Fig. while the output rectifier and filter deliver an acceptable DC voltage to the output. thus allowing different input and output voltages. and to the magnetic field storage element. Fig: Boost converter schematic . When being charged it acts as a load and absorbs energy (somewhat like a resistor). Block diagram Switching Element Output Rectifier and Filter The voltage source provides the input DC voltage to the switch control. and not to the original charging voltage. OPERATING PRINCIPLE The key principle that drives the boost converter is the tendency of an inductor to resist changes in current. when being discharged. The switch control directs the action of the switching element. Magnetic Field Storage Voltage Source Element Switch Control Fig. The voltage it produces during the discharge phase is related to the rate of change of current. it acts as an energy source (somewhat like a battery).

The basic principle of a Boost converter consists of 2 distinct states (see figure ): in the On-state. This result in transferring the energy accumulated during the On-state into the capacitor. the current through the inductor (IL) never falls to zero. resulting in an increase in the inductor current. the switch S (see figure) is closed. depending on the state of the switch S. CONTINUOUS MODE When a boost converter operates in continuous mode. So it is not discontinuous as in the buck converter and the requirements on the input filter are relaxed compared to a buck converter. the switch is open and the only path offered to inductor current is through the flyback diode D. in the case of an ideal converter (i. Figure shows the typical waveforms of currents and voltages in a converter operating in this mode. The output voltage can be calculated as follows. the capacitor C and the load R. The input current is the same as the inductor current as can be seen in figure.e. In the Off-state. using components with an ideal behavior) operating in steady conditions: . The two configurations of a boost converter.Fig.

the switch S is closed. the switch S is open. which causes a change in current (IL) flowing through the inductor during a time period (t) by the formula: At the end of the On-state. so the inductor current flows through the load. During the On-state. If we consider zero voltage drop in the diode. It represents the fraction of the commutation period T during which the switch is on. During the Off-state. which makes the input voltage (Vi) appear across the inductor. the increase of IL is therefore: D is the duty cycle. the evolution of IL is: Therefore. Therefore D ranges between 0 (S is never on) and 1 (S is always on).Fig: Waveforms of current and voltage in a boost converter operating in continuous mode. the variation of IL during the Off-period is: . and a capacitor large enough for its voltage to remain constant.

As we consider that the converter operates in steady-state conditions. the current through the inductor falls to zero during part of the period. the amount of energy required by the load is small enough to be transferred in a time smaller than the whole commutation period. DISCONTINUOUS MODE In some cases. the inductor current has to be the same at the start and end of the commutation cycle. . This means the overall change in the current (the sum of the changes) is zero: Substituting and by their expressions yields: This can be written as: Which in turns reveals the duty cycle to be From the above expression it can be seen that the output voltage is always higher than the input voltage (as the duty cycle goes from 0 to 1). In this case. the amount of energy stored in each of its components has to be the same at the beginning and at the end of a commutation cycle. the energy stored in the inductor is given by: So. and that it increases with D. In particular. This is why this converter is sometimes referred to as a step-up converter. theoretically to infinity as D approaches 1.

The only difference in the principle described above is that the inductor is completely discharged at the end of the commutation cycle (see waveforms in figure ). δ is: . Although slight. the difference has a strong effect on the output voltage equation. As the inductor current at the beginning of the cycle is zero. It can be calculated as follows: Fig:Waveforms of current and voltage in a boost converter operating in discontinuous mode. IL falls to zero after δT: Using the two previous equations. its maximum value t = DT) is (at During the off-period.

APPLICATIONS: Battery powered systems often stack cells in series to achieve higher voltage. Boost converters can also produce higher voltages to operate cold cathode fluorescent tubes (CCFL) in devices such as LCD backlights and some flashlights. . the diode current is equal to the inductor current during the off-state.5 V alkaline cell to power the lamp. such as portable lighting systems. the switching frequency. the Prius would need nearly 417 cells to power the motor. in discontinuous operation. and a boost converter can step up the voltage from a single 1. However. Boost converters also power devices at smaller scale applications.3 V to emit light. The NHW20 model Toyota Prius HEV uses a 500 V motor. Boost converters can increase the voltage and reduce the number of cells. the output voltage gain not only depends on the duty cycle. sufficient stacking of cells is not possible in many high voltage applications due to lack of space. the input voltage. this expression is much more complicated. but also on the inductor value.The load current Io is equal to the average diode current (ID). Therefore the output current can be written as: Replacing ILmax and δ by their respective expressions yields: Therefore. A white LED typically requires 3. Furthermore. and the output current. As can be seen on figure 4. However. a Prius actually uses only 168 cells and boosts the battery voltage from 202 V to 500 V. Two battery-powered applications that use boost converters are hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and lighting systems. Without a boost converter. the output voltage gain can be written as flow: Compared to the expression of the output voltage for the continuous mode.

. For zero net current change over a period the average voltage across the inductor is zero Waveforms for buck-boost converter ………….BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER Schematic for buck-boost converter With continuous conduction for the Buck-Boost converter Vx =Vin when the transistor is ON and Vx =Vo when the transistor is OFF. (21) Which gives the voltage ratio ………… (22) .

The negative sign indicates a reversal of sense of the output voltage. 10. Comparison of Voltage ratio . (23) Since the duty ratio "D" is between 0 and 1 the output voltage can vary between lower or higher than the input voltage in magnitude. The buck-boost can reduce or increase the voltage ratio with unit gain for a duty ratio of 50%. CONVERTER COMPARISON The voltage ratios achievable by the DC-DC converters is summarised in Fig.. Notice that only the buck converter shows a linear relationship between the control (duty ratio) and output voltage.And the corresponding current ……….

