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A number of books and arlic,.

hal'e appeared in Pakistan and
other coun/lies on the historical
Xle ,ground 01 /II pa,Jj/ion ana
formal/on 01 the Pakistan Stale as
well as po/ilico/, social and ceo· developments in the
COlI Iry sine 1941. But little has
b "n PI bUsh :J on philosophical
iJC! ify n I'lkislan 0\' r thai
. - ,
Th e)f, c .,0),
nl) Ite ant( /o1lcal and
ca' v W.5 1)1 0(1i/. :In'- ph/a·
10 /;: Ol:l :ie-crib.s 'h .10in
lCIId.r of elhJ .'.JJ thought 'n tile
co. II ry T c tWO IQJ/ essuys deal
w Ih .he concepts 01 Islamic
:11:710 t( Y and
• .. lJ)Ok t'J rans/alian 01
.. ,961 Russian edition
L < c It A ( '" lJ E '\[ Y OF SC[ENCES
r • I
r ) II' f l(.IPH\
\\ 1 Slcpanyanls
and SocioloO"\'
A numb
have app(
olher COUI
formation (
weJI as po
nomic d(
country sir
been publi.
ac:/;vity In
Thh coU
nlo the on
glcaJ \ iew.
'rends 01 CI
country. Th
wdh lhe
Translated from the Russi an
Introduction by L. R. Polonskaya • • · • • • •
Author's Preface
· • · • · •
I. Problems of Ontology and Gnosiology on Pakistan Philosophy
II. Ethical Ideas • • • • • • • •
Ill. Pakistan's Path of Development: The Search [or a Theoretical
Foundation • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
IV. The Ideological Controversy on the State Structure of Pakistan
Philosophical and Sociological Centres of Pakistan • • • •
Soviet Philosophers on the Pakistan Philosophical Congress
Sessions • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Third Session • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Fourth Session • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Eighth Session • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Fifteenth Session • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Bibliography • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • •
• •
Name Index • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • •
A numb
h we o p p ~
all c· cou,
bacligro JIl
well 03 po
nlml dl
b =- "ubJi
«/j\' Iy r
.,/0 the on
ell '" cw
XJph - I-
re"'Jd.l 01 c
'OI. lry.
The main trend of social thought in the countries of Asia during
the colonial period was represented by the ideology or the national-
liberation movement. Different social strata and classes united in support
of the anti-imperialist slogans of that movement. Their single-hearted
goal was independence, although of course they understood that goal
differently, and by no means all could be credited with even an ap-
proximate idea of the nature of the future state; nor did their concep-
tion of the ways and means of achieving that goal coincide Grave con·
tradictions divided the bourgeoiS and feudal nationalists, who led the
movement, and the peasants, semi-proletarians, workers and middle
strata, who constituted its basis in the masses. But hatred of colonicl
domination remained the keynote of the Ideology of !!Ill the !!Ibove-
mentioned social groups.
With the achievement of political independence, the closs ond social
differentiation of the forces contributory to the liberation struggle was
accentuated. Still there remained to them common interests growing out
of the developing countries' backward position in the world economic
system and the urgent task of overcoming their dire legacy and gainin'i!"
economic independence.
So on the whole these forces maintained their anU-imperialist posi-
tions and continued to oppose all forms of colonialism. Above all they
wanted to put an end to the feudal backwardness of their countries anet
, give each an industrial base of its own on which to build up its economy.
But while the bourgeois natlonelists wanted to reach that goal by the
capitalist road, the wide sections of the people were showinS! an increas-
ing o!Iwareness of the fael that the tasks involved could not be solved
under capitalist conditions. An important feature of the ideology of the
plOgressive classes of the younS! sovereign states o!It the current sto!lge
was the striving to theoretically substantiate the necessity of non-capital-
ist development. Due to the marked influence of the social psychology )
of the peasantry on liOCial thougbt, however, these anti_capitalist lentl-
ments were often translated Into notions of the feasibility of some lort
of a "third" road.
At the same time. the semi-feudal landlords and other social eroups
associated with the old mode of production and old feudal ideology rew
A numbel
have appea
other count
formation 01
well a" poll
nomic de\
countT}' sin(
acl:\·ilr In
p ,;oi.
trIo Ihe ont(
'1ir-aJ \
. phI f. and
tfends 01 e/l
counlry. Tile
wIlli the c
democracy a
The book
h 1967 Ru
any democratiC' rdorms. ('\"('0 of II bOIlT!!eois-demonauc
It £oes without sayio£ that th(' genl'Tal laws of the ilieol oRical
development of the youn£ states of the East mllnif('!lt themselves in
different wan in different countries. on the concrete condi·
tions pre\"ailinlO! in each country. In Pakistan th£>lr operati on mllSI lx>
viewed the prism of Muslim nationalism. 11le latt et emerged a'
lin independl'lIl trend of social Iholl!!111 at Ih£> lime of the birth and
upsurge of the an-India national·1iberaticm movement (end of the 19th-
firs1 quarter of the 20th centuries). It was a Iren<1 the Idea 01
anti-impe-rialist struggle wilh defence of the right s of the religious mino-
rity which forMed the Muslim community.
The political concept of Muslim nationalism renecled the desire
of the feudal upper crust of Illat community, deni ed political power by
the British colonialists, to regain its privileges.
of al\ It-at ideology suited the Muslim bourg: eoisle who (with
the exception of certain lsmaili groups) were for var iOUS ohjective rea·
'Ions almost half a century hehind their Hindi counterparts. Hence
desire to win the support of the top Muslim feudal elements and so
their dehmces not only llg:ainst exploitat ion by the English
bouT£eoisie but also against the competition of the economically and
politicallv Indian bourgeois groups .
Tn the P<'rts of 'Jorth India with predominanlly Muslim populations,
where tile Muslim bourgeOisie Punjab;' Si ndhij were extremely
weak and capitalist enterprise had from Ill(' \·elY beginning been con-
centrated in the hands of Hindus. mostl y Gu jarati s and Marwaris, con·
ditions were hi\.!hly conducive 10 the channelli ng of local nationalism
Into the mainstream of Muslim nationalism. With It merged the anti-
feudal aims of the peasanls, the artisans and the small landowners, all
united in their hdt red of the prepondera ntly Hindu middlemen and
money-lenders. Muslim nationalism also became one of the ideologies
erlopt efl by the middle-class Muslims dissahfied with the Hindu monopO-
ly the middl e and lower rungs of Indian industry, trade and the civil
In a word. Muslim nationalism was lied IIp in colonia\ India wilh
the terntonal and economic interests of d," ,. M
. . . eren wClal strata of us-
Ilms. and so combmed qUIte diffe rent tende · A . f h
. . , nCles. t the heIght 0 t e
hbE>ratlon struggle. they all rallied to the call for the crealion of a
distinct Jndian Muslim state Pakistan.
The leaders of the movement for the f .
kistan upheld the right 01 the "M ,. . ormation of thf' state of Pa-
us 1m Mhon" to SE'lf- It' . Th
idea that the Muslims 01 Tndia constitute a d I (e ermlOa\Lon. e
confusion of the concepts 01 national_\ . IS IOC\ nation renects some
Nntonal and fer. . .
It must he admitted. however , that th!' ·d ,. I lOus-soclal uOlty.
- I eo oglst s of M ,
<10 nol l! sually view 1]000n on 1511110 lIS 1m nationalism
( S <In t'l(CIIISively reliRiow; lie.
Thdt I!i. ht'Clll5e ISI,lm c",,'{, ,( whole compl .. x ot reli\!10-philo50phicat
ldeils, elhical ,11]11 mstltutlOn5, and the term ··Mushm na-
tIon" is used 10 deslgn,\t!' a (ommon hIstorIcal desllny, common tradItion . .;,
a common culhnc 'lntl common 80CI<I1 Inslliullons. The f,ICI that the
bourReoisie and lower mill1l1e ddll.w.S 01 the &<Ime lalth also shared milch
the &<Ime economic disadvdntdges dS iI result of the unequal capitalist
developmenl 01 colonidl India only MlclNI economIc substance to the con-
cept of the "Muslim lldhon"
Nevertheless, it was the (lssllmpllon of Ihe splritllal kinshi p of all
Muslims that was prillltHy in this concept. It is no dccident that Muham·
mad Ali Jinndh, the "f,Jlher of Pdkistdn", C<.li!ed the Muslim lldllOn en
ideologica l ndti on, a nd Paklst<.ln· <1 11 ideological sldte,
In the eyes of Muslims, Isl<l1O W<.lS <.I symbol 01 fomJeT independence,
and consolidati on on its l)dsis WdS made a battle cry imperialist
rule. Loyal ty to the faith of thei r fa thers was deeply rooted 111 the SOCi al
psycholoRY of the peasants In Islilm the ideologists of the Muslim bour-
geois and landlord upper crust had a ready key to the heart of the mas·
ses with whose hel p they sOIl Rl1\ to prot ect their own seillsh
the e xponent s of the mIddle strata saw It itS a means of uni\i n£ the peo
pie in Ihe st ru.g gle agd inst impenallsm. Whatever the motive,> of the
Muslim theorists we re, their poi nt of departure was dlways the necessity
of reformin.g their religion and addpti ng it to Ihe reqUirement s of modern
bourgeois society.
The reform of Islam as an inseparable inRredient of Muslim national-
ism is cl osely linked with the name of Muhammad Iqbal. a thinker con·
cerned not only 10 substantiate the political ideas and economic claims
of the Musli m communIt y of Bntlsh Ind: a bu: a lso to expl ain the roots
of the idea of Muslim Ilalionahsm dlld est ablish <l relationship between
Muslim natlOnahsm and natIOnalisti C thinking generally. Iqbal pointed
out Ihat in lmlia, where the Muslims were a m11l0rity, it only natu-
ral for them to want to un it e on the hasis 01 Islam; that deSire had been
strengthened by colonial occupation and the policy of the coloniahsts.
'Today it is being gradual1y realised . .. 111 the shape of whal is called
nationclJism," he noted in the mid-thirlies.
Iqbal Ihe poet and never tired 01 pointin!! out Ihat
"nationalism in Ihc sense of love of one's cOl1ntry and even readiness
to d!e for honour a !hilt of thc l\lushm,>' faith .... ?'\atlondllsm be-
comes tI problem for Muslims only In countnes where they hdPpen to
be in d minority .... In majorily Countll{'s Isldm accommodates ndtiondl-
ism; for there Islam and dTE" pracl!cally Identical. ...
I Quoted from unci Dot"luncnh an the Indurn
1921-1947, vol. II, p. 440. For the full blbhographlcal see the
list al the end of the hook.
:. 1\1. Iqbal, Islam and AiulIO"dlsm. pp. 43·44.
A numbe
olher coun
lor motion 0
well as pol
nomic de
country sin.
been pub/is
a<:1:l'ilr rn

Thi colle
nlo 1/ e onl
gicol \' ewJ'
soplwu anI
Irends 01 cl
country. Th.
wIth the
democrocy (
The book
h 1967 RI
In olher words, lqbd! re\!iluie(\ the- ptllitiC<i1 philO!inphy ()J ff'lolm .....
Islam os ,)11 of Ih(' nillion"l feelings (II Ihe $\lhjl1\.!dtcd Pl'u
pies ... an approach to which, Rilv(' It primarily "n
anti_imperialist nng. He did not Invest the tenn with o'\nl1-1 hndu Imphr.e_
lions, and ascribed the practice in colonIal India of opposi ng Mushm
nationalism to Hindu nationalism to the peculiar status of the Ml1slim
minority ana the colonial condition of the CO\lntry-oll of which wat;
true enouRh. The history of the Indian hberiltion movemellt abounds, in
examples of Hmdu-Muslim patriOtiC unity, Even d
. the hell::ht of the
struggle lor Pakistan statehood, thE'fe were plenty of instances of joillt
action by the leadership and rank and file of the Indian and Pakistan
movements against the manoeuvres of the colonialists. The appearance
of anti-Hindu trends in Muslim nationalism, which were contrary to the
spirit of solidarity of all the peoples of India fighling against colonialism,
must be blamed on feudal and imperialist influences rind the tradl!\Ona1
"divide and Jule"
The importance 01 Muslim nationalism did not wane after the
establishment of Pakistan, the basic contradictions of whose contempora-
ry economic and political development are directly reflected in its ideology.
The main contradiction remains that between Pakistan society and im-
perialism. Except for the once privileged big feudal landlords ousted
during the coup which has gone down in Pakistan history as the Revolu-
tion of 1958, the temper of the populace remains anti_imperialistic. The
big bourgeoisie, grown much stronger in recent years, have been busy
defending their independent economic and polilical positions. They have
sought Ihe help of the socialist camp in solving the tasks of creating an
independent economy while holding to the capitalist road of develop-
ment, and shunning radical changes and the spread of socialist ideas.
Although their ideology follows the anti-imperialist line, it reveals a
deep-going ambivalence.
The mam internal contradictions 01 the country lie in the sphere
of relations between the different social strata, and also between the
centre and the specific linguistic areas-especially between East and
'West Pakistan.
IS an mar e are The bourgeoisie connected with the commo" P,k' , k ,
against the growing business activity of the petty and middle bourgeoiS
of East Bengal and the small l\nguiStic regions of the Western
Provmce, The dIsharmony between the drive for s"P'" 1 .. a-na IORal centra-
isation, on the one hand, and national autonomy on 'h 'h ' , eo er, has dlled-
Iy affected the character of the ideol02ical struggle Th .
" , ,M 1 "" . e fuhng element
IS rymg 0 pI us 1m na lona Ism, as the ideology h' h '
. . W IC Will cement
the unlly of the country on the hasls of Islam, a,ain,' 1 1 . ,
. oca nationali sm.
Another group of Internal contradlcllons is th 1 ,
a e IClted by the
2rowth of cia$.!> conlllcili in the countrysl(:\e. In ord" 10 expand '1 r t
enterprise and remedy the country'. economic reludat\ h capi a IS
on 1 e bour2eO\-
fne havf' dhJ,:ned thf'llIsl.'lve dj;!d,n: 111_ forces of feuddl reaction and
;OIl! Hying ,,, Ihe- U( 1 II wh)n tl ey!lel! polenh<ll
soCldl prop. 1111s h" .. hrd bolh II: Of ocnic nd 1')\1\\:31 repHLUSSlullS (the
intrmillctlon ul <121 rl<ll1 Tetc._ s, the toystem )1 bu.c rJemx .II It' and
Ihe Ilrugj;!le the 11011 Ie (IOldIY II Jc:l I n5t uli·,r. • The mono-
pollstlC lea.nlllils of hili buurgel)ls,e 8H proving 01 C<luse of gro
tensIOn belw('{'n them and the petty boJT2eolSie Tl IS 1 'ef!ected in he
ideology of the lIltelllgental<l, wh0S4 pres' ge dS soared n Kenl years,
They have -gIven voice to the anti mperLaI.!t at.tiluws 01 the middle
slTato from whom they are largely denved and e same t,me illustra-
te the duality 01 thell ".»0<1\ position.
The creation of a Pakistan home industry has increasal the SIte and
social imporlance of the working clasS, Its proletarian ,deoloj;!y has begun
to exert an influence on the 60cial thinking of the democrallc I>€Ctlons
of the population, but due \0 the peculiarities of the country's economic
and political development, It does nol exerl a defi'litlve :nfiuence as yet.
Under the conditions Just described, Islam and IqlJol's interpretation
01 Muslim natIonalism, as the present work "hows, contillue \0 play an
important lole in the predominant trends of Pakistan philosophy, moral.,
ethicS and pohliCs,
The theoriSts of the ruhng bloc ano numero'..l'; representatives of
the middle ')tr;lta are still drawing inspiratIOn from the teachings 01
Iqbal. In modern Pakistan, where Islam has been procldimed the offiCial
idE'Ology, its viability comes not so much from the idea of a !l,iuslim na-
tion liS from the ethical and social concepts of Islam. Iqbal spoke out in
his day as a paSSionate crillc of aU forms 01 (Jf man by man,
but he also made It plain that he d:d not e::her the rOdd of Lhe
capitalist West or thal of socialist Rus,.la suiwble [o[ A",a. He
ed the great tran!>formin2 role of Islam the key to the speclfil develop-
ment of the East. The moral-ethical solullon of \'Ital soCial prob:ems sug-
gested by him is now being elaborated by the philo:.ophers of Pakistan.
as Stepanyants shoWS in her es:>ays. Thi" lrend of Muslim 0lI- )
tionalism is what the theorisLs of the ruling bloc are putling up against
both the imperialist ideology of the West and the ideology of socialism,
Iqbal's interpretation of Islam and Muslim na\lonalism fits in nicely
with the notion of the feasibility 01 a special "middle road". To lhis he
principally owes the popularity of his teaching in Pakistan.
As the ideas of sociahsm gaIned ground, the ideologIsts of the dif·
ferent began to come forward With theories 01 Muslim SOCIi-115m·
A Pakl'itam said ill the middlo::: 01 the 1950's relerrin& to
capitalism and communism that "neither of the twO 'Isms'" could solve
"a man's problem",3 In his view, it could be solved by Islamic socialism,
, AM M' k Labour Problem:; QIId Policy ill Pakisloll. p. 41.
,. a I •
A numb,
have appe
other cour
well as po
nomic de
country sir.
been publi!
Tlli.'! colJ
into the ont
gical \' iew
lOp/letS an
trends of CI
country. Til
with the
The booJ
the 1967 R,
which presupposes the atldinnwnt of t111olJl!h llluri1! per.
fectlon anu educdtion in tht' SPllit (,I Isldul.
Exponents of the deolo!.!}" hd\'t' ,l1so bpE"n hJl eJ.
laUng with the ideas of svclohm <lnll '.I llIiddlE" rUdtl' ill
to win the masses to thelT side. ACtUdlly then positIOn is 11I111I1C,11 j,y
and large not only to the 01 hut en'n to the more pro_
gressive aspects of Iqbal's religio-phllosophicdl reform of Islam, hiS con-
ception of bourgeois democracy, h.s utopian view of social justice, his
In opposition to them, the progressive-minded intelligentsia have
advanced their ideas on a democratic, non-c<lpitdlist road of develop_
ment and radical solution of the tasks attendant on the independent exis-
tence of their country, ideas which are also frequently clothed in Islamic
garb, for ,the ideas of a distinct IslamiC road of de\·elopment perSist.
The essays collected in the present volume acquaint Ule reader with
the philosophical, ethical, social and political views of the different social
slra,ta and so shed light on the philosophical foundations of Pakistan
society and main trends in Pakistan social thought. They are thus of greal
sclenlific and practical interest.
L R. Polonskayo
There have been many Soviet studies of the processes
taking place in the national-liberation movement. But one sphe re that
has received little &ludy as yet is that of the social consciousness of the
peoples of the young sovereign ,>lates, which reflects the posi-
tions of different classes and social groups. These positions are impor-
tant to an understandIng of both the changes already under way in those
countries and the prospects of their further development.
True, quite a few articles ha\·e appeared on the natlOnal-
hberalion movement in which the authors have examined the concepts
of the various "national" socialisms III considerable detail, ; The speCifics
of the formation of the social consciousness of the countries of ASia,
Africa and Latin America are comprehensi\·ely discussed in volume VI
of The History 01 Philosophy.! And still, knowledge of the general laws
and peculiarities of the development of philosophical and political
thought in these states IS hampered by the almost complete absence
of special studies of this nature on the indlv!dual countncs. The
purpose of the present book is to help fill lack. 'f only to some
Pakistan is one of the states where the national bourgeoisie has had
a leading role in the nalional-ltberation movement. and which on gain-
ing political independence has taken the capitalist road of develop-
The capitalist system of economy is gradually squeezing out the
feudal way of life there, bulthe process has pro\·ed a very protracted
one and at this stage both systems continue to exist s:de by side. Feudal
elements as before constitute an independent poHlical force; the
bourgeoiSie share political power with the landlords.
I "Natsionalno-osvoboditelnoye dvizhenLye i solsialny progress',
Kommunisl, No. 13. 1965; KN. Brutenls, '·0 nekotorykh osobennostyakh
sovremennogo natsionalno-osvoboditelnogo dvizheniya, VOPI0SY fJlosotli.
1965, No. I, No, 6; Y. Ostrovityanov, "Sotsialisticheskiey doktriny tax-
vivayushchikhsya stran: formy, sotsialnoye so<!erzhaniye", oM/roveye
ekonomika i mczhdunorodniye otnosheniya, 1964, No.6.
Istoriya Iilosofii, vol. VI, chap. 13, 1965.
A numb
have appE
other caUl
IOfmalion (
well as po
nomic d€
coun/IY sir
been publi.
acl!vilr In

In/o the on,
aical ... :w
:tOp/I I"S an
fends 01 (
country. Th
wilh the
The boo}
'he 1967 R
the coexistence 01 thest' two ruhoR c1,lSs('s has not jll{'dlll]f'11
biller economic, political and Hlt'olos:!i('dl struJ;:J;:lc Iwtwccn Iht'm. In Ihi!
sphere oi social consciousness Ihis has ollen expressed Itself e
struggle between two ideologies, feudal and bourgeois. As for the other
classes, their ideological positions are very weak. The petty bourgeo·
. . ISle,
SOCIally, economIcally and culturally retarded are still under the mnue nee
of the landlords and ulama, on the one hand, and the ideologiSts 01
the big bourgeoisie, on Ihe other. In bolh cases, Ihe petty bourgeoisie
have evolved their own interpretations of the philosophical conc@pts
of the ruhng classes and even endowed them with democratic connota·
In many of the developing countries, including Pakistan the cia
t" . ' ss
ac IVlty of .the proletariat, owing to its numerical and organisational
weakness, IS confined chiefly to the sphere of economic and
struggle. The often partiCipate in the democratic movement
under the leadership of lefl bourgeois elements.
_ social and economic levels of development explain the
slmllanty of the of the young states of the East and com-
mon content of theIr socIal consciousness. Since these countries have still
the . of their colonial past, they occupy
-d I same 10 the world economic system. Accordingly the
I ogy of broad soci.l strata, irrespective of other SOCial' and
national specifics, shows a common anti-imperialist trend.
Futher -progresse in the forme I'
depends on how fast they _ r co ontal or semi-colonial countries
can gaIn e<:onom- - d
have a stake in their autarky t th IC m ependence. All classes
excep e sections of . t th
ialist connections. The overall t".. socle y wi imper-
d an I-Impenalist mood h d
ten ency to contrast the spiritual World of th as engen ered a
work out philosophical concepts ins ir d e and the East and
hons. p e by dlstmct national tradj-
. It is at this pOint that the role and I ..
tlonal spiritual heritage are usually m .p ace of religIon in the na-
agmfied' somet
even completely identified. The conditions f h" lmes the two are
h . d dot elr histori I d
ave m uce these countries to mould th . ca eve!opment
liberation movements in religiouS form the of 1heir national-
s, us mien 'f . )
nature of their social consciousness. Sl ymg the religiOUS .
Tn Pakistan, aside from all the
th . common co t 'b
e persIstence of religion as the most·d n n uUve factors
_ WI espread h' '
explamed by the circumstances unde h' p IlosOphy is to he
statehood. r w Ich Pakistan achieved
The basic thoo t· I re lca motive for the found r
contained in Muslim nationalism, an Ideol a Ion of Pakistan was
n ,. I d' ogy which di t
a Ions In n la, the Hindus and the "W s IOguishect two
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the eo;re nation," said
t"ln and hold Ihat Muslims and Hindus are two rna' India. "We main-
JOr nations by
n ay
rkhrlltlOIl I,f le.f III I Ie tlnn. We dfC ,1 natIon of d hundred million. <lnd
..... h,ll 1'5 mow WI! ,He d Ildlioll With ollr own cuHurClnd
c .... IIIS.IIIO/I. dnd literature, art dnd arch,lec:.:\ure, ih)01C· Jlld
nom{'nri<.ltUf(', 5('1lS(! 01 v.1lue dnd proport!on, legal l..tws and InO; ·1 c'
C:lIslntni dnrl c,I\f'ndilr. history and traditions, at\itudf! dnd ambitions. lfl
;hol , we hdve OIlT own d,stinctive ou.tlook on life ana r-' lile By al' can·
ons of 1I1terndtiontli ldW, we are a Nation'"
Mlt'lim ndlion<lhsm W(lS extremely It rellec',ed the
intent of upper dnd lower middle-class MllSlims in colonial Indid to gain
thrOlIRh Islam If) the hearts of other members of lheir faith anu
stimuLate them to political action and unily In the struggle against im-
perialism and for independence; hence its characteristic identification of
the concepts of religious and national unity.
In the separation of the Muslim community the Musltm landlords
for theIr part saw a means of safeguarding their c:ass dod political
interests, while the Muslim bourgeoisie looked to it Lo help them in their
competitive st ruRRl e with the stronRer J::roups of thc Hindus
and Sikhs.
The form(ltion 01 this ideoloRY was further stimuldled hy the fact
that nOUfReois theorists made Islam a panacea lor var ,ou<; :":,,c'lIl
and pictured Muslim unity as if it were a kind of supra-class ulllly, and
the Islamic state as a state best suited 10 ensure national and social
The overall rehgious character of the ideology of the liberation
movement did not rule out differences in the interpretation by each
class of religious principles or in the approach of one or another class
to their practical a.pplication.
The d:fferences stood out most sharply aller the of
political independence when the time came 10 put into effe.t Ihe sloqans
and programmes that had been proclaimed during the liberation struggle.
Two diametrically opposite trends appeared in the religious iele-
ologies, one of which may be described as orthodox and the other ao;
reform. The orthodox Muslims include the revival-SiS and the trdJ;liona-
lists (chieny the organisations of the mullahs and ulaHlil known as the
Jamaat-i-Islami, the Jamaat-ul-ulame-e Islam and' the .Iamaat-ul-ulam·e
Pakistan). The former demand the "purification" of Islam and retllrn to
the Muslim teachings of the first four caliphs. The latter emphasise
respect for tradition and a return to the interpretations Islam was given
by the medieval jurists, thus excluding all ('hange rej:!a.rdess of
whether it derives its orientation from the pas\. the pcesem or the
J Quoted from A. Beg, The Quiet Revolution, p. 34.
A numb
hm:e appt
other COUI
bac glo'Jn
fOlmation (
well as po
nomit. d£
c,)urotry sIr
be n pub"
oc .. ., Iy It;
f: - 1.
r I. 01'
;.) ".C or.
1ical " cw
"p1. c: ar.
lrend3 01 c
count '}' Th
wIth the
deJ'1l.O(: racy
T f lC b( ,01
the 11)67 R
The sOCIa] ha!;e 01 ihl!; ollhndnxy IS made IIp "I tl
Ie Ilia ... ..
laI"dlords and r ight-wing bourgeoiS who have ahRlleU themselves .. ..
the feuoat system of economy. They have taken an reacti
Ty stan:! with regard to private property, back the idea of a
re IglOUs
mona rchy_ decry the equahly )f the sexes end the religious m ..
, monhes
an:i so :m. '
Pte :leas Jf 'e\'jvallsm are abo supported to :-,ome denre b
. ",eythe
sections of the petty bourgeOIsIe. artIsans and peasantry wh (
o Otm a
soc al stTiltlIIl eaSily submerS:!ed 1 the course of capild]ist de \'e'
' ..' .0Plnen!.
hc) the )nes who often cnliclse capltal!!>m \I.' hil e idea lis·
., . lIlg pre.
capltd.hst social eel lOmic relatlons,
Revivalism has lisa attracted those bourgeois intellectu I
a s who
would like to believe that adherence to the patriarcha l past II
.' .. WI make
It easier 0 resist the IOfluence of the bourgeois West.
As. pi )duc ion md sl)cial relations develop and the feudal
) e- gradually gives way to the capitalist mod. o( p d
t'1 . fa uctlon
. e wed lrises for all the components of the superst ructu'. '
1 • , including
religIOn, 0 _ le iccommodated to the new base. In the fore ign and some-
ll'es he SOVle. hterature thee chi nges in 'he sphe,·.
. of religIOn are
64 :netl mes ....a1led Illodernisa\ions, but the term hardl
t C c of th Y expresses the es-
e ph,"nomenon. RehglOn kee 5
t:lrpugh tl;. blStA _y unde h p on bemg modernised all
ano so " poht ll:.a:1 S'l IC rIle eollm= of changes in the socia-economic
re: glon ... nl : synon"' n10US . h y. That kInd of moderniSdtion of
1 relOln1 which ' I
cllanges, bl.t l,rHe.lI :evisl' 1 01 ,.' Imp les not small
, S Ie IglOUS dogmas dnd bel . , . . U' .).l requ"es ,I t SIC pnn·
10 sOCiet y h \I 1
nt:w "tuge of dev . s d IdVe f:'ntered upon a
e,()p.r. en· conn t d
!fJ'J.e, oo"m c strue lure. ec e With changes III the
In the voting , I" tes ,:>1 he East .
upon power beg. :. '0 ,an lor reI ,he IldllOnal boulgeoisie
.nterpre aLl an of reI g,;,.js Jogmd!O Th ,glOU' reforms dnd lhe rdllonal
d . do hdt w th
epr .v,ng ih,. rival feudal ddSS ,)f Ih, - two ends III mind:
I,. (I . e I t' olog cal w
•. on a crs ,I. and at lhe same' 1 . edpon medlf:'val re-
" ,llle () tUtn'Il" I . ' .
2,(al prop for .ne ba:.lIgeo.s:l":_ .. Into an ic.leolo-
For illl the Imp!)) lilnCe 0' "
e. glo)J. I th
of the develop,ng II (.dn, ' J e -(>(. dl COIlSC ousness
, .10 I}e Ie!:il l I j ,
mllnt til the (JulllJok of illl I e, as a dom-
10. asse <;
economic and I' I 5e( tlons of
ell urd plogr£'!> He .. t b b, so, Jety SOCIal,
I "l.y , • . $ w '1t secular ten-
The &oC1&l eOl1$Clousness 01 1'1 n"'lOn
tllone; the enltre course 01 hlS.tOIH.II d-. ,IS IlOt lJy
.. , € its beine
(ant role_ <I v'>'y
4 G. Jddlll, PrNJ/dt'nllol AdJrl:"", p_ II.
TI>" 0 v ) of e w J .t· wo S and fo rmal )Jl 01 the
;;JC h ,t ;!,!I)p Ie -)1 nls f, he apP'Mal,..:e )1 i I Idenl y
mon Ii II hl' _H'H'loping ,unlrlcs, 101 caeh 01 the c\ilsses w IhuUl
cx<.:eplion to wad .. out ts. own att,'ude 10 Ihp deus )1 socI"li ,11) , This
tenden:y akes .he mos] di\'e rse formS". t rom aUempts to c ealc
'nahonal" theottes of sociahsm, on the one han:l, to anti ·communlsm .
on llf other
The exsten(e of he t wo ldS ."1pt'ned lp I. the pe)ple.;
who have won the: r political :ndependence of
chooslDR between capitalism and SOCIalism. Thus the ideological struRgle
is now focused on the t<l sk 01 el<lborating the theoretical princi ples 01
the economic, polItical ilnd spiri tual orS:! ilnisation of the future SOCiety.
TIle imparlance of untl erstdnding the salient {edtures 01 this struggle
in the indi\'idual coulllries has dIctated the subject matter 01 the follow-
ing ess<lYs.
The main sources used hy the author were the works 0f the prom-
inent Pa kist ani phIlosophers, and theologians H A. HakIm,
!'-l ;" 1. Shad. C. Ch, Of' \'. B. A_ Da- . I. H. Qureshi. Abu! Ala ;"faudoodl
and olhers. t>.falldoodi·s reputalions as the foremost if 'lot the only
of lhe ;"lusLm orthodox tradit ion on the sllbconLnent :s well
For various reasons progressive philosophical and socioloS:!ical ideas
have not rece ived profcund theore: .cal elaborat!on as yet 1n Pakl_

