Coombs test (also known as Coombs' test, antiglobulin test or AGT) refers to two clinical blood tests used

in immunohematology and immunology. The two Coombs tests are the direct Coombs test (DCT, also known as direct antiglobulin test or DAT), and the indirect Coombs test (also known as indirect antiglobulin test or IAT). The Direct Coombs test is used to test for autoimmune hemolytic anemia; ie, a condition of a low count of red blood cells (aka RBCs) caused by immune system lysis or breaking of RBC membranes causing RBC destruction. In certain diseases or conditions an individual's blood may contain IgG antibodies that can specifically bind to antigens on the RBC surface membrane, and their circulating RBCs can become coated with IgG alloantibodies and/or IgG autoantibodies. Complement proteins may subsequently bind to the bound antibodies and cause RBC destruction. [1] The direct Coombs test is used to detect these antibodies or complement proteins that are bound to the surface of red blood cells; a blood sample is taken and the RBCs are washed (removing the patient's own plasma) and then incubated with antihuman globulin (also known as "Coombs reagent"). If this produces agglutination of RBCs, the direct Coombs test is positive, a visual indication that antibodies (and/or complement proteins) are bound to the surface of red blood cells. The indirect Coombs test is used in prenatal testing of pregnant women, and in testing blood prior to a blood transfusion. It detects antibodies against RBCs that are present unbound in the patient's serum. In this case, serum is extracted from the blood sample taken from the patient. Then, the serum is incubated with RBCs of known antigenicity; that is, RBCs with known reference values from other patient blood samples. If agglutination occurs, the indirect Coombs test is positive. [2] Mechanism

Schematic showing the direct and indirect Coombs tests. The two Coombs tests are based on the fact that anti-human antibodies, which are produced by immunizing non-human species with human serum, will bind to human antibodies, commonly IgG or IgM. Animal anti-human antibodies will also bind to human antibodies that may be fixed onto antigens on the surface of red blood cells (also referred to as RBCs), and in the appropriate test tube conditions this can lead to agglutination of RBCs. The phenomenon of agglutination of RBCs is important here, because the resulting clumping of RBCs can be visualised; when clumping is seen the test is positive and when clumping is not seen the test is negative. Common clinical uses of the Coombs test include the preparation of blood for transfusion in cross-matching, screening for atypical antibodies in the blood plasma of pregnant women as part of antenatal care, and detection of antibodies for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anemias. Coombs tests are done on serum from venous blood samples which are taken from patients by venepuncture. The venous blood is taken to a laboratory (or blood bank), where trained scientific technical staff do the Coombs tests. The clinical significance of the result is assessed by the physician who requested the Coombs test, perhaps with assistance from a laboratory-based hematologist. [edit] Direct Coombs test The direct Coombs test (also known as the direct antiglobulin test or DAT) is used to detect if antibodies or complement system factors have bound to RBC surface antigens in vivo. The DAT is not currently required for pre-transfusion testing but may be included by some laboratories. [edit] Examples of diseases that give a positive direct Coombs test The direct Coombs test is used clinically when immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (antibody-mediated destruction of RBCs) is suspected. A positive Coombs test indicates that an immune mechanism is attacking the patient's own RBC's. This mechanism could be autoimmunity, alloimmunity or a drug-induced immune-mediated mechanism. [edit] Examples of alloimmune hemolysis  Hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as HDN or erythroblastosis fetalis) o Rh D hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as Rh disease)

MAC) (A memory device to remember that the DAT tests the RBCs and is used to test infants for haemolytic disease of the newborn is: Rh Disease. RBC phenotyping.) [edit] Laboratory method The patient's red blood cells (RBCs) are washed (removing the patient's own serum) and then incubated with antihuman globulin (also known as Coombs reagent).e. o ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (the indirect Coombs test may only be weakly positive) o Anti-Kell hemolytic disease of the newborn o Rh c hemolytic disease of the newborn o Rh E hemolytic disease of the newborn o Other blood group incompatibility (RhC. The donor's and recipient's blood must be ABO and Rh D compatible. D = DAT. Donor blood for transfusion is also screened for infections in separate processes. The IAT can also be used for compatibility testing. blood types). . the antihuman globulin will agglutinate the RBCs and the direct Coombs test will be positive. R = RBCs. [edit] Examples of clinical uses of the indirect Coombs test [edit] Blood transfusion preparation Main articles: blood transfusion and cross-matching The indirect Coombs test is used to screen for antibodies in the preparation of blood for blood transfusion. It is used to detect very low concentrations of antibodies present in a patient's plasma/serum prior to a blood transfusion. Rhe. In antenatal care. If immunoglobulin or complement factors have been fixed on to the RBC surface in-vivo. MN. and titration studies. Duffy. antibody identification.  