For the transistor ON the circuit becomes CUK "ON-STATE" And the current in C1 is IL1. The CUK converter uses capacitive energy transfer and analysis is based on current balance of the capacitor. the diode conducts and the current in C1 becomes IL2. analysis is based of voltage balance across the inductor. The circuit in Fig. CUK Converter If we assume that the current through the inductors is essentially ripple free we can examine the charge balance for the capacitor C1. below(CUK converter) is derived from DUALITY principle on the buck-boost converter. . boost and buck-boost converters all transferred energy between input and output using the inductor. When the transistor is OFF.CUK CONVERTER The buck.

boost and buck-boost have at least one side with pulsed current. (25) The inductor currents match the input and output currents.the net current is zero …………… (24) which implies ……. thus using the power conservation rule ………… (26) Thus the voltage ratio is the same as the buck-boost converter.CUK "OFF-STATE" Since the steady state assumes no net capacitor voltage rise .. . The advantage of the CUK converter is that the input and output inductors create a smooth current at both sides of the converter while the buck.

It is fairly obvious that. as shown below and if the output pulse of 12v lasts only 25% of the overall time.PULSE WIDTH MODULATION Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is the most effective means to achieve constant voltage battery charging by switching the solar system controller‘s power devices. then a 'suitable device' connected to its output will see the average voltage and think it is being fed 6v exactly half of 12v.or 9v. Similarly. then the average is . So by varying the width of the positive pulse . When in PWM regulation. since the voltage is at 12v for exactly as long as it is at 0v. the average will be 3/4 of 12v .Consider a waveform such as this: it is a voltage switching between 0v and 12v. the current from the solar array tapers according to the battery‘s condition and recharging needs . if the switches keep the voltage at 12 for 3 times as long as at 0v.we can vary the 'average' voltage.

so PWM is a natural for motor control. I said earlier that the output had to feed 'a suitable device'. PULSE WIDTH MODULATOR So. which you adjust to control the ratio of on to off time that you require. and would probably not work properly.or 'modulating' . the When the demand speed it in the middle (A) you get a 50:50 output. When the triangle is above the 'demand' voltage. how do we generate a PWM waveform? It's actually very easy.By varying . there are circuits available in the TEC site.e. the output goes high. A radio would not work from this: the radio would see 12v then 0v.c voltage.the time that the output is at 12v (i. First you generate a triangle waveform as shown in the diagram below. Half the time the output is high and half the time it is low. You compare this with a d. as in black. the width of the positive pulse) we can alter the average voltage. So we are doing 'pulse width modulation'. . When the triangle is below the demand voltage. However a device such as a motor will respond to the average.

. to 1. You could use other waveforms and the exact linearity (how good the rise and fall are) is not too important. The triangle waveform. Because of this configuration. refers to the percentage of the period for which the signal is on. A PWM signal is not constant. However. and it is therefore very inefficient. which has approximately equal rise and fall slopes. D. the signal is always off. the signal is on for part of its period. so a complete oscillator and modulator can be done with half an IC and maybe 7 other bits. Rather. The duty cycle. A more efficient technique employs pulse width modulation (PWM) to produce the constant current through the coil. Feedback can be used to achieve an output that matches exactly the control signal. where the signal is constantly on. is one of the commonest used. this scheme dissipates a lot of power as heat. Traditional solenoid driver electronics rely on linear control. The duty cycle can be anywhere from 0. A 50% D results in a perfect square wave. and off for the rest. (Figure 1) A solenoid is a length of wire wound in a coil. which is the application of a constant voltage across a resistance to produce an output current that is directly proportional to the voltage. L. a certain inductance. in addition to its resistance. R.Fortunately. there is an IC (Integrated circuit) called a comparator: these come usually 4 sections in a single package. One can be used as the oscillator to produce the triangular waveform and another to do the comparing. the solenoid has. but you can use a saw tooth (where the voltage falls quickly and rinses slowly).

even if V is removed abruptly. The current will not be constant. when a low frequency PWM voltage is applied across a solenoid. however. .* In contrast. the current through it will be increasing and decreasing as V turns on and off. Conversely. and will be discontinuous since it will go back to zero during V‘s off period (Figure 3). produced in that element do not jump up to its constant value. is applied across an inductive element. Therefore. the current. if D is larger than the rise time. V. I do not disappear instantaneously. and have a DC average value.When a voltage. so it will be continuous. but gradually rises to its maximum over a period of time called the rise time (Figure 2). but decreases back to zero in the same amount of time as the rise time. but will have a ripple (Figure 4). I will never achieve its maximum value. I. If D is shorter than the rise time. I will never fall back to zero.

By adjusting the D. the current will not have much time to rise before the high frequency PWM voltage takes effect and the current stays constant. (Figure 5) . the amount of output current can be controlled. such that the current does not have time to decrease very far before the voltage is turned back on.At high frequencies. regardless of D. V turns on and off very quickly. With a small D. The resulting current through the solenoid is therefore considered to be constant. With a large D. the current will be able to rise higher before it becomes constant.

and then superimposed on top of the output current.Dither Static friction. This constantly breaks the static friction ensuring that it will move even with small input changes. yet they must also be small and fast enough not to result in a pulsating output. and the effects of hysteresis are average out. stiction. In order to counteract the effects of stiction and hysteresis. and hysteresis can cause the control of a hydraulic valve to be erratic and unpredictable. the frequency and amplitude of the dither will be a function of the duty cycle. and hysteresis can cause the shift to be different for the same input signal. The amplitude and frequency of the dither must be carefully chosen. Dither is a small ripple in the solenoid current that causes the desired vibration and there by increases the linearity of the valve. small vibrations about the desired position are created in the spool. This means that low frequency dither is not independent of current magnitude. However. . The advantage of using high frequency PWM is that dither can be generated separately. which is also used to set the output current level. The amplitude must be large enough and the frequency slow enough that the spool will respond. The optimum dither must be chosen such that the problems of stiction and hysteresis are overcome without new problems being created. as seen above. Dither in the output current is a byproduct of low frequency PWM. Stiction can prevent the valve spool from moving with small input changes.