They are encountered mostly III the progJalnmatic document<; of some
of the political partie!;, There are two works by proRresslye ilulhors
whi ch Me Interesting ill thiS resppct: the pilmphlei by Fer07.e ud-Din
Mdnsoor (ill Urdu), a critique of the ideas of Maudoodi
ilnd <lctivity of the Jdmuilt-i-!slami, ,lIul the book by M. Ashraf Policy
0: tlw In(/;on (ill Urdu), ,Ill alldlysis of the essence of Muslim
Jlut IOII<.lliSnl_
III ildtliliulI- to we have disCI drdwn 011 the publicd-
tilJlIS ot thl;' P,lkist<lll Philosophicdl Congress. These are. primanly, the
illlJt\ldl dnd tuticlec; in the Pakistdll Philosophic/,1 Jour-
\\'hile it is almost dll exclUSIve privilege of memhers of the Pakis-
tan dCddenllc world to disCuss philosophical problems, it is quite com-
mOil fo], ,)(heidls ,Ifld public figures 10 deliver opinions on problems of
ethics, politICS dnel eco/lomicll. With that. in mind we have !Wen fit to
I:se <IS SOUI( e IIldteridl /lol only thl' type of special theoretical study
llI(>lIliuJ\(.'Ii dUoVe, hul also the pert(xilcal press of Pakistan, parlleu14rly
the two ledding newspctpers, PakIstan TImes and Dawn. as well a'J
olhclal state documentl and Ihe progrlunmatlc publications of the poU-
tical parties.
We have likewise found a aood dul of valuable InformahoD iO the
A numb
other cour
formation I
well O.! po
nomic d(
country sir
been publi
activity in
This call

.JIIt Ute
('ons\I\U€'Il\ A.sclllhly lind Ih(' rt'port
€ II It'

dislurham:es of 19'):\, €'Ic'
There is prdclic..llly no SIX'd,11 !LIN,IIlne on .ubJ .....
. I fi·, Ih The- t!pvt'lnpnwnl (II ph I IOliophlcal
III t Ie rs ree ".,.. .
Pakistan is COWT('ti in d bu"kll'I hy 'lhl' Ht'l).:I.11l priest R V
' I I '"uppl€,JIlenl'o Iht' /1I/t'rIIlJ/lPn/I/
pll IS I€'( ,I'> < • •
De Sm€'t has been :n Indld SllIel'" 1958
had ocCdsion to participate in mun)' SI':-iSIOnS (11 Ih(' Pdkillan
cal Congress. His work is infoTIll,llln' III 1l,lhll(' and prESlmli
!lapses or the philosophical views Il\Uprt'lIt scholars on
which hdv{' come up for consiilel"dlioll llI(lstly al Ihe sympoela
sessions. Thus il is somethinQ hk(' d refNe-ncc hook on the
of the
There are several articles in which one i',lt\ ti nd
maries of Ihe views of Pakistan's prominent tlllnkers
The situation is a little better with respect 10 the literature
Utical problems. Most fully reflected in Ihis Iilerature is the
gioal struggle Which has flared up around the question of
oreanisation of 'pakistan SOCiely. The most important
""'by t. H. Qureshi, A. K. 8rohi. G. W. Choudhury, Z.
K. B. Sayeed and the Western scholars W. C. Smith, L
('alieni and others; they examine the problem of Islamic
HI .lDterpretaUOD by repres entatives of the two main trend' In
poUUcat dloulht- the orthodox thinkers and the reformists.
of tbe bdluential organisation
--It detailed consideration.
Tbe _'""or of the essays has also drawn on the a:enereJ
1bIakn, .".., 118 the book· of the West European scholars
the recently published two-volume Hlslory
bourgeois lslamists, the wodt. or
S. N. Grigoryan, N. A. Smimov and
role of '_lam in the modern world,
Glbb. W. C. Smith' and articles from
otbOl Jouma1l.
01 PaJd.tan. Debate.
Act II 01 1054 to
the CommluJon on
Activity In PGklIlan"
PaJrlalan, B.A:. Dar,
In II I 1)f1 1 Ih I poUUallDd.
I LI "LII' of Jlh IOllOphi I nd lot cal thouetat lD PaIdIIaa.
oIlll1l"r I I 1\ RUlIll I by the work 01 the SovMt OIlent'UTl bl.f4 ....
"lilt ]111111 pili III A M Dy kQv, L R Pc'onhye, Y V GaDkor*r.
N. P .. ntkt-y,v, L 1 YUfl!'Y h. and others 1b: 'II an tD •• .,
I "lit 1I11 Ii ,nil 01 tllf' IhPme Illk n up by L R Po..,... t.,.. lD her __
f:J 'Lph Muslim Twnds III 'he Social Though, 01 'M" aa::I Po"'shr
nil! dulhor Wolf helped by the adYke and .. Mil"'" 01_
\Ol1NRul S tn the [)epdrtmenl of Philosophy and SodQk,&f of tile .-e.
U.SSR. A"ult-my {J( Sc ence !nlilule 01 PbUOI'opby. for wblcb ..
N"olild like to etlend them he heartfelt gral tude.
A numb!
have appe
other coun
forma/ion (
well as po.
nomic de
bu?n publi ..
]C Iy rn
TIJ col/.
nla 'he onl
gJc]1 v w
.,,,1 c-" an
tren<:ls )t 'I
country Th
wIth : he
T e boo"
.'lc ; 967 Rl
The of Pakistan were laid long
befo\'(: he formation of the State of PakIstan. Thi" illu-
ne of the laws of the devElopment of social
thought. to wit· "But the philosophy of every epoch. since
it is a defin te sphere of the division of labou r, has as its
presupposI'ion certain definite thought mntci:ial handed
down to H y ts pledecessors, from which it takes its
start:" Pakistan philosophers drew, their cogitative mate-
nal frem main sources: classical medieval Mus-
lim chiefly Sufism; the objective idealism
nf 1hp W :st· the bourgeois reconstruction of Islam in
, d<
• n la.
mmed.ate preCUl'Sors of the contemporary philos-
opher 01 Pak <; 3.n were three outstanding Indian Muslim
Sl ah iulhh (1703-1762), Saiyid Ahmad
Khan (16 < 1l93) and Muhammad Iqbal (1873-1936)<
Thes" nal 1t p -t land <k < h <
.. mal S In t e reconstructIon of
hJam In( 3. om Whl<ch th t (f < h<
, e con en 0 PakIstan p I-
I" "phl:<:I t-oUj·h 1 derived
Sh"; W lJ Illlah I ved at th «
f '1 ( '" " e Irne of the breakdown of
(: 1 - v, and In formulati ng h is teach in s the hi-
losoPl er WiL 1111 "cd by a desire t f' ct g p
inlT tha t (iew. I) m a way of rcgenerat-
>:> answcrs to unde '1 . 1< <
s( cial 11 d econom 'c proble . I I ymg re IgiOUS.
· ms ay, he thought < I d< ,
p.1S. m he e;:u'l v fe11dal age' h " In n la s
I ,lam . . 1n t e conceptions of early

1 \ J
llht- jcctiv d
i t c"irt!s notwitil"t'ndl<ng<
I. • U HI '-C l l1 lL>"
· h 'I( lflu<' nce of the'
A"'( • III e"11 r ot hav.,. ..,. . new
l It ,I cft.,cl 11 f each l g t.' d but whose
.. 0 degr '> Th
l S I I pi c' n ""' .11 :1t be o f justifies
th(> bourg(>ois
F L ': f!l to C f> .1mJdl, ,)( Cle' '-7
. p. 495.
I'cfOI" )i L n II d I jf k Ig II e n'lt 'nat na-
ture" of hb phil0;ophy. which 'qUem ted a Jothe,)ls of
old and nt w in II" leI ) achiev{ a ·cgell(. _ f ' 1usli m
To substantial 1 ·,he pm ....,lbility of r forn , Shah.
Waliullah argued that thue was a difi -renc..:- between t he
essence of rcligious principles and he ... m 0 t heir
expression, and that while the latte TIltJI t change
depending on the conCl"pte historical com
'hom. thf> 'Oimer
were a1ways immutable. Therefore the two COl Id not be
identified. The thing was to dbclose the meaning 01 reli-
gion in concepts that accorded with the ,jpb'it (If the new
times, for It was not: wise to go on the inle1pl·(C',1.tion of
religious canons handed down from another agl' . Thus
Shah Waliullah refuted t he views of the t heologians who
insisted t hat in t he 18th century it was still necessary to
follow t he interpretation of Muslim dogma which was
acceptable in t he 10th century. He saw .he reason for the
crisis in Indian societ y in t hat his counLYF.en \vere still
using an obsolete> and no longer suitable [ " n .1 'If expres-
sion of the religion of Islam. As Iqbal f')in1(: ri (IUt. " per-
the first Mu:-:1im (in India,- M.S.) \vr.:, felt the urge
of a new spirit in him was Shah Waliullah",4 In l he final
analysis this reorientation or reform of religion meant its
purifi cation from the accretions of t ime. and CI nsequently.
its r eversal to early Islam. The "new' form which was
supposed to express its t rue essence prov nOh ng bu a
renovated ve rs ion of early medievel Islam.
The contradictions in Shah Waliullah' s philosophy
made it possible later on for his ideas t o be u ...ed by
resentatives of two quite opposite trends of
thought. The ideologists of the feudalists In
preserving medieval relations called for regeneratIon on
the hasis of the pul"iflCation of Islam and {'\"en a to
t.he social, economic and political practices under the Ilrst
four caliphs. The bourgeois reformers of Islam, on the othel
hand, emphasised the diITcl'ences t.he form .and
essence of religion, the necessit.y of bnngmg '.he mto
cOl'l'espondenee with the crmcce1e historical c ndltlOlls. the
role of idjtihad. etc.
LR IV \IUSI;'l [u-, n 111
India (Ind P(lJ;r:,IUII. p.
01 Pld/o.,ophr and ,V(.'·' ...·rn vO
( ;0.1, lqu< L 1'1lC Ul'e,}pslrl/( /h)l1 of Ilc'I! .• .Jus Tl 1(J
/QI n.)ught 01
! II' . /I.". p. !l7.
A numl
have app
other cou
formal Ion
well as p,
nomic a
country 81
bf'cn pub/
Thl COl
/110 /III! Of
gical dcv
tophcrs a
trcnds of f
counlry. T
with the
PIC bod
he 1967 J
in the wake of Shah the (lC
cessity of reorienting Islam 111 tt'l"ms of. ;;'C1CI< vi. f'C. rl(,.
mic change and the development of !'ClCnt c n«" I! 19c
was posed by Saiyid Ahmad Khan, and he W," h
f 'to
work out the principles of s.uch a .new on .•
Saiyid Ahmad denved his ongu: fr"lT. 'he-
upper stratum of MuslIm ,m. I?dla . Bul hi.s
ideas transcended the traditional fC'u?al 1 1deology
and his political credo th.(' .vlews of 1.he
shed small landlords and the mClplCnt MuslIm boul"qeois
Saiyid Ahmad Khan appeared on the scene at a time
when the critical question of the future of their communi-
ty stood before his fellow Muslims. Theirs was not a so-
cia1ly homogeneous community: on the eve of the British
conquest it consisted of two unequal groups, the ruling
feudal aristocracy and the great mass of poor tenant
farmers. most of them former untouchables. The conquest
of India by the East India Company bl'Ought about the
downfall of the Mogul Empire and the loss of theil' polit-
ical power by the Muslim aristocracy. Then the colonialists
undertook to weaken the latter's economic posi tions as
well and set about creating a new landlord class made up
of Hindu money-lenders and merchants, who were to
become the mainstay of British rule. The Wahhabi move-
ment and the upising of 1857-1859 further streng-
the anll-Muslim trend of British policy,
yhe brutal persecution of the partici-
m. upnsmg the helplessness of
theIr positlon, the MuslIm anstocracy concluded that their
anI?, c0ll;rse was to make the Britb,h authorities change
their athtude towards them. Saiyid Ahmad Khan was the
first to su.ggest a fol' the restitution of the
former mIght and prestige of the Muo]' "t
d th d
Ot' 1m commUnI y
un er . e con 1 lOns of colonial India Th'
. . ded fi t f r . , . IS programme
PlOdVI 'drs!,. orlPto ltlleal collaboration with the British,
an secon, 01 cu ura and educati( 1 ... .
This thinker' s political' ma mcasUiI.. . ..,.
ive special considerat ion s (to. which w(- ;;hn11 not
contnbuted t th th
of communalistic tendencies; a<; [f r h' . . ,0. e gro,,:
ities these played a POSl"ll"ve I)' IS C'Chc<1lional acllv-
, . 'rO('ll1th I'
Muslim intelligentsia and M I' e «Vq ut Ion of a
. '. tl<; 1m trend' f L " "
soclal thought m colomal India. S I) l')ul geOls
'. M. Iqbill, Iqbal and Ahmadism, p. 2'1.
One of th .... main tOI' the Muslims' loss of their
leading posltiom, aceording to Saiyid Ahmad Khan. wa ...
their fanatical att<\chment to religiOUS dogmas
\md their dislike of modern \Vestern civilisation. In 1864
he founded a Scientific Society (first in Ghazipur and then
in Aligarh), the aim of which was to propagate Western
culture. The society busied itself with translations into
Urdu and the popularisation of English literature. After
a trip to England in 1870, Saiyid Ahmad Khan began to
publish a journal whose purpose he explained as follows:
1< ••• The Muslims of India should be persuaded to adopt
the best kind of civilisation so that the contempt with
which the civilised people look upon the Muslims should
be removed and they may join the comity of civilised
people .... "6 A centre for the spread of secular education
and Western culture was established in 1877-the famous
Aligarh College, later to become the main political and
iae010gicaI seat of the Muslim communalistic movement.
For all that, Saiyid Ahmad Khan's philosophy reflect-
ed, as it was bound to do, the enormous influence of re-
ligion on the development of the social thought and the
social psychology of the wide masses of people in his
country. Like many other members of the bourgeois in-
telligentsia, he saw in religion a means of preserving the
country's indigenous culture and its OVvIl traditional way
of life.
He believed that the social and cultural regeneration
of the Indian Muslims could only be accomplished in the
final count on the basis of Islam, but he also called for the
revision of some of its tenet::;. The justification for rein-
terpretation was the premise that the Quran as God's word
must correspond to the deeds of the Lord-in othf.'l' words,
"In the modern world, which is also the work of Allah's
hands. A new interpretation was chiefly needed, in thE
philosophers' opinion, for tho..'>e verses in the Quran whose
meaning was not altogether clear and whose form was
Saiyid Ahmad Kh:m attached particular importance to
the revision of 0)(' social, political, economic and cultural
institutions for which no exact standards were set in early
Islam. lIt, sa id : ·· ... It is obligatory [01' Muslims to ac<.:ept
follow thos(' traditions of the holy Prophet which
6 QUilled hom R A. J)"r. Hrliglou .• Thought 01 SaJYld Ahmad Khan.
1 2,

A numb
have opp£
other COUI
formation (
weJJ as po
nomic d(
country sit
b{'cn publi
activity /I.
nlo the on
gicai \ /cw
SCJplie's an
rends 0/ C
CouIllry. Th
with the
Tne bOOJ
he H/67 R
refer to religious injunctions ,\vhile with I'£'gard to thf)se
· h d 1 'vith worldly nff<lIr'I ,\yt.' arc not l'llh: i u.)
W Ie ea. .' "7 ' On
necessarily to follow them. .
Saiyid Ahmad Khan that .the new mterpreta.
tion of the principles IsI,am for he called be based
upon reason as the en tenon of it uth. I:Ie defined 'm
as the "inherent capacity in man by, whlch (h .. COn.
elusions on the basis of the obSf'rvatlOll of phpn-
omena or mental thinking processes ... capaclty of man
which has enabled him to invent new thmgs and led him
on to understand and conttol the .forces of .nature . .
Thus his teachings conflicted the of t.he
Muslim theologians (ulama) of Indla who mamtamed that
the realm of religion was inaccessible to . the reason of
man and that while the word of God and hIS Prophet were
Absolute Truth, the reason of man was prone to erroneous
argumentation. The ulama demanded uncondi tional obser-
vance of all the tenets of the Quran, and where the holy
book did not offer clear answers, they urged believers to
put their trust in ihe authority of the theologians.
Saiyid Ahmad Khan did not deny the limitations of
individual but he was by no means a sceptic and
believed in the power of human reason. " ... The reason of
one man can be cOlTccled by that of the other and the
reason of one age by that of the other age .... It is reason
with all its shortcomings and pitfalls that can alone help
us in understanding the problems of life and religion.'·9
The philosopher was highly critical of mysticism, con-
demning its scepticism and stress on the inferiority of in-
dividual reason in order to prove the existence of divine
revelation as the criterion of truth. He did not
reject revelation, tor that would have been an
of the teaching .of Islam on the Prophet and
ongm of th.e Quran. He dId try, however, to interpret
concept ratlonally.
Thu.s to him wahy (inspiration), in moments of
revel.attOn appears to an "inherent capacity",
degrees, of hvmg from the insect to
but In the latter thiS reached its .
point and became a capacity to grasp divine truth.
rbid. pp 27J. 274.
B Ibid. P 161.
lI)/a. pp 163 lfi4
It folIc WI d lngie-all !'Om the premise that all men ar€'
endowt.-d with 1JJa1iy, that any given individual hilS the
potent '"'I 'er Clild so this ]o"t supt'rnatural
connot It hf' h 0rht't n J\V apI=2al"ed in the guise 'Jf a
man. It W,ls th ' 1 belief that there are men of
geniUS not only in scif:'nce and art but also in the reJigiou$
sphere. lI·n the prophets whose extraordinary gifts
enable them to grasp moral truths and explain them to

The ;)bovt:, of the of prophethood
Was an adPiptaJirn of to the condition:> of the 19th
-century and made it tn()re palatable to the new generation
vith its kaning·; tow..ard rational thinking. Al the same I
time the assertion that t.he Prophet was a man, albeit one
of genius, left room for conclusions as to the historical con-
diti onality-of his thoughts, and then in turn as to the pos-
sibility and necessity of introducing corrections into the
Prophet's teachings which would take into account the
changes going on in the world. Saiyid Ahmad Khan did
not draw any such direct conclusions; he simply called for
the ration.")l interpretation of religious dogma. His crite-
rion for the determination of the truth of one or another
religious principle was that it must serve nature a<; well
as the mind, which is to say that if religion did not con-
tradict human nature and nature at large, it was true.
Nature. -in his view, was "a closed system of the universe
which obeys cpr1ain laws of mechanics and physics".
Everything in the world, from inorganic matter to man
and his intellcct, was dependent upon its laws. "The
acti ons and thoughts of man and even his beliefs are all
differcnt chains in the inexorable lmvs of nalure."lo
These idp<1s o[ the Muslim thinker did not fit in at all
with the theological viewpoint since they left no place fOi:
God. It is hardly surprising that they were subjected to
particulal'ly bittet' attacks. Djamal ud-Don aI-Afghani con-
demned Saiyid Ahmad Khan for his uncritical accept:: nee
of the definition of nature formulated by the scholars of
the 19th century, and called him a dahriya (the medieval
Muslim name for an advocate of natural philosophy, 0r
u one who b0lievf'.-> only in nature and not God").11 To
the philosopher replied that his definition of n.qture dId
not rule out the reality of the existence of God, who was
I() rbid., p. 151
II Ibid.
A numt
have app
other cou
for mation
well as pc
nomic d
country sL
been pub/.
aCtivily JJ
This co/
Into the on
gjcal ... ic\\
$Opllt'rs 01
Irends of (
wIth the
Thc boo
the 1961 F
th primary source of everything. He did not even try 10
any arguments in support of thl.s conclusion· h
proure fG d '.
simply admitted that the essence 0 0 was beYond
the reach of man's mind. What the study of Nature leads
one to believe is only the first .cause, .but as finlte beings
we are not capable of knowmg HIs nature and a(.
'b t "12
tn u es. . . . hI' d t
Simultaneously the philosop er ne 0 prove that,
of all the religions, Islam alone was m full accord with "Islam is nature," he sa
d, "and nature is
Islam.'· 13
In support of this identification, Saiyid Ahmad Khan
advanced the proposition that Islam was a religIOn which
exclusively took cognizance of the laws of nature,. and re.
jecled prejudice and the supernatural; as he said, "th.
Quran does not support the happening of events or oc·
currences that are against the laws of nature or violate the
usual course of things."14 There is no room in life for
miracles; it is simply that people do not know all the
as yet and hence some phenomena seem "miraculous"
them. Actually miracles never violate the laws of
ty and unity of nature; they only show that many of
laws are as yet unknown to us.
While rationally interpreting the phenomena that
ligion calls miracles, Saiyid Ahmad Khan was hesitant
admit that such thoughts were suggested to him by
own reason; he even tried, in fact) to prove that his
were drawn from the very principles of
whIch he offered a "natural" explanation of
verses In the Quran descnbmg supernatural
All the reformer's efforts to bolster his rationalistic
tion with from the Quran were futile}
Not only the Muslim theologians of his time but
contemforary Pakistan philosophers regard' his
of the supernatural as proof of his lack of faith
fower of God, whom they believe capable of
any miracle in defiance of the laws of t
d Kh
' 't' fi na ure
Ahma an s cn 1CS nd fault with his . 'nir
and his whole conception of God on
· . th ld" , or mg to
everyt Ing In e wor IS Interconnected by a chain
p. 179.
13 Ibid., p. 156.
H Ibid., p. 182.
15 Ibid.