Antibody screening A blood sample from the recipient and a blood sample from every unit of donor blood are screened for antibodies with the indirect Coombs test. Each sample is incubated against a wide range of RBCs that together exhibit a full range of surface antigens (i. the IAT is used to screen pregnant women for antibodies that may cause hemolytic disease of the newborn. (A visual representation of a positive direct Coombs test is shown in the upper half of the schematic). P and others) Alloimmune hemolytic transfusion reactions [edit] Examples of autoimmune hemolysis/immunohemolytic hemolysis  Warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia o Idiopathic o Systemic lupus erythematosus o Evans' syndrome (antiplatelet antibodies and hemolytic antibodies) Cold antibody immunohemolytic anemia o Idiopathic cold hemagglutinin syndrome o Infectious mononucleosis o Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (rare)  [edit] Drug-induced immune-mediated hemolysis    Methyldopa (IgG mediated type II hypersensitivity) Penicillin (high dose) Quinidine (IgM mediated activation of classical complement pathway and Membrane attack complex. Kidd. [edit] Indirect Coombs test The indirect Coombs test (also known as the indirect antiglobulin test or IAT) is used to detect in-vitro antibody-antigen reactions.

[3] Historically. and the indirect Coombs test will be positive. More specific Coombs reagents or monoclonal antibodies can be used. [edit] First stage Washed test red blood cells (RBCs) are incubated with a test serum. This is sometimes called cross-matching blood. It is made by injecting human globulin into animals. polyethylene glycol (PEG). IgG antibodies are most reactive at 37°C. IgM antibodies are easily detected in saline at room temperature as IgM antibodies are able to bridge between RBC’s owing to their large size. [edit] Coombs reagent Coombs reagent (also known as Coombs antiglobulin or antihuman globulin) is used in both the direct Coombs test and the indirect Coombs test. it was done in test tubes. [edit] Enhancement media Both IgM and IgG antibodies bind strongly with their antigens. [edit] Antenatal antibody screening The indirect Coombs test is used to screen pregnant women for IgG antibodies that are likely to pass through the placenta into the fetal blood and cause haemolytic disease of the newborn. If the serum contains antibodies to antigens on the RBC surface. Coombs reagent is antihuman globulin. [edit] History of the Coombs test The Coombs test was first described in 1945 by Cambridge immunologists Robin Coombs (after whom it is named). it is commonly done using microarray and gel technology. which produce polyclonal antibodies specific for human immunoglobulins and human complement system factors. If antibodies have bound to RBC surface antigens in the first stage. and proteolytic enzymes. Arthur Mourant and Rob Race. RBCs have a net negative charge called zeta potential which causes them to have a natural repulsion for one another. efficiently creating what is seen as agglutination. the antibodies will bind onto the surface of the RBCs. albumin. (A cross match is shown visually in the lower half of the schematic as an example of an indirect Coombs test). [edit] Laboratory method The IAT is a two-stage test. [edit] Titrations By diluting a serum containing antibodies the quantity of the antibody in the serum can be gauged. Reagents used to enhance IgG detection are referred to as potentiators. IgG antibodies are smaller and require assistance to bridge well enough to form a visual agglutination reaction. RBCs will agglutinate when incubated with the antihuman globulin (also known Coombs reagent) in this stage. . Potentiators reduce the zeta potential of RBC membranes. Today. Cross matching The indirect Coombs test is used to test a sample of the recipient's serum against a sample of the blood donor's RBCs. Common potentiators include low ionic strength solution (LISS). This is done by using doubling dilutions of the serum and finding the maximum dilution of test serum that is able to produce agglutination of relevant RBCs. [edit] Second stage The RBCs are washed three or four times with isotonic saline and then incubated with antihuman globulin.