WHY THE PWM FREQUENCY IS IMPORTANT: The PWM is a large amplitude digital signal that swings from one voltage extreme to the other. unnecessarily heating the fuel. filtering pulses is not just about the pulse frequency but about the duty cycle and how much energy is in the pulse. this same engine needs far less fuel yet the pump still normally supplies the same amount of fuel. will therefore be constant at all current levels. So. as set by the user. . The operational range is limited for most applications primarily because torque drops off faster than the voltage drops. At idle or highway cruise. This is normally done with a variable resistor and provides a limited useful range of operation. a good rule of thumb is to keep the PWM frequency much higher than the frequency of any waveform you generate.This allows the user to independently set the current magnitude (by adjusting the D). Because the wider pulse has more time to integrate to a stable filter voltage and the smaller pulse has less time to disturb it the inspiration was a request to control the speed of a large positive displacement fuel pump. as well as the dither frequency and amplitude. MOTOR SPEED CONTROL (POWER CONTROL) Typically when most of us think about controlling the speed of a DC motor we think of varying the voltage to the motor. When the PWM frequency is close to the frequency of the waveform that you are generating. The same filter will do better on a low or high duty cycle pulse compared to a 50% duty cycle pulse. The optimum dither. And. As a result the fuel gets recycled back to the fuel tank. then any PWM filter will also smooth out your generated waveform and drastically reduce its amplitude. Finally. this wide voltage swing takes a lot of filtering to smooth out. This PWM controller circuit is intended to run the pump at a low speed setting during low power and allow full pump speed when needed at high engine power levels. The pump was sized to allow full power of a boosted engine in excess of 600 Hp.

wider operational range and longer lived motors. Most motor manufacturers recommend PWM control rather than the older voltage control method. it works fine. the motor is operating at 50% modulation. a loss that exists at any frequency. At lower power settings the pulses are of shorter duration. . Most PWM circuits use large transistors to simply allow power On & Off. The basic concept is to keep the voltage at the full value and simply vary the amount of time the voltage is applied to the motor windings. Of course. but the range of low speed operation had to stay above the failure zone described above. The large transistors used for this On/Off activity have resistance when flowing current. So at very high frequencies. 100% modulation. This method also causes overheating of the coils and eventual failure of the motor if operated too slowly. PWM allows a very linear response in motor torque even down to low PWM% without causing damage to the motor. For our purposes the circuit as designed is running at 526 Hz. PWM controllers can be operated at a wide range of frequencies. Somewhat of an arbitrary frequency. When the pulse is on as long as it is off. With the advent of solid state electronics in the 1950‘s and 1960‘s and this technology becoming very affordable in the 1970‘s & 80‘s the use of pulse width modulation (PWM) became much more practical. like a very fast switch. Several advantages of PWM are efficiency. These transistors also have a loss every time they ―turn on‖ and every time they ―turn off‖. the controlling resistors are large and dissipate a large percentage of energy in the form of heat. Additionally. In theory very high frequencies (greater than 20 kHz) will be less efficient than lower frequencies (as low as 100 Hz) because of switching losses. the ―turn on/off‖ losses become much more significant. This sends a steady frequency of pulses into the motor windings. All of these advantages result from keeping the voltage at full scale resulting in current being limited to a safe limit for the windings. DC motors have had speed controllers based on varying voltage for years. When full power is needed one pulse ends just as the next pulse begins.Most DC motors cannot effectively operate with a very low voltage.

If objectionable the frequency can be changed to a much higher frequency above our normal hearing level (>20. a Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor or any other way the user wants to create a 0-5 volt signal. effectively increasing water flow to the engine as engine load increases. there can be a hum from the motor at lower PWM%. Or. Normally the controller keeps the motor at this Lo Speed except when Progressive is used and when Hi Speed is commanded (see below). Hi Speed is selected three different ways on this controller: 1) Hi Speed is automatically selected for about one second when power goes on. This signal can be generated from a throttle position sensor. . This controller could even be used as a secondary injector driver (several injectors could be driven in a batch mode. Hi Speed is that same as hard wiring the motor to a steady 12 volt DC source. This function could be set to increase fuel pump power as turbo boost starts to climb (MAP sensor). Low Speed can vary anywhere from 0% PWM to 100%. this speed will be set depending on the minimum speed/load needed for the motor. hi impedance only). Low Speed could be set at zero PWM% and as the TPS signal climbs it could increase PWM%. Normally when installing the controller. This starts to increase PWM% from the low speed setting as the 0-5 volt signal climbs.Depending on the motor used. This gives Hi Speed regardless of the Progressive signal. This gives the motor full torque at the start. Low Speed is set with a trim pot inside the controller box. steady 12 volt DC power. if controlling a water injection pump.000Hz). If needed this time can be increased (The value of C1 would need to be increased). The controller is providing 100% PWM. Progressive control is commanded by a 0-5 volt input signal. 2) High Speed can also be selected by applying 12 volts to the High Speed signal wire. Progressive control adds enormous flexibility to the use of this controller. with Progressive control (0-100%) you could control their output for fuel or water with the 0-5 volt signal. a Mass Air Flow sensor. PWM CONTROLLER FEATURES: This controller offers a basic ―Hi Speed‖ and ―Low Speed‖ setting and has the option to use a ―Progressive‖ increase between Low and Hi speed.