causality. At the end of the chain is the cause of all causes
or original cause, i.e. God. Like a watchmakel', God h:\s
created a mechanism which functions according to ddinilc
laws. Just as a perfect mechanism does not require the in-
tervention of the master, so the world does not require lhe
intervention of the Maker, for independent laws of nature
are eternally in operation there. So} while assigning to
God the role of original cause, Saiyid Ahmad Khan at the
same time denied his active influence en the development
of the universe. Objectively God was not left any place
in either the material or the spiritual world.
In the sphere of morality, God was in effect replaced
by an independent law of truth and falsehood ; God was the
creator of good and evil, but man himself chose between
them. It was a mistake to think that punishment and reo
ward were determined by the will of God; they were
entirely dependent on the law of truth and falsehood," on
the character of the individual's deeds. The philosopher
urged his fellow men. not to wait with their hands folded
in prayer for gifts from heaven} but to work with a WIll
for their happiness. Prayer only brought comfort in be-
reavement; all else was the work of man's own hands and
No wonder Saiyid Mehdi Ali, one of Saiyid Ahmad
Khan's ideological opponents, was moved to say in reply
to the claim that God could not intervene in or interrupt
the laws of nature and morality: "then God is really
dethroned and all religious life becomes extinct."l7 Prayer,
too, said the same critic, "will become a cold tribute of
perfunctory worship to a God whose arm is never stret-
ched out in answer to prayer .... "18 The disastrous result
would then be that "man learns to think that his welfare
depends entirely upon the accuracy of his knowledge ?f
those general laws by which the course of the world 18
determined, and from his skill in adapting himself to them.
There would be stimulated in him a spirit of self-hardness
and self -assertion as towards God .... " 19
The religious dogmatists had good reason criticise
the views of Saiyid Ahmad Khan so harshly.
of the role of God in the life of man gave relIglo-philoo-
L6 Ibid., p. 118.
17 Ibid., p. 204.
L' Ibid., p. 205.
II Ibid •
have OPI
other cO{
well as p
nomic (
country s
ophical justification to the nccpssity f,ol' In Individual line
of condud independent of the s will. It Sl' l"\'ed
lht, goal the enlightener haj hlltlsll!: 'll11ulait' the
Muslim's interest in indl'pendf'nt 1Il1bUl' him with
belief in his own strength, roUSP hun to strllggh- for a
leading position in Indian society,
At the same time Saiyid Ahmad Khan's religious and
philosophical views clashed sharply with his own political
credo, which taught obedience to the existing colonial
system. The ambi\Talence of his philosophy mirrored the
objective contradictions of the movement of Muslim En·
lightenment. contradictions arising from the ambivalence
of the position of the Muslim bourgeoisie in India-their
relative weakness compared to the other bourgeois groups
(mostly Hindu), their close ties with the landlords, their
dependence on the British, and concern to consolidate the
upper strata of the Muslim community as a religious mi-
nority group,
The growing economic and political activity of the
Muslim sections of the Indian bourgeoisie and consequent
of their differences with the bourgeoisie of
. metropolitan country plus the general upsurge of the
J-beratlOn movement following the First World War and
Revolution in Russia, and the radiealisation
mtelligentsla-such were the factors making for the
of new philosophical trends. These same
the de;;ire of Muslim ideologists to use
of uruting .the masses in the struggle
and resolvmg their social as well as
of these new trends in the
India at the modern stage of the
proved to be
as a great poet and also a
There are an Iqbal
his name, the
Wid Iy read, and
every year about
Y(" ,"h ': ,r" jf' look expres-
sly til hH 1 1 tt c , .. r Illtu' 1 hther ThIS is to be lained
by a numl I (,f r.11'CUi p
In th(" fir 1. Iqballwag a g. "at poetj his literary
talent enabled hIm lq couch his ideas in subtle and beauti-
Iul form\) whIch W('re I'Nldily under'tood by th, p' 1·
th r t
· th . LOp C.
us os e spread of his ide;IS,
FUl,'thC'rmol'(', he was familiar with Western philosophy
and knew h(!w to the ideas of religiou"<;
odCl nIsI? wIth, thcoretlcal persUa5lOD, His desire to bring
?! Islam cl()ser to Western philosophy and
he findmgs oj science echoed the mood oC the
younger gcnprahon o( the national bourgeoisiE' and intel-
lectuals, who wanted to cast off the burden of the old dog-
mas and adopt new ideals. ---- .-- --
Finally, and this is probabl y the most important reason
Muhammad Iqbal' s political credo , vas intensely
nial and anti-imperialist. \Vherc·a3 Saiyid Ahmad Khan
to the British as a means of sah'aging the
IndIan Musl.lm community. Iqbal raised the slogan of
agamst the colonial authorities and fi'lyed sla.vish
odedlcnce, He blamed hlS own coutrymen fer India's still
being a pearl in a foreign crown,
The poet called on them to end t>-te old way of life for
the sake of the happiness of the present and future gene-
Think of thy country, 0 thouRhlless trouble is brewing;
I n heaven there are for thy Tuin,
See that which is happening and that which is to happen I
What is thNe in the stories of olden tImes?
If you fail to lInrlf'Tstand ths you Will he ('xterm n ed
o people of HindustanI
Even your slory will not be preserved in tht" anualo; ('If the
It was Iqbal's great-merit that he felt and could express
in his poetry the vital necessity of fighting for national
But he, too, made Islam the theoretical
of the struggle and believed in the possibility of
the existing social order on the basis of that
ideology. The comer-stone of his philosophy was
recognition of religion as the most perfect form of the
"Philosophy' he S"id, 'm
the c8'\boal pooltlon of rellgloo ud baa
A nun
have ap
other co
..... 1'11 .
coup1ry .
b, en pill
p r lOll.
Th c(
10 Ih (
' b t t admit it as something focal in the J:rocess of
,vfle t
0 thes,'s ":!2 Iqbal did not deny the role of
re ec lve syn . [' , -
, d philosophy in the process 0 cogmtIon, bUt
SCIence an bl f dr'
believed religion alone to be ,capa e 0 e
[ t t kind
-om its phght. 23 or all the f31th. he
or una e man 'd ' '
'd d r lam the best although he sal It was absolu·
conSl ere S ' f" f
tel necessary to reconstruct Islam. or conserva Ism is
as kd in religion as in any other of human
He triEd to reconstIuct Islam ,:",:,th an eye, on
the hand. to "the philosophical traditIon of
a d on
the other to "the more recent developments In the
n , . led "25
various domains of human know ge. .
Of all the Muslim thinkers who preceded hIm, the
closest to Iqbal were the medieval Sufists. There seem to
be several reasons for this. At the end of the 11th
beginning of the 12th century was legaJ ised and
became the dominant trend in Sunm Isl am, thanks to its
distinguished exponent al-Ghazzali (1058-1111), who suc-
ceeded in adapting it to orthodox Islam. At the same time,
insofar as it was not an integrated religio-philosophical
system and permitted symbolism and allegory, it left the
field open for metaphysical quests and so attracted
with a leaning towards independent thought. "To
truct philosophical theories and remain a faithful
was not alwa:vs easy," wrote Y. E. Bertels, "but
the screen of Sufi terminology one could keep de jure
in Islamic bounds while transgressing them de facto.
The thinker who influenced Iqbal most was
Rumi (1207-1273). and not so much because of the "'"
affinities of the two men as because Rurni's art br
DCA' life into the humanistic and democratic elements
_17 Sufism,
Iqbal the reformer accepted much of Ghazzali's
ol. intuition; from Rumi and aI-Jill he took
on man's. relations with God, on Hthe perfect
to arrIve at that state of perfection. But he
all the way with the Sufis; he was critical of
and became more decidedly so as the
Above all he was not in agreement

Tile Rnoftllrucflon 01 ReligloLU Thought In Islam, p.
..... I lIIeratura, p. 119.
t(·;"\chin/.t that must give up the world in order to s t
free that pal-tu:lc of divine essence which is contained
hi"> soul and so ?t"Come absorbed in the substance of
Iq,?al the danger that lurked in Sufism of
all activity to passive meditation. He said'
The ulhmat? aim of the ego is not to see something, but
to be .... The end of the ego's quest is not
emancipation from t he limitations of individuality' it is
on the other hand .. a _more precise definition of it.
final act is not an int.ellectual act, but a vital act which
deepens the whole being of the ego and sharpens hioi
'II "27
Wl ....
In his opinion, creative activity and struggle were the
true expressions of the essential nature of man tor "the
world is not something to be merely seen known
through concepts, but something to be made and re-made
by continuous action."28
The Muslim reformer perceived that mysticism "des-
troys the egds creative freedom" and that "medieval
mystic technique can no longer produce original discove-
ries ot Truth."20 To work out a new method. he advised
his countrymen to study the experience of the West. "With
the r&1.wakening of Islam. therefore, it is necessary to exa-
mine, in an independent spirit. what Europe has thought
and how far the conclusions reached by her can help us in
the revision, and. if necessary, reconstruction of theologi-
cal thought in Islam.'·:X1
And Iqbal himself did take from the West whatever
cOl'responded most to the basic premises of his philosophi-
cal conception. He made it his goal to create a system
resting on Islam, and tried to prove that the ,
philosophy of Islam was not outdated but merely needed
to have its principles expressed in the terminology and
ideas of the new times. From that premise it remained for
him to find points of contact between Muslim philosophy
and the mOOel"n theories of the West. He him-
self. for instance. in the gnosiological ideas of
which he found similar to those of Rumi: the latter;-in- his
opinion, had anticipated Western philosophers, specifically
27 M. Iqbal, The RecfJnstruc'Jon 01 Rellglow Thought In Ialam,
p. t 98.
D Ibid.
H Ibid., p. 183.
IJI) Ibid., p. 8 .
A nurr
have ap
o/heI co
/or maliol
well as
been pub
Th .
t of the
relation b(>tw( intellect
. l' t 'eatm(,,11 .
Bergson, 111 llS I d' 'landing of the ('ssence and nature
' t 'tion and un e1 s l' f th W
an 111 . "The latest spf'CU (l11On 0 e est
of intUItIOn pel se. iii S ) has not passf'd beyond what an
(meaning € thOUght and presented seVen
Asian and a Mus un .
'ed ago
hundr vears l' " t rest in the philosophy of Fiehte an
Nor was Iqba sine . h t f h
. . . ht' 'nterpretation of t e concep 0 t e
accIdent. In'd
h e s the familial' idea of the Muslim
ego he heal h echoeh\e sympathised) that there is an indi-
mystics (WIt W lC . , d h D" S b
bond between the human ego an t e .lvme u s-
'b " plul'alism also suggesl
to hIm parall els
t ance el mzs . '1 h f k
with 'the pluralistic conceptions of the phlOSOp y . 0 ,a-
I t te
Tn other words, Iqbal accepted pn manly
am. e c .. e . h' 1 '
of the Western philosophers w lC 1 I n one way
ose I ') h' I t d't '
r fi t ted into the Muslim phI OSop lca ra I lOn.
or an I b I' h 'l h'
Somf> scholars would have it that q a sp 1 OSop y IS
a sort of carbon copy of Ni etzscheism, ,E. G.
BrownE' of Great Britain has even called lt an OrIental
adaptation of Niot zscheism," Other scholars t ake the
diametrically opposite view. completely denymg any
Nietzschean inftu('ncf' on the Muslim reformer and seeing
"not hing in common" between them.:l.l
Both of the'" extremcs appear to be wrong, Iqbal un-
felt the infiu€' nce of Nietzsche. but was not one
His interest in thf' German philosopher
from a desire to ('reate a Muslim philosophy of
that would suit t he aims of the national-liberation
He was attracted by Nietzsche' s ideal of a SU-
.9i will, capable of heroic living, He was
his rejection of Christian asceticism, which
to slavish ' for he himself strongly
! by the Muslim mystics.
. imagery, for instan ce the
and coal as symbols of firmness and
the vision and literary gifts
Iqbal r,pjected the basic
and Inlu lJon In Bergson
of hIS philo:,(lph
1n his opinion, despIte his visum or
the " Ihan}l" ... to which he mlght h""v L rrc 1 proph-
d, NwfJ'>l'hf' n v r t (lmC one bc:causl' f) ly he relied
nil Ill:", }W __ .. withoul :)ee'l;ing "external
gUIdance I,n hI.; bpn'llual hfe , and bccondly. becaW'it he
entrusted the ,. ,alisation of his philosophical principles
only to the ('lill', whom he contrasted to th,::, c.ommon
This aihei"m ana cYnic1.1- made>
Niet::bchdsm l.O whosp philosophy was
lI1spu'(,xl by hellef m an mdlvIslble bond bE tween man and
God, man and sociel)
Th(' desire' to build his philosophical system on a foun-
dation of national tradition, closely linked \vith the religio-
philosophieal prin<..:iples o[ Islam, determined the overall
direction of Iqbal's search and construction of a metaphy-
sical, objectivist-idealistic system. He tooK an approach t o
the problems of existence characteristic of idealistic plu-
ralism) or the division of nature into elements ....
His "spiritual pluralism" was the result olIiiS crItIque of
the idealistic scheme of atoms found in the philosophy of
According to the foilowers of kalam (the mutakallim),
t he worl d and each body consists of minute indivisible
particles or djawhar (which "cannot be split up any fur-

In contrast to the Epicurean atiJmists, the mutakallim
believed that the particles did not exist etemally in
the universe, but were continually beine created by God
at his own discretion and consequently could also be non-
existenl."; The mutakallim held that all atoms were the
same and had no property of potentiality, Things had no
constant pr oper ties, as these had to be created anew each
time by God, "When God makes a simple substance he
puts into it whatever accidens he pleases."37 This vanishes
at once for it cannot last two moments, Therefore God
puts into each new moment an accidens of ,the same type,
"This goes on ail the time as long as God wishes the given
type of accidens to be preserved,"38 When a man writes,
34 M. Iqbal. The Recon lIU lion oj RelJgiow Tho
86 M. Malmomdes. 'Gwde of the PelpJey9d
Russian translation by A. I Rubio gtven
IIl0a0JII Srednel hll I lIGna VII XII vee p-
.. Ibid.. P. 288
. 7 Ibid. P. 293.
, . . not he who is moving thl' pen; t.he
for 'md the hand of the man th<tnks to
ment al'lses e Ph en 'b God ,feneral c'mclusl'm o[
· tsglVentemy,· - , .
1 e Impe U l' therefore "no body exis1s \'w'hlC.:h ItsC'H
the mutakal 1m , '. .. 1 •
action' the ultimate aclive prmCipJ..' IS
can pr uce any ,
God."39 .• .
Iqbal tried to critically appraIse the.,teachIng of
and turn "the Asharite scheme of atOlTIl»m mto a spu ltunl
pluralism"':'iO . '
He approved of the general o.f
being and particularly Its dlalf\c Ll cul .
expressed, as he thought, In Its hypotheses on the unhml-
ted number of atoms constantly generated and the aCCI-
dental properties of matter being created anew each
y God' from these premises he deduced that everythmg
wa and subject to change in the world.
What he objected to chiefly in kalam was the claim that
all atoms were the same, reason and soul being nothing
but accidentia, He himself maintained a more consistent
line of idealistic monism and criticised the mutakallim for
calling the soul (or reason) merely one of the propertie,
of substances, thereby aligning themselves with the posi-
tion of materialism and opposing "the real trend of their
own theory", lo2
Truly, the mutakallim approach warranted the assump-
tion that two substances-a material and a spiritual exis-
ted. Iqbal objected to such dualism. All reality, he said, "is
essentIally spmtual; the world is the self-revelation of the
ultimate reality-God.""
God-or Ego with a capital letter engenders multi-
of egos of various grades in each of whom he reveals
hImself. "The world, in all its details from the mechanical
movement of what we call the atom of matter to the free
of thought in the human ego is the self-revela-
tIOn of .the .'Great I Am.' ,," The Ego reaches its highest
expresslOn 10 man "That· h th Q th
ull' . IS w y e uran declares e
Imate Ego lo be nearer to man than his own neck-vein".ss
: Ibid,. p. 295.
M. Iqbal. The Reco, .
'hid., P 70 Il8 luel,on 01 Religious Thoughl in Islam. p.12.
'bid .
• 'bid 71
• Ail1, P. 72.
The assumP.lion of variolls grades of ,sub. ,lane el abJ d
Iqbal to another kalam propo:-)it on. In A h.U·l'l"'
all ?OdICS al"2 made up of th0 sam.dn : , lof atom,
diffel' from one only in w;cidentirl. 10ft! whl:h
It lhat man IS mad2 of thp sam;:- sub .... t ... ;,tt: a .. thl'
I? .the gl'OundYj Like all Oth2l" things in thI::. world,
the mdivldual do('.; nol possess any inner potenthl and
does only what GOd . has pI edetermined for him. Iqbal
could not go along With such an inlerpretatiol1 of th" role
of man in the scheme of things; as we have already
he wanted to awa,ken the creative activity of the human
ego, and to anow 1t some degree of freedom of ch')icc and
action. That is why he stipulated that the substances of
ego depend on the degree to whioh they cxprc. s the Di-
vine Ego.
"Man, therefore, in whom egohood has reached its
tive perfection, occupies a genuine place in the heart of
Divine creative energy and thus possesses a much hiaher
degree of reality than things around him. Of all M the
creations of God he alone is capable of consciously partici-
pating in the creative life of his
Iqbal claimed that in criticising the Asharite phi-
losophy he was "inspired by the best traditions of Muslim
thought' .'"
This claim undoubtedly contains a grain of truth: the
pantheism of Sufism also must have exerted a perceptible
influence on him. It seems to us. however, that his revision
of the mutakaIJim theory of being and the main trend of
his critique were primarily determined by th8: new social
and political conditions, which called for a new approach
to many philosophical problems, especially that of man
and society. As for the form of hi'5 system, it resembles
Leibnizian monadism in many ways.
Even a cursory examination of the spiritual sources of
Iqbal's philosophy helps us to a better understanding of
not only his world outlook but also of the contempo-
rary state of philosophical studies in Pakistan, which
subsi'5t on much the same ideas. Moreover, all spheres of
social thought today show the direct inOuence of the ideas
of Iqbal. The theories of being espoused by the philosoph-
48 See S. N. GnRoryan, Iz Islom liIosolI. Sredne; AZII ,
J rOna. ,., p. 298, 2
41M. Iqbal. The Reco/Vlruclion oj ReligioUS thought in Islam. p, 1 .
48 Ib:d.
a 38K. 3016
A nu
hove a
other c
well 03
ers of Pakistan arc often bnsC'd on Iqbal's o:tpiriau
pluralism. .
Muhammad Sharif is till' author 01 :lll ontologie
theory which he has callt."'Cl dialcd.ic .. Ace ord
ing to hInl, there are ,three ,ullI,mate
being or ultimate realIty, which IS God, bemg eli splnt:') or
monads; being as the Sp''al world sense,
God, 01' the ultimate being, IS the pnme cause
and the source of all the other forms of beIng. He is abso-
lutely transcendental in the sens,e that he exists outside
of time, space or sensory perceptlOn.
Ultimate being gives rise to ,·the second order of
being", the spirits or monads. This type of being has been
defined by M. Sharif as "a seli-identical, persistent and
resistant unity, an active and responsive, conscious and
self-conscious centre of energy, having a free will working
within the limits of the categories.""
Everything in the world, from the electron to man,
spiritual monads. Since God is immanent in every
it is eternal, immortal, invisible, indivisible and lIT
in time and space. Its essence is determined by divine
the latter permits some degree of freedom to
on its category. "The lowest
least, the highest most. Divine freedom
of both monadic freedom and determination.
admits the possibility of interaction and
of the monads, thus rejecting Leibniz's
• ,&3 but he does not
this correction or how he perceives
to take place. He tries to round
djalectics. The monads, he tells
and develop in triads "from
not-self or rather
a more developed self.
. Tt ,Ignilk tnt that originally Sharif l"C'"Cognised the
{"\ 1(',11 \lr{' or th(' monads but did not ascribl' it
to ( ... od, he belipved to be the eternal unity of all
th!' mOllud In the II' perf('ct form.l)5
On(' of the later work') reveals a desire
to bp mr)J'"· thpre he says that God is not static.
but and f'vcr-creative".5t
Tn the· course of thf'ir movement. the monad., give rise
to I:h(' "physic<Jl world", the world nf complexes of
sensations through which they manifest themselves. It is
a world not divided into the material and the ideal, for
matter as slIch doC's not exist at all. Only spirit ex;';ts, and
what we take fol' matLer is but the essence of the pheno-
" ... The phy;.;ical world has a share in reality and is a
pad of being, but in far as it is the result of interaction
between monad<; and the systems of monads it is purely
phenomenal. "57 The world of being consists of the ultimate
reality or God and the spiti.tual monads. which are immor-
tal. As for 1 he' world of sense. that is phenomenal and the-
refore contingent and perishable.
Thus the world is essentially ideal and is moved by a
spiritual principle. "All power belongs to the spirit. The
activity that we notice in the bodies is not really th '1'9 "58
it is by the spiritual power of the monads. Spirit
acts in a purposeful way, for the monads and the world of
phenomena have been created by God according to a deIl-
nite plan. Everything, even the philosophies of Plato
Aristotle. Ghazzali. Shankara, Mahadeva Descartes and
Kant the journey of the sputnik to the moon, the
poeb:y of Shakespeare and Goethe, Rurni and Hafiz are
the result of Divine purpose.
Sharif's conception of the enence of being
be described as a peculjar Islamic € of
of German objective idealism (mostly Leibnil
gel). The fact that and then the
losophers of his
model on which they
ous. The pbilmiopby' of
for mal
well a.
i ........ nomic
. ,"m nd also sought compromis(' with th
tory j endencles a I b . t h
. . . .' 'd ology' it struck ou 0 J ' agnll1s t Po ..
offi(;lal relW:lO
1 e. . . I' d th '
. I thO d 'y and against mnten. "m an n c,"m. In
loglca or 0 ox . . r tl
. . ... d' the attitudes and vwws 0 lC new Cpr ..
It were mutote c;. • • •
. 'e' ]'ndecisive (1\V('11 to comp' omlse,
man ourgeolsl. . t"> '1'.
I d
· . social and 1(' uctant to take
res e 1n plOo '
action at the same time. . .
The ambivalent role and nature of.
Pakistan bourgeoisie have made for simIlar compr OmISing
tendencies in its ideology. . .
Leibnizian monadislll attracted PakIstan thmkel"S be-
cause of its strong mystical motives consonant with the
tradition, of Muslim Sufism. That enabl ed t hem to deduce
their theories directly from the religious and philosophical
traditions of their own past and make them sou. nd alto-
gether home-grown.
The pluralism of Pakistan philosophers differs somewhat
from thot of the 20th- century Western t hi nker s William
J ames. Sanlayana and others, for in it t he element of dia-
leclics is more clearly highlighted. But t he pluralistic vi ew
of alw reflects a characterislic of modern speculative
: pre,ent is t he same desire to ignore the quali-
of t he wor ld and r econcile idealism
(wi th ideali sm in the l ead). Matter and
one and indivi sibl e, says Sharif, adding in the
that ther e is no such t hing as matter, which
but spirit in space-time reference".61
of being is taken as a basis
theori es. Problems of gnosiology
a particularly large place in Pakistan phi-
1S precisely in their context that the solu-
of rational and intuitive know-
and, of course, the very right
must be sought. The gnosiological
thinkers have gone with the
irrational trend of
Hence their disregard for
for Intuition, held
ef attaining to absolutely
, ' l r
t 'IHI.
mf'y lOW,", the m'll'keel innu('nce of
11 .,> ( J1,...:I of liff' school
>t DJI t('). "1' w II vaJ'iety of
in tt' ir, '1: r f It on >1 h (; \nnc'" of
philo >pl f"'r irv
• t
,,, IS}"mlt' t"aditions to
tiCJt 1'1 ir (Tn 'ioh g 1.] \) <;. Tn th(> wakC' of
thf"'V t.l V it) c )mb) u.r fJOnal approach to the pro-
of eognlilrJn WI h th" I \0.' (,I th rolt" of intuition
".nll by thi" m -r:ll !Ill my·.... spr'cifIcaliv Ghazzal i.
lattf'r's phil,) 'Jphy IS jrr"lp'JI "1nt tf) them <1<'; it
on th" ('nd (one 1h v h;lve mad(' thrir chief
of proving th'· ()f ]"('ligion'to (>xist ind('pen-
of sci('nel? (md In his lectures The
on of Reliqiou.'" ThlJuqh.t in hhm, Iqb11 compa-
Gha7.7ali to K:mt. He consid-:red thc' role of both phi-
to be apostolic in the sem? that lhev spoke from
HI' of sC0pticism at a time of the highest oC
and so reinstatpd religion in its rights. Iqbal
did not foil to point out thp diff?renc botween Ghaz-
zali and Kant. Kant "c0uld n't affilm the
pc:;sibility of a € of God: ' whereas Ghazzali
sc::-ing nc hope in houal-.· t lJm d to mystical
experi ence. and th:'re fl:und em content for

