Wireless Communication & Tracking

The state of play
Minerals Down Under Flagship

Mark Hedley CSIRO

Presentation Outline
• Brief Introduction to CSIRO • Part 1 – Wireless Communications • Part 2 – General Tracking Systems Review
• • • • • Motivation Approaches to Tracking Proximity Detection Continuous Tracking Frequency Bands

• Part 3 – CSIRO System – WASP
• Overview • System Details • Performance

• Conclusion

Brief Introduction to CSIRO

CSIRO today: a snapshot Australia’s national science agency One of the largest & most diverse in the world 6500+ staff over 55 locations Ranked in top 1% in 14 research fields 20+ spin-off companies in six years 160+ active licences of CSIRO innovation Building national prosperity and wellbeing .

Minerals Down Under Flagship Creating impact in three key areas Growing the resource base Increasing productivity Reducing environmental footprint iron | copper | nickel | lead |zinc |uranium | gold | aluminium |magnesium .

industry and the community .Ensuring the longevity of our industry Global challenges require innovative solutions CHALLENGES Environmental performance CREATING SOLUTIONS THROUGH Collaborating with the best Water availability Declining ore grades Working globally Increasing production costs Working in deeper mining environments Global skills shortage Creating linkages between research.

Working across the minerals value chain Delivering world class R&D Exploration Mining Processing Metal production Manufacturing Minerals Down Under Flagship Future Manufacturing Flagship .

ICT Centre Research Laboratories • Wireless and Networking Technologies – Creating a wireless world .

Flexible information solutions .ICT Centre Research Laboratories • Autonomous Systems – ICT for the physical world • Information Engineering .

CSIRO Wireless and Networking Research Lab • World class excellence in Wireless Systems and Networking Research • Proven record of generating high value IP and high quality publications Invention of WLAN Invention of the through-the-rock emergency communications World first 6 Gbps wireless link • Key Skills • Communication and Signal Processing • Wireless Networking • mm-Wave Technology • Antennas and Propagation Presentation title | Presenter name | Page 10 .

Wireless Communications .

g. adaptive cruise) • Radio bandwidth is a scarce resource • Exponential growth in demand • This is driving continual innovation and development of new standards • Mining is a small market in wireless.g. Standoff monitoring of vital signs) Environmental monitoring Fundamental Science (e.g.g.Wireless is Everywhere • Increasing use of wireless in society • • • • • • • • Smart phones Wireless Local Area Networks Wireless broadband to homes (NBN 4% wireless. and must leverage developments and standards in other areas • Chipsets and standards . Radio astronomy) Sensors (e. 3% satellite) Tracking (e. Multispectral. GPS) Health (e.

Wireless Communications • Continual demand for • • • • • Higher data rates (video) Lower latency Increased mobility Increased reliability / availability Decreased cost / size • Scales • No universal solution • Many standards Last Mile .

Collision avoidance and tele-operation • Can improve using • Redundancy • Multi-modal operation • Deployment a black art? • Radio propagation difficult to model in complex and dynamic environments • Security • Interference • If possible control spectrum usage • Monitor • Interoperability .g.Wireless Issues • Wireless is never completely reliable • Plan systems to be fail safe • E.

Wireless Tracking .

Motivation for Tracking • Tracking valuable for mining • Safety • Collision Avoidance • Situational Awareness • Production monitoring • Traffic monitoring and scheduling • Automation • Underground • Can’t use GPS! • Monitor extraction from draw points in cave mining .

no data network . cannot be certain vehicle in zone.Approaches to Tracking • Infrastructure Proximity Detection • e. RFID • Pros – widely used. low cost tags • Cons – need many readers for tracking. cannot use on surface.g.

surface and underground. usually data network. cannot be certain vehicle in zone. RFID • Pros – widely used. low cost tags • Cons – need many readers for tracking.g. cannot use on surface. no data network • Continuous Local Tracking • Pros – Know location at all times. potentially higher accuracy • Cons – more expensive tags and more complicated .Approaches to Tracking • Infrastructure Proximity Detection • e.

cannot be certain vehicle in zone. usually data network. cannot use on surface. no data network . problems around corners. low cost tags • Cons – need many readers for tracking. RFID • Pros – widely used. surface and underground. no data network • Continuous Local Tracking • Pros – Know location at all times. potentially higher accuracy • Cons – more expensive tags and more complicated • Peer to Peer Proximity Detection • Pros – safety not rely on infrastructure • Cons – reduced situational awareness.g.Approaches to Tracking • Infrastructure Proximity Detection • e.

low cost tags • Cons – need many readers for tracking.g. need satellite visibility . no data network • Global Tracking – GPS • Pro – little infrastructure to install • Con – no data network. potentially higher accuracy • Cons – more expensive tags and more complicated • Peer to Peer Proximity Detection • Pros – safety not rely on infrastructure • Cons – reduced situational awareness. RFID • Pros – widely used. no data network • Continuous Local Tracking • Pros – Know location at all times. cannot be certain vehicle in zone.Approaches to Tracking • Infrastructure Proximity Detection • e. usually data network. cannot use on surface. surface and underground. problems around corners.