The more important question is how the PWM Technology jumping from a 1970‘s technology into the new millennium offers: • Longer battery life: – reducing the costs of the solar system – reducing battery disposal problems • More battery reserve capacity: – increasing the reliability of the solar system – reducing load disconnects – Opportunity to reduce battery size to lower the system cost • Greater user satisfaction: – get more power when you need it for less money!! . How does this technology help: The benefits noted above are technology driven. the circuit achieves 100% PWM – Hi Speed.When the Progressive signal gets to approximately 4.5 volts.

SPACE VECTOR PWM The Space Vector PWM generation module accepts modulation index commands and generates the appropriate gate drive waveforms for each PWM cycle. The magnitude of each active vector (V1to V6) is 2/3 Vdc (dc bus voltage). The Space Vector PWM (SVPWM) module inputs modulation index commands (U_Alpha and U_Beta) which are orthogonal signals (Alpha and Beta) as shown in Figure. (1) Where dc bus voltage (Vdc) is in volts . A three-phase 2-level inverter with dc link configuration can have eight possible switching states. This section describes the operation and configuration of the SVPWM module.. The gain characteristic of the SVPWM module is given in Figure . which generates output voltage of the inverter. The vertical axis of Figure represents the normalized peak motor phase voltage (V/Vdc) and the horizontal axis represents the normalized modulation index (M). The inverter fundamental line-to-line Rms output voltage (Vline) can be approximated (linear range) by the following equation: …………. V7 and V8 zero voltage vectors) in the Space Vector plane (Figure: space vector diagram). Each inverter switching state generates a voltage Space Vector (V1 to V6 active vectors.

SPACE VECTOR DIAGRAM This document is the property of International Rectifier and may not be copied or distributed without expressed consent Transfer Characteristics .

. The transfer gain (Figure: Transfer characteristics) of the PWM modulator reduces and becomes nonlinear in the over modulation region. however. the Space Vector PWM algorithm will rescale the magnitude of the voltage vector to fit within the Hexagon limit.. VOLTAGE VECTOR RESCALING This document is the property of International Rectifier and may not be copied or distributed without expressed consent. Under such circumstance.The maximum achievable modulation (Umag_L) in the linear operating range is given by: …………. The magnitude of the voltage vector is restricted within the Hexagon. This corresponds to the condition where the voltage vector in (Figure: voltage vector rescaling) increases beyond the hexagon boundary. the phase angle (θ) is always preserved. (2) Over modulation occurs when modulation Umag > Umag_L.

one PWM cycle) for each active vector. The gating pattern outputs (PWMUH … PWMWL) include dead time insertion .r. It is crucial to trigger pwm load at least 35 clock cycles prior to the falling edge of nSYNC signal. otherwise new modulation commands will not be implemented at the earliest PWM cycle. The SVPWM _Tm module consumes 11 clock cycles typically and 35 clock cycles (worst case Tr) in over modulation cases.PWM OPERATION Upon receiving the modulation index commands (UAlpha and UBeta) the sub-module SVPW M_Tm starts its calculations at the rising edge of the PWM Load signal. The SVPWM _Tm module implements an algorithm that selects (based on sector determination) the active space vectors (V1 to V6) being used and calculates the appropriate time duration (w. PhaseW) by sub module Pwm Generation. The appropriated zero vectors are also being selected. The above Figures voltage vector rescaling illustrates the PWM waveforms for a voltage vector locates in sector I of the Space Vector plane (shown in Figure). a new set of Space Vector times and vectors are readily available for actual PWM generation (PhaseU. PhaseV.t. At the falling edge of nSYNC.

It should be populated by the system clock frequency (Clk) and Pwm frequency (PwmFreq) selection. (3) The input resolution of the Space Vector PWM modulator signals U_Alpha and U_Beta is 16-bit signed integer. The variable should be calculated as: ………. the actual PWM resolution (PwmCval) is limited by the system clock frequency. The resolution is 1 clock cycle or 30nsec at a 33..3 MHz clock and is the same as those of the voltage command registers and the PWM carrier frequency register. However. .3-PHASE SPACE VECTOR PWM 2-phase (6-step PWM) Space Vector PWM PWM CARRIER PERIOD: Input variable PwmCval controls the duration of a PWM cycle. Dead time Insertion Logic Dead time is inserted at the output of the PWM Generation Module.

SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL MODE OPERATION There are two modes of operation available for PWM waveform generation. The dead time register is also double buffered to allow ―on the fly‖ dead time change and control while PWM logic is inactive. DEAD TIME INSERTION The dead time insertion logic inserts the programmed dead time between two high and low side of the gate signals within a phase. the inverter voltage can be changed at two times the rate of the switching frequency. the inverter voltage Config = 0). at the expense of increased current harmonic . however. it eliminates the complete high side turn on pulse if the commanded volt*seconds is less than the programmed dead time. This will provide an increase in voltage control bandwidth. With Symmetrical PWM mode. Thus.The dead time insertion logic chops off the high side commanded volt*seconds by the amount of dead time and adds the same amount of volt*seconds to the low side signal. namely the Center Aligned Symmetrical PWM (Figure) and the Center Aligned Asymmetrical PWM (Figure)The volt-sec can be changed every half a PWM cycle (Tpwm) since Pwm Load occurs every half a PWM cycle (compare Figure :symmetrical pwm and Figure :asymmetrical PWM).