suatu kondisi jumlah rendah sel darah merah (sel darah merah alias) yang disebabkan oleh lisis sistem kekebalan tubuh atau melanggar membran RBC menyebabkan kerusakan RBC. It detects antibodies against RBCs that are present unbound in the patient's serum . sampel darah diambil dan sel darah merah yang dicuci (menghapus plasma pasien sendiri) dan kemudian diinkubasi dengan globulin antihuman (juga dikenal sebagai "reagen Coombs"). [2] Mechanism Mekanisme Schematic showing the direct and indirect Coombs tests . because the resulting clumping of RBCs can be visualised. also known as direct antiglobulin test or DAT ). yaitu. RBCs with known reference values from other patient blood samples. Mendeteksi antibodi terhadap sel darah merah yang terikat hadir dalam pasien serum . Tes Coombs tidak langsung digunakan dalam pengujian pralahir wanita hamil. [2] Jika terjadi aglutinasi. serum diinkubasi dengan sel darah merah yang diketahui antigenisitas . In certain diseases or conditions an individual's blood may contain IgG antibodies that can specifically bind to antigens on the RBC surface membrane. when clumping is seen the test is positive and when clumping is not seen the test is negative. indikasi visual yang antibodi (dan / atau protein komplemen) terikat pada permukaan sel darah merah . Kemudian. Dalam hal ini. Hewan anti-antibodi manusia juga akan mengikat antibodi manusia yang dapat tetap ke antigen pada permukaan sel darah merah (juga disebut sebagai sel darah merah). Skema menunjukkan Coombs langsung dan tidak langsung tes. If agglutination occurs. the serum is incubated with RBCs of known antigenicity . akan mengikat antibodi manusia. will bind to human antibodies. Complement proteins may subsequently bind to the bound antibodies and cause RBC destruction. Protein komplemen selanjutnya dapat berikatan dengan antibodi terikat dan menyebabkan kerusakan sel darah merah. karena penggumpalan sel darah merah yang dihasilkan dapat divisualisasikan. dan sel darah merah yang bersirkulasi dapat menjadi dilapisi dengan alloantibodies IgG dan / atau autoantibodi IgG. commonly IgG or IgM . which are produced by immunizing non-human species with human serum . The two Coombs tests are based on the fact that anti-human antibodies . tes Coombs langsung positif. The Direct Coombs test is used to test for autoimmune hemolytic anemia . Then. If this produces agglutination of RBCs. yang diproduksi oleh imunisasi spesies non-manusia dengan manusia serum . tes darah yang digunakan dalam immunohematology dan imunologi . the indirect Coombs test is positive. Kedua tes Coombs adalah tes Coombs langsung (DCT. The two Coombs tests are the direct Coombs test ( DCT . ie. dan dalam pengujian darah sebelum ke transfusi darah . that is. Animal anti-human antibodies will also bind to human antibodies that may be fixed onto antigens on the surface of red blood cells (also referred to as RBCs). serum diekstraksi dari sampel darah yang diambil dari pasien. serum is extracted from the blood sample taken from the patient. tes Coombs langsung positif. Tes Coombs langsung digunakan untuk menguji autoimun anemia hemolitik . a blood sample is taken and the RBCs are washed (removing the patient's own plasma) and then incubated with antihuman globulin (also known as "Coombs reagent").Coombs test (juga dikenal sebagai. a visual indication that antibodies (and/or complement proteins) are bound to the surface of red blood cells . [1] Tes Coombs langsung digunakan untuk mendeteksi antibodi atau protein komplemen yang terikat pada permukaan sel darah merah. Dalam penyakit tertentu atau kondisi darah individu mungkin berisi antibodi IgG yang secara khusus dapat mengikat antigen pada permukaan membran RBC. and detection of antibodies for the . Jika ini menghasilkan aglutinasi sel darah merah. juga dikenal sebagai tes antiglobulin langsung atau DAT). and in testing blood prior to a blood transfusion . yaitu sel darah merah dengan nilai acuan diketahui dari sampel darah pasien lain. The indirect Coombs test is used in prenatal testing of pregnant women. The