Althou"h he put·, high value en Musl;m mysticism.
Iqbal noted a wf'ak point in it" philosophical outlook-its
failure to ull dC>l"stand "th'lt thou::,::ht and intuition a r e orga·
nically n 'lat f'd" .n" Th_' 1"'0 "sprmg from tnc same root and
complcmf'nt ('<lch otne'r," he S:1id. " The one grasps Reality
pi ccemf' al. the oth er it in its wholeness. The one
fixes gaze' on the eter nal. the other on the temporal
aspect of R<.>nJity."ns .
In their > to conciliate scientific knowledge WIth
faith. the religious philosophers of Pakistan have followe,d
line of delimiting the spheres of mlluence of reh-
and sr!ience. . f
The principle of delimitation is based on .the Vlew l'c!
which differ entiates between real SPf.ltual o:;r Is
phenomenal world. The highest rel_IIy
" M Iqbal Th R con I u I on 01 Rei
sa Ibid
.. IbId
• Ibid pp 2-3
• 19
' ble to knowkdgC'. "As is trnnscC'ndC"nl, no
not acceSSI 0 I 'I' " II ' b
, ' gl'asp hinl" said M.l\' .. Jan l ' I S a OV(> nIl
VISlon can . I I
o h Sl'on "{j(i In thl.' sanll' t w monac s cannot
compl e en . 1" b'
be known and can only be approached as I'l' IglOus 0 JC'cts.
The domain of science is limit.l'd to ,the
old 6; In other words, the l'SSl'nCl' o f tlllngs IS separated
WOI ' d 1" 'd I d
from their concrete expression, an l'l' 19lOn IS PC arc to
be the sole access to true knowkdgl' , L('. kno\\'Jedge of the
ideal essence. The statements of Prof. Rahman are
typical in this respect.
... Accordin,;.{ to him, intuition and
reason do not contradict each other but I'l'pl'eSent two
forms of knowledge. These arc not of the $(\me
lance, however. HIntuitive knowledge is a higher form of
consciousness, or a supra-intellectual consciousness."m) Its
form and necessity arise from the fact that "the intellect
has il<; limitations beyond which it cannot go",'ifl and so,
intellect can give us knowledge of only separate parts oE
the whole. f'To know reality in its full, we must rise
beyond the intellectual level" and rely on intuition. flSen-
se and reason enable us to understand existence: intuition
helps us to get direct knowledge of reality,"7l '
Pakistan treat intuition as a link
between sense and reason. G.Ch. Dev,/2 for instance, tells
us that through sense man gra!'ips reality as 'fchange 01'
as an "endless series of quickly moving pictu-
res .,3 :0 on the other hand, reality appears as
somethmg static and constant. 1·1cking in all movement.
To a true picture of being, synthesis of re:lson and
se.nse IS necessary, and such synthesis can only be achieved
wlth h.elp. Of. intuition" which, Dr. Dev
ad.ds, I eta!l1S In It the brI1liance of both sense and reason
mmus thell' defects. "71,
M'b Md· Shdfif, Islamic and Educellional Stue/ies p
I ., p. 108 ' . 100.
r,a fil7.1ur f
Sylhl"!, caclive member' philusophy dt the M. e. College in
I.iV F, Rlhmdll e ? i.Eoldll Phliosophical C'ongless.
p. 132. ,. - ce, NO/Ion 01 Sell·Consis /C'ncy ane/ Intuition.
om Ibid.
11 Ibid, p. I:n
7t C .
..ovmdd Ch<lndra Dev f
sophy and Psy,holoJ;:y (If the' J"mer hf'ad of the Department of
of the Pakistan Philosophic I (,IlIVerslty of Dar:ca, until 1965 ere
the Daccd Brdllrh (If the R" for East Pdkistan secretary
73 r. ( h a nl<l liS na M ss' 0
... . OJ'V, CHimp. I . I Ion III Pakistan.
7' Ibid., p. 41. S( 0 1111" PhIlosOphy 01 the Future, pp.
Tntuillon !l:.lnll.v 1I11plii II mystic;ll l'xpel"i('nec mad"
possihl(' by Ill-·In r gi I' If. lCtt·., in Muslim
h·rmi!1o!ogy ,I. "lh , nt 5 \Vh lI'a' I
. k I ., .... .'\ .... dn( )"('a:-->on
give now of lh ph ·nl)In'·nal world, the '.h{'art"
that lS to say intUIt on. bnrJ' hUT" with reality
and so ('nabl{ 3 him to gn,;p th( tl UP splntual of
1'h(' fJcculiar l.hirl":ttJOU
1h,· mysl,'("]" ' ,
. .. .. .. ,,",, ..!xp..!l"1cncc H
that It .IS not subJ(·:t to II gH;d analysi:-.; and cann()l lx
to 01.11::1" V'opip (·X(;·pt in the form 0[ state-
ment, :vhICh m.ust Ix: (I(."::'pteJ on J"aithJ'; If sensory know"
ledge IS to l'v('ryone and rational knowk'dg('
the prerogatlve of only thc' educaL::d, intuition is a f)·ift
reserved for a JI.!W individuals blessed with "divine
the great majority of people havt:
be gUIded In th':"ll" liv:"'i) and activities not by their own
drawn from and rational data, but by the
belIefs they arc ab1e to draw IJ"om the few who have
experienced mystical identification with God and
a portion of the great reality. Sharif says, fOI" instance,
that the absolute values which represent a porlion of
reality can only bo graspod by prophets and other "ideal"
When the problem is p03('d that way there is no other
recourse left but unconditional submission to religiOUS
dogmas and their acceptance on faith as revelations of the
mY'''tical CXP(.:I ien::.:C' .
And thai; js ('xactly the con .. ::lusion Muslim theologians
and a number or Pakistani philosophers have drawn. But
not all,
Many Pakistani thinkers not only refrain from drawing
such conclusions, but object to them. In this they are
supported by Iqbal"s ide-a of the importance of intel-
lectual and pl"Clgmatic tl'5t of the m:vsL!cal experIence. In
Iqbal's words. "critical intC'rpretation" OJ" the "jntrllectual
test" carried out. by philosophC' l"s "leads us ultimatel?' .to a
reality of sam(;' charact01" as is revealed by
experience". i,s 'I'hc pragmatic refers to the functIOns
7.". B.A. Ddl, InlcHct"/ ami InllItlion in and Su/N, p. 82.
.,0; S.Z. Ch,urdhuri. (Inti Fail/I; "-D. Ahmdd, Rt>Q.wn and faith.
n I bid., p.
·,8 M. Iqbal, The UcconsltUction 01 ReligioUS Thought in Islam, p.27.
well a
()f the prophets. Yet Iqbal rcfl!s(,d tn rollll\V I'dlg/!)
dogma blindly and ('ne nu d 11 rc II .t.. dI1l'Vlt. elf th
human mind.
The c.ln be I li . .:{'d tl the )!'IC'!-. or a
number ot Pakistan s C)J h' P1f lli.lry [lull >phl'rt. 0
decided interest in that 1 .. pc'ct \Y .s till' symposium on
"Reason and Faith" at thl 1 H5i ,ion 01 the
Philosophical Congress, and cspC'cial1y 1he presented
by Athar Rasheed and C. A. Q·dil.
A. (caUwl' than that
reason might not be able to grasp ill(' ultimatc' and that
only through intuition "direcL yision of the sacred truth"
could be This did not InCi.ll1 that peuple lc:'cki ng
the gift of intuition had to aCl:epl whatever the chosen
intuition dictated.-"-l The ::;pcakcr then prcsented his
arguments in favour of a critical approach to the results
Intuition. he said, was a subjective experience and
finding.) might not be universal. Reason searched for
truth and never gave up the search. Faith was
static. onc-sided, inflexible and therefore dogn1atic
even reactionary; it could not keep in step with the
changing world and finally bred fanaticism and
,., R
ranee: - eason always doubted, questioned. and
ined everything. even itself. critically. Faith was
brash, uncritical and despotic. Unless it
. reason. faith was blind: all its objects had
subjected to the test of reason. which was the
The other speaker. C. A. Qadir,'" a philosopher
by positivism, undertook to analyse
of faIth (the Kantian thing-in-itself, the
of God, Jaspers' belief in "Existentia"), and
nelusion that faith dealt "with the unknown
former pnnclpal of the Government Central
e Execut ve Committee of the PakiStan
and Fa Ih p, 67.
nll' mknow II::' pc m( Ul .
)o;pl'ci,d pi r ill
«: 1 1111-
ion Hnd iI (j nt of t" bOl
to denial of a
.!,., ;l1y,AI<.:al intui-
1J r· of
.;(:irn lO( \ YJnTI ( n. L hi ( <.:
10 f c pI I hv Po) 1'l.1 I 01
from II, conI I'll ",.,IIp.. h UTI
sophy, for,; hll h 1 { >0 .. I •
cf thc (1 (. C(
) It j< 1ried
pny but even
1= 01 I ms of philo-
11t .:.oVil 11 analysis
lh( unl r 0\ til C 3.' (' to bp ,.H.:h m rely b
a new pa,., f h "d ing in plac,· of
famihar. gencl'allJ:' <lct..:cl 1('''1 r rt of p .cch which expresses
the unknow.ll-lt: I,
, It must that latclV dt ub ;. h.'vi teen assailing
mtellectual and P illv th, un(lcr genera-
tion .of 10 tr
p") ibi it_v" of eco-
nomIC, politlcol and )phl(''\} PI' bJ1S i om the posi-
tions of Islam. In lookmg I. 'I JlP-V l( n', nuny of them
have turned to the phi1ry ,}:hical theories of
the West, especially r-nd "'xic;tentialism.
Certain premises of logIcal posi1ivi,-m are attractive to tnose
who are inclined to reject but that trend is
on the whole unaccerlable 10 Pakislln philo<ophy, if only
because it completely deniC"; the role of speculative
Existenlli"l1ism has caught the interest of Muslim the-
O1'ists becaU":ie of the importance it attaches to the problems
of the individual and al"o be1::ausc it offers an inter-
pretation of irrationality and intUItion that fits in nicely
with Islamic tradition."; At the same time its extreme
individualism and pessimism makf? it distasteful to them.
As C.A. Qadir corl'ectly noted, there is very little room in
existentialism "for that feeling of fellowship or sense of
belongingness without which no group or society,:. can
keep itself going"."" Pakistan'S philosophers look!nl!
a philosophy that can unite their people, that 1:' oPlin?"tic
and instill. confidence in the feasibility of building an Ideal
Islamic society. Some of the ideas built into existe!'ti
are subversive to Islam, and therefore deserve, Ideolog-
ical refutation. This they received at the 12th seSSIon (1965)
85 C.A. Qadir Rca.on and Pa ,II, p
.. Ibid., p. 13
81 See N Erfan.
Iqbal; N.KhaDnm, Bx
sa C A. Qadi
A "
\\f"1 Co
b n I
of (he Pakistan Philosophical Conl'l'('s". which d
<:->p,cclal, Rymp?s.lUm tc CrI.til.I';l1l {f that
lluc, of ('xIstcnlJah: III md other
bour.geOls schools. not and could este
consIstent even If It dId contam fi,om<.:: ration I not
(h b
· . . a seeds f
e ,aslC of philosophical schoo ' 0
MuslIm rhJlo,opJoy are ,de ,1,,, Is and
"It is not in Art and Lilermure that the Pakistanis
think that their main contribution to the culture of the
world will made in thc 20th century, though they
attach great th.:se of human prog-
ress. They thmk that thelr real contribution will be their
emphasis on thc ethical and moral pdnciples which alone
can save civilisation."1 This' :-;latcm(-'nt by a prominent
Pakistani ideologist. the gn' at thinkers
in his <..'Ountry attach to ethical probll'ms, a corollary of the
idealistic character of t.heir W"J1l"I'<.l1 philosophical positions.
Any idealist philosophy, if it is a religious philo-
sophy, t('nds to exaggel'at(' the place of the spirit, of spiri-
tual valu('s in liff!. Thp moral p('rfN't.ion of the individual
is consid('red a dccisivl' factor in the improvement and
t 'li soddy. Ethics is held up as a mean5 of
overcoming social ills. This view has yielded a veritable
crop of th('orics on th(' ('lhicizing of exploiting society:
"human relations", "hllmanisation of capital" and other
",uch thf'orics.
The heightened intcl'('st in ethical problems is also t(
be explained by the neces'iity of filling the moral
created by th" death of many bourgeois ideals, ThIS
vacuum of ideas has particularly affected ?,oung, who
are the most receptive and sensitive to, socIal . ..
In 1962 the' Pakistan Central PublIc ServICe Comm ..
noted in its annual report that "from their own obser-
vations and the experience gained at interview boards as
well as from study of psychological reports,
sion have noticed that morally and from the pomt of VIew
act i'
I"' r/
. I ll " pl'''',,'''nt tll' He \' Ion IS m h( down" I"
oJ charac _.... .... ".
.,. )
slide . . . ' . f h I' tl' .
Philosophers agree t1Mt lh" II tl C .J 01 111h in i-h
t1'aditional ideals has been SC1101 ,1y u..nciPrnl1nt' d. Accord..
. g to C A Qadir the young Pah tam fl Is that .. the ,,]
established values have disappraI ed, wher as the ne\,.
ones have not yet been bt'ITL' til' old tL'ms of value
have demonstrated lheir 111'll,illty to PlotC'ct hwnanit
from bloody C:)J1C 'nl'ation camps, physical
torture and agony. and till. ('ondudps C. i\. Qadh
has made the youth think.
Nor is it a rnattcr -or 111(' universal l'l' assessment
of values which has tak'-'11 place since the end of thE'
Second World \Var. Most Paklst.anis l'eje(;t bourgeois moral
values Ior the simple reason that those values come from
the West. to t hem the ali,'n \\'orld of thE' colc nialists.
Naturally. Pakistani ideologists arc making an efIol't
to fill the vacuum WIth a new JVluslim system of values.
The attempt to work out <;;uch a system on the basis of
religious principles is by no 111£:.11:1< a phenomenon peculiar
to Pakistan. The same thIng i;:; happening in other young
sovereign s at:::s. The ct their independent political
and economic development can hardly be furthered by sub·
jectivistic and relaLvistic .sVstlffiS of values. no longer
acceptable eV'}1 to ·hl · national bourgt.:>isie, let alone the
middle f'trau and thr wid: m"'')ses, tor such systems justify
disunity among the melrt e s of society, contempt fOI
established moral stanoal Is, etc.
It is not surprising then that a tendency to formulate
ideals and prinu pJ is appearing in many of the
countrLs. It is all the greater in Pakistan,
problem of naLiunal unity is extremely acute. By
a common svslem of Islamic values and com-
national charactcristics the oIftcial ideologists
hope to am(·lioruu· its social contradictions.
the concept of national character as
total of the habits and attitudes, desires and
views and opinions, motives and standards,
and hopes and aspirations of an indivi ..
he shares with other members of his nation.'"
in the formation of this national character
23 t963.
and PaId Ion Ideology.
ha Ir,p49.
is t he ideal. !he more perfect the idf'al, the
to the natIOnal will bt,. The strength
of the la Uel d<.' pend.s on how. stnctly the standards and
prindples In that SOCIety are followed." Whl:n an
individual vlOlates the accepted moral codC'. he
the achi evement of the ideal. Every such dC'via-
Hon y" ?low to th12 nallon as a who!12 and ultirnah'ly to
the mdlVid val. for only a strong natIOn can pro\'ide the
condit ions necessary [01' the well-being of the
In lookmg for this national ideal, the theorists o[
Muslim na tionali sm have turned to religion as the etprn11.
immutabl e and common (i.e., supra-class) foundation of
their syst em of spiritual values. They believe that religion
al one can save mankind from degradation and ofTer it a
correct ethical ideal. While science and objective know-
ledge are impOl1.ant, says A.K. Brohi,1 they cannot give
man the main thing-assurance that "goodness dominates
and pervales the world. In the absence oI such an c.<;sur-
ance morality becomes a useless and vain adventure ft:r a
thing that is not there .... Religion is prodaimed the only
force that can sustain man's belief in the plogr·'sSlve
development of the world, for its basic premise is that ..
nature of things is grounded in goodness .. '. all the
values for which Humanity as a \vhole IS
somehow conserved."9 ,:It is religion and not SCIE:nCC WhICh
consoles us in the hour of our defeat, telling u.s th:tt
the ills of life are unavoidable. still ... all thtngs ,,"ark fa:
good and that Time alone is needed for the tnumph of th,
'ght "10
1 . db' other
Such a high purpose cannot be sen'e Y 'd
. ld th t -clusiv"'" pO\ver 'lhiS 1 ea
religion: only Islam Wle s a ex M'd ad' the
has been most unequivocally stated by A:A. .au pOak'lls'tan
h R ht wmg In .
foremost spokesman of t e 19 f' rality and that
" ... There is only one correct baSiS 'weI' to all the
basis is supplied by Islam. Here we ge is from the
basic ethical questions and the answel
· I Charae/cr, p. 39.
,. I. H. Qureshi, The Problem 01 alJOna
Ibid. . _ rhcal figure; was a member
7 A. K. Brohj, prominent CIVle and. of Law (195Al and
of the Conshtuent Assembly; former .Mln her of the Pakistan Philo-
Commissioner of Pakistan in India; hfe mem
sophieal Congress. . 7
II A. K. Brahi, In Defelice 01 ReligIOn. p. .
9 Ibid.
IB Ibid. 45
defects noticeable in philosophic rcp!ics .and untainted by
other religious creeds .... Here fm,d d moral gUldance
which can lead us to the highest vIrtue 111 every departl11en
f rr "JI
o term "Islamic ethics" is entirely conventional.
What the term actually envisages is the moral attitude of
given social groups expressed, In form. like
any other religion, abounds lr:t confllctlng and ambIguous
tenets which leave the door wIde open for the most diver_
gent interpretations.
The moral injunctions of the QUl'an often receive
mutually exclusive interpretations. Which of its ethical
principles are emphasised and how they are read out
depend entirely on what social strata the theOlists are
speaking for and what motives undedy their choice.
One of the main principles of Islam is fatalism. Karl
Marx called it the core of Mohammedanism. Fatalism in
Islam is the belief that the Almighty alone determines the
destinies of the individual and the behaviour of each man,
Yet there arc some verses in the Quran which may be
read as criticisms of blind fatalism" This has resulted
appearance of two opposite trends in ,he philosophy
one fatalistic and the other anti-fatalistic. I.
There is no God save Him. the Alive, the
Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the
is in the earth" (2, 225). God made
all his actions. The fate of the individual
a,nd he is powerless to change it in the
which ye are promised will surely come to
escape" (6, 135). Man has no knowledge
Say: For myself I have no power to
hurt, save that which Allah willeth,
Unseen, I should have
would not touch me" (7, 188),
even if n1nn did have knowledge of good or evil, he could
not choo.::;e I)"'twl'('n them-only Allah can do t.hat for him.
"Whom .1\ 118h will Hp sendeth astray. and whom He wili
He placeth on a straight path" (6, 39). Thus there are many
verses m the QUl'an which deny man free will and !;tress
the fatelistic cl('pendence of all his acts and behaviour upon
the (\esigns of Allah. They set the line along which Muslim
theologians usually formulated the ethical principles of ]s-
lam. One of the greatest thinkers of the Middle Ages, Ghaz-
rali, said in his famous treatise Delivering from Delusion:
"I do firmly believe that there is the will of the Almighty
God in everything: that it is not I who acts, but He who
moves me to actionj that my deeds are accomplisned not
by me, but by Him, who uses me as His obedient too1."14
Fatalism is also basic to the ethical teachings of some
contemporary Muslim ideologists. A. A. Maudoodi tells us,
for instance, that the consistent theological interpretation
of the principle of tawhid implies the complete denial of
individual free will.
Since man and everything else on earth are the work
of God and are completely in his power, man no
to lay down the law of his conduct and decrde the nght
and wrong of it. This is a functwn whIch properly belongs
G d ",
too.' hi! h in
However quite a few contemporary P osol? ers .
Pakistan espoused an anti-fatalistic IslamIC ethi.:'i
and this trend too has d,eep historical b7"b
predestination was subjected to that time the
and Mutazilis as early as the first the will of God
exis tenee of the Caliphate was proclaIm tenned a sin, an
and any offence against the state was th
offence against Allah. To justify "::d
of the Caliphate had to revise that claiM
those ethical principles suppo whid, that
free will was not a oxde:
intervene m the in
that he could even change thia order
ideas of good and
At various
. social cla';;s. AHhough the I't"jl'ciicn o r that
of some defilllte ted fr0il1 rngl't'ssivp elements, it
d g
ma often emBna . I d -
o I lake that an ab"ioiute aw an apnori
be \\TOng 0 n . [-
. II h -"clOd fat'llism a .. ()
a W 0 reJ" 0;- < r -.-
who urhe1d it as .. ,nE'nts .0 t'cac,tlo,: .. The
: _ pr,:gressi\'e Mutat!:iia. of, mdlvldual
will was later exploited by the I ulmg chque of the
'a' Caliphate, which under al-Man1t1n (813-.. 833) and
two immediate successors adopted as the
i state creed: the free will of the ,was here
to his personal responsibili ty for, hiS actIOns, ,and
partIcipants in the anti-feudal rebelhons of the time,
to take just O'1C example, were brought to answer for their
'not preordained" activities; in other words, the spokes-
men of the popular masses were denied a chance to prove
the justice of the struggle of the toiling people against
thpil' exploiters. !Ii
Ccnversely. there were times when the fundamentally
1'e.3.1.. idea of fatalism was acceptable to the demo-
cratic mcvement, and revolutionary activity was justified
as 'he will of God :'History tells us," wrote G_ V_ Plekha-
nov "·hat in practice fatalism, far from invariably preclu-
dynamic action, has even served at certain junctures
a.-. an essential psychological basis for such action." l i
T c.:!ay. when the ideologists of Islam come out against
the de t nne. of predestination, their purpose is to further
the. b.cur6:C?lS of Islam, in which the principle of
mdlvldual ft:ee WIll has an important place, as well as that
o.f actlvl::Y directed at the of a more progres-
'wclal c: der by man. Like Saiyid Ahmad Khan they
seek to prove that divine predestination does not
the.fn::edom of action. The founder of the Muslim
said that just as "the prediction of an astro-
death of a particular man by drowning
tlnation is cause of that man's death", so predes-
cular acL r;f man \.'1 nowledge, but not the cause of a parti ..
The above inte t t' .
the destinies 10n Id
effect God his power
- n an turns him mto an impartial
lTItervene in 0' cha f
I bal I nge the course 0
q Was another philosopher who re-
p. 43,
ran C ElhlcJ, .pp, 29, 30: ' .
tht' fatalism of Of thodox Islam. Expre· th '
of th(' anti-colonial Sf'ctions of Muslim h e
·or th(' of blind obedience and f( ,Y
, t

, - t r - d )1 e ermmed
strudgle agams orelgn ominat ion To Iqb-I
- h d hi ' a , man was a
fellow creator an (' pmate of God· in one of h-
-M h- h h' lspoem,
from Payam-l- as n q e as the lattt:r speaking to the
maker as an equal:
ThUll (lidst nf' 19ht d I de lh lump,
ThOll (lldsl credle clay un:i I n d th c p.
Tholl dHht create Ihl"' d rll m untams al tl [, res .
I produced the orch Hils, g n.le nd grovi"<;, '
Il is I who turn slone nil n II r
And it is 1 who tl1rn 1>Olson mto n wtJdote ..
·The recognition of man'., right to change the \voJrld left
God merely the role of initiator (mee he had created the
universe and granted mankind the freedom to act. In his
attempt to resolve that ccntradiction, Iqbal said that God
had consciously accepted such a limitation of his bound-
less will. "It is born out of His o\vn creati\'e freedom,
whereby He has chosen finite egos to be particip3.tors of
His life, power and freedom ...
Today Pakistani start from the pr€m-
ise that the individual's freedom of action and choice is by
no unlimited. M. M. Sharif says it is relative insofar
as it is restricted by the universal laws of nature, in tum
determined by God's will.:!1 His treatment of the problem
does not differ much from Iqbal's. although the social pre-
mises and practical conclusions of the two are not quite
the same. To Iqbal , recognition of free will was
as a method of awakenin& the people's confid!-nce.JD...
own strength; for present-eTay p"hiros:ophers It Pri-
marily to point up man's responsibility for the that
exists in the world, so that the blame for it can pmned
on him. Thi s difference becomes particularly plam when
we go deeper into the question of the relation of good
and evil.
Even in the ethical teachings of antiquity
with the name of Epicurus, attention was called to e
profound contradiction between God's of
both all-powerful and all-good_ If he was almIghty, be
both good and evil existed by his will, he could not
(9 s. A, Vahid, Iqbal, His Art and Thought, p, 106. In IsJom P 80
10 M. Iqbal The Recomlruc'Jon 01 ReligiOUS Though' 59
21 M. M. Sharif, bJamJc dnd Educa'iOnal S/udiu P
.. 381(. 3016
rtood und l'dl did not ('Omp fl'o
b eficent If he was a -" , . h 11
en . ld t T. - ()mnipoteni and ddl'rmml' t e de .
him he cau no ue .. J .
. ' , k' d That conlradJd lOll 1:1<.:: ntl l I
mes of man 111 . CI ···r· . II .
solved to this day in t'ither the )lls I.m 01 10 Iushrn
the Suli teaching on good and evil. The
Q . "Whatever good vlslls thee, It IS of God'
Ulan says. h If" (4 'll) I '
whatever evil visits three is of t yse .l. Contra_
diction to this, the medieval Sullsts (Abdul Karim al-Jili
and others) said that both the good and the eVil of the
universe came from God. In theIr eVIl was a ne.
cessary objective condition for the reahsatJOn of good. Just
as the bird must overcome the resistance of the al!' to fly.
so man can only be good by ovel'conllng eVIl, and there-
fore he has no right to complain about the existence of the
In adopting this Sufist principle, Iqbal modified it
somewhat. The pessimism and passivity of the medieval
mystics had no place in the philosophy of one who spoke
for the middle class at a time when it was rousing itself to
political action. His affinities were much more with the
romantici,m and dynamism of 17th and 18th-century
European philosophy. Himself a poet, his understanding
of Western philosophical thought was drawn mostly from
literature and I'oetry. We would even say that his dialecti-
cal Ideas on good and evil were to a great extent inspired
by the works of Goethe and Milton.
Iqbal explained his ideas by interpreting the biblical
legend of man's fall from grace and expulsion from the
of (cf. the Quran, 7, 10-24) as a manifestation
".f 'ofree chOice , View entirely out of keeping with re-
us tradItion. Man s first act of di sobedience was also
first act of free chOice':' he said." Furthermore, if good
eel the result ,of free chOICe, one might say that evil creat-
. Iqbal s Iblis-Satan, like Goethe's Mephistopheles,
the eterna! force that always desired evil but
m and good. Without It hfe would have no dyna-
The would triumph in
Parodi.e of m one of his poems, like JII
'--uSe it t,st., IS more attractive than that of
Lord the spirit of creativity. AddteSS
Iqbal, The .. c
rUCtion 0/ Religious Thought In Islam, p ".,.
rho!! hd I en lH'" Illf r Y SDDele t calise them to move,
I dm Ihl' life 01 III II he, the life .dlc:}t in everything.
Thou give I hit' li the body: I infUSe wannth Inlo life.
Thou "howp&t the way ,to peacelul resl I lead towards restless strifel
The mdn or earthly ongm, foohsh and short-sighted,
Is born in Thy l'lp, but clltclineth rn':ltUrity in mine!23
The revolutionary .spirit of Iqbal's conception suited
the mood of the I'Udical intelligentsia at that time of active
struggle against colonialism. Its admission of the objective
character of evil impressed the intellectuals. It enabled
them to account for all social troubles not by any subjec-
tive causes, but by the real live evil, which was colonialism
and feudalism.
In insisting on such a close relation between the two
ethical categories, even on their mutual interchangeability,
Iqbal was stressing the necessity and propriety of taking
action against the estabhshed SOCial order. which had de-
generated into an evil. Disobedience .. protest, e."en VIO-
lence all acts condemned by the prevaIlmg moralIty, were
held 'up as virtues to those engaged in the anti-colonial
struggle. . ..
After the formation of the state of Pakistan Its Internal
social contradictions were aggraYated. One section of the
Muslim bourgeoisie and intelligentsia inclined
anti-capitalist and socialist ideas but the rest had lost their
erstwhile revolutionary zeal. Hence the tendency notI-
ceable today to revive the traditional Sunni of
the problem of good and evil, as reflected in the .
of Muslim Philosophy written by fifty-slx
lars.24 In the section devoted to the philosoph) f
. . . h b k nd author of many 0
ran, the edltor-m-chlef of t e 00 a 'd' g to the
its chapters M. M. Sharif, states that accOl In Man cre-
QUran good' comes from God and evil from choice
ates evil by abusing the freedom however,
between good and eVIl lS pl'edetel y less it fits into
and "no one will choose a way 0, un
that scheme or is willed by h t this view with its
It would be a mistake to thl t: rminate injustice
direct implication that human efforts e
is the predo-
or change anything in thiS world U ational-liberation
minant view in Pakistan today. e n
t:l s. A. - Vdhid Iqbal. His Arl and 12.
A History Muslim Philosophy, "01. r. .
, .
.. Ibid .• pp. 150. 151.

, a
. ed all s('ctions of the pop,ulation to
movement 'pirit p('rgistC'd arter Independen{.
cial m.:tIvlt,Y: the of 1he newly independent nations
keeping alIve th: e ercome their economic retardatior
to shared more or less whole-heart_
In Paklstan, t IS 1 sect ions of the population, howeve"
edly by oi attaining the goal may diffe;,
thell the circles which in pnnclple would prefer
That IS \V Y " fOIl
. . t b passive are qUlte walY 0 pen ea s for
the masses 0 d eobedience and instead arc trying to USe
sUbnllSSlOn an , Th . . , .
,th d' )[ ideological influence. ell PUI pose 15 Well
I ( the conceptions which do not deny the exist.
but attribute it entirely the personal qualities
of the individual, the inference bemg that the way
1.0 cradiroate social ills is through the moral perfectlOn of
A "modern' interpretation has. also been put upon
those c>thical principles of Islam whtch relate to the doc-
trine of after-life.
Like other religions, Islam teaches that "the good and
bad ccnsequences of moral act.5 .be .realIsed m the
pre,,'nt life fully: it is only in etermty, In hfe after
that the true nature of these rewards can take shape. :!ti
Man cannot "comprehend justice in its wholeness" and
decide what is right and what is wrong, " Only God can be
absolutely just:'" God's justice will reveal itself on the
day of Last Judgement, On that day every man will stand
up before Allah, holding the book in which all hIS deeds
are recorded. Allah will interrogate each man in turn and
weign his deeds, "But those who fear the Lord," says the
Quran (3, 197), "for them gardens undu neath which rIV-
ers flow, therein dwelling forever-a hospitality God Him-
U oifers," For those who did not l ear him, who were
deluded by the present life, there is "a draght of boili1\!i
water and a painiul chastisement for that they were un-
. (6, 69).
TsJam teaches obedience and meekness: everything
transitory, and SOOn vanishes. "The present
of delusion" (3, 182), "the present life II
a and a diversion" (6, 32). Believers must
by the present life, for the less the1
0tuanI Blhlc.. p. 47,
Hemld "Jam', Concept 01 God's Mercy.
\Cqllli F in hi' \\. rld thp thpv will h f
. . ave a tcr they
The:. of subm.i. ...sion in lhe name f' ill
' f - db· () ,Jn Usory
afler- 1 e W<\-, oppose 't many thinkers in feudal ti .
as well as many bow"gems reformers. mes,
The greal philosopher (870-950), in
his famous tt eatt:-;c Vlews of the 01 the P 1
'b 1 th r" er ect
State, e( . e r.e dictum on the rejection of
the good thmgs of hfe as ':a trick and a subterfuge
against one groupe !Ol' the. benefIt. of another." "That is all
a trick and a snare, ' ht, "which is used by tho3e who
cannot fight openly and honestly for these g00d things ...
to intimidate rest and them give up all or a part
of the good things of life so that others may enjoy
As f01" bourgeois reform of Islam. it, like liberal Chris-
tianity, procC'('ds from the premise that it is possible to
establish a kingdom of heaven on earth. Proof that Islam
grants this V:ssibility is adduced from it" injunction to
wage djihad. 01" holy war.:"'9 To be sure. Muslim ideologists
regard djihad as only one aspect of the activE' struggle to
establish an Islamic kingdom of good. Another and more
important aspect is the moral perfection of .the individ'!a1.
In Islam (unlike Chrisl1anity), the plinClples of ethical
perfection have not been reduced to a precise system of
moral commandments, although many Muslim theologians
and philosophel's have attempted to C1"eate a system.
Mirza Ghu1am Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadl)'a, has pre-
sented a lis t of the basic ethical categories in book The
Philosophy oJ Lhe Teachings of Islam, He deSIgnates them
as chastity honesty meekness, politeness, forgiveness,
goodnoss C'oul" patience and
c: .,. , '. .' , ' . d' f tlve feature
According 1.0 Paklstam theorists the IS me . 1
. .. . d t top at the ethlca per-
of Islanuc ethiC';; l .') that It oes no S f f of the
fection of the individual. but calls for the. per ec IOn
as an
h' .. "of hfe stresse
whole of society. By the "et lCISmg . h ' t of a society
indispensable condition for the estabhs they mean
of social juslice (the Kingdom.of GOed ea:;"W values of
devotion to and implementation 0 e s
Ii' Idoso/i, Sredne,
2" Quoled from S. N. Gngoryan. ,slO
Irana VIJ·XlI v('kov, p. 185 01 tbls bOOk.
29 For more on dJlhad see pp. 59·60 I tbe TeachIngs 01
M. G. Ahmad. The Philosophy 0
pp. 48·80.
II 196·:
nolV a
" Hcr
, Pakj·
is the
II the
'1 a/her
, ' " I values are divided by these phiiosoph.1lI1
, rho splntua f ideals: (1) fOlmal 01 absolutl" and (2)
mto two types 0 . cl de ideals which are " rooted
, t' e The first In U III
opeta lV . lh source for the whole of h
human nature and are . e h' h hIt . U ..
manit ,"32 These are the values. W Ie., . e p ()
d Y the basic value (hie), VI" .. goodwill , duty
an. f 'eedom etc. They are absolute, eternal and
, JUs Ice, n'd alway's sought after and desi red, altho""h
une angmg, a . t, T ....
the de . .;ire is not a con':icious one m. mos c:lses. ogether
they f( 11' \\'hat is called "the ethIcal of man·
kind".33 They are spoken of as. objective but not
in the sense that they incur achon of an obJectI ve nature
which can be evaluated; rather in the sense they are
absolute values, much like permanent abstractIOns which
are independent of the subj ect in whom they a re vested,
and which have a divine essence.
Says K. G, Sadiq," "God as the Universal mind may
conceived as the source of an ab50lute values."35
But If the latter are eternal and unchanging, how
explain away the different moral appraisals given
act? The answer, say the authors of the
ethics, lies in the existence of the
i.e" the form in which the absolute
known to man in a definite
social and economic conditions.
of the operative values
conditions, "The absolute
an individual or a
Il1f .. is OI1/' of ("lIrnph'\.(' to
l' 1;1 'o("idv IL h IJIl1y glv{'n to "t. xl:pptlOnal mdlvl-
811eial n:formPl'S and enligh-
1 '1'" C\)-: nH'1l whose liv('s "POS5l'SS goodm'ss in the <:;u·
tencc n l •
I t
'V(,' 3!1 to n'consiuer and re-l'vuluute the m(lral stun
erul. .
ards of t.hat society. Such men havl' a higher understand-
. ( absolutl' values and so can change the existing ope-
ideals to lh<' pnd that society may raise itself up to
the next slag('.
And sO the result of the or values _inJQ.ab:-:;Qlute
d operative is that man IS gIven a chance, a very small
to be surC, of independently interpreting and I"c-a:ssess-
ing these values.
As a I'ule, Pakistani philo:sophers to an objedive-
idealist theory of values. But some of them have become
advocates of the axiological conceptions of a subjective-
idealist tenor now so fashionable in the West. The most sig-
nificant are the vicws of A. Qayyum."0 Qayyum criticises
the "subjedive" and the "objective" approaches to the
natun.' values, which is t o say that he disagrees both
with those who regard values merely as the expression of
the sense and emotions of the subject, unrelated to the
oulside world, and with those who regard values as special
properties inherent in the object, like colour or smell. His
own definition of values is that they are "a result of in-
teraction between the outside objects and the subject'.
interests,"" Insofar as an object has a number of quabties
and can satisfy one or another of the individual's require-
ments, it has value.
Accordingly, value is not something exclusively subjec-
tive, nor is it something objective, unrelated to the subject
it is the "capacity of the object to promote tb
of an individual who comes into contact WIth 1ha
object. "ft2
The philosopher then points out that since
of people vary there be
a moral assessment
' tIl \ III \ ht til ,)1"( Ilf I
the human \'il HI 11 H \I II and ide- 11
111{,lllbCl" n lliel\' (l It" \
Unlikl ll1 Paki-..t:1I1 phI lllWl l" tim (\0(' n
consider cdal ideal.; In be p t i, li't I (;od. 1'h(':,-, cue
I b
nnn wll h tl In p \1 \l m cl 11(\ pi a clieal
t.-xpETience. " .. The Ictt'ai W 'It'h \\ I t'lllbndy I hI.-' n' al pUI'
pose of human life is to ,kJ1t1\\ n tHall hllllsCl[ by thl
use of his reason and experlem:
'. \ahtL's are to b
selected (m the basis of the ends or Idt'HIs chost'l1 human
beings themsel\'es and not gi\'cn by any authority other
tban man himself."4\
Qayyum name5 economic \"fllul.'''; a'i t.he main criterion
{or determining the suitability of ideals to the tusks of the
development of £Ociety. He says, "Indcl
d human life com-
rrrhcnds b0th material and spiritual aspects, But I think
the material aspe,d the basic aSl?ect. ' " 1'1 uth, beauty
and \'u'lV(' (WhICh the bourgeoiS phIlosophcl'') include
basic human values) ha\'e no meaning so long
as millions of people lead paupers' lives, The soiritual
of man and his consciousness of spiritual 'values
h,ke truth. beauty and virtue are only possible when so-
reaches a definite le\'el of material well-being.
Frcm abo\'e we may conclude that Qayyum's ideas
have much m common with the '·theory of interest" whose
rost zealous propagandist in the West was the British phi-
osophel' R.Perry. This is another kind of utilitarian ethics,
S: sort I of corrected copy of the theories of ra-
tona t'goL'>m formulated b h
middle of th 13th y t e French Enlighteners in the
deed a rationeal ' ctentur
, In Perry's opinion. if man is in-
clea ure bent on sar {' h' ' t
that will automati" 11 IS ymg IS own mteres 5
Although quite po 1 y. the intere',ts of others.
minded . In It"i ,day among the I'
to protect the intere t orten served objectIVely
good of the people s property disguised as the
pnnciple of ee of the ethical
other ethical systems led to Its l'cplacement by
theory of intere.<;t" th nature. In the
of social rathe; cntel1cn of good is the satisfac-
pposed to be un' n personal needs The former arC
lVersal and th ..
,,,:,_..:.._no_matter what class h e same for all human
t ey lx'long to. That interpre-