Asymmetrical PWM Mode Three-Phase and Two-Phase Modulation Three-phase and two-phase Space Vector PWM modulation options are provided for the IRMCx203. Figure: three-phase and two phase modulation shows the switching pattern for one PWM cycle when the voltage vector is inside sector 1 . The Volt-sec generated by the two PWM strategies are identical. especially when high switching frequency (>10Khz) is employed. however with 2phase modulation the switching losses can be reduced significantly.

disoperation will occur at low motor fundamental frequencies (< 2Hz) under two-phase modulation control. SINUSOIDAL PULSE WIDTH MODULATION In many industrial applications. The default setting is three-phase modulation. where the total power. q plane. Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM). SPWM maintains good performance of the drive in the entire range of operation between zero and 78 percent of the value that would be reached by square-wave operation. linear relationship between modulation index and output voltage is not maintained and the over-modulation methods are required SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH MODULATION A different approach to SPWM is based on the space vector representation of voltages in the d. q components are found by Park transform.THREE PHASE AND TWO PHASE MODULATION The field Two Phase PWM of the PWM Config write register group provides selection of three-phase or two-phase modulation. Successful operation of two-phase modulation in the entire speed operating range will depend on hardware configuration. is used to control the inverter output voltage. as well as the impedance. . If the modulation index exceeds this value. also called Sine coded Pulse Width Modulation. If the gate driver employs a bootstrap power supply strategy. The d. remains unchanged.

V* Tz = V1 *T1 + V2 *T2 + V0 *(T0/2) + V7 *(T0/2)………. and zero vectors V0 and V7 are selected for T0.(4) . where T1. T2 are the intervals of application of vector V1 and V2 respectively.Fig: space vector shows 8 space vectors in according to 8 switching positions of inverter. V* is the phase-to-center voltage which is obtained by proper selection of adjacent vectors V1 and V2. Inverter output voltage space vector Determination of Switching times The reference space vector V* is given by Equation (1).

comparison. This leads to the higher modulation index compared to the SPWM. . But the triple order harmonics are not appeared in the phase-to-phase voltage as well.center voltage containing the triple order harmonics that are generated by space vector PWM.SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (CONTINUED) Fig. (b) V2 Pulse pattern of Space vector PWM Comparison In Fig:. below shows that the inverter switching state for the period T1 for vector V1 and for vector V2. pulse pattern of space vector PWM. Inverter switching state for (a)V1. U is the phase to. and U1 is the sinusoidal reference voltage. resulting switching patterns of each phase of inverter are shown in Fig.

COMPARISON OF SPWM AND SPACE VECTOR PWM As mentioned above. The maximum phase-to-center voltage by sinusoidal and space vector PWM are respectively Vmax = Vdc/2 : Sinusoidal PWM Vmax = Vdc/√3 : Space Vector PWM Where. but the amplitude of maximum possible voltage is 90 percent of square-wave in the case of space vector PWM. Vdc is DC-Link voltage. . This means that Space Vector PWM can produce about 15 percent higher than Sinusoidal PWM in output voltage. SPWM only reaches to 78 percent of square wave operation.

( ua + a . which correspond to the 23 = 8 possible switching states of the power switches of the inverter.SVM PWM TECHNIQUE The Pulse Width modulation technique permits to obtain three phase system voltages. uc ) ………(5) Where a = -1/2 + j . which can be applied to the controlled output.inverter output voltage space vector). ub + a2 . which describes all three output voltages ua. . The SVM algorithm is based on the principle of the space vector u*. v3/2 We can distinguish six sectors limited by eight discrete vectors u0…u7 (fig:. Space Vector Modulation (SVM) principle differs from other PWM processes in the fact that all three drive signals for the inverter will be created simultaneously. The implementation of SVM process in digital systems necessitates less operation time and also less program memory. ub and uc : u* = 2/3 .

u0 + t1 . u1 + t2 . a-1) uc = Re ( u* . By varying the relative on-switching time Tc of the different vectors. u2 ) . the vectors u0. ub and uc can be varied and is defined as: ua = Re ( u* ) ub = Re ( u* .SPACE VECTOR MODULATION The amplitude of u0 and u7 equals 0. DEFINITION OF THE SPACE VECTOR Depending on the switching times t0. the space vector u* and also the output voltages ua. a-2) …………(6) During a switching period Tc and considering for example the first sector. u1 and u2 will be switched on alternatively. The other vectors u1…u6 have the same amplitude and are 60 degrees shifted. t1 and t2 the space vector u* is defined as: u* = 1/Tc . ( t0 .

u1 + t2 . Then it will be easy to calculate the space vector u* and the output voltages ua. u2 Where t0 + t1 + t2 = Tc and t0 + t1 + t2 = 1 t0.t2 …………. t1 and t2 are the relative values of the on switching times. They are defined as: t1 = m . u1 + t2 . u2 u* = t1 . ub and uc corresponding to the desired voltage vector u* the following SVM strategy is proposed.u* = t0 . vsa and vsb.. cos ( a + p/6) t2 = m .t1 . sin a t0 = 1 . The voltage vector u* can be provided directly by the optimal vector control laws w1. In order to generate the phase voltages ua. (7) Their values are implemented in a table for a modulation factor m = 1. . u0 + t1 . ub and uc.

the q ZSAC has two types of operation states: active stave and shoot-through state. Fig. 3(b). SI is turned on and S2 is turned off as shown in Fig. In state I. In general. 3(a). CIRCUIT ANALYSIS The q ZSAC has two operating states in one switching period: state I and state 2 as shown in Figs. the time interval in this state is DT. the output shares the same ground with the input. It consists of a Z-source network with two inductors LI. 4. T is the switching period as shown in Fig. Moreover. In state 2 as shown in Fig. a LC filter and a R load.MODELING OF CASE STUDY Fig. Fig. The time interval in this state is (1-D)T. 4 shows the PWM control scheme for proposed system. 2. two capacitors CI. 3a and 3b. The equivalent circuits of the two states are shown in Figs. I shows the conventional voltage-fed SZAC in with input and output not sharing the ground. S2 which are implemented by connection of two diodes. D is an equivalent duty-ratio. and operating in DCM. 3(a). In state I as shown in Fig. two bidirectional switches SI. In addition. Therefore. C]. T is a switching period. the main differences between the ZSAC and q ZSAC are (1) The input voltage and the output voltage is sharing the same ground and (2) The q ZSAC draws a continuous AC current from source or input side while the ZSAC draws a discontinuous AC current. the input current is continuous due to connecting inductor LI directly to the input. We can get . 3a and 3b. 4. the peak of input current in DCM which gives rise to the device stress is higher than that in CCM. two IGBTs in anti parallel (common back-to-back). As shown in Fig. the waveform of input current in CCM is more sinusoidal than that in DCM. respectively. L]. In the same manner as the conventional SZAC. 2 shows the proposed voltage-fed q ZSAC in which the components used are the same as those shown in Fig l. According to the q ZSAC topology shown in Fig. the time interval in this state is (1-D)T.