phenomenon of agglutination of RBCs is important here. a condition of a low count of red blood cells (aka RBCs) caused by immune system lysis or breaking of RBC membranes causing RBC destruction. [1] The direct Coombs test is used to detect these antibodies or complement proteins that are bound to the surface of red blood cells. and their circulating RBCs can become coated with IgG alloantibodies and/or IgG autoantibodies. the direct Coombs test is positive. and in the appropriate test tube conditions this can lead to agglutination of RBCs . dan dalam kondisi tabung uji yang tepat ini dapat menyebabkan aglutinasi dari sel darah merah . uji antiglobulin Coombs 'test atau AGT) mengacu pada dua klinis blood tests used in immunohematology and immunology . umumnya IgG atau IgM . and the indirect Coombs test (also known as indirect antiglobulin test or IAT ). ketika menggumpal terlihat tes positif dan ketika menggumpal tidak terlihat tes negatif. screening for atypical antibodies in the blood plasma of pregnant women as part of antenatal care . Kedua Coombs tes didasarkan pada kenyataan bahwa anti-manusia antibodi . Common clinical uses of the Coombs test include the preparation of blood for transfusion in cross-matching . In this case. dan tes Coombs tidak langsung (juga dikenal sebagai tes antiglobulin langsung atau IAT). Fenomena aglutinasi sel darah merah yang penting di sini.

Duffy.diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anemias . The clinical significance of the result is assessed by the physician who requested the Coombs test. [ edit ] Direct Coombs test [ sunting ] Direct Coombs tes The direct Coombs test (also known as the direct antiglobulin test or DAT) is used to detect if antibodies or complement system factors have bound to RBC surface antigens in vivo . Signifikansi klinis hasilnya dinilai oleh dokter yang meminta tes Coombs. A positive Coombs test indicates that an immune mechanism is attacking the patient's own RBC's. skrining untuk antibodi atipikal dalam plasma darah dari hamil perempuan sebagai bagian dari perawatan antenatal . dan deteksi antibodi untuk diagnosis kekebalan-dimediasi hemolitik anemia . Tes Coombs langsung digunakan secara klinis ketika sistem imun anemia hemolitik (antibodidimediasi penghancuran sel darah merah) diduga. Sebuah tes Coombs positif menunjukkan bahwa mekanisme kekebalan tubuh menyerang pasien sendiri RBC. The DAT is not currently required for pre-transfusion testing but may be included by some laboratories. di mana staf teknis terlatih ilmiah melakukan tes Coombs.Kell hemolytic disease of the newborn Anti-Kell hemolytic penyakit pada bayi baru lahir Rh c hemolytic disease of the newborn Rh c penyakit hemolitik pada bayi baru lahir Rh E hemolytic disease of the newborn Rh E penyakit hemolitik pada bayi baru lahir Other blood group incompatibility ( RhC . This mechanism could be autoimmunity . [ edit ] Examples of alloimmune hemolysis [ sunting ] Contoh hemolisis aloimun  Hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as HDN or erythroblastosis Hemolytic penyakit pada bayi baru lahir (juga dikenal sebagai HDN atau eritroblastosis fetalis ) fetalis)        Rh D hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as Rh disease) Rh D penyakit hemolitik pada bayi baru lahir (juga dikenal sebagai penyakit Rh) ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (the indirect Coombs test may only be weakly positive) ABO hemolitik penyakit pada bayi baru lahir (tes Coombs tidak langsung mungkin hanya lemah positif) Anti. [ edit ] Examples of diseases that give a positive direct Coombs test [ sunting ] Contoh penyakit yang memberikan langsung positif Coombs tes The direct Coombs test is used clinically when immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (antibody-mediated destruction of RBCs) is suspected. Tes Coombs dilakukan pada serum dari sampel darah vena yang diambil dari pasien dengan venepuncture . Darah vena diambil ke laboratorium (atau bank darah). Rhe. Duffy. Rhe . Kidd. where trained scientific technical staff do the Coombs