Ibid. P 105
Ibid. P 108
\1 (,n ,f 1\1 m1l I t Illtirr.]lf'\y id<'ntifit
t t ( til III nj' it wilh the
I lam\( n.
IgIl) , "
'l III CtH1CI h c mpoll l 01 t,
r tu, \l • a l J( II ( ( n 1(1 t l( I
.1 ' , I nJ Clnd lU tit'
fh,hgl(ln '1 IWllrl fhl' m( t Important la .
Muslim sy8tem (If valuc;. i'akbtani
' (' L'>S" sam
, l.CC aim ,()lI t' Hr' ,·me valu(· of value the ·ou ',. f II
i I" h'· ' S I 0 a
ol (:1' UC', . 1" ,m 1 I:> 15, follo\',· .... that any sQtif'tv which
denil'S God and I'L'JC'cts ]'( hgilin lacks a spiritual f( un" d t'
'hl" I laton
an 15"t .lmmOl'a .. plincipies
mOl <llity, M. Rahuddm." are Implied in the ideal
of God as a particular type o[ leaves and flowers are im-
plied in the seed of a \.r(>{> that bears them." For that rea-
son, moral principles "c'm find their fullest manifestation
only in the actions of an individual who loves this ideal to
the fullest extent."'" When they speak of religion as the
supreme value, Pclkistani theorists of course have Islam
in mind. Or. as I. H. Qureshi has put it, "For us Muslims
no morality exists which does not find its ultimate sanc-
tion in Islam. ",,X
In Pakistan. religion is a required course of study in all
schools and coUeges; the state attaches great importance to
the advancement of Islamic studies, to which purpose many
research centres have been founded: the constitution of
the counlry and its other law.) contain "Islamic' pro-
!=ositions, etc., elc.
Freedom as a value is considered by the philosophers of
the country mostly from three aspects: (usuall):
as freedom for private enterprlse); pohhcal (most fuil)'
formulated in the of Islamic demo
)!: a::d
ethical freedom (free will and the man
Equality in the System of IslamiC spn'ltual \ alue .
primarily equality before God, to
befme the law the latter being God-glvt'n 10 d' '
, . lude 111 lVl-
Equality in the eyes of God does not plee .' F'
. • . 't I uahtles tom
ual differences in ph,'sical find spli'l ua q. 'that
, , I " drawn
that correct premise the mcorrec1 cone uslon IS . I
't' , Ith f the nahan equa-
I IS Impossible to distribute the we8 0
Muhtlmnhld Rall\uldm, member of the
"'l \C3.jem\, "Jrih
ongn.'ss, ulllli 1966 Director of the {\'-'" .. "
"" M, Rahuddm, NO/lanai Chalae/cr, pp, ..... I 5/ dr p. 231,
Quoted hom K. CaHard, Paled/an' A Poli/lcO tl
Irec In 196,:
f Phi/asap/II'
0/ Sciences)
he is now a
;ocialc, Hcr
odc!n Is/om,
a and Pakl'
nls the
r 0/ a1 /iclcs
ed in the
ia and a/her
/ed Pakistan
c 1961 on"
he Pakistan
II t
he mcmbers of the sociC'ty an equal
ly or g l Vt; (I .. ' , .' • I 'j" . er".
, (( in it. TIl(' Mat xisl pi mClp c. lOm each
nomIC s a ,us . . h ' 'd' t h' ,
' a hI'" abli1tV to cae aecO! mg 0 IS
COl' lOd . ' I II' ' .
'. . t> 'd implying compulsory eve mg and decla
15n11S5< :" J '. 1 " I,
noi; only unacceptable but even ImmOl a. '" Even a&,;u.
, g that communism docs sLicceed and succeeds a hun"
n1tn'h "th 11 th' "
red pet' says M. 1. han. . en a at IS
will at be,t be that each and all WIll all right
but none can rematn moral, because the gIvmg m the CaJ·
of each or above and is not
voluntanly gn'cn out of fl ee WIll.
These ideologists consciously or unconsciously distort
Malxist theory, which, of course, is opposed to levelling
and stands fol' the achievement of equaht y by placing the
members of society in equal relations to the means of
The Islamic approech to the category of equality is ba-
sed on the assumption that economic inequality is na-
tural and therefore inevitable. The problem then is not to
end the division of society into pOOl' and rich, but to make
Ihe rich do more for the poor, In his day, Muhammad Ali
Jumah said that ··the fortunate amongst us, whether in
or knowledge or physical fitness, have a moral res-
to\vards these who have been unfortunate."50
sentiments are constantly being echoed by Muslim
today, It must be admitted that similar justi-
of economic inequality meet with serious objec-
rtain intellectual quarters, as the speech of 1. La-
of the sessions of the Philosophical Congress sa-
wed, Speaking of those rich people, few in
be SUle, who had taken it upon themselves
fortunate, he said that they were
harm than good, for philanthropy
dlgruty of man and created unnatural
mdividuals; it divided society into
and humble recipients of ' .51 But
inequality. these
do not 1,lloW how tu
ot rise above idealistic schemes
IdeologJes: Islamic and
the Soc al Sciences
P onber
Pal<Ulon, p
I g
ical improvement of man (1. Latif), or one 01'
h P
sycho 0 .. I'
t c, d'fic:J.tion of Islarruc SOCia ism.
the!" 1110 I f h "I f I I '
ann d . interpretation 0 t e prmclp e 0 amlC
Thr> mo eln . . t' I' ,
. . nUally rejects discnmma lOn on rt> 19lOUS
equahty this treatment of the ;sub;ect not
grounds: .r reaction with its stake m the continued diVl-
the paklS .a
into Muslims and people of other foiths, the
·on of sOCiC d
51, f (Iitical rights to women, an so on.
en,',1 () P) d '" II I
Nr!lat (fraternity) i. hel up as a SpeCl>lca Y 5-
, I S,'nee man was created by God, all men are
nie va \.IC. b h I I
at 'I I . of Allah. and so all men arc rot ers. s am
1 he chI ( 1 en . h h ' d
. l'e resented as a religion es
IS dP I.acism national dlscrunmatlOn, the prejUdICeS
con emns '
o[ caste. e c, 't ' ' 'I bl t·
The IslamiC ideal of fraternlY is IrreconCI a Y ra-
' t 1 however by the means suggested for the ach, eve-
Icee,' 'fd"hd l t'
menL of fraternity-the doctr:?e 0 Jl a. . IS ?O
, t tllat I'n the Middle Ages dJihad served to Justify
seCIC . f t'
the seizure of foreign lands and destructlOn 0 en Ire na-
t ion;he remarks of the Quran on djihad are extremely
conflIcting, On the one hand, it tell. us that only when
themselves attacked may Muslims engage the mfidels m
war: "And fight in the way of God with those who
with you. but aggress not: God loves not the aggrC's,ors·
(2, 187), The same verse proceeds: "But fight them not by
the Holy Mosque until they should fight you there," Such
patience under attack is taught in the Meccan suras of t he
Quran, But in the Medina period the right to rep '1 attack
emerged gradually as the right to fight "nd subdue
the hostile Meccans.53 This was used by variOUS rulers of
Muslim nations "vho were plotting \vars as a
pretext to . disregard the Quran's stipulations on the
fensive character of djihad and justify their aggreSSIve
During the period of colonial rule. patriotic Muslim
thinkers gave an anti-colonial edge to the doctrine of
djihad and used it as a mean. of uniting the masses and
organising them for resistance to colonialism.
"So e B.A. Dar, "What Is
Whither Pakls'an, pp. 19, 2l.
» See 'DJlhad" an Shorler
IslamiC Culture? P 1
EncyclopaedIa 01 1:11am

The ideologists of the bourgeois r"rorr "r I ;jam PUf
their own interpretation .on on(' (hut fell in ,v l1
the ideas of the bourgeOls Enhghtenment. Sarvld Ahmdd
Khan declared that holy wars weI''' unavoldable cnlv 1
t f
. . n
two events: in answer to ac s () again":t
Muslims - undertaken nol to make tel:ntorwl gains (thus
exonerating the British of IndIa),. but to extirpate
Islam, and. again, when MuslIms were forbldden to practi'e
their religion in any country.5'i
The present-day theorists of Islam are also concerned
to prove the justice of holy wars for the faith, but they
have had to reckon with the unpopularity of aggressive
slogans and the upsurge of anti-militarism among wide
sections of the population. It is therefore 1110re usual now
to speak of djihad exclusively with reference to defensive
wars. " ... A war against naked aggression by the
nation against the weaker will be Jehad. A war in defence
of the territorial integrity of one's country will be Je-
had .... A war of invasion for un lust telTitorial acquisition
or expansion will not be Jehad."55
. In addition, a trend is afoot to make djihad the basic
pnnclple of Islamic ethical system. "Jebad,"
says B. A. Dar. lS achve and dynamic struggle for the es-
tabhshment of a moral social ordel' a' t· f th
k· d f th . " Clea IOn 0 e
mg om 0 e good which early Ch,' t' I
. db' 'IS lans wrong y con-
celve to e pOSSIble only supernaturally and which the
Quran wanted to set up here on thi -th "56
It must be admitted h seal.
doctrine of djihad no 0:v
, that on the whole the
ponse it once did. not e;;:el. evokes the sympathetic res-
ons. 'The emphasis now is Its most modernistic versi-
blishment of a genuine Mu fIe on consolidation and esta-
ideal of fraternity has inside Pakistan. The
lrdanty and national cansoI'd l' he meamng rather of so-
cal aspect of fraternity is i
a IOn of aU citizens The ethi-
used more often to cannot gnored and the is now
but a s?cial and political love for one's fellow men.
the PakIstan nation Ue eXpressed I'n th 't f
It ·: eumy o
. s natlOnal. relIgious l' '.
trons have seriously han: and soc' .
development of Pak' t pered the eco . lal contradlc-
IS an. The more co and political
nSlstent progressive
See RA. Dar, Religious T
".> Fazl·i-Hamid, Jehad in [[hoU9ht 01 S"y .
" BAD 0 . "S om .... Yld Ah
. . ar, UlOnlC Efh' . nlod Khan 258
/('s, p. 57 ' p.
(If thp country see a democratic approach to the so-
forces . -
. of its language and other problems as the
lutllOn'eliable key to the eradication of tJ:lese contradictions.
on y 1 I' t' I' f h' ff
Th spokesmen of Mus 1m na lOna Ism Or t elr part 0 er
h e concept of millat as an antidote to regional nati-
or the demand of separate pational groups for
national autonomy based On common tern tory. economIC
and li.nrruistic ties. ".
Underlyin!,{ the contemoorary mteroretatlOn of mlllat
is the notion of the exclusiveness of the Muslims' com-
first advanced by the leaders of the movement
for the formation of the PRkistan state in proof of the
exist.ence of a Muslim nation.
Hecof1ni!;in't the
of territorial. langua"e and other factor<; to lts forma-
tion. these thinkers have nevertheless relegated the>;, to
the background and put the idea of unity on the baSIS of
Islam first.
The principle on which they '10 is that to po-
Jitical unitv, or in Islamic terminolog" mlllat. faIth mane
God must be propagated for the furtherance of the sumeme
national j,deal. H ... Then the v.::Irious hnp'u;}'!f's .. races.
cultures. histories and territode":' saY's M. "re-
main subordinate to this ope idea (a belief in one God.-
M. S.) and the people continue to be a uniform na-
tion having a single uniform 58 .
The concept of Muslim fraternIty IS made. very
nent to the solution of both domestic end forelgn polrtrcal
problems. Upon it are based all the present-day Pan-Isla-
mic trends. Millat is under.stood to mean n<?t the
mation of all Muslims in one state, such an Idea un-
tenable and guite unrealistic under present.
the formation of a Muslim commonwealth of nab?ns WIth
Pakistan. thE" only state. in {ne rests
on a religious base. playm,'< the leadmg .' ole.. ,
In th'e opinion of a number Pakistam phIlosophers.
another specifically I!;lamic value In the .general of
Mu!;lim irteals is justice. In that we n flom
M. M. Sharif that Hat s"me period of hlst?ry certam
a . 11 phasI'sed as reason In Greek SOCIety. re specla y em ...
til 57 Ivf 0 akov, Nalsionalny l'opros v SO\'fcmcnnol Indli;
i#-' See A. . i'lusulmanskiyc tcchcni}'a \' obshches/l.cnnoi
. R. Gordon-Polons aya,
fTlysJi Tndii i Pakis/an(l. 49
roll M. Rafiuddill, National Chala.ctcr. 'J. .
K. G. Sadiq, Philosophy 0/ LIfe, pp. 38, 39.
tro1 in Buddhism. lovl' in Christi anity, in
self-con d ower over Nature in the !11ocil'rIl Wl'st."60 Rc_
Islam. an P f' I' ' .. )11 '1,,1111,' 1, 11
r f of the principle 0 ]US Ice IS c< . ' l' ( up as
ideal of the Pakistan slalt'. h('r(' being
understood in a special sense rath£'r than m Its usual legal
t t
· So we read. "It is rnth£'r son1('1 hmg which
conno a lOn, l ' t ' .
combines the characteristics of ,natura JUs IC": eqUIty. and
a broad understanding compas<lOn 111 the applIcatIOn of le-
gal justice,"6! ,
The most important feature of the IslamIC concept of
justice is its recognition of the supernatural or divine na-
ture of justice, fully to mamfest Itself on the Day of the
Last Judgement. After the plea on their behalf (shafa'a) of
the Prophet, only those sinnel'S will be eternally consigned
to hell who committed the greatest sin of all- lack of faith
in the One God, Or, as the Quran says, "God forgives not
that aught should be with Him associated; less than that He
forgives to whomsoever He will" (4, 116). Not man or so-
ciety, but only God can be altogether just. Echoing certain
Muslim thinkers, Fazl-i-Hamid writes, "The human con-
cept of justice is imperfect and incomplete because man
cannot comprehend and contemplate ]ustice in its whole-
ness, , , , He cannot be absolutely just owing to his limi-
tations,"62 Not so God, "who cannot be unjust to His own
self, nor any shifts, changes or adjustments in the corre-
lated appearances of cause, and effect that He makes can
be regarded as un]ust " , , '63 As for man, he can be just
only to the extent that he possesses and d 1 . h'
, th d' . 'b eve ops 111 Im-
se.L e IVlne aUn utes. Man can ach' ' .'
intuition and the revealed word of Justlce only by
made out to be utterly i""atl' 1 d, Thus Justlce 1S
, ana and i d d f '
ety-a category which is uncha' n epen ent 0 SOCI-
A,:other distinctive featUre n;tt
and eternal. ,
ogmtlOn of the quahty of merc h,s ,concept IS ItS rec-
justice. Many verses in the an Integral element of
The concrete implications of are appeals for mercy,
strikingly revealed when We concept of mercy are
por"tant and relevant aspect of ju t'ml
,the most im-
justice. s Ice-SOCIal and political
fIl M. M. Sharif. The Good We ond C' .
1;1 Fazl-i-Hamid, The Islamic COile Illzcnshlp P 6
61 The Islamic Co
?' 0,
103 Ibid. of GOd'" "l ercy
(;', Ibiel, .
r,? ,
A" noted C'lrlif' r, I sl<ln"! IdeologI sts start out from th(\
assumption that ) i ncp })t'I)}lI{ nre not t'qu(l1 In rcsppct to
innate abi li tv, they (';mnot be equal in and economic
position. and so the' divis,ion nl(:n into rich and poor,
employers and (,mpl"yed IS qUlte natural and just. What L'
","ore, ",ny a"pmach to the problem from the standpoint of
the just distributi on of the national wealth or the Marxist
undcrstanding of justice is rejected, "The Communist way
of social j ustice has to be rejected by the Mu,lims," says
Fazl-i- Hamid,6 '
The demand for the llquidatlvn c.£ private property
with it of the right to exploit others is branded as an en·
croachment on the freedom of the individual and nothing
short of immor al. In this the theorists of Islam differ little
from those of Christianity,
Since they do not desire any radical changes in the
existing production relations, Muslim ideologists suggest,
firstly, that the accumulation of wealth be restricted or re-
gulated (see Islamic inheritance law, zakat, the ban on
usury), and secondly, that their followers display charity,
mercy and generosity. "Islam", they say, ;;seeks to relieve
human suffering and distress by charity in its broadest
sense . .. .
It is not only utopian to regard mercy or charity as
a key to the achievement of justice, but more important
still such virtues only work objectively to prevent the
achievement 01 justice, regardless of the intentions of
those who practise them,

Our examination of the ethical ideas of Pakistani phI-
losophers has led us to the conclUSIOn that an IslamIC ethic
as a consistent supra-class theory does not eXIst. The old
feudal theory of morality, has gradually outhved ItS day,
lt h h
of 1
'ts mdlvldual tenets are still mvoked
a DUg some "
d th
the Pakistan reaction, BOUt'geOls and
now an en 1 th d ' I" f
tt b
' ' thical concepts c 0 e In re 19lOuS orms
pe y- oUI geols C th 't 11' ts'
'll . ld th 'eatest infiuence on e 111 e 1gen la.
s I W1e e gl t' f th th' 1 ' ,
Th t
'al'y I'nterpreta LOO 0 e e lCa pnncl-
e con empOl . f
1 f I 1 [ten serves as an expreSSlon 0 the demo-
p es 0 s am to of the middle classes, but by and large
era tIC asplra IOns
now a
. Her
is the
in the
' .' ciples are unsui table fol' the f<ll'll1ulaiHlI1 of a tru.
e, o pI 111 • . . f 1 '1 '1' 1 .
ly scientiHc ethic. The fl exlbIhty 0 t 1l' lb an >,'l "Ileal sy.
' and its ability to reconcil e the most dp_
cm " I I' I I'
ments is not without limits. The s em, Ikl' all
other religio-elhical systcrns, takes oil, [rom. a numlH.'1' of
initial premisC's which misrepresent ,the. l:onnccl .. ·.ll) bl!-
tween morality and social being. ObJcdl\'l', rchthms .'tce
replaced by ethi cal relations. und 1 hosp are I'('rlur'ed
to the relation 01 man to God.
The pl'Oclamation of political independence is the
culmmatlOn of the first stage of the national-li-
berat ion Then comes a long period of struggle
for economIC mdependence whose success hinges on the
particular path of national regeneration chosen. The search
for a correct path thus stands as the crucial pl'Oblem be-
fore the counllies which have thrown off the shackles of
colonial slavery.
To gain their economic independence, such countries
must achieve high rates of production growth, correct the
one-sided structure of their economy, do away with non-
equivalent trade, break the stranglehold of foreign capital.
eradicate the carry-overs of the feudal system in the
countryside, etc.
Full emancipation from dependence on imperialism is a
long and difficult process. So long as they remain in the
orbit of world capitalism, the newly independent states
have to submit to the kind of international division of
labour the imperialists prescribe. That only makes it har-
der for them to remedy the one-sided structure of their
economies and go over to Take the
tries of Latin America most of whIch have long enjoyed
political independence but are still economically dependent
and remain for the greater part subsIdIarIes of the U.S.
economy. . . ..
Granted that under modern condItwns capItalIsm does
not necessarily exclude a fair degree of economIC progress,
still it cannot ensure the successful and, .above all, the ra-
pid solution of the problem of the economic
r t 'd t' f th newly free countnes. Naturally, the lat-
e a1 a IOn 0 e f d elopment
tel' are seeking neW paths 0 ev .
Th 'bility and, one might even say. the expedience
of some path other than capItalism are poin-
5 3aJ(. 3016 65
n 196·:
c. Her
I slam,
d Paki·
is the
in the
up by the existence ?f .the sociahst of ('cononl '
m the world today. SOCIalist conslructwn III the U.S.S III
which in the space of a few decades has drvelopcd
an agrarian into a mighty industrial s tate, as as
experience of the other socialist lands, hav(' convinced
newly independent countries that socialism offers them th l,
best of eradicating their social and economic ITl
The governments of the developing countries are un-
doubtedly giving thought to the experience of the socialist
countrIes, nO,t only In deference to the anti-capitalist and
of the masses, but just as often on
thelr own and out of their own desire to apply
that expenence when they see what great advantag
. I . es
c:onomlC p anmng 01' cooperative farming offer F'
the, ruling of those countries there is this
whIle they realIse that the capitalist road is far from per-
fect and hardly the best for them, neither can
they, ,nor do, they ,to, Lake the socialist road for fear
of thelr p,nvIleges. Instead they look fol' a wa
out m compromIse, In the "reconciliation" of ·tal· Y
ad· I· . h . capl Ism
n sOCIa Ism, 111 w at IS often termed the "middl d"
of development. e roa
Other important factors have contributed t th
g f th
' . 0 e emer-
ence 0 e concept of a 'mIddle road" 0 th h
tainly played an enormous role is th ne ,at as
capitalism common to all segments of so agamst
states. Centuries of exploitatio In YO':.,!lg
1St powers naturally generated the d n y the ImpenID-
oppressed peoples for the system th t eep hatred of the
undisguised plunder and Violence c?untenanced such
nal-liberation movement has so 'ft at IS why the natio-
struggle against both a en slogans of
the who I.e imperialist system. It r
country and
that the Idea of consolidating the' IndlCatIve, moreover,
independence is dominated by eC?nomic and political
state" which will not be like th e Ideal of a "welfare
West,. .. e states of the capitalist
AntI-capItalIst tendencies ar
or consistent in the different fot equally pronounced
Only the most class-conSCiou a classes.
pletely opposed to the caPitalistS working PeQple are com-
of the, (the of prodUction. The
whIle sharmg In the prevailing h d petty bourg .. )
h d f I
· atred f eOiSle ,
to t e ream 0 evo vlng some k' °capitalis I·
l.n.d of 1" m, c mg
66 P Ivate enterprise
t;ciH'IlW of lIH'ir own, lIu'y wl}uld like t(l !lnu J I")f.ld tl)
I'OSPl'rlty thi1t !lnmll.:
1 11{'r,(JDiJi (nl'khmcn:.- -without
f.iolcnct', From tJlIS haw' ,come, the pr-tt,)' JOurgl ',is illusions
of a special road, a spl'l:1il1 kind ()( npr Ilbm . r('L" from
exploitation. or
The ()f the natICJn(.ll bourgeoisie is
best described as clislikQ for and (nvy of their
stronger WC'st('rn rivals, upon whom th'-',Y werE' de:-pendenL
untill'ecently and whose plac{' they would nuw to fill.
This they cannot do without the support of the wide mas-
ses-and so the bourgeoisie of the developing countries
hopefully resort to calls for a "middle road", meaning the
creation of the optimal conditions for their national cap-
italist development.
As for the "anti-capitalism" of the extreme feudal
reaction (the criticism from the Right), there the "new
road" means rejection of capitalist € oJ!ly in
order to preserve the class privileges of the feudal and
semi-feudal elements, in other words, a return to the past,
to feudalism,
Another factor which has contributed to the emergence
of the concept of a umiddle road" is the impor-
tant place l'eligio-ethical concepts have m the culture of
the peoples of the East, for whom th,e ideal
is usually all of a piece with the ethu::al ASIde
everything else, the thinkers of developIn? c0l:lntl'les }
are repelled by the moral vaclI!ty and of
Western society, for all its prospenty. Cleate
a society which hal'moniously and
··t I b fit They cannot conceIve of ethICS WIthout
SpIrt ua ene s. , ' ., t· I
· . ih· ·ty of Spll'ltual values Ovel ma ena
re IglOll or e pnoI'l ' t I·t
I H th
· ·epudiation of commUnIS mora I y,
va ues, ence 'ell' 1 'h b· f
'. .," , . anise their hfe on t e aSlS 0 some
t ell stuvmg to Olg "'t 1 values distinct from
kind of special system of SpUl uta ,
·th b '. communIst va ues.
el er ourgeOls 01 , f tl theory of a "middle road"
The Pakistan vel'SlOn 0, 1
,·al,·sm an idea adopted by
. f ]slamlc s < ,
IS often spoken 0 as b f 19 '"I As the national-hbera-
. . 1 g core ":1:.
ndlan MuslIms on entu
the need arose for a
t' t gained mom . ,
lOn movemen . rogrammc to go \\'lth its political
t::l'ospec:tive econonllchP 'deal that appealed most to the
slogans. NaturallY, t e free from pove.rty, unemploy-
people was that The Islamic nationalists, not
ment and the ideas of socialism have for
unmindful of adt "pc icture of the future in which they
the masses, pamte a
In 196·:
1l01V 0
Ie. Her
Il Islam,
ld Paki·
is the
f articlcs
ill the
nd other
drew on an image very familiar to t.P thr
lraditional Islamic weIran.' stall'.
The victory of the Octob<..'r Rl'\"(liuti(lll in I!u Sia was
enthusiastically I'eceived by th<.' fon'mo,". l\luslun inll'lIt'C_
The bourgeoi sie, who had plaYl'd a progn'SS\Vl' role
In the movl'nll'nt, l"t.'<lct('d
sympathet.lCally to the Ideas of the- Russian Hl'\'o}ution
and the mIddle strata even morL' so. Muhammad Iqbal
one. of .the first to hail the developments in Russia as the
begmnmg of a new era. In his famous poem llirljra-e-Rah
(1921) he urged the working people of the worl d \0 wak
up and throw off their chains: e
Ar;se! A new way of life has appeared.
Your day is coming in &,sl and \Vest.
Iqbal saw the Revolution as the natural
of the course of hIstory. He said that ihe worker
oentrus bare back all his life that the capitalist mi ht dress
in sllks; the pearl necklace worn by the ca '\ 19t' if
d fh
p,a'Ss we
was rna e 0 t e tears of the workers' wife and child'
ulama and government servants only fatt d '
' bl d Th' ene on the
wor er s 00. IS he protested could t b
for long, The revolu'tion was not 'only
inevitable,! ssalY, 1t was
But while he recognised the historical ine' ..
the revolutionary transformation of societ of
the revolution, Iqbal, like many other MUS&" welcomed
did not accept it without reservation He
ism for its. disregard of soci?-l-
of man and Its IrrebglOsity. SOcialism was hfe
but its denial of God: "If BolsheVism rZ
in .all ways
existence of God it would be very close t cogl1lsed the
said, indicating his desire that Pakistan 0 Islam,"2 he
cialist system consonant with the spirit of r
a so-
morality.3 slam and its
Since the problem of independent econ .
ment not require practical develop-
the achIevement of politICal mdependence ·t on pending
for the ideological propaganda of the time' t
1 See Muhammad Usman,
p. 56.
2 Ibid., p. 60.
3 Ibid., p. 67.
o Sun I
P Y raise
Iqbal and Economic P, b
o fem
S (;n Urdu),
tIll' llog I. I lillie 01 l" n
nut aitcr 19-17 1 bl..'(·.)me
imlWI" ItlVl' to pi P f ut n l' ttLcuning anu iab01atp i.he
tht'()]"( d' pI t flf thi' COl c-'pt.
Thr Ide fJf dil1l'l (nt eli! {JC Pakisu..n's SO(,ll'tv