Duty ratio control of switches .Fig3.4. (b) State 2 Fig. Equivalent circuit of the proposed system (a) State I.

In state 2. we get the averaged equation TABLE I VOLTAGEOF THE CONVENTIONAL SZAC ANDTHE PROPOSED QZSAC . We can get From (1) and (2). SI is turned off and S2 is turned on as shown in Fig.Fig. 3(b). The time interval in this state is DT. Voltage gains versus duty cycle of q ZSAC.5.

are voltage gain of C1.In steady-state. we have The voltage gains can be defined as Where Kc1. C2 and output. respectively. Kc2 and K. we get Thus. .

and prototyping Data analysis. The name matlab stands for matrix laboratory. embedding the state of the art in software for matrix computation. matlab engines incorporate the lapack and blas libraries. the output voltage and Znetwork capacitor C. the voltage of the conventional SZAC proposed in and the proposed qZSAC is shown in Table 1. This allows you to solve many technical computing problems. voltage are boosted and in phase with the input voltage while the Znetwork capacitor C2voltage is bucked/boosted and in-phase with the input voltage. voltage gain Kc have features the same as those presented in while the capacitor voltage gains Ke2 is different from those presented in it clearly shows in Fig. and visualization Scientific and engineering graphics Application development. including graphical user interface building. simulation. voltage are bucked /boosted and out-of phase with the input voltage while the Z-network capacitor C2 voltage is boosted and out-of-phase with the input voltage.5. It integrates computation. visualization. and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. When duty cycle is greater than 0. exploration. Matlab is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not require dimensioning. 5 that there are two operation regions. . especially those with matrix and vector formulations. The output voltage gain K. Matlab was originally written to provide easy access to matrix software developed by the linpack and eispack projects. In summary. Today. D. When duty cycle is less than 0.5. Typical uses include Math and computation Algorithm development Data acquisition Modeling. 5 shows the voltage gains versus the duty cycle. MATLAB Matlab is a high-performance language for technical computing. the output voltage and Z network capacitor C. in a fraction of the time it would take to write a program in a scalar no interactive language such as C or Fortran.Fig. and Z-network capacitor C.

Matlab features a family of add-on application-specific solutions called toolboxes. a command history. It includes the matlab desktop and Command Window. Very important to most users of matlab. and browsers for viewing help. and "programming in the large" to create large and complex application programs. Matlab has extensive facilities for displaying vectors and matrices as graphs. to more sophisticated functions like matrix inverse. files.Matlab has evolved over a period of years with input from many users. THE MATLAB MATHEMATICAL FUNCTION LIBRARY This is a vast collection of computational algorithms ranging from elementary functions. and fast Fourier transforms. cosine. wavelets. and the search path. Toolboxes are comprehensive collections of matlab functions (M-files) that extend the matlab environment to solve particular classes of problems. and many others. matlab is the tool of choice for highproductivity research. and complex arithmetic. Many of these tools are graphical user interfaces. the workspace. and analysis. control systems. input/output. It allows both "programming in the small" to rapidly create quick and dirty throw-away programs. neural networks. development. toolboxes allow you to learn and apply specialized technology. and science. engineering. data structures. matrix eigen values. fuzzy logic. THE MATLAB LANGUAGE This is a high-level matrix/array language with control flow statements. it is the standard instructional tool for introductory and advanced courses in mathematics. . sine. Bessel functions. The matlab system consists of five main parts: DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT This is the set of tools and facilities that help you use matlab functions and files. functions. simulation. as well as annotating and printing these graphs. like sum. Areas in which toolboxes are available include signal processing. In industry. In university environments. an editor and debugger. and object-oriented programming features.

Data can then be dumped into sinks. data/information from various blocks are sent to another block by lines connecting the relevant blocks. Neural Networks. calling matlab as a computational engine. Signals can be generated and fed into blocks dynamic / static). are available with Simulink.com) a company based in Natick. which enhance the processing power of the tool. Statistics etc. CONCEPT OF SIGNAL AND LOGIC FLOW: In Simulink. displays or could be saved to a file.It includes high-level functions for two-dimensional and three-dimensional data visualization.(http://www. The main advantage is the availability of templates / building blocks.mathworks. SIMULINK: INTRODUCTION: Simulink is a software add-on to matlab which is a mathematical tool developed by The Math works. which avoid the necessity of typing code for small mathematical processes. or control system for a dynamic system can be built by using standard building blocks available in Simulink Libraries. . THE MATLAB APPLICATION PROGRAM INTERFACE (API) This is a library that allows you to write C and Fortran programs that interact with matlab. Simulink is a tool used to visually program a dynamic system (those governed by Differential equations) and look at results. dsp. which could be scopes. Various toolboxes for different techniques. and presentation graphics. It also includes low-level functions that allow you to fully customize the appearance of graphics as well as to build complete graphical user interfaces on your matlab applications. animation. and for reading and writing MAT-files. It includes facilities for calling routines from matlab (dynamic linking). such as Fuzzy Logic. Matlab is powered by extensive numerical analysis capability.Data can be fed into functions. image processing. Any logic circuit.