passive is very short range • Magnetic Bubble • Low frequency magnetic field created around vehicle (not person).Proximity Detection • Asymmetric Techniques • RFID – passive or active • Low cost and widely used. large and expensive • Radar • Better dust penetration but lower resolution compared to laser scanner. some penetration through rock (see around corners). • Symmetric Techniques • Radio Received Signal Strength (RSS) • Poor range estimated from RSS in dynamic environments • Radio Ranging • Requires high frequency signals. can detect untagged objects. large transmitter • Laser Scanner • Usually multiple line scanners. more complex equipment .

movement of vehicles.g.Continuous Tracking • Can be integrated with wireless data network • With mesh network don’t need cabled communications to each infrastructure node (unlike typical RFID readers) • Measured Signals between Vehicle and Infrastructure • Angle of Arrival (AoA) • not convenient to measure in such applications • Poor accuracy for underground geometry • Received Signal Strength (RSS) • Can use normal wireless network (e.11 WLAN) • Highly affected by multipath reflections • Can estimate range or calculate fingerprint • Fingerprint not sufficiently stable in underground environments • Time of Arrival (TOA) • • • • Special hardware to measure Potentially more accuracy than RSS Less affected by multipath. etc Usually calculate range from TOA . 802.

Frequency Band • Frequency.33 m) • ISM.4 GHz (wavelength 125 mm) • ISM. Bluetooth. WLAN. data modems. … • As frequency increases • Pros: antenna size decreases. cordless phones. ZigBee. WLAN. … • 2. video transmission. bandwidth and power usually limited by spectral regulations • Common frequency bands • VHF (30-300 MHz. propagation shorter distances. … • 5.8 GHz (wavelength 52 mm) • ISM. bandwidth increases • Cons: electronics more complicated. less around corners . wavelength 10-1 m) – waveguide cutoff • UHF (300 + MHz) • 900 MHz (wavelength 0. ZigBee.

CSIRO WASP Tracking System .

• WASP system consists of • Anchor nodes – fixed at known locations • Mobile nodes – attached to objects to track • Location Server – attached to any anchor node to compute locations of mobile nodes • Prototype hardware • • • • Anchor and mobile nodes designed and deployed Highly flexible research platform Suitable for field deployments and application trials Operates in class licence bands – 2.8 GHz • Based on commodity components .4 GHz and 5.Wireless Ad-hoc System for Positioning (WASP) • System developed to address challenging tracking and navigation applications.

WASP System • Location Server • Computes mobile node location • Provides diagnostics • Real time location display • Accuracy depends upon radio environment: • 0.2 m LOS indoors (metal) • ~ 1m NLOS indoors • Processing • Super-resolution measurement of Time of Arrival (TOA) • Calculate range • Calculate mobile location • Up to 200 location updates / sec .1 m line of sight outdoors • 0.

Design Parameters • Applications require radio localisation and tracking system • High localisation accuracy • Better than 0.5 m for sports applications – line of sight • Typically 1-2 m for public safety applications – through building materials • Must perform in presence of severe multipath interference • High update rate • Minimum 10 location updates per second for sports applications • Typically one location update per second for other applications • Suitable for rapid deployment • Does not rely on any existing infrastructure • No cabling between nodes • Does not require knowledge of building maps or signal survey • Provides data communications • Forms robust mobile ad hoc network .

Technical Overview of WASP • System based on measurement of Time of Arrival (TOA) • All nodes periodically transmit a beacon • Data – OFDM at 4 Mbps (BPSK) or 8Mbps (QPSK) • Time stamped signal designed for accurate TOA measurement • Uses 5.8 GHz class licence (ISM) frequency band • 125 MHz bandwidth • Maximum 100 mW transmit power • Custom communication stack to support localisation • Support mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET) • Medium Access Controller (MAC) uses time division multiple access (TDMA) • Supports three types of data transport • Beacon payload • Reserved slots • Contention access in free slots .

WASP Operation • TDMA Scheme – each node transmits once per superframe • Allows higher update rate than conventional pair ranging .

TDOA. RSSI .RF measurements Enhanced INS Standard Tag . Gyro. RSSI . TDOA. TDOA. Magnetometer • Minimised Small – Tag – 90 x 50 x 25 mm (credit card 86 x 54) • TOA.RF measurements • 3 axis: Accelerometer.WASP Node Types • Standard Large – Base Station – 115 x 90 x 55 mm • TOA.RF measurements • Enhanced Large – INS – 115 x 90 x 75 mm • TOA. RSSI .

Performance Evaluation .12 m standard deviation .Range Figure: Range error distribution and best fitting Gaussian • The best fitting Gaussian has a 0.

Underground Performance .

Quarry Tracking Performance .

Conclusion • Future mine operations will involve increased remote operation and automation • More stringent requirements for personnel safety • Require whole of site situational awareness and reliable proximity detection • Can also be used to benefit productivity • Reliable radio links and complete mine coverage will become increasingly important • Mines must manage and monitor spectrum • Many technologies for tracking and proximity detection • None is perfect • Need to integrate with communication system • Robust solutions will need to be multimodal • CSIRO has developed WASP technology • Provides radio communication. proximity detection and tracking • Accurate even with substantial multipath .

au Thank you Contact Us Phone: 1300 363 400 or +61 3 9545 2176 Email: Enquiries@csiro.csiro.au Web: www.CSIRO ICT Centre Mark Hedley Project Leader – Wireless Localisation Phone: +61 2 9371 4236 Email: Mark.au .Hedley@csiro.

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