approached Ow. k. dilf{"·. nt ways The bourgt"t)is and
l"laborHt f,n of the the(Jl-Y or thf' "Islamic.:
middlp 1'oad" 1"(:11. ('b·d ;J. dt!slJ' to clJmbint: the Islamic tra-
ditiom:i with thl' principl("S of h()urgcfJis democracy and
utopian A", intt'rpreted by the feudal t'lements
and expont·nls of till' big mon()pvly bl)urgt'oisie. it sounded
more lik(' a battlt· CIY not only ag"ainst € socialism,
but even agaTm)t the progressive potentials of bourgf'"Ois
democracy present in thl' young sovereign states of the
To theologians like A.A, Maudoodi. Islamic sociali sm,
thanks to its many common features with the "feudal
socialism" so brilliantly decribed in his day by Karl !,[arx,
implied support not only for the landlords and :'\ofuslim
theologians, but also for the petty
whom, it musi be admitted, the Maudoodl mterpretatlOn 15
rather Fopular. . ,
One reason is that large numbers of PakIstan s peasants
and townsmen still live in spiritual dependence upon the
mullahs and ulama, whose appeals to their reJigous
ings do not go unheard. . .
Another reason lies in the ambIvalent SOCIal nature 01
the above sections of society and the persistence in Paki-
stan of survivals of pre·capitalist relations of production.
The competition from big capital is a .constant threat to the
petty bourgeoisie, whose .are
prone to lend an eager ear to the cntIClsm of capItalism
coming from the to .support the of
dal socialism" and rail agamst the concenha!lOn of capItal
because it undermines small-scale Together
with the feudalists, they yearn the old )
' d ' clm' e towards the belief that the pi e-capltalist
Ions an In . I '
form of exploitation was better than bourgeO!s exp Olta-
more advanced section of petty bOUl:geoisie,
which stands closer to the also rts own
heor of Islamic socialism, or, as It somehmes
t y t' oCl'alism" This is anti-feudal and anh-
"dernocra IC s . th t '\' I d d d
, h ·· ,a:cter"to the extent a 1 mc u es eman s
colomaI .mlc rian reforms and the nationalisation of
for .radlca a At the same time its proponents advoca''le
foreign propel y.
now a
is t he
the. property and free enterprise
believe In the pOSSIbIhty of the peaceful solution of sociai
conflicts, and here, once again, put morality and religio
first. n
The basis of "democratic socialism" has not
seno.usly or fully elaborated as yet. Its ideas are
chIefly in the practical planks of the different
democratIc partIes, in their platform documents: the Mani-
festo of Awami League, 1952; the Programme of the-
Ganatantn Dal, 1953; the Manifesto of the Azad Pakistan
Party, 1953; the Programme and Charter of the Socialist
Party d PaklStan, 1948; the Programme of t he National
Awaml Party, 1956, etc.
But for thai matter, have the more fully artic-
bOUl'g:OlS and !eudal conceptions of Islamic social-
Ism been wOlked up Into consistent systems
Islamic socialists often maintain that th ' ,
thelr programme is to cure capi talism of its
t at the latter can be eliminated b f . X s, an
Islamic precepts. They look upon the three
of preserving private propert as means
abuses responsible in their Vi! f' e leUmmatm
capitalism.' w, 01 a 1 the defects of
The first precept is zakat or a
benefit of the poor. lP tYhment of a tax for the
·d· h·· n e second ye f th
1 Jra, t IS IS one of the five sacl'ed obr . ar 0 e
Muslim. Zakat is defined b I I of every
as "a k'gal expression of that amJC Ideologie:;ts
and .mercy on which the whole of k,indness
nomlCS was to be l'aised."" It is a tax I . d of Mushm eco-
with an income in excess of the esetVlbel. °h
all Muslims
·b)Jt aISed··
msa . . amounts to 2 1/2 per cent of th . mInimum
Zakat is also charged on gold sl·!vel' ell' cash-balance
' , mercha d· .
an other valuables. Its rate for all th n lse, cattle
• d ·th f ese comm d· .
xc Wl re erence to the books of fikl Z 0 lhes is
d b
,. akat·
over an a ave the other taxes, havin b
by none other than God In order to ease it instituted
poor. The revenue it yields may be used f e plight of the
and relief, benefits for the oWa
penSIOns for Widows, scholarships for need nd the sick
so on. Y stUdents, and
The second precept concerns the observan
Ce of Islamic
The Pakistan Times, Lahore, April 12, 19
. hcritanc law. In MusHm law,5 the prope>rty of the
divid('d among hL'i children. male or female.
I the absence of progeny. the property may pa'is to close
but correct procedUJ:e is to give it to the 1
state. Muslim IdeologIsts hold thiS law prevents the
ccumulation of large land holdmgs and other forms of
and makes fot' the decentralisation of wealth.
which in the course of two or three generations may be
parcelled up among the heirs. with the lav..: of
prevallmg In Western
the Islamlc law of mhentance cuts at the root of
accumu.lation of wealth in the hands of a few mdl-
·d I "0
. I
Third and last is the prohibition of interest on capIta.
On this point, opini.ons differ among the I.slamic ide?logists
themselves. Some say that Islam repudIates all k.mds of
interest on loans. Others limit the ban to usury. or mterest
exacted for loans made for a borrower's perso,?al nee?s,
and uphold the legality of bank. comme(cial and mdustn<l.l
credit.s. I· d f 11 ws·
Tl e ban on interest ie:; exp ame as 0 a .
"A 1 ho ,. nvests his monev on interest. refuses
man w· '. . t ' avin" hiS
' th . ks of the business but mSIS s on n ."'"
s al e e rlS . ..' 'al attItude
pound of fl esh in the IS an ImmOl .
the attitude ?f t.he th other is deemed
The profits on
· . €- man who invests his
't ! ·t'· "Here the usmeS5
..9.W e egl ImaGe.. d· the success of his enter-
capital 'and is vitally lllTI t to draw profits. which
prise is pictured as. his industry and dih-
are therefol'e the Just I ewaI
gence. t" led remedies for the ills of
Not one of the above>-mel.1 the problem. Zakat can
capi touch the. of the national wealth.
hardly ensure the ?lS u sed to help no good. The
Charity docs It IS s for their own
propertied classes vhich means "to be pioUS",8
good, the whole idea of Za
: as to attain piety. j,You
being not 50 much to bene tOh Quran. "until you expend
. t "saYS e .
will not attain pte ,yo .
of what you love" (3. 86).
5 See Ihe Qura
G M. Sirlrliqi, What ..
7 Ibid. p. fi9. "10 he pure.
, zaka·-
8 Derived frolll
now 0
, Ihe
I other
il and
Nor C<ln Muslim inhedtaJ1l't' law ,111C:>1' }w (' l'lh:t or th
capitalist system. While> it to '\ Jq.!l'l'(> (urth(,1'
of the petty bOUl'gl'Ol!-ih'. to whom the ,H'('UITIula_
tion of capital presents a lUol'LlI thn-'<li. the
tion og pn,'pelty at the sanw linh' <Jcts ;IS ;m (lbSt,H:k L) thl'
renewal of the technical basis of pH)duttiol1 and to
industrialisation. and so its cITed is to COnSI..'I'V(' thp I'Pm_
nant" of the subsistence cconorny. Thl' main point is that
the workers who had no property to start with do not gain
any from that kind of redistribution of proP;:'l'ty. In gene ..
raI, inheritance law as such cannot be expected to imprOve
the economic s,vstem. seeing that it is not the cause, but
the consequence. the legal resuH of the existing E'crmomic
organisation of society.!)
The inheritance theory of these Islamic socinlists, ii
conSistently applied. would have exactly the opposite
results from those antiCipated. for it would tend to slow
down and impede the development of boul'geois relations.
an'a € feuda1 survival,) infact infhc f'conomv,
Again, the Islar:tic socialists 3re by no means cutting
the foundations of capitali')m when they oppose
lI1tel'est loans. 10 In c.laiming that only the immorality of
the pl'actlce Of. usury I.S .1'ep:.lgnant jo Islam. they are in
effect condemnmg the m]Ustlce of the exploitation of one
by an?the\ while fully condrlfling the exploita-
hon of the workmg Interest is only a pal't oJ profits,
and yet the second IS pronounced perfectly legitimate.
profits are phenomena of the smnc order; both
?re, conv(;!rted of the sU,l'plus value which the cap"
Italist ,class appl"Oprlates unto Itself. The only end ihis can
serve IS to smooth the way fOl' the developmont [ "t
'( ] ' t t ' Ab ]. , .. 0 pi Jva e
capl a IS en erpnse. 0 ILIOn of tho 1'"nt'l" t'
. ," ,- d' pl'ac Ices
would help to dll'eet non-productIve C'apitall'nt th h"
f ']' d' d h' {) e sp el
o capIta 1St pl'O uctlOn, an t IS i$ wh'\l th P k" .
bourgeoisie and middle strata want. a Istam
institution of interest on loans Would lesl){l I of the
dence on capital and to Pl!'
na1 from .necesslty of sharin -(> natlO,
with a (OI"eI
n bourgeOisie, Anothel' d g thell plOfits
h en the b I' ' r
interest on loans can serve is to proto '1 th
? ItlOn ,0
.C c mdustnal ----
fI K Marx CoXlad Genewlnogo sO\'C!IC/ 0
. , flrove I
p. 383, . . _, I'do\'(In'Y
II') The P<lkiswn ConstJlul101l of i'lr)2 HI Art I
k f Ih I . " (0 IRf I
Principles 01 Policy sped so e nf'f" 'c, ellTllindle Ib (, Ill' Chdr'f'1
r Q
bouq:woisil ag<liw t th, bankc'J'S The truth is that th(; Pl"f)-
bknl of illy,':..;t..ll1l·nts '.lands bdnl'('
p[Lkisfan. to f 'OIH)mlst SaJld Ifu:;ein, shortlgC,"i
or complete hck oj lndlhlnal (,1'I'(l1l due to the unwilling-
ness of I.he banks to gl'ant long-term loans have resulted
in a situation whert' Ih<' (;apituI nl,<-'ded by industry is not
available,lI Naturally, th{, national industrial r.ourgeoisie
are inSisting not only on the incrcasc'd flow of capital into
the sphere of industrial pmduction but also upon its active
participation in produclion,
It follows, then, that the notion that the economic
structure of society can be changoo by means of such
secondary institutions as taxes. inheritance lawaI' interest
on loans is erroneous and unscientific.
The limitations of these conceptions of Islamic
socialists are also clearly rdlected in their handling of the
problem of private property, They try to prove that the
Islamic concept repn.'scnts a golden the
"absolute private of .\\:lth ItS
tion of private and t?, anarchiC
production, and the "absolute publIc property . C?f com-
munism which docs away with I'llthless competItion and
makes for collective planning is alleged to sul?-
press the individual who is the Initiator of economic
These theorists claim that the concepts they advocate
are based on Ihe QUl'an. ,
According to the Quran, all matel'lal belongs )
AU h d men use it by his grace. Pnvate property IS
- a , an, ert of thc maker, who has not seen fit
th,e plOp I his subjects. In fact it is Allah s );
It benefits J!Iaterial be
expl ess Wish - --'h'- most de,-5el'vmg, In the
bes_Lo",:cd _ t C is effeCt: "The Lord has detel'mmed
were IS -a U\: and others slwll be rich, Instead of
that some shall as he could have, he has created
making the dignity and honour of
two levels 111 ol.dt'!, ' d distinguish the higher fl'om the
some of his subJeds, om . ,
lower:,1J .' , ri 1hl to privati;! property is the gift of
Inasmuch clS lh( 'Uld inviolable. In the language
G d
'l' of course. sa 0
1'5. I' 220.
E' orlll(S, ,,- , . .
II Pakistan Sociotl.<m.
It Iv!uftlkl;.ir.
IJ Kubu.5·fluml', p.

I al1d
the theologian law-givers, tl'ans ' ' , .. '
'.lght arc cnmes. in tlwm is the sin [' on th
guard, along with the state ov ,0 Relit.)
]n fact. its on
Thee sanctity, of that institution is viOlate
. ,Quran lIsts five crimes for which th . 11) merC:iless
al e Imposed Two of th c severest penalr .
is by death er:
plunder and theft. The
right h d . e second by amp t t" rst
an ,or even death for re . _ . a IOn of tho
note that traditional Islamic 1 s. IS mteresting t'
sacred that even in the aw 0 ds prIvate propert C
c<?nfiscation. of the o[ ?ef,auH i.t
hiS person IS not so c:arefulJ P o?eJ ty, the invIOlability f
be arrested and thl' ' Y protected, and he mav 0
In his da K 01 own Into prison, " even
y, al Marx 't
prop<:'l'iy varied in thp f p,om out that the problem f
lcvel of indu.stl'ial lIt took depending on
and the particular
o 1 a, an and other count. , ne or another countroy ,
co omahs h nes rcce tl .
feudal arc from
stage is to co ngs, and thclI' main tas PI opel ty and
and feudalismmplete the revolutions .the
The P k'. ' , ns lmpenalism
. a Istanl boul'gt.'O· "
mmd in their attit ISle are fal' from be' .
Invoke Islam to sub . to foreign capital mg of a SIn-
who speak [oJ' the s,tanll.ate l.heil' difterin they
nected with the fo and Industry sc r
POSItIons, Those
of I.he Shal'ia monopolies say w;ent closely con-
Islamic state in the against a at the principles
pprty and abl'ogatin ;1(CctJon of efforts by the
of sovcl'cignty, The'1i I'eaty obligations 12 109 pro-
Dngel' in bUSiness, tf: the name
On the other hand tl . I e mind, Ose with a
arc to gl't' "d
of the nat'
argue that the bourgeoisie
mC'nd tho. nntionalisation not spe of impe-
It it, provided. ,ou..'lgn prop ,ClfiCally recom-
Muslim sociPly,I5 such action " EH ty. neither does
rt IS [or th
must admitt{'d II . e good of
mth('1' rhl'toric"d, sincl' th.e above co '
l hdve be nhoversy 0 fll
. en no oell' IS s 1
. K. 1\IMI", MOf(dlZifll} 1/\", Ii ' lela} indica-
/' .iO!. a)a kli/lha .
15 $c '"' II . 1 kritk
c amLr.!ullah 181am a d I
, n Conlin . laya mOfOJ,
U unlsm.
of an in ten tion to undertake the immediate n;ttiona-
of backed by foreign investments, II
make t hiS neCeSSD.I)', says the Economic Obser-
rer. just and full compc' nsatlOn will be paid in the cur-
rency of t he count r y whence the investments came.
Opinions also differ with reference to feudal land hold-
ings. The as a class are certainly interested in
agrarian since rapid development of industry
is impoSSible WIthout a hIghly developed raw matedal base
drawn from agriculture, as well as a broad domestic mar- /
keto Such growth is impeded by the landlord system of
agriculture, which dooms millions to hunger and' poverty.
But not aU groups of the bourgeoisie are equally inter-
ested in agrarian refol'ms, The most radical solution of the
agrarian problem is supported by those who are connected
wit h capitalist industrial enterprise. As for the big mer-
chants active in the domain of circulation (export and
import trade and speculation on the domestic market), they
advocate instead the slow and gradual transformation of
the landlords into a class of entrepreneurs, with full con-
servation of landlordism in agriculture,
Her e, too, Islam is invoked to fortify the arguments pro
and con, There are those who say that the prevalence of
semi-feudal ownel'ship complies with the of Islam:
"Those who denounce 'djagirdad' as an
call for its abolition are actually demanding the lllfractlOn
of Muslim law"Y for the knows of
noatternpls to -change Ufe existing agricultural system,
The opponents of feudalis':l remonstrate that
never had to contend before With the problem of landlOl-
', ' 't 0 sant and that although the Prophet
Ism In I S pi e '- ,.' I I d 1 0, f I
t 1 t d th
"qual dlstnbutlOn 0 an among: liS 0-
o era e e un\. c , ." • . . ' h 1
I 1
0 JouctifiCd It: The PlOphet saId t at 1"::
owers lC nevcI" - - ....:-;:- _.- h d
h h
o' d I oNelO shrtJ'C of lana than He needed soul
W 0 a a aif, < • Oft [
0th 0 1t' t it himself or pass It on as a gl to one 0
el el cu Iva C . ,"1ft
O,S b 0 tl1er Muslims.
10 .', ponents of agrarian I'e[orms feel that
Th b u1'/:{eOlS pi 0
0 . e conclusion to be drawn from the history
there IS state has a wide latitude in the mat-
o[ Islam: H S <
_ _ 0
, " ab_,eller, Fehrllilfy 1959, Kardehl , p. 1-1.
II. E{"onOIlJJ1, rcrolt' ud-din Mansoor, ,\loudoodiMIl {in l Trdul,
,', C)unlCd ((1111
p. 3]. . socirz/is/J1' Tlcnds in Islam, p. 69.
114 \1 Sllldll!I, '
19 Ibid., p. 71

ter of land distribution. 'x This IS also
ed. in different ways, howe\'er. el('lllents in thf>
bourgeois class take it to mean that Islam l'cquil'es the sta1
not only to abolish perpetual land lenure and nmtal, bUl
to do away with all and any f()l ms of private land
Spokesmen of the bourgeois right wing go only so far
as to concede that Islam enjoins the landlords to be jUst to
their tenants. They make it a universally accepted precept
of Muslim law that "wholesale expropriation ... cannot be
allowed in Islam, unless it is pl'oved that an ownel' acquired
it (the land.-M.S.) by unfaiJ' mean';;,":.!] since «there is no
example in the life of the Pl'Ophet 01' his immediate SUcces_
sors of forcibly acquil·jng land for state purposes Without
paying due
Inasmuch as both foreign and feudal property present
obstacles to their independent capitalist development the
Pakistani bourgeoisie, let alone the middle strata and
masses, clearly stand to gain from the abolition of such
property. This .is to affect the official pOlicy,
there IS stIll a tendency to shy away from radical
agrarIan reforms and the key problem of the nationalisa_
tion of foreign property in Pakistan. One reason is the
?f the bourgeoisie's economic ties with im-
capItal and landlordism; another, the fear
that Inroads on forms of property may lead to
broader attacks on pnvate PI·Operty as a whole.
The 1962 Constitution of Pakistan (Al'ticlE" 10 Ch t,
"p,' 'I f L M k' ") , ap el
on . J l11CIP es 0 aw- a confirms the inviolabilit '
of private property and fOl'blds the passage of la 'II ,J
't f 'bl li t· wsa OWInG
1 S orCl e a ena IOn except when this is l'n th 't t'f
" 'd hI" . e In el'es 0
SOCIety, an t _en on y on payment of just com 1 t.
Some advocates of Islamic socialism in Ion ..
that the Islamic system of ownerShip combines an
aspects of both the capitalist and the s . r e POSItIve
without suffering from the defecls of systems
have it that Islamic ownel'ship i<; public .ey
from the kind of coll&:tive ownel·ship found i hlp
countries, where pl'operLy is exprOpriat"d n SOCIalIst
allegcdJy with disastrous I'€'sults for both nabonalised.
the people. To them, public ownel·ship is . e eConomy and
Sllnply the legal -
to Ibid .• p. 73.
• 1 K. A Hakim, IMam and Communh.ll. p. 245.
, ,d' cal expression of the prinCiple that all the
. or JUl1 1 G d I
isahon. of this earth belong lo 0 a one. .
good ncrship presupposes that the property
IslamiC shall be pl"ivately managed .. permIts capl-
belongs to .o·se controlled by the yellg1Q-moral
talist entel pn t k 'p 'IL· from being enterpnse). I
. h doC's no ec 'f
. . it is allegedly to competl
unlike du;tion 'md the impoverishment mas-
anarchy of pIa - L Lhe profit motive or competItion, but \
' 't drives ure no . t uggJe
ses; IS .' .. , 1 of diihad-bil s t _
"the rellg
I'.ea I 'ct > •. --:-- . for divine pnzes 111 the
. Islam), and l1e csne
. "" h
-' .... ·I-Tty of restricting private owners lp
The I y Muslim theorists agree. They
is a point on . . dustry and the promotion of
deplore nationallsatIon o. In .'The economic scheme
the public sector ot. us, "is based entirely o,n
presented in the QUI an, hip in· every field. There IS
the idea .of distinction to be made
nothing m n to su?ges oods and productIOn goods (or
between (;onSumptlOn g I. the former may be
means of °raiter must be nali.onahs.ed,
in private ownership t suggzsting or
Nor is there anylhIn.g In i., of a
that the above-mentioned, nt arrangement 111
d 1 l . by a pel mane . be desll·ed
to be replace a el '" of production may
11 tivisation of all .
co ec made the alive attitude of
to be 't"" o[ the decidedly neg, rds a
the ruling created in
public sectol· of economiC used
to promote thf'r national industry. B of securing state
development 0 1 LlJ'geoisi € as a way State funds are
by the capilalist. establishments
support for pit 'ds the creatIOn 0, . no sooner are they
chann:lled than they are
I'equil' subs d bringing. tn.a
p In 1959 and 1960
on theil' feet an '·vate busmessmen. ar textile and. othel
taken over by pi Imber of cem
\ jute factories
latter if.! the ted the
plants as well This pracl1ce pI 1 d
that the ruling cucles
h st ate. . to conc u e
from t e . Qb en'er
nOI1HC s
na c 1963.
--:-:-:-.. -_. . 1'/DinlC' I I P 17.
. \o .• S . Ph/osDP/!}' \"0. .' .
r..lllftlkk1r. .. I .'IIl-",/itll I,
, .. \ /-lis/Ol) (l
• 196·:
now a
. Her
'5 the
n the
:I a/her
51 and
of Pakistan do not look upon the public sector as a
nent basis for industry.:.!5 .
The contradiction between the pUblIc nature of Pl'Q.,
pert,)' and its private should not lead conflicts,
in the opinion of MuslIm t,hinkel's, because theu' SOCiety
predicates a union of busmess and the people, 01' the
cooperation of the employer and the In one of
his many speeches to the warkel's of hIS COuntry,
A.M. Malik said; "Islamic socialism is neither the dictatol'_
ship of the proletariat nor the ex,ploitaLian of
That socialism is the blending of all the conH'ctmg in_
terests of society in such a way that the prosperity of the
largest number is achieved without the hardship and
misery involved in expropriation of any group or class 01'
its peopJe.":!li
We might add that the teaching of the harmony of class
interesL<; or class cooperation is not peculial' to Islamic
socialism alone. The same slogans were raised in the West
in Ihe 1920's clOd 1930's as a kind of defence mechanism
of c.:apitulism, The champions of the popular \VesLern
do<:trin(' of "human relations" have gone all oul tl) conccdi
the ,'cal class Conflic-fs. bt'hi.nd , of accidental
difTcI'ences provoked by POOL' management, lack of uncfer-
standing bdwC(>n C:'lpltaiists and workers, and so on, The
apologists of "class peace" base their theories On the
paU:ntly false assumption of the fundamental nature of
social and c<:onomic inequality. Not aU nlen are equally
gifted by COd; unequal endowment is as much in the
natural ordcl' of things as the vast multiformity of th(:
natulal world, we are assUI'cd by RI\.
Since it is natural for men to be variOUsly endowed so
is H only right and propel' for them to be divid{'d into
ploye!'s and {'mploycd; das:, Connicls must therefore be
soiv('d not by dOing awaY,wlth c!assei-; and socio-economic
in<'qunlity, but by or their relations,
Th(' cau:-;c of all confhcL<; encountered lh boul'geo' . t
' d I,,, d IS SOCley IS that th0.r(' arc' goo emp oyels an "bad em"l ' "
.. d "b d k" "1' A. I:' oyC! S ,
"good WOI' 1'1" an a wor t Ihe tUrn of the
20lh "'ntury, F'M, Taylor, the bl'Hlns of the "onve er
system, decJal"('d that contrary to thc cornman belief that
Economk 0b.'f( H'pr, p_ :1 ,
A, M. M"llk. Inboru Ptoblr-m,J PO/I(Y in
If A, H,lk,m. I../am ami Communmll, p, 18S, ' Pp. 32, 33,
'\, \r M, Ilk, l-llhoUT Prob/('ms and Polu:y In Pakl
Jl. :n.
, , , ls Or employees and
management" his
the antagonistIc, SCI ,. g capitalist production) 'has
wenl'e new system dof conviction that the true
OW ---v foun atlOn "'''I
' its vel
and the same, _,
CO:erests of the two are, theorists in Pakistan echoed
m Half a century latel.' ,ts of the Government are the
arne idea: "" ,The mteles "ation and its progress and
the s as the interests of thC
n 11al ,'onal interest is our
arne I ansl_ . 'I
s ,,'ty as a who e , . , I bOUI'n),s 01' industria _
prospel h th 'wc are a... 'd
supreme interest, our main interests are not 1 en-
, 't cannot be sal
IStS, h receding is that

WOt ge "war against the employ "the interests of the
Ul1lons wa " be slI'uck
"a con'ect balance m 10 ees".I.
employers and the e p y
' I d socio-economic
h' tonca an "
' f varying IS . the revolutIOnalY
By vIrtue 0 I f ree countries" ' t' ,. features
' the new y y dlslmc Ive
conditions In es will impart '0 ress, One of the
effort of the mass t s of their SOCial pi Ig ent termed
sand ra e. l 't dcveopm, te
to the f01' m r non-capita IS II hat this dena s
forms is t hat 0 countries. Actua tY Wcture but rather
' ,. in many mic s I'U , , f
.. . "middle" &ono 'I feudal or seml- eu-
is no " t hIrd °h c f rom the colonia, 'ng through the
a t ransitional io a:ociaJism, industrial cap-
da1 economy I' 1 as il whole 01
. f capita Isn , 1 anti-
stage 0 , "a united natlOna 's
italism, where thele .15 '-democt-atle fOl c,e
I n those and o[ the official
'mperialist the theoretIcal basl:manating [!"Om d'C
stand at the. e by iC there is one, an
ical course IS ,sncluding the d'intelligentsia. As a
ferent 1 tty containing progres-
the peasantrY'rtkial ideologies, r tic in nature. The fact
ult these 0 extremely ec ec h disparity between
iements, are, that for all t e
Sl ve e howevel ,
remains, , ,II, .",n'g,m'nl, p,
Principles 01 I P licy in Pakis/an, p, '
-"l F W, TaylOr. Lobour Problem" an 0
- '''I Mahk.
. Ibid. p,