a simulation time step (otherwise called an integration time step) is essential.1 Simulink library browser . Thus. can be branched. and the selection of that step is determined by the fastest dynamics in the simulated system. data is processed and transferred only at Discrete times. Fig 4. In simulation. multiplexed etc. since all computers are discrete systems.Data can be connected from one block to another.

left-click and drag the mouse from the output of one block to the input of another block. and can use the random signal generator to simulate noise. to avoid warning messages indicating unconnected ports. a repeating sequence such as a pulse train. One may want to use a constant input. a step. The ground could be used to connect to any unused port.CONNECTING BLOCKS: fig 4. . a ramp etc. The clock may be used to create a time index for plotting purposes. SOURCES AND SINKS: The sources library contains the sources of data/signals that one would use in a dynamic system simulation.2 Connecting blocks To connect blocks. a sinusoidal wave. One may want to test disturbance effects.

the stop block could be used to stop the simulation if the input to that block (the signal being sunk) is non-zero. In most cases.The sinks are blocks where signals are terminated or ultimately used. Figure 3 shows the available blocks in the sources and sinks libraries. fig 4. to prevent warnings about unconnected signals. or a matrix of variables.3 Sources and sinks . we would want to store the resulting data in a file. Unused signals must be terminated. The data could be displayed or even stored to a file.

Simulink allows you to represent these systems using transfer functions.CONTINUOUS AND DISCRETE SYSTEMS: All dynamic systems can be analyzed as continuous or discrete time systems. integration blocks.continous and descrete systems . delay blocks etc. Fig .

One such could be a saturation block. such as a voltage signal to a motor etc. Fig . It is very difficult to arrive at an analytical solution for a system having non-linearities such as saturation. . Switches are the logical equivalent of if-then statements in programming. In Simulation. can also be used in logic circuits. logical operations such as and. sum.NON-LINEAR OPERATORS: A main advantage of using tools such as Simulink is the ability to simulate non-linear systems and arrive at results without having to solve analytically. Matrix multiplication becomes easy with the matrix gain block. to indicate a physical limitation on a parameter. or. Manual switches are useful when trying simulations with different cases. signup function. ‗greater than‘ etc. etc. Trigonometric functions such as sin or tan inverse (at an) are also available. since systems are analyzed using iterations. Relational operators such as ‗equal to‘. non-linearities are not a hindrance. . simulink blocks MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS: Mathematical operators such as products.can be programmed along with the signal flow. limited slew rates etc.

and makes matrix(column/row) visualization easier. .Fig. Multiplexing helps us remove clutter due to excessive connectors. They may be in different subsystems. That signal could be dumped into a goto block. there may arise the need to transfer data from one portion to another portion of the block. which is used to send signals from one subsystem to another. Simulink math blocks SIGNALS & DATA TRANSFER: In complicated block diagrams.

For instance. which is enabled only when a trigger signal is received. In general one will use the standard subsystem but other subsystems can be chosen. . Signals and systems MAKING SUBSYSTEMS Drag a subsystem from the Simulink Library Browser and place it in the parent block where you would like to hide the code. the subsystem can be a triggered block.Fig. The type of subsystem depends on the purpose of the block.

Open (double click) the subsystem and create input / output PORTS. Simulation step size must be decided based on the dynamics of the system. A thermal process may warrant a step size of a few seconds. they automatically create ports on the external (parent) block. The system can be simulated as a continuous system or a discrete system based on the blocks inside. . The simulation start and stop time can be specified. SETTING SIMULATION PARAMETERS: Running a simulation in the computer always requires a numerical technique to solve a differential equation. This allows for connecting the appropriate signals from the parent block to the subsystem. A Fixed step size is recommended and it allows for indexing time to a precise number of points. but a DC motor in the system may be quite fast and may require a step size of a few milliseconds. When ports are created in the subsystem. which transfer signals into and out of the subsystem. In case of variable step size. the smallest and largest step size can be specified. The input and output ports are created by dragging them from the Sources and Sinks directories respectively. thus controlling the size of the data vector.

MATLAB DESIGN OF CASE STUDY FIGURE:QUASI CONVENTIONAL .

FIGURE:QUASI PROPOSED FIGURE:QUASI PROPOSED GRAPHR .

FIGURE:QUASI PROPOSED GRAPHR .

.SIMULATION RESULTS Duty ratio control of switches.

Voltage gains versus duty cycle of conventional ZSAC Voltage gains versus duty cycle of Proposed qZSAC .

25. .Simulation results of proposed qZSAC when D = 0. Simulation results of proposed qZSAC when D = 0.7.

(a) Conventional ZSAC in (b) Proposed qSZAC. .(a) (b) Simulation result input current when D = 0.25.

(a)

(b)

Simulation result input current when D = 0.7. (a) Conventional ZSAC (b) Proposed qSZAC.

FFT analysis of conventional ZSAC at D=0.25

FFT analysis of conventional ZSAC at D=0.7

FFT analysis of Proposed qSZAC at D=0.25

FFT analysis of Proposed qSZAC at D=0.7

PF versus duty cycle of Proposed qZSAC .