tests. mungkin dengan bantuan dari laboratorium berbasis hematologi . Tes Coombs langsung (juga dikenal sebagai tes antiglobulin langsung atau DAT) yang digunakan untuk mendeteksi jika antibodi atau melengkapi sistem faktor telah terikat ke antigen permukaan RBC in vivo . alloimmunity or a drug-induced immune-mediated mechanism. P and others) Darah lainnya kelompok ketidakcocokan (RHC. Coombs tests are done on serum from venous blood samples which are taken from patients by venepuncture . P dan lain-lain) Alloimmune hemolytic transfusion reactions Aloimun hemolitik reaksi transfusi [ edit ] Examples of autoimmune hemolysis/immunohemolytic hemolysis [ sunting ] Contoh hemolisis autoimun / hemolisis immunohemolytic  Warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia Antibodi anemia hemolitik autoimun hangat     Idiopathic Idiopatik Systemic lupus erythematosus Sistemik lupus erythematosus Evans' syndrome ( antiplatelet antibodies and hemolytic antibodies) Evans syndrome (antibodi antiplatelet dan antibodi hemolitik) Idiopathic cold hemagglutinin syndrome Idiopathic dingin hemagglutinin sindrom Infectious mononucleosis Infeksi mononucleosis Cold antibody immunohemolytic anemia Antibodi anemia dingin immunohemolytic   . DAT tersebut saat ini tidak diperlukan untuk pra-transfusi pengujian tetapi dapat dimasukkan oleh beberapa laboratorium. alloimmunity atau obat-induced kekebalan-dimediasi mekanisme. The venous blood is taken to a laboratory (or blood bank). Mekanisme ini bisa menjadi autoimunitas . perhaps with assistance from a laboratory-based hematologist . Kidd. Menggunakan klinis yang umum dari tes Coombs termasuk persiapan darah untuk transfusi di cross-matching . MN. MN.

Tes Coombs tidak langsung digunakan untuk menguji sampel serum penerima terhadap sampel dari donor darah sel darah merah. dan studi titrasi. the antihuman globulin will agglutinate the RBCs and the direct Coombs test will be positive. RBC phenotyping.) (Sebuah perangkat memori untuk mengingat bahwa DAT yang menguji sel darah merah dan digunakan untuk menguji bayi untuk penyakit hemolitik pada bayi baru lahir adalah: R h D isease.) [ edit ] Laboratory method [ sunting ] Laboratorium metode The patient's red blood cells (RBCs) are washed (removing the patient's own serum ) and then incubated with antihuman globulin (also known as Coombs reagent). Donor darah untuk transfusi juga diperiksa untuk infeksi dalam proses terpisah. R = RBCs. Hal ini kadang-kadang disebut cross-matching darah. IAT juga dapat digunakan untuk pengujian kompatibilitas . [ edit ] Antenatal antibody screening [ sunting ] skrining antibodi Antenatal . D = DAT. MAC) Quinidine (IgM dimediasi aktivasi komplemen jalur klasik dan kompleks Membran serangan. In antenatal care. antibody identification. [ edit ] Examples of clinical uses of the indirect Coombs test [ sunting ] Contoh penggunaan klinis tes Coombs tidak langsung [ edit ] Blood transfusion preparation [ sunting ] Blood persiapan transfusi Main articles: blood transfusion and cross-matching Artikel utama: transfusi darah dan cross-matching The indirect Coombs test is used to screen for antibodies in the preparation of blood for blood transfusion . If immunoglobulin or complement factors have been fixed on to the RBC surface in-vivo . identifikasi antibodi. Dalam perawatan antenatal. globulin antihuman akan mengaglutinasi sel darah merah dan tes Coombs langsung akan positif. Each sample is incubated against a wide range of RBCs that together exhibit a full range of surface antigens (ie blood types ). Hal ini digunakan untuk mendeteksi konsentrasi yang sangat rendah dari antibodi hadir dalam plasma pasien / serum sebelum transfusi darah. Jika imunoglobulin atau komplemen faktor telah diperbaiki pada permukaan RBC in-vivo .    Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (rare) Paroksismal dingin hemoglobinuria (jarang) [ edit ] Drug-induced immune-mediated hemolysis [ sunting ] Obat-diinduksi kekebalan-mediated hemolisis Methyldopa ( IgG mediated type II hypersensitivity) Metildopa (IgG dimediasi hipersensitivitas tipe II) Penicillin (high dose) Penisilin (dosis tinggi) Quinidine ( IgM mediated activation of classical complement pathway and Membrane attack complex. MAC) (A memory device to remember that the DAT tests the RBCs and is used to test infants for haemolytic disease of the newborn is: R h D isease . Setiap sampel diinkubasi terhadap berbagai sel darah merah yang bersamasama menunjukkan berbagai macam antigen permukaan (yaitu tipe darah ). (A visual representation of a positive direct Coombs test is shown in the upper half of the schematic). IAT digunakan untuk layar wanita hamil untuk antibodi yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit hemolitik pada bayi baru lahir . It is used to detect very low concentrations of antibodies present in a patient's plasma/serum prior to a blood transfusion. (Sebuah representasi visual dari tes Coombs positif langsung ditampilkan di bagian atas skema). D = DAT. Tes Coombs tidak langsung digunakan untuk layar untuk antibodi dalam penyusunan darah untuk transfusi darah . [ edit ] Indirect Coombs test [ sunting ] Indirect Coombs tes The indirect Coombs test (also known as the indirect antiglobulin test or IAT) is used to detect in-vitro antibody-antigen reactions. R = RBCs. The donor's and recipient's blood must be ABO and Rh D compatible. The IAT can also be used for compatibility testing . Donor blood for transfusion is also screened for infections in separate processes.  Cross matching Silang pencocokan The indirect Coombs test is used to test a sample of the recipient's serum against a sample of the blood donor's RBCs. the IAT is used to screen pregnant women for antibodies that may cause hemolytic disease of the newborn . and titration studies. Sebuah sampel darah dari penerima dan sampel darah dari setiap unit donor darah disaring untuk antibodi dengan tes Coombs tidak langsung.  Antibody screening Antibodi skrining A blood sample from the recipient and a blood sample from every unit of donor blood are screened for antibodies with the indirect Coombs test. Tes Coombs tidak langsung (juga dikenal sebagai tes antiglobulin langsung atau IAT) yang digunakan untuk mendeteksi in-vitro reaksi antigen-antibodi. Para donor dan penerima darah yang harus ABO dan Rh D kompatibel. fenotip RBC. This is sometimes called cross-matching blood. Para pasien sel darah merah (sel darah merah) yang dicuci (menghapus pasien sendiri serum ) dan kemudian diinkubasi dengan globulin antihuman (juga dikenal sebagai reagen Coombs).

polietilen glikol (PEG). Common potentiators include low ionic strength solution (LISS). Coombs reagen (juga dikenal sebagai antiglobulin Coombs atau globulin antihuman) digunakan dalam kedua tes Coombs langsung dan tes Coombs tidak langsung. albumin . yang menghasilkan poliklonal antibodies specific for human immunoglobulins and human complement system factors. Hal ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan pengenceran dua kali lipat dari serum dan menemukan dilusi maksimal serum tes yang mampu menghasilkan aglutinasi sel darah merah yang relevan. Dicuci tes sel darah merah (sel darah merah) yang diinkubasi dengan serum tes.The indirect Coombs test is used to screen pregnant women for IgG Tes Coombs tidak langsung digunakan untuk layar wanita hamil untuk IgG antibodies that are likely to pass through the placenta into the fetal blood and cause haemolytic disease of the newborn . [ edit ] Second stage [ sunting ] Kedua tahap The RBCs are washed three or four times with isotonic saline and then incubated with antihuman globulin. It is made by injecting human globulin into animals. Reagen Coombs antihuman globulin . Potensiator umum termasuk solusi kekuatan rendah ion (LISS). (Sebuah pertandingan silang ditampilkan secara visual di bagian bawah skema sebagai contoh tes Coombs tidak langsung). Potensiator mengurangi potensi zeta dari membran RBC. and the indirect Coombs test will be positive. [ edit ] Enhancement media [ sunting ] Peningkatan Media Both IgM and IgG Kedua IgM dan IgG antibodies bind strongly with their antigens . IgG antibodies