"national" socialist th " .
former are often of St:IC'nlific socialis
as they pave the way fol' lYe value objectivel ,';n, 'h·
the newly free count· progressive devel j nsof
ne5. opm '
n Pakistan the de ent 0/
bours under the im velopment of social tho
ing. The theory of bou;·geois and rill la-
ta far-reachin '. ml e road" has not 1 . a
tion of the ke gy measures, such as th
111. practice
P bl
' lanches of . d e nahon Ii
. U Ie sector of th In ustry, consol"d' a
mg, and so on. e economy, planning, coop Ie of the
ra Ive
. Until ,1947, the ideologists of the movement for
conhned themselves !o popularising the slogan
of an. state of Indian Muslims. Exactly what
Imphed was not stressed at the time. But with the
of political independence, the problems of its
practIcal Implementation loomed large. A sharp contro-
versy flared up around the question of what kind of state
it was to be.
As it proved, the very idea of an Islamic state was far
from being acceptable to all members of Pakistan society.'
The forces that opposed it were not so numerous as they
were diversified in social character.
The adoption of Islam as the official ideology of the
new state conflicted with the interests of the religious mi-
norities, who saw in it a threat to their civil and economic
It was also opposed by some Muslims, mostly those
with European educational backgrounds. who wanted their
state system and social to be..roodelled on the
Then, of course, there were the more J;lrogressive ele-
ments of Pakistan society who were committed to secular,
democratic forms of government.
Serious differences even cropped up the
porters of the Islamic state themselves. recogmsll1g
·Is official ideology, most theollsls agree that
s am as 1 J t I Th . t •
.. dIS' tinctly Muslim type 0 s a e. ey polO
ele IS no 'b th . . h·ch h·
th t th Pro het did not pres
e . e 10 1 IS
a e P t· be chosen or leave any mstructlons as to
successor was 0 'Th p. h t I b
. r thc government. e lOp e mere y e-
the runnmg 0
1 See, fO!
Pakistan . . , '
6 3lW:, 30 16
n14tend\s of the Constituent AS:;l'lIlbl), of
('Xdlll \> e, I
w 0

queathed his followers some principles to guide thern in
politics and gave them the liberty to select the forms i
which those principles should be appli ed in their
The spokesmen of the official trend of Muslim nation_
alism accordingly came out in favour of a bourgeois_dem_
ocratic [arm of government. even claiming that "the politi_
cal democracy ideal has been all along inherent in Islam"
and that "Islam. has long inculcated social and other t.ypes
of democracy".l
Such a modernistic approach to the nature of the Islam.ic
state. and the idea of democracy was met in anTIs by the
ulama. "Democracy is the name given to that
particular form of government," said A.A. Maudoodi "in
wh,kh ultimately rests with the in
whiCh legIslatIOn depends both in its form and content on
the and direction of pUblic opinion, '" There is no
such thmg in Islam, which tnerefore cannot be called de-
:l:acy."3 The uIama preferred the kind of s tate where
l:el,lgIOU$ law would be supreme and power belong to re-
Not all of them dared to profess their theo-
cratic leanmgs openly, however, and so there appeared a
new term, ":heo-democracy" or "democracy limited by
word. of Gcd, '4 The TslarniC-- sUite would be theocratic jn
that "whel:e an explicit. command of God and His Prophet
a!ready eXists. no MushIT.lleader or legislature 01' any reli-
glOUS scholar or man of mdependent judgement not e en
a.ll of the Muslims of the World put together, 'have :n
nght to make the least alteration in 1·t '5 It w Id b d Y
' , h h ou e emo-
cra IC In t at were no such command of G d ,. t d
freedom of and acti?n would be ex IS e .
The convenIence of Usmg the term "th d "
was questioned by some of its adhenm emocracy
o Malik a membel' of the P k' t C ts, among them
.. a IS an onst"t ( A b
who recommended that lOt be b d 1 uen ssem lv,
a an ened I, A h •
'theo' is not in vogue," Malik told th . ." s t e word
caIl it by the name Of. Islamic "so we
And so the meanIngs aSCribed to I .
began to vary. To the spokesmen of th democracy
eo clal line it con-
J G \V Choudhury, ConslilulionaJ Develo .
"" A. A. MdlJdoodl , Political Theory 01 In Pakistan, p. 75.
4 01 Pakistan " pp. 30.31.
A A M dood ' P II IT····' Vo V N 5
. ,,<lU I, 0 I Ica heolY of Islam· , o. , p. 78.
r. ConMiluent Assembly 01 Pakistan " p. 32 .
. .. , Vo V N
· ,o.S, p. 78.
old b lU t'j I: dt'Jnol a<.:y. to t hr, ideologists of the rpac-
<1 th IC l' th, o· h no('· atll".tate
tlon., . I ' ' h
On III ,IVSIS, t l' m:l!n 1(")W ' In cit f'r t.heory is that of
he SUpl In;"' pi W 'J" in tho Only God can be the sov-
in an l..Jaml( th' "No
cla>s V i' group, no: ev t h;, cntll·c pupulatlOn of the state
5 a , ....hole, can lay <.: l::um to God alone is the
all ot h'.'!"::; are merely His subjects,"7
explained Maudoocli. The Qf God must be
by worshipping .thl? from whom
rnan receive:> the commands and ?I the Maker.
In t.he pract ical life of the state, t.he. sovereIgnty of
·mplies loyalty and complete submISSIOn, fil'st to the amI!'
I nd then to the body chosen to uphold Muslim law. .
a The amir or head of state, required to be: a. vel'Y pIOU.'5
and highly respected man, will be given unhmlt:d secular
and relig ious powers in that state. True, there WIll .be
a council whose decisions will be adopted by a. ma.Jonty
vote, bu t " Islam does not as a of
, (h"· . " Islam holds it poSSible that the of
tIu . In e h th ammous
a single person may be sounder t an e un. 'mil') "
o inion of the entire council. ... !fence the (a
the matter according to his own Judge-
ment. 'OR , . . [ the sovereignty of G,?d calls
A s not;.;: d , ,0 d those who are descnbed by
for to the sl)ciety who will control
Maudoodl as the lead:, so IT .. :1 Practically all the ulama
its life and manage lis a best suited for that role.
feel confident that they d the opinion that the ulama )1,
Maudoodi however, ess.e vel'e 1.·"0 ig.nol'.:tnt and.reac.-
, d t· ctillons , \0)./._ - - d' f th
reared on the 01 la_-:0
of the . e
tionary to_.3.Wll'C to ' the task of his own
' Islamic s tate, B.nd ma?e leaders. drawn from
to train the nght Western influences 5 pe l
M I· not '·de.filed J . .- up to this requll·ement),
Ug lms, .- -lneasUie . d d" he
alr-· Musl
I d bv old-fashlOne lvmes,
I nt d f a theocracy n.1 e, ew type of religious lea del',
ns ea 0 C 'C In d n . dOt'
d vel' to I'cpo!; . to modE.'rn con 1 IOns.
wante po, d r"sPOl1SIVe
more fle xible an ... ,
. TI 'orr 01 Nam, p. 29.
J' Po/ilICOI Il
7 A. A. I, Cf! I .• in Quron, p. 278.
Ibid" pJl. 57·.IS, po/ilil'nl Can P
A . .4, Mdudoo<i

' ides

) (
The id('us of the ulama formed o! Ihp pro_
gramme of the right wing in the strugglt. of
]947-1956. The official document subnuth.'d by Ow Board
of Talimmat-i-Islamia to the Constituent Assembly In 1950
contained the following demands: I'ecognitiun or thl'
me sovereignty of the Word of election of a .lifelong-
head of state invested with unlImIted powers: asslgnmenl
of all the main posts in the stale machinery to men devoted
to Islam, 10 "In an Islamic state," this document slated, "the
implementation of the commands of Allah is the basic
consideration, and the will of the people occupies a com-
paratively subservient position; while, on the contrary, an
absolutely democratic state aims at the unconditional im-
plementation of the will of the people.'·11
The ulama concept called for the centralisation of po-
litical power in their own hands and reflected primarily
feudal and semi-feudal interests. This went counter to the
interests of the national bourgeoisie, whose spokesmen
approached the issue of sovereignty from a differen1
angle. While accepting the first, declarative point of the
Mullaist doctrine on recognition of the supreme power of
Godo they drew the line at the second point delegatino the
practical implementation of his power to the "In
any case Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic State to
be ruled by priests with a divine mission," said Muhammad
Ali Jinnah.
He wa,:; sUI?ported by liaquat Ali Khan:
"Islam does not recogmse .,., either priesthead or
any sacerd?tal authority, t.herefore the question of a
theocracy SImply does not anse In Islam."13 The alternative
the of the bourgeoisie was ihat the
practIcal ImplementatlOn of the Supreme power of the
maker should be entrusted not to religious leade's b t to
the people through their elected representatives. I, u
The fullest statement of the bourgeo,os v,oow
. . ,:: On sover-
e'gnty was that presented by l.H. Qureshio To ju lOf hO
in upholding both the of
the sovereIgnty of the people, QureshI split th '
sovereignty into three aspects: political. logal and :
legal sovereign shaH be the law. but its .. , e
shall be in the hands of a legtslature repreSentin e
g fie peo-
It) L. Binder, RC'/igion and Politics in Pakislan, PP. 38.'5
II Ibid., p. 406, , 386.
2 Quald-i-Azam. Ali Jinnah, SP('('c/ies u'
General of Pakistan 1947-1948, p, 65, S Gavernor-
'-. K. Callard, Pakistan: A Polilica! Stu
l' dH J olita.:ai ,ryall be thp JX'opl.p who wilJ
P (..t 'md diSJ ":i thl·., leg.-latul' and thC'lr govern-
' The real w:1! be
oL Islam which Will the p,":,bhc mind only. If
Problems an' brough\' mto tn,- public forum and dlS-
at full length',fl
, '. "
C This concept given JUridIcal In the pre-
bies to the of PakIstan .(the first
am l'dlon 1956 the second in 1962), ", .. Soverelgnty over
adop e, ° hI" 0d
t o -e Universe belongs to AlmIghty Alia a one, Sal
° ° ° t
1962 constitution,15 addmg that sovereIgn y, as a
red trust" from Allah, was to be by the
sac 1 ithin the limits he has set. wordmg allowed
varied constructions. It satIsfied the
conceded the supreme power Allah and law. 0:
bl d t
he bourgeoisie to recogmse the sovereIgnty,
ena e . I d at the same tImE"
God, thus sanctifying thelr l'l.;l e't to construe
(through the "politdicahl suited their purposes
the will of God an IS aw _
and e the sovereign of the state,
While acclalmmg t?e peoPl
ld not offer any clear
the bourgeois ideologIsts of Is cou
how their sovereign
and agreed answer to the quejstlohn 0 day Muhammad Ali
. Used n IS, 1° f
power was to be 1 ea . t whether the Mus lIDS 0
Jinnah expressed doubts as 0 ftutional form of govern-
India were ready at all for a and unskilled the.popu-
ment considering hoW uneduca ent of the state, whIle the
lar m'asses were in the
educated classes upon w
°tOons 16 For that reason
, 'contra IC J. 'derable
corroded by mnel ld [01' a cons} f
g sted t hat I<pakistan wou t'O e largely independent 0
e _ ng Execu IV ,
require a really 0 ur eoisie sup-
the a large segment was .the
Prior to 1.9 that parliamentalY titution proclalm-
ported the VIew . tate The 1956 COfs the parliament
best form of to be known as
ed Pakistan a and one
ICconsisting of the
. DemOcracy, pp.
IslamiC 1
. . . ' n '01 PakIstan, p. .. h - a
It, I H, Qureshi" of the RepubliC MusulmanskJYC' I(>C emy
15 The Consli/ull
.polollskaya. 226, .
L R Gordo
,· i PakiS/
, P'blC'ms 01 Consli/u/lon Build-
16 See -' _ sli In II k PtO '
v obshcheslvcnnol m{\, L, r Rushbroo .
Ii Quoted
Illy in Pakls/ a , p 85
'w ,
I Ih.
tlll' NatIOnal Assembly" (Article .J;i).IS On Ihl on\.: h.
it acclaimed the supreme powel' of tIlt.' colkctiv!'
body (a concession to democratic pressures), ,mct on th d
other, it granted the single head of state or presid('nt gr e
powers, subject only to slight restmints from his
of mini,ters (Article 7). e
This system remained in effect until October 1958
when a coup brought about marked politi(.;al changes. Th'
1962 constitution a presidential for111 of govern:
,The neCCss,lty of that change was attributed to a
cnsls In the co.n,stltutional of Pakistan and desire to
end the prevaIlmg corruptlOn and careerlsm,l'l
advocates of the new regime argued that its intro-
duction had been rendered imperative by the conflict
s'ystem of parliamentary democracy and specific
In Pakistan. That system, they asserted cont-
rad.lcted the Islamic doctrine of a unit.ed and indi'visible
socwty and strong and powerful leader.
The principle, the political ordcl endorsed
by constitutIOn was one of practically unrestrained
.leglsIat.lve and executive powe!". Whereas originaUy the
Ideologll .. ts of nationalism had pronounced p -I' _
mcntary repubhc the best form of Islamic democrac
many completely reversed their POSI'll'on' f y, f
t f d
in avow' 0 a
new ype 0 cmocracy. "The Caliphate" 'd
Foreign Minister Muhammad AI' " ,sm the late
d t' ItT I , compares to the presi-
en la ype. hcrefore, the present Const't.. .'
... t'onsonanCi:' with tho [I· utIOn IS mOle 111
s <lIlUe lradlt" Kh r
leader of the Conventional 10n: - a
put It this way: "Presidential forlll o(
only system which can lead to the 1'0 nment. IS the
p<']'ity of th(' countl'Y as a whole p Siess and the pros-
duction of parliamcntary f01'111 jan
talk of re-intl'o-
gn'ss and create fresh enOl'mo"" pi bOIY to I'clc!l'd the pro-
. , ...." 1'0 ern"
HUL some groups of Muslim nati :
L('agu<" East Pakistan Muslim (the Awami
I 'arty, and others) continued to ,g . .' National Awami
inSIst cn the I
See Till' oj Ihe R'
l<.Lthl, IWi7 ( q)lIbllc oj Puki:Slan Kd-
I j /'(" •• m C\;1<.Llysls of 1111' rdlliol'S of the 19.')8 . '
Iwv"ky, IV N. Mo!.kdlenko. pOlo I toup ;&:' Y V GlIl-
20 Thf' Times, JdllllMY IS, 19td. 1 U'I!J}I' \. PakiManC'.
Kh,dlq IIl·Z,UTldll f('mdilletl tilt· if'dth'r of tl
1)(, l(jill ldt Pdrly unlll Decem-
I rllt" l'IIIi/,Um fim,·s, (I 'toh{.', "1, 1'1(j:l.
of tIlL' COI1:-:tiI.UtIlHl and H.'lnstitution of the
ta]'V sy.slctll. ..
'The 1!J62 cunstlt.utlun has also corne under tirc from th(;
right, namely the I'pligious parties Jamaat-i-Islami,
.Jamaat-ul-ulama. They do not object to
the presidential form of government but demand that the
president. be .dirl'.cUy elected, In their view, the purpose of 'v
the constltutuJn IS to guarantee the (..'Orrespondence of tHe f-
laws ot" the state "lo the principles of Islam. Another
dcrnf\nd is restoration of the former nam2 of "Islamic
Republic of Pakistan". Their criticism of the constitution
is inspired by a desire to gain greater leeway for the activi-
ties of their parties and to exploit the discontent of the
maSBes to consolidate their own positicns.
No less contradictory are the various approaches to the
functions of sovereign lule. The ulama hold that the
Islamic state must base all its decisions on the laws handed
down by God through his Prophet. Theygo on the assump- /
tion that God's laws arc eternal and universal. and conse- I-
quently perfectly applicable to the 20th century, Mostof
the ulama maintain that Isbm does not practice
of law-making in general and the
tation of the Muslim laws already In eXistence (slJ:ce me-
' I t' ,'I ·t) Says Abul Khasan Ata, presIdent of
leva lnlE:"" In ac . . I t I"
h J
'1 1 . "Since Islam IS a per ec l'e IglOn
t e amaat-u -u ama. , h 'h 1 field of human
containing laws ... governmg e \f' °wehat may in the
" h ... t no sanctIOn 01 '
activity, t ere IS ml·.
tion" Islamic law "merely
modern sense be called legIS a· ,t ' 't ":!J
. . ' . b those who are expel S In 1 .
reqUires mterpretatIon Y 1"' nd his followers on this
The position of 1 ;hey say the Sharia dis Un-
question is slightly ia vs: (a) mandal(ll'Y, or those
guishes three categol"lcS 0 the prohibition of
directly stated in gambling, theft, adultery,
alcoholic drinks, lllteJ es a hile not being mandatory, the
etc.)· (b) recommendalo:'Y (b
'vance)' (c) a sphere of legis-
, d their 0 sel '. d h II d
Sharia recommen s t" n is sanctlOne w en ca e
lation where freedom of Thus, while they defend
r the lime.... I l' d
for by the nee :3 0 . f llability of s amlC -
the eternal truth alloW for some free and m-
dl,sts a so
ments the Mau 00
.. conslllUll'd under Punjab Acl II
, Collfl of InqWf}
t:l Reporl of Ihl .
? Ii 1_/anH
01 1954., .. p. The }amOtl ···
K. B. Sdyeed.
'Ioremcnl in
pp. 65, 66, 8;
,\'I 0

dt'Pcnnent action If the ,Ql.l-1O {lr SUn!
specific pl'O\'jsion for a gwen bJluu Wn.
Lxponents of the oft,leial Ir('nd ( f :'\[USJ 11 hS
IJl consider the orthodoxahty of the' ulama and .1h Ir
tence on rigid adherenL'€' to the and pnnc', It: of the
period of early lslamn'J",Y ddl' Pl'E' -' gt' of
Islam. turning it into stagnant and pL'lr\tlC'd I'ehgl(ln. In ne
words of A.K. BI'oh1. "Those' scholnf"S of IslillH who go
to the length oi saying that for almost ('\'('J'Y Sltu.IUan of
our individual and liCe, not Illl'rt ..-'ly the Pl"inciple.
but actual, detailed practical in a fOrm
are to bi':' found in the Quran or Sunnah. only alkmpt_
ing to make of Islam what it is not. and thefeb,r com't'l"ting
a uni\'ersal religion which Islam admittl'dl.\' is, into
something local and particular, , , . ":!li Bl'Ohi and mo:>t of his
adherents seek to pmve that Islam 11::> a flexible, dynamic
religion, "respectable, relevant. and as up-to-date as this
yor's new C3r or the latest fa"hi'Jn.' 1,
It is thei!' opinion that in order to be guided by Islamic
la",' t.oday, the non-permanent pan of the Shu ria must be
revised and new laws substituted for those handed down
by the ).lushm medieval lawyers, while the permanent part
(the QUI'an and Sunnah) must be This de-
mand reflects the desire of the boUrgeoisie and the middle
strata to discard the laws of feudal !>Ociety while continu-
ing to rcly on religion and the traditional institution of
constitutions of 1956 and 1962 gavc legal sanction
to thIS stand of the bourgeoisie by not recognising the old
as such, but only the underlying Principk's of Tslamic
Junsprudence',,;hey declare,that "no Jaw }ihcu1d be l'Cpug-
to A declaratIon of that kind is not very
bmdmg 10 eyerything depends on how thf' princi-
ples ,of IslamIC JurISprudence are intel'pl'C'kd and who is
con,sldered competent to formulate thr. nl'W laws and
decide whether 01' not they Correspond tf 1.1 It .. pre-
. I hi d I t· h J S am, IS
else y t s cc ara lon, t erefot'e. which h ,,' ,', to
the most heated disputes, a:-) glv('n lIse
Along with the Quran and SUnnah wh' h h .n
SOurces of its laws, Islamic jUriSP
,IC I aJ'(' t (' S
..! a so recognIse
A A MtJudoodi. POlitical COliC 'PI" II/ II", (J
:', A. K Brohi, Fundamell/a/ of PO/O"'all ) Uran, Jl :ill!.
' (Juoled from Ch, Adams, Is/am In P"k. I ,I, 7-17,
' - , u" (/11, jJ 41:j
Thr- Consillul/on 01 the IlcPubli
of flak I . .
all, ". ,1.
n Tl r:f If/)mel Wh 1& lnt bv i min 01
the ' chi 'i ",('nl 81 Ign'tmt .It n (lSc wh I thC'
llil n t ... I I [ d.
unr ( !' o.! 1. ) n( 1 pI v ... 1' t 1e an n a Uh
(t'hi;'h WI 01 • idJr: a W(' rtold My 'omn Um Yell no'
\\n,mlJlltl-ll I >/1/1 )OJ: to be r ght. II" 1=-: ';11 C wh
U t • . til .... UPlWI" Illy dl'C('pt: I OPl.1irm r the wholl' C m, Wl'n ,IS "'- ,., 'II
ity was Ilsnally . tw opinion of the pi Imnf'T)t '.I:oiJlm
t'1' 01 mUrlJllh,<J Onlv Iho I'ho .. ,o, hat "'h,, lPP':',: .!
I. Y f th" ul'lm', t'nJ·"yrd the pnvlit'ge 01 holdmg th('11 rung 0 .... '<, ,
wn opinion on mattt·!,s, All behevprs
o / ni to tht'mselve:i wllh some: mudJllhHI s
be con t', d b 'I . .,"'dl" to
school of thpj t' OWn ('hoice un su n1l un, e I .
his d:_'dsicns (I.'lkhd), h ,.. 'k-d
' M'my ulama In J'eJl'c JI ma lUt ,Jp 01 ta I
they that ,onel' the nred n .. longer , ".'
laws (Islamic law'; tor all tIme), th"l pl - C rict
I· d ·ts day Thal doc'; not ru e ",,"
idjrna has Out Ive I,', ,,' 'd'rnJ understood L> the
adherence to the tradItIOnal IhJ aI k"'ul
t d inion (l( t p mf1.JICV: '" '.
nerally acc"':J? op b' "genclal1\' accepte:i (ldlma),
"Once a deCISIOn ha" ecom
' j" no 'tempol alliJ"i1itation
it is final for all time; for - r the p'J\\'er of 1uman
to the validity of the Im\ 0 0
rea<;cP., " . tion of particular
A,; concems the kine independent
and la
w3 oC I<; I'11l1, thf' nght? rna saleh' to the h(,<ld
·d -h d) L'i accol t"U , - d
ments about them (I )tl.a "I In the .afonmcntlon('
of the state and his the ulam.'l
re Ol't of the Baad of be .Un' dilft'l"Cnce of oJ?Ifl'
that "should /hl" 01., or n'quoro-
I . t"rpre-tallOn , d d decld-
ion regarding t 1(;' ""hould be refcITC' to an, .,
t o[
l llw m,It[, I'd .h',,'actcr who h'l.\e deep
men ", "'d m an (;. < , ',.
d u on by mpn 01 WI!,;,O , '-\'e of Islam In
into and n ('ompl with tht' 11t'cds and 1('-
. "t· ·,nd an' n
anous '\Spt( s "(I
v " '<', If thl' HI.!,\" "', di and hi:-. follow.l'" 1'1;'-
qUlI ulanl<l, 1\-I,I.ud:);1 idjma, Thilt )'('jl'ctlOn was X
UnlJk( ( I' I 'mel traditIOn,! t w'if\" the mig-inal L-
jected both by till' dl'.S'r
: nnd pl'inciplc')
motivated l'I,ltlil 'ne! !'l'\'in' III '/' Mnudoodi did pl'l'mit
. 1 'lcillO(t a I'lin hnll.'i < d b
Lamll' t'-, 'Within ct.'/' . " hWt' aln','1dy note, ut
....urJy 1·.;Iam, 'l.,kin.t{, it..; \\l '
.... f 1'1\\-0-
the pradk(' () ,
Hl'IlfI/un alII
III IlP, 13, :.!,j
I puMI< IJ
."1 L. HlI1d,'/, '1
Ibid,. PI" ' w , 89
91; ,

it. was his opinion that this should n.'main th" P1"\'ro
atIve of the head of the state and llw ('xlx'rts on I'pll"gl" g
" ou'
law. .
The theorists of the official trC'nd of social thought h
categorically !'epudiated taklid on thC' gmunds that it h aVt'
pers independent thinking, and have taken a rnodern
of idjma. and They .would grant all
MuslIm the to practice idjtihad, and
In tac,t regard ,It .no,t only as a nght, but even as a dut
that It IS every Muslim to
an OpInion on any glven questIon from the vantage of the
('hanges wrought by time.
denne idjrna as "the product of the views of all
Muelims and not merely those with special legal quall"fi
f" " 31 I I" " h ca-
.IOn:. n mehwlt. the bourgeois reform of Islam, these
can t eOI .of IYIuslim nationalism suggest that
the function of the msbtutlOn of idjma should now b '
legated to the .Legislative Assembly, for only the
as the highest representation of the people can speak
lor the latter and adopt the most reasonabl d ..
theil' behalf. ::2 e eCISlOns on
. The Pakistan constitution gives padiament i e th .
and the National Assembly these leg.' I "t: e
PI e-
tlOns thu" d" t" h ' 18 a lye unc-
. . S lepu la mg t e ulama myth that ·t· t'll
SIble today to go on living according t th IllS S I P?S-
dIe Ages" 0 e aws of the Mld-
But with respe.ct to fatwa or the ri ht ..
er a new law corresponds to the g to decIde wheth-
lU62 constitution does make some of Islam, the
Article 199 provides fOl' the fo' to the ulama.
C "I ImatlOn of a Ad"
OU':Cl o[ Islamic Ideology, consistin f n VIsor,)'
appointed by the president and h g 0 5 t.o 12 members
201 of the constitUtion, in to Article
pointment to the Council have l' In
a person for ap-
d t d
" d ' egal' to th '
un ers an mg an appreciation of I I e person s
nomic, political, legal and adminish!t?m and of the eco-
kist?n." One of the chief functions of of Pa-
tablish whether a new law corresponds t t CounCIl IS to es-
I)r of Islam (Article 204). precepts
b?dy IS not great: it only has the right t% e I'?le of this
rllon and make recommendations When th and In an opi-
C Assembly or
II Ibid., p. 43.
-.;: I. H. Qureshi, The Concept 01 Sovereignty 0/11 E
I 2 ( xetu/·
men, p. . Govern.
iH,k it. to; lts opinion an.d are
not. bin<imj1 C'.1I1 m dT£'ct be dl. ... rcgardNL
Our {l1l.dYf'IS 01 Islanm: d£'mocracy will not be l.'Omplcle
without a f£'w obsl'lvations em the position of tht religious
minorities and th(' status of women in Pakistan.
The religious fanatic::; have assumed an extremely
rcactional"y stance with regard to the religious minorities.
The president. of the ,1amaat-ul-ulama-i-Islam has made it
clear that in a genuine Muslim state non-Muslims -'will
have no voice in the making of laws, no right to administer
the law and no right to hold public offices,":n
Maudoodi's justification for that stand was that since
the Islamic state is an ideological state, its subjects must be
divided into two categories, viz., the Muslims and the
Dhimmis. The laUer do not adhere to and
must be denied all political rights. Accordmg to Maudoo.dl,
only persons who share this ideology can be entrusted WIth
the management of the state.:W . _
The ulama have not confined themselves to t.heonsmg,
and from time to time have gone over to
Such was the case in 1953, when fourteen of theu" .orgam-:-
" "I dOng the leading Ahrar and Jamaat-l-Islaml
sa lO.ns, mc u 1 ai a ainst the Ahmadiya sect.
parties, launched a camp gn g f ns of faith (whereas
Playing up their differences Ie between dif'fer-
the real reason lay in the t;! ulama raised the
ent bourgeois and landlor to be declared a
following demands: for the dhur Zafrullah Khan to be
non-Muslim sect; minister on the groun.ds
removed from post ct. for all Ahmadis to be dls-
of his JJ1 offices.35
missed from theu' fOVthe ula01a did not meet with a sym- '\
stand . Y official circles, It wa.s. denounced I
pathatlc l'eceptlOn In t-adictory to the SPU"It of Islam,
as undemocratic and con for the fact that "lhe pages of
which could not be tal "ned with the blood of many
· toryaieS b""
Muhammadan. IS".w The of the
cruel persecutIons. the Muslim relIgIOn preaches sal
remonstrated that d even respect for other falts, To
,t . ity tolerance an .
fIa eln , I qlCilY Cons/I/u/cd under Punjab Ad II
Courl 01 n
<J Repor/ 01 t c
) 213. . . '01 Concepts in /lie QUf{Jn, p. 287. .
01 .. , Politll; of Inquity Constitutcd undcr PunJab
. , A. A. 1 /lIC Courl
35 See Repolt a
H}54 . •. . tlfutlonol Dcvelopment in Pakls/on, p. 85.
Ac/ If 01 W ChoudhUry, Con'
-G " 91
[Ik i·