IEEE lAS '08. pp. namely that the input voltage and the output voltage are sharing the same ground. low harmonic distortion input current and high input power factor. P.4. and F. Zhang. S. Vol. The proposed q ZSAC inherits all the advantages of the traditional single-phase Z-source ac-ac converter (ZSAC). Ind.. "A class of quasi-Z-source inverters. Anderson. the operation is in continuous current mode (CCM). Z. "Z-source AC-AC converters solving commutation problem. and F. and F. The experimental results show that the proposed q ZSAC has a high efficiency. [2] Y." IEEE Trans. "Switching technique for current-controlled ac-to-ac converters. 2008. vol." in Proc. Youm and B. 22.2005. pp. 3. [4] 1. no. Qian. 46. Z. the proposed q ZSAC has the unique advantages. Peng. The operating principles and simulation results in comparison to that in conventional SZAC are presented.CONCLUSION A new family of single-phase ACIAC converter called single-phase quasi-Z-source ACIAC converter (q ZSAC) has been presented in this paper.. 2146-2154. pp. 2. "Single-phase Z-source PWM AC-AC converters. Electron. IEEE PC--SC '08. Fang. pp. Peng. [3] 1. Vol. 1999. H. . 309318. which can realize buck-boost. No. Anderson. M. No. REFERENCES [I] X." in Proc. Z. "Four quasi-Z-source inverters. Tang. reversing or maintaining phase angle. Z. 6. [5] 1. 2743-2749. 2008. Peng. Xie and C." IEEE Power Electronics Letters. Kwon.2007." IEEE Trans. 121-124. 1-1. In addition. Power Electron.

Li. Peng. Nho. Z. Chun. Chi. IEEE APEC'09. "Quasi-Z-source inverter for photovoltaic systems. H. and M. and F. T. IEEE APEC09. .[6] Y. 1097-1101. Z. 2009. and D. Shin. Kim. Peng. pp. F. pp. pp. "Grid-connected PV system using a qZ-source inverter. Park. 918-924. 2009. E. [7] 1. Cao. H. Liu. J. IEEE APEC09. "A family of Z-source and quasi-Z-source DCDC converter. 2009." in Proc. [8] D.925-929." in Proc. Anderson." in Proc.

- Magnum MS AE SpecRevB 11 07
- VFD Manual (1).pdf
- Paper 09
- Inverter & Transformers
- Variador cmx007
- FR_A700
- bldc1
- Switch Mode Inverters
- Modeling and Transient Performance Analysis of Dc Dc Buck Converter
- Design of quasi Z-Source AC/AC converter using MATLAB/SIMULINK
- 2007-149e
- Solar Power Kit for Cabin
- A Novel Three-Phase Three-Leg AC/AC Converter Using Nine IGBTS
- IRJET- Two-Feeder Converter Based Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner
- Index-project
- Quotation for the Supply of 03 Nos. 10 kVA on Line UPS System
- EHV AC & DC Transmission-TEE-021
- INVERSOR 4KW BEST.pdf
- Turbinas Eolicas Verticales Energyas
- Vsi Fed Induction Machine
- A Novel Active Commutation Circuit for Three Level Inverter
- LS SV IG5A Easy Start Guide
- Improved Dynamic Response of DSTATCOM Using Genetic Algorithm
- Fuzzy Power Filter
- Archimod HE Tender 20kW En
- XPower_200-400-800_Digital Inverter
- MATLAB and PSPICE Dynamic Model of Axial
- Adjustable Speed Drive Reference Guide
- Chapter 5
- cotman7003000[1]

- Equal Switching Distribution Method for Multi-Level Cascaded Inverter
- Analysis Approach for Five Phase Two-Level Voltage Source Inverter with PWM Technique for Induction Motor Drive
- Conserve and Save
- Modern V/f Control Technique for Closed-loop Operation of Induction Motor Drive using DSP TMS320F2812
- Autonomous Control of Interlinking Converter with Energy Storage in Hybrid AC-DC Microgrid
- City-of-Owatonna-Solar-Conserve-and-Save
- Utility Scale Solar Power Plants
- As NZS 5603-2009 Stand-Alone Inverters - Performance Requirements
- Performance Characteristics of SEIGUsed In Wind Energy Conversion System
- A Novel Approach to the Performance Annalysis of Induction Motor with Variable Frequency Drive
- Comparison between PI Controller & NN Controller Based Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) for Voltage Sag Mitigation
- Implementing Fault Ride-Through support for a Offshore Wind Farm fed VSC-HVDC system
- Renewable Rebates
- Untitled
- Simulation Circuit Analysis of Shunt Active Power Filter
- Simulation Of Interline Power Flow Controller in Power Transmission System
- As 4777.3-2005 Grid Connection of Energy Systems via Inverters Grid Protection Requirements
- City-of-Owatonna-Solar-Conserve-and-Save
- Dover-City-of-Green-Energy-Program-Solar-PV
- Simulation of speed control of Induction Motor with DTC scheme
- Auto intelligent Street Light Using Sun Tracking Solar Panel
- Town of Ipswich - Photovoltaic Rebate Program
- Untitled
- Untitled
- Delmarva-Power-Photovoltaic-Grant
- City-of-Biggs-Electric-Utility-Residential-Solar-Incentive
- Moreno-Valley-Utility-Residential-Solar-Electric-Rebate
- Close Loop Control of Induction Motor Using Z-Source Inverter
- San-Miguel-Power-Assn,-Inc-Renewable-Rebates
- Untitled

- Acceptance Letter for Anil
- Acceptance Letter for Sukumar
- 1strev Main
- FOV
- 51804254 Project Report of Hyundai
- Acceptance Letter for Vishala
- 09-IE9918
- Marketing Vj s
- Acceptance Letter for Srividya
- Acceptance Letter for Sukanya
- Communication
- Acceptance Letter for Lavanya
- Acceptance Letter for Prashnathi
- ITIMP10decon
- Second Rev w
- Edge Detection
- Shadows
- Advanced Density Based Traffic Control System
- Edge Detection
- typeinst4
- Itimp09 (Full)
- Edge Detection
- Edge Detection
- Ac Lab 3rd Day Paper
- itpw13 1st
- Single-Phase ACIAC Converter Based on Quasi-ZSource
- RSC Final Cvpr Submit
- 25. Multi Stage Wiener Filter
- License

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Close Dialog## This title now requires a credit

Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Loading