are most reactive at 37°C. IgG antibodi yang paling reaktif pada suhu 37 ° C. dan tes Coombs tidak langsung akan positif. the antibodies will bind onto the surface of the RBCs. which produce polyclonal Hal ini dilakukan dengan menyuntikkan globulin manusia ke hewan. Lebih spesifik Coombs reagen atau antibodi monoklonal dapat digunakan. Reagen yang digunakan untuk meningkatkan deteksi IgG disebut sebagai potensiator. efisien menciptakan apa yang dilihat sebagai aglutinasi . (A cross match is shown visually in the lower half of the schematic as an example of an indirect Coombs test). antibodi spesifik untuk manusia imunoglobulin manusia dan melengkapi sistem faktor. Jika serum mengandung antibodi untuk antigen pada permukaan RBC. More specific Coombs reagents or monoclonal antibodies can be used. sel darah merah akan mengaglutinasi ketika diinkubasi dengan globulin antihuman (juga dikenal Coombs reagen) di tahap ini. If antibodies have bound to RBC surface antigens in the first stage. antibodi akan mengikat ke permukaan sel darah merah. [ edit ] First stage [ sunting ] Tahap Pertama Washed test red blood cells (RBCs) are incubated with a test serum. RBCs have a net negative charge called zeta potential which causes them to have a natural repulsion for one another. antibodi mengikat kuat dengan mereka antigen . antibodi yang mungkin melewati plasenta ke dalam darah janin dan menyebabkan penyakit hemolitik pada bayi baru lahir . RBCs will agglutinate when incubated with the antihuman globulin (also known Coombs reagent) in this stage. IgG antibodies are smaller and require assistance to bridge well enough to form a visual agglutination reaction. Sel darah merah dicuci tiga atau empat kali dengan saline isotonik dan kemudian diinkubasi dengan globulin antihuman. If the serum contains antibodies to antigens on the RBC surface. IgM antibodi mudah terdeteksi dalam garam pada suhu kamar sebagai antibodi IgM dapat menjembatani antara RBCâ € ™ s karena ukurannya yang besar. Dengan menipiskan suatu antibodi serum yang mengandung jumlah antibodi dalam serum dapat diukur. Antibodi IgG lebih kecil dan membutuhkan bantuan untuk menjembatani cukup baik untuk membentuk visual aglutinasi reaksi. [ edit ] History of the Coombs test [ sunting ] Sejarah tes Coombs . Sel darah merah memiliki muatan negatif bersih disebut potensial zeta yang menyebabkan mereka memiliki tolakan alami untuk satu sama lain. albumin . IgM antibodies are easily detected in saline at room temperature as IgM antibodies are able to bridge between RBC’s owing to their large size. Reagents used to enhance IgG detection are referred to as potentiators. and proteolytic enzymes . This is done by using doubling dilutions of the serum and finding the maximum dilution of test serum that is able to produce agglutination of relevant RBCs. IAT adalah tes dua tahap. efficiently creating what is seen as agglutination . Coombs reagent is antihuman globulin . [ edit ] Titrations [ sunting ] Titrasi By diluting a serum containing antibodies the quantity of the antibody in the serum can be gauged. Potentiators reduce the zeta potential of RBC membranes. [ edit ] Laboratory method [ sunting ] Laboratorium metode The IAT is a two-stage test. polyethylene glycol (PEG). dan proteolitik enzim . [ edit ] Coombs reagent [ sunting ] Coombs reagen Coombs reagent (also known as Coombs antiglobulin or antihuman globulin ) is used in both the direct Coombs test and the indirect Coombs test. Jika antibodi telah terikat ke antigen permukaan RBC di tahap pertama.

Arthur Mourant dan Rob Ras. Robin Coombs (setelah yang dinamai). . Today. hal itu dilakukan dalam tabung reaksi .The Coombs test was first described in 1945 by Cambridge Tes Coombs pertama kali dijelaskan pada 1945 oleh Cambridge immunologists immunologists Robin Coombs (after whom it is named). it was done in test tubes . itu biasanya dilakukan dengan menggunakan microarray dan teknologi gel. [3] Historically. Hari ini. Arthur Mourant and Rob Race. [3] Secara historis. it is commonly done using microarray and gel technology.