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# AP Chem - Equilibrium

1. 2 NaHCO3(s) <===> Na2CO3(s) + H2O(g) + CO2(g)

Solid sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3, decomposes on heating according to the equation above. a) A sample of 100. g of solid NaHCO3 was placed in a previously evacuated rigid 5.00 L container and heated to 160.° C. Some of the original remained and the total pressure in the container was 7.76 atm when equilibrium was reached. Calculate the number of moles of H2O(g) present at equilibrium. ngas = PV/RT = (7.76 atm)(5.00 L)/(0.0821 L-atm/K-mol)(433 K) = 1.09 mol mol H2O = (1/2)(1.09 mol) = 0.545 mol H2O(g) b) How many grams of the original solid remain in the container under the conditions described in (a). (0.545 mol H2O)(2 mol NaHCO3/mol H2O)(84.0 g NaHCO3/mol) = 91.9 g NaHCO3 decomposed 100.g - 91.6g = 8.4 g remain c) Write the equilibrium expression for the equilibrium constant, K p, and calculate its value for the reaction under he conditions in (a). Kp = (PH2O)(PCO2) = (3.88)(3.88) atm2 = 15.1 atm2 d) If 110. grams of solid had been placed in the 5.00 L container and heated to 160.° C, what would the total pressure have been at equilibrium? Explain. Pressure would remain at 7.76 atm. Since some solid remained when 100.g was used, and there has been no temperature change, then using 110 g will not affect the equilibrium.

2.50 mole CO2(g) in a 3.167x]2  5.55 mol/L a) What is the mol fraction of CO(g) in the equilibrium mixture? 0. [x][x] [0. 30. calculate the value of K c. [0.04 [CO] = x = 0.873 e) In a different experiment. the following equilibrium concentrations were measured.55 ] 2 [0.34 1.12 .50 mole of H2(g) is mixed with 0. In one experiment. the equilibrium constant for the reaction. H2(g) + CO2(g) <===> H2O(g) + CO(g) When H2(g) is mixed with CO2(g) at 2000 K. 0.6 b) Using the equilibrium concentrations given above. equilibrium is achieved according to the equation above.55  0 .04 c) Determine Kp in terms of Kc for this system.0821)(2000)]° = 5. Kp = Kc(RT)∆ng = 5. [0. of CO(g) at this temperature.0 L reaction vessel at 2000 K. [H2] = 0.385 ][0.3]  5 .30 mol/L [H2O] = [CO] = 0.20 mol/L [CO2] = 0.365 ][0.04 [(0.465 ]  0.2 ][0. Calculate the equilibrium concentration. in moles per liter.0% of the CO (g) is converted back to CO2(g).385] [0. Calculate the value at this lower temperature.04 d) When the system is cooled from 2000 K to a lower temperature.

. assume that all other variables remain constant except for the given disturbance. (a) Additional H2(g) is added to the equilibrium mixture at constant volume. A decrease in volume will result in an increase in pressure.3. CO(g). decrease. and H2(g) at equilibrium. Explain each answer with a short statement. An increase of hydrogen gas molecule will increase the rate of the reverse reaction which consumes CO. CO will decrease. C(s) + H2O(g) <===> CO(g) + H2(g) ∆H˚ = + 131kJ A rigid container holds a mixture of graphite pellets (C(s)). Once at equilibrium. . H2O(g). (c) The volume of the container is decreased at constant temperature. CO will decrease. Since the forward reaction is endothermic (a ∆H > 0) an increase in temperature will cause the forward reaction to increase its rate and produce more CO. or remain the same after each of the following disturbances is applied to the original mixture. For each case. (b) The temperature of the equilibrium mixture is increased at constant volume. A LeChâtelier Principle shift to the left. the size of the solid will affect neither the reaction rates nor the equilibrium nor the concentrations of reactants or products. CO will remain the same. CO will increase. the equilibrium will shift to the side with fewer gas molecules to decrease the pressure. A LeChâtelier Principle shift to the right. State whether the number of moles of CO (g) in the container will increase. a shift to the left. (d) The graphite pellets are pulverized.

NH4HS(s) <===> NH3(g) + H2S(g) ∆H° = + 93 kJ The equilibrium above is established by placing solid NH4HS in an evacuated container at 25° C. Kp. The amount of solid NH4HS present does not affect the equilibrium. b) The effect on the equilibrium partial pressure of NH3 gas when additional solid H2S is introduced into the container. At equilibrium. . some solid NH4HS remains in the container. Kp = (PNH3)(PH2S). The equilibrium vapo pressure of NH3 gas would decrease. the equilibrium pressure of NH3 must decrease when the pressure of H2S is increased.4. Predict and explain each of the following. a) The effect on the equilibrium partial pressure of NH3 gas when additional solid NH4HS is introduced into the container. The equilibrium vapor pressure of NH3 gas would be unaffected. Kp = (PNH3)(PH2S). In order for the pressure equilibrium constant. to remain constant.

what effect would this have on the equilibrium constant? Explain briefly. and SO2Cl2 at equilibrium at 375 K.02600 mol) (0.800 atm .0055] Kc = 0.0205 = 0. the total pressure in the bulb is found to be 1. is a highly reactive gaseous compound.43 atm = 0.z + z + z 1 Kc = ([SO2] [Cl2] ) / [SO2Cl2] 2 Kc = [0.43 atm x 1.0260 .y atm PSO2 = PCl2 = y atm Ptot = PSO2Cl2 + PSO2 + PCl2 1.0.63 atm)2 / 0.0205 mol nSO2 = nCl2 = z mol nSO2Cl2 = 0.y + y + y (by substitution) PSO2 = PCl2 = y = 0.43 atmospheres.509 grams of SO2Cl2 is placed in an evacuated 1.00550 mol ntot = nSO2Cl2 + nSO2 + nCl2 ntot = PV / RT = (1. Kp = (PSO2 x PCl2) / PSO2Cl2 Kp = (0. A sample of 3.3 atm Alternative approach in (b) and (c) is to determine the number of moles of each species.17 atm (c) Give the expression for the equilibrium constant (either Kp or Kc) for the decomposition of SO2Cl2(g) at 375 K.5. SO2Cl2(g) <===> SO2(g) + Cl2(g) This decomposition is endothermic.0260 .17 atm Kp = 2. When heated.0. SO2Cl2.0 g/mol P = (nRT) / V = [(0.0465 mol = 0.509 g ÷ 135. and specify its units.00 L) / (0. . Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant you have given. Sulfuryl chloride. Calculate the partial pressures of SO 2.00 L P = 0.00-liter bulb and the temperature is raised to 375 K. then molarity.63 = 0. and finally Kc.800 . nSO2Cl2 = 0. PSO2Cl2 = 0. Cl2.800 atm .z nCl2 = nSO2 = z = 0.0260 .08205 L atm mol¯ 1 K¯ x 375 K) ntot = 0.076 M (d) If the temperature were raised to 500 K.0205] / [0. it decomposes as follows.08205 L atm mol¯1 K¯1) (375 K)] / 1. (a) What would be the pressure in atmospheres in the bulb if no dissociation of the SO2Cl2(g) occurred? n = 3.800 atm (b) When the system has come to equilibrium at 375 K.63 atm PSO2Cl2 = 0.