prove the point, they recall(>d. rO,r example, lhr solemn
i1''-''11y which the Prophet m<1de wI t h the Jew,,, after his
arrival in Medina. True, tlw)' fOl'gol to l1ll'nll ol1 t hnt In IT' ,
turn for his guarantees of the of their pel'_
sons and property to these non-MuslIms. Muhammad de-
manded the payment of a special tax and contribUtions for
the :mpport of the Muslim army, made them wear brands
on theh' clothes, and forbade them to ride horl3c back, carry
(H m<:;, 01' build new places of worship where they could
practise their own religious rites, and so on.3;
The Magna Carta of Pakistan's non-Muslims was
Mvhammad Ali Jinnah's famous presidential address to
the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, where he said that
the basic principle from which all Pakistanis proceeded
was that they were ali citizens of one state: "in COurse of
time, Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would
to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because
that IS the personal faith of each individual, but in the po-
htIcal sense as cItizens of the state."3A
of the rights of the minorities are proclaim-
ed m the preamble to the 1962 constitution and so is free-
dom of religious worship in Article 7, which states that the
of the state. must not prevent the members of any re-
.from observing and preaching their re-
mamtammg and managing their own religious
mstltutlOns. The promulgation of that principle by the
constitution IS undoubtedly a progressive ste es eciall
as co.mpared to the ulama attitude on the stftus non:
But even it cannot ensure a thoro hI d ' t-
Ie i-;O]utlOn of the problem or the reB io ug y
The adoption of Islam th [fi'·' g us commumtles.
as e 0 clal Ideol f tl . t
the condition that only aM }' .ogy 0 1e sta e,
of president and the functUoS 1m fma
be elected to the post
.' InsotheAd··C·f
IslamIC Ideology in deciding Whether VISOty ouncll 0
pond to Islam, have all operated to Ie .c?rres-
the citizens of Pakistan on religio gahse the diVIsIOn of
of its non-Muslim grounds injure the
is constantly being held up as the . °t top of it all, Islam
inns. mos perfect or all l'elig-
Islamic tradition has always lim't . .
wom('n, mcluding MusJim women. ,the nghts of all
eu unequal position
7 See H. MdSS{>, L·/s/om.
M'lbomed Ali Jinnah, SpccChets and W .
fI/lng$, p, 9,
, Ihl' famil y lu 'n sandirif'd by rf'ligion and approv('d
10 ] . w p ol ygamv and the unilaipra1 right of mf'n to eli.'"-
bY ,l .
' j ,the marriag
('ontrad have been the pillars of the
filmil y ('odp for m(H'C' than thirteen centurif's. But
!s 1955. at t.hC' of the democratic mov(Jm,ent in the
iO t I.y a (:ommiU'J(· wa<l. set up to prepare for Its reform.
coun , d t· th d . t··· t·o
It · 1" ('<; l11tant rf'commen a Ions on e emoel a lsa I n
of th; fumily corle aroust'd the wrath of the
. "Certain immoral people have become active agam and
lCS. 1 tUng to roh th(' weaker sex (If its priceless treasure.
are Ph O t·ty. painting fahe prospects and them
Its c as.1 , -'- - . t t h
- 11 kinds of rights, they are trying to women In 0 : ,f>
a r dishonour," was how the reacilonary ulama. ex-
abyss dOth .. ttitudf' to the Committee's recommendatIOns.
presse elI a h f It W::l'"
F . . years a battle raged over t e re .,
1 the new Muslim Laws
196 ff t.19 B that time democrallc laws banmng polyga
mto e ec. y . number of other MuslIm coun-
my had m and the Pakist;.,m
tries (TunlSla. oc ....o. II laws and even than the Imt-
proved less 1955 Committee. N.J. Coulson.
ial recommendatIOnS? t. t "the compromise at whIch
the British lawyer, saId odernist and traditionalIst
Ordinance aims e the latter."4(l .
viewpoints seems on ance ts women to go on bemg
The Pakistan reactIOn wan. 1 and political life. The
completely debarred from ,/
authors of the report of t the grounds that it II
denounced women's shoulders of
. the burden fallmg On elections
Increase ° of women 1 . tl. t
that "the participatl.on I Tslam."41 As one au -101 pu.
- . a 0 woman is her home ana
of the activItIes of he domestic affailos ef- ,
It, the PflvOt ron is to t h training that they
her real Ul:C 1 children WIth sue , .. obey none but
ficiently, brIng uP
but Allah be her
h ld fear no . . 5 a woman , th r .
...! OU ,,42 Is1a-01 reqUIre atmosphere withm (' O.lll
Allah. . . . ° te "such an perform their soclal
slave and to Cl'ea e as can help men
walls of the hou
. ,,43
functlOns. h'" 1961. - 2"
-is/an. Md
. Low in p. _ ,.
39 Gazelle 01 Po" islamiC FamIIY/ilU/lonGI Development in
40 N. J. Cons .
41 See G. W. d puJi/it·s in Pt]kls/an, p. 410.
Religion an
p. . L BUldN.
42 'p .111. 91
IbId. .
, 0


In contrast to the ulama, the ac1voc<1 j £'s or a m.odcrll
view of Islamic democracy ,wonwn shoU'? hav('
definite rights to participate In social hfe. Th£' constItution
permits them to elect and be elected to the Country'S
supreme body, ArtIcle 2? reserves the 15f
seat. in the NatIOnal Assembly fO! them. th,ee flam each
of the two provinces, and this does not exclude the possi_
bility of the above quota bemg exceeded.
Nevertheless it is still too early to speak of the Complete
emancipation of women .. The nO.t even
include a verbal declaration of theu' economIc, SocIal and
political equality with men.
It behoves us to complete this analysis of Islamic de-
mocracy with an examination of the concrete forms it
took in Pakistan following the 1958 coup and up to 1967.
Parliamentary democracy was supplanted by a system
of Basic Democracies. The uderlying idea in introducing
it was that the vote of the electorate may be considered
valid only when the problems involved lie within the
range of its experience and comprehension. In other
word5, the people may be permitted to express their
opinion through the vote only on local problems with which
they are familiar. As for the solution of the larger problems
of state. these must be entrusted to the few who according
to Pakistan law are the acknowledged spokesmen of the
In stJucture the Basic Democracies consist of a graded
system of councils at five levels starting with the union
panchayats. or union councils, which have one elected
representative for every 1,000 to 1,500 people; and union
committees in towns. Two-thirds of these council and com-
mittee are elected and one-third appointed on the
tecom.mendahon of departments of the next higher
councIl. All take part In the election of the legislative
bodies of the country-the provincial assemblies and the
National Assembly.
The councils of next level are called Tehsil in 'Vest
and In East .Pakistan. and comprise the
chall'men of the umon c:'1UncIls and town committees as
well as offiCIals. ar:d other persons appointed
by the commlSSlOner of the dIstrIcts. Their fUnctions include
supervision, of .the lower Councils. Then come the coun-
cils of the division COuncils with thE
same membershIp prmciple. The fact that the councils at
1 VPI' <In ml: 'JI'dinatf>d to those at the highC'1
the 1 the fact also that th(· councils at the higher lev-
levc s (· nUn.I v of officml s and nominated persons is
sufncif'nt to enc:. ul'C' official of the :ntire sys-
qUI '-'44 In Cldcliti on, at ('ach level IS a speCial
te7hority mnde up of offlcials responsIble for the activIty
aU 11 the cot
ncil s. They approvE' the budgets and check
of a 'sonnel of the councils; they can prohibit any mea-
the pel d' remove .3ny member of a council if they find such
sure an
t ion necessar y. h f
ac The system of Basic per;lOcracies was made t, ,e oun-
dation of t he 1962 constItutIon.
• • •
. .. f the cardinal principles of Islamic
Ou.r ahon 0 that there is no complete
I.ed us to problems of the state struc-
unison In CO;tC .}' ,-jews depending on the oar-
ture. Theori st s dIffer thel e' ha 'pen to be speaking for.
ticular segments of SOCIety th :v
. road to an ideal 15-
. th Pakistan reac Ion . 't t'
Whereas for . e . . . 111 of many feudal lOst! U IOns,
lamie state lies through trend want to get there ?y
the spokesmen thE' .1 a , ' with modern bourgeOls-
ccmhining MU'::lin: hadltIono:;
democratic h <; theoretical differences have
As might be expectc0: t e. e
almost that the
affected legislative It they do the relatIOn of
laws of Pakistan, be" in the nature of com-
h unifY S 0
forces in t e co - .' . the problem of
promisee; . c1 conflicts day As before.
The debates an e not abated to 1. . 'them each
the state forces are, 'Of an
various soclO-f'olown interpretatlOTIarter of a century )
committed to t raised about a qu 'a-class democracy is
Islamic st.ate, I S some kind of that cha-
But the of way to the s?bedl bv the real positIon of
gradually gIvmg ; detennme .
raciel' of the state IS
social forces.
er 1<160·
Today, .
. ,
Ik i-
The Pakislan Pllilosophical Congu.'ss i' the l' f h'
:iatlon in the country alHI W,lS founded p Ilosophical asso-
iosophers of the subcontinent belonged 1 II' lIor to 1947 the phi·
Congress established by S. Radhakrishnan"; Ie IndIan PhilosophIcal
)f the organisation of the Pakistan C III 1925, The moving SPirit
who b ' ongress was Prof M M Sh
ecame its first president T d I . . . anI
Dr. M. Ahmed. It has a t le PresIdent of Ihf' Congress )s
' , Ip of about 100 j)h' ,
" ,s,s and psychologists, most of them I osop lers, soci·
members at various univers I' professors and olher faculty
' Ilesandcolleoes" '7 -
omm:t\ee th" ", 1>. S ·man Executive
'- annua seSSIOn f Ih C
of their records_ The Conoress ., 0 e and publication
10' '.. a s(" Publishes Ih" P ,
UflKl, d quarterly h'hich ha h '" oK/sinn Phi/osop/lical
Ih, , seen camino alit -
al Proceedings of In C .... Slllce 1957, as well as
o ' e on(!ress and
n var,ous philosoph:cat probl!'ms. and sympos;a
The Congress' three-day annuClI
siUes III turn (Ill Lahore, K<.lrachl are held at diff('n:mt univer-
hI, etc.). ' Y erabdd, Daccil, Peshawar, RaJsha.
The work of the sessions tak
of the sections. The sub,"'I< d es Ihe fUlm of <;ymp0SIi!
th E '" ., Iscusspd' t t dnd meetinRs
t e xeculive and may be qUIte "thle sympOSia aie by
osophy of life", "reOril?lItatlOll of M .' t e ndlure of bl?allty", "phI·
natiolldl character" "exisl I'. usilln phIlosoph " '"
d ,en lahsm: a cntl I Y, I lC problem of
an the community", etc. ca examlllallon", "philosophy
Four sections hold their meet
metapl - 1llgS at th
. lyS1CS; (b) moral and Social phI e sessions: (al logIC and
catIon; (el) phdosophy of lehgion. I osophy; (e) psychology unci edu.
The Pakistan PhilosOphical
This is confirm"'d b Congress IS ,
". . .. Y the ch semi·official
PU) ICdtlons, which are basicall aracter of its .
Islamic ideolo . y concerned with I sessIOns and
. gy, by the unfalhng presence of he POPlliansatlOn of
men! al lb meelinRs, and by the Illlancial members of the govern·
all klllds of .. ern:nent !nstllutions,· .ISSlstdnce it P' .
_ . . 0 htoldt. "celves from
sions. for cXilmple, the receIved R I S and n I'
s. 800(l III I ses·
9/, . <111ft 10,000 respect-
,f "ldtiolldl ReconstnlctllJll (o"crnment of
T 14' IlfU ,11(> 1MI)...!"! )Y d rdth"'l trli'e 1nl 'rank pXClan·
ge of "PIIl]!)I" '1 h,'y lit' Jltl'!ldt,d 1101 (July hy Congress memhers but
also hy IOldl Inlcll<'<lll,lls ,JlIII fvr whom they are JMrtJ(;ularly
importdnt CVl'lIls. them the l)pport:Jnlty tl, pr(>')(nt reports at the
The schnldlS who Ire llsll<lIly preseul at the SE:SSlOn'i Pdrtl'
eipiltE' acllvely ill Ihe :->ympoMil dnd often gIve public (I'; well.
They ure mostly phIlosophers from the l;nited States, (;redt Bnlalll,
West GermdllY, Inciid, [run, BeIRium and the Untted Arab Republic. The
first deleRatioll of Soviet philosophers (the only representatIves of the
sociahst Coulltfles) arrived 111 P<1kistdn In April 1956 to tilke pM! In the
third seSSlon ell Peshawar.
Slnce then the Executive Committee of the Pakistan Philosophicdl
Congress hilS sent Soviet scholars yearly lIlvitations; there were dele-
gati ons from the U.S.S.R. AC<ldemy of Sciences ilt the 1957, 1900, 1961,
1963, 1965, 1967 dnd 1968 sessions.
TIle Central lnslilule of Islamic Research in Karaeh:, founded in
1957, is responSIble for the coordlllation of Islam:c studIes. Tho:! leading
Islamic studies cent re is the Institute of Jslamic Culture (Lahore.).
The InstiJu/e 01 Islamic Culture, III Lahore, was set up in 1950 b,
the Governor General of Pakistan, Gulam Muhammad, at the suggestiO;}
of the prominent Islamic scholar Dr. Hahfa Abdul HakIm, for the
purpose of making the youth of Pakistan "fully conscious of theIr in-
tellectual and moral heri,tage" and show:ng the edu:a:ed people that
" the Islamic outlook and fundamental prinCiples of Islam are pre-emin.
ently capable of solvlIlg human problems-social, polillcal and econo-
The first director of the Institute was H. A. Hakim. On his death in
1959, he was succeeded by Prof. M.M. Sharif. in addition to its own
. 'th monthly TllOkafal, it publishes about ten books annually.
Journa, e
. -I foundation brought out more than 80 books and pamph.
havIng sInce IS. -
the works of the Muslim thl!lkers Ruml, Ghazzah,
lets on Islam, P II
id Ahmad Khan and others.
Ibn Ha UIl,
. r Islamic Culture is financed by the celltrill Govern·
The Inslltll1e 0 .-
._ n (from which It receIves Rs, 75,000 a year) and the
menl of (Rs. 25,000). Iils publishing actIVIties bring
West PakIstan f money; In 1963·1964 ils book sales totalled
in a good deal 0
Rs. 2,487,500. (KarachI) was established in 1951, by the Iqbal
The Iqbal Madem,)' ent in order to popularise the philosophica:
t of Pdf lam '
AcademY c f Muhammad Iqbal both within the country and
and poetical henltlge 0
outside its bOrders.
7 3aK. 3016
, 0
t er
The president of Pakis!iHl is Itw If,llI! \. I
.. ' . {,l( Pit
tIe 1I1ullster for Education, Its plt'sld!'n!, It. VIce. 'J: {"'·U JIJ j Ill!
and dlflx:tor are government appoinlc,-.s, lIlul its , I {side It, f( .r(
sentatJve of the Ministry of Educatiolllll I I. )drt! IIldu II l r .
' ( \\0 nth{'r' .,
amon'! I e lilt! meom!)t>r _ III I.,'" . e C Cd f
b h
- '.l : h(' \ r(
mem ers W 0 paid Rs. 10 d ,.",. d . l' e l}<
_ 111 lIC:;, <lIld 70 ]"f
sl2nate::i upon the payment of 1 lu I J rllt:'!llb"
( mp sum of Rs. ISO. I :Ie·
The Academy receives an annual subsid f
men! of Pakistan of Rs. 25000 wh I h . Y rom the central Gov",.
_ ' , 1 e I e Income f
IS another Rs. 10,000. rom lis PUhllCatlon;
These publications lIlclude a quarte I .
nographs on the life and work of I bal r Y Journal, Iqbal Review, rno-
nto Ben,gdl: Pashia S' Ih ' q ,and Iranslations of his
English ' . lll{ I, Pers:an, Arah:c, Turkish Ge works
. . rman and
The Academy's library of 3500
works of JqJ al ,volumes brinJ::S logether ,II
) . as well as eVer Lhi the
hall. There is a plan to open ,Y. nJ:: tha,) hds wr:tten about
fllture. a specldi lqbdl Museum in the near
The Academy m' ,
ad" . amtams contacts with f " " ,
n Societies, situated in italy At. orClgn SCientific institutions
and India, which engage in ;he the Umted States, West Germany
The Pakislan /nsil t y of IslamiC culture.
G 11 I U e 0/ Human R I '
. ,I ani , is the first e allons, founded in b D
sociolo centre set up i P k' ,:, y r.
. and SOCial psycholo I . n a -Istan for research in
sldent IS the vice-chancell gy. Is office IS SitUated in Dacca It
head of th d or of Dacca Uni ' . s pre-
Th e epartment of philosoph a verslty, and its di rector the
e teachmg of sociolo' Y I Ihe same uni .... ersity
in the unive I' gy and social - h .
been se d' rSI les of Pakistan until the 19;'''YC, ology was not slarted
n 109 experts there re!:!ula J . s. Smce 19.'i2 UNESCO has
ces . Hollander f h r y to heLp devel h
of 'he U ' 0 t e Netherlands J H op t ose social sci en-
, nlted States L' ' . umlum f 0 '
and Olhers). ,evi-Strauss, Bertrand P 0 enmalk, 1.S. And
In th' , . Bessa:gnet of France
. elr mvestigations the . '
fOlJowlllg methOd I' SOCIOlogists of ' '
l. The ooglcal principl es:1 Pakistan are guided bv the
, , .(1eneral dpproach
<lnd historical. Whereas in U, muus
not be emp!flC I '
a hi.(1hl d e nlte I Sa, philosophical
. . Y eveloped technoLo " ( t<lles, whi ch IS " . h
statistically, in pok·, " gy. SOCial h a society wit
... IS an stat P enomc
correct basis for SOcial I Istleal data IS tOo I na are described
ana YSIS" E ImlLed ,
urpose only where th . . mplrlca! 0 serve as d
ere IS a developed s methods can serve their
. I See A. K. N. Karim "Th
in: Social ;lethodolORY f
Ibid., pp. 2, 3. as, PaklSfIl or d SoCiology
98 n, Dacca, 1960.
o( East
2, SOCidi litulhc., mllst he performed by the Pakishlni';
It IS diflicult fnr forelS!IIf'TS t(l ulI'lerstand the partlcuknllcs ,)1 Pakistan
3. TIle (ont('mpoliuy Itfe of modem PaLs-tan cannol he comprehen.
ded without examllling 'Musltm societal mechanism", (llId tl'erefore it
IS essential I,) "develop d SOCiolo2Y ()f societ y"" slld,."l
4. In view of the country's economic reLardatlC ..n alld th'] limited
written sources from which an idea can be gleaned d':' to the operation
01 Ihe soci,d machlllery, Pakistan SOCiology lfl the imme.1 ate ]ulure will
have to be confined to social
Third Session
The third session of the Pakistan Ph!losophlCal Congless held III
Apr il 1956 was attended by a Soviet delegation indudlllg M.E. Orne-Iyan-
ovsky. member of the Ukrainian Academy of SCiences. I,M. Muminov,
Corresponding Member of the Uzbek Academy ,)f SCiences. and Prof
K. M. Frolov. About two hundred people took p·ut III the work of the
thi rd session; in addition to the Soviet delegation, it was attended by
schola rs from India , Iran, the United States and Canada.
On April II the Soviet delegation arrived in Peshawar for the
session. \Ve were tendered a very wann reception by \ts orgall'sers and
the other delegates. We would particularly like to ackuowledge the
goodwill shown us by the leadership of the and above all the
president, Prof. M.M. Sharif.
The session opened with the reading of the Quran and of
welcome. Then the bUSiness went over 10 the plenary meeting.; of the
following four secti ons: (11 logic and metaphysics; j2/ psychology and
education; (3) moral and social philosophy; (4) th: philosophy of reli :
ion. There were also sympoSia on the themes 'NaturE> ilnd Purpose'
!nd "Logical pOSitivism". In addition the pubhc lectures,
h I
contributed papers on and Quantlllll
TIle Soviet sc 0 a .'
. " J'.I E OmelyanOvsky), "Study of the History 01 Philosophy
Mechal1lcS (5· S· R" II. M, Muminov). and "The Materiatist Under-
10 the Uzbek ", " IKM F )
ess of Social Development .. rolov. \Ve might
standin, of the roC
ead at the plenary meetHlJ!':' to
add that our papers. r at interest. The vice-chancellor of PeslMwll
eived wl\h gre
were rec R. ddin Siddiqi, a of ph}<SICS, who \001
UniverSIty, Dr. anU
3 Ibid" p. 3.
Ibid .• p, 5 .

, ,n;
the floor to discuss M.E. Ome[Ydnovsky's Pilper notecl the c
. . ample-Juty
of the and went at length mlo some of its {undumental !>Oin
Frolovi -paper e\"oked many q"es:,olls reneclin, tJ '
. Ie s.e )u
thought his listeners We(e gmng to the principles which were set fo
by the speaker. rth
Prof Q. \r. Aslam, as the cha:rman of the meelmg-, up :
value of the paper although. he said, he shared Ihe views of 151'
, ,. .m.'h,
problems conSIdered In II. There were many questions I
, 00, after
I.M. Muminov's reporl.
We were deeply moved by the speech of Ihe Indian philoso h
Prof. B.L. Atrya, with it5 impassioned appeal to the session H Per,
. . e Urged
the philosophers to leave their ivory lowers and serve the pe I
." ope,to
work for world peace and seek closer understanding between Ih h'
I h [ epl·
osop ers 0 all lands. We would take exception only to Prof Al
'h - . rya's
prenllse t at representatJves of all philosophical trends should d
, '[' I - a opt a
onci la ory attitude to their Ideological opponents fo, Ih 'I
' , e in erests of
sCience and the duty of philosophers to society demand til at , 'e I"
!"I h' I'd CI n I c
P II osop Ica I eas be promoted and that reactionary views refuted bv,
science be criticised.
Dr. P. Schiltp, an
American philosophy professor, gave a lecture
on Einstein.
Considerable light was shed on the most w,"e'p,ead
d d ... phil0sophical
I eas an current problems of Pakistan's philo,ophe"
b [ in the papers Ine
memo e". 0 the PhiloSOphical Cong,e" 'ead al
P k the third !>ession. The
a Islam philosophers invited
whether in letter form or present our views on their papers,
hIe press, and it is with pleasure that
we s al now try to satisfy their request h
to their attention. ' oping that these lines come
Quite a few of tile papers b th . . _
the major problems o[ '0 . I I [y e Paklstam philosophers dealt with
cia I e and philo I
with the history of Islam a d sop ly. Many were concerned
n essence of the M r 1
the papers and speeches of th p' _ us 1m wor d outlook. But
e aklstanl sclloI h' .
sed the philosophical probtem [ ars at t IS sessIOn bypas.
- s 0 natUral SCien . h
stud of the first and second se . ce, t e salne may also be
SSlons. As one of Ih d I
() us, in Pakistan today natural . e e egales remarked
of the development of nature sCience and stUdy of the general laws
--- -- are stll! not re --. -
should, a fact which is bound I h celvmg the attention they
I I [ h
- 0 ave advers ff
sa e 0 P liosophical thought· e e ects on the general
In the Country
The problems posed by the p k' , '
" a Istanl ph'l I
were viewed by them [rom th . _ 1 oSop lers at the session
· e POsllions of'd '
p Ilosophy of Islam. A gOod I eahsm and the religious
example of th I
Renerai president of the seSSion M a was the speech of the
at the University of Karachi, on' Ih' ASlam, profeSsor o[ psy..:hology
Pe "Wh I h e Subject f "10
ace . a appened at one of 0 e Foundations of
OUr get-tO."h
ers with the Pakistani
"'hl'{b lurthf>r liRht on Prof. Aslam's Reneral ol.tlook. Prof
(ho drs s
• I I on(> III ()llr piHty With a ("(,py of the (Juran, den
resen e( .
P [t With thr! words, "This IS my dlalectlcal m<ltefloJllsn:
[he RI
But we were In full agreement With Pro!. Asidlll Yo-1C:, he SdLli
subject of pCdce, while being mdLnly d talkIng point fo.;r
that . .
of state aud politiCians, could not be placed outSide the colflp<:tt'ncy 01
hllosophers and, broadly, of specialists in all branches (If the soc.ldl
P e' "The subject has assumed such urgency dnd imp<)tlilnce, nuS
SClenc .
become so larRe III scope and Significance," he decl,uerl. "that neMI)'
everybody--and rightly- feels called upon to deal with ii, .. , The pro-
lem of war and peace needs the combined wisdom of the phllo50pher
b. II"
and the social SCientist. It needs a great dea . e se. . _'
In his deliberations on the place of war3 In the history of mankInd,
Prof. Aslam unfortunately did not go into the the causes of wars, rooted
in the explOiting system of antagoniStic societies. Such analYSIS would
have clarified many things and explained why, for Instance, the
oeace plans of Rousseau, Bentham, Kant and the other great men
--;enlioned by the professor in his speech did not produre practical
results. h t· t f
Prof. Aslam made some interesting observations on t e ac IVI y .0_
such peace-making institutions as the League of Nations and the
. Ion The "onclusion to be drawn from the work 01
Nations rgallisa I. " ff
. ,- h 'd' that "complete success mar yet be far 0 .
these LnstLtu\lons, e sal , IS be d bted"
But the fact that it is possible to succeed cannot ou .
"He man _Authors) is not going to be the unwept and un·
( 'h I forces which his own curiosity has leI loose
sung victim of p YSlca 'th
P,o[, A,
lam, and we cannot but agree agalll WI
around him," said
him. _ nce to the work of the League of Nalions and the Unlt-
With rerere . ' p [ A lam noled ''The League I)f Ndtions V
- OrganisatiOn, TO. S' ,
ed at Ions h h moral inanily. The United :"lations may
may have dIsappeared t roug E' "
I as united as it should be.
seem to he no hat the League of Nations crumbled up because
We would add t f eace The Untied Nations is truly nOI as
it was a poor instrument 0 p .
'd . I should be.
ullite as I ent of peace supporters, who, he cor-
(In the movem , '
Commenlill I diversified walks of life and Ideologle.:,
Ihe mos
rectly noted, rep [ II on the peace plans of the groups that arc
, h
Prof. Aslam vi h r religious creed. Here he outlllled I e
d O
ne or anot e . , ,
united aroun f a peace plan which, III his opinion. would suit
characteristiC features 0
followers of Islam. dered the problems of war and peace chieny
of Asian! consl "As wafS begin III the minds of men."
r . I standpOint.
from a psycholo!:lca d of men that the defences of peace must be
,', in the mLl1 s
he said, "it
w °
bllll!." In his new, hdS UllKh td COil!
of the problems of peace,
Howe\'er, Prof. Aslam seemed rdlher pessiml tic himse I
(; JU
ho effectiveness of this means of malOtillllil1f,! the pe,lCe, for, b h pu
such knowledge of the problems of pC<lce ilS psychology l13s 10 lj
-, "will have instrumental \'dlue only-the \'dlue of d tool. W ill he to(
ever be used? is a question the psychologist hdS no means of
The use of a psychological or any other tool with which pcace Cdn be
achie\'ed depends on other men, men who wield great power In the
groups they lead ... ," To further the "science of Prof. Asl
suggested that ideological groups, rcligious and non-religious, all oVer
the world join forces alld set up an organisation whose tasks <mo nature
he described as follows: "" ,r would wish again and again to see this
organisation come into being through the goodwill and love of peace
of individual men and women and groups, who should volunteer both
their time and thcir money for the_ illtellectl!a[ treaynent of the problem
of peace, r do not believe that such individuals anri $uch groups cannOI
be fOund. If they cannot be found, then, alas!, our hopes for peace aT>!
It is to be regretted that Prof. Aslam did not say anything in his
speech about the great role of the people in the struggle fa. peace and
did not analyse the recent international Situation from that stancipoint
The growing scope and strength of the peoples' movement for peace
and for the prOhibition of nuclear and other weapons 01 mass annihila.
tion, the aCtiVity of the World Peace Council, the fight the Soviet Union
and other peace-loving states have put up for peace have certainly
helped to relax international tenSIons, The signihcance of the peoples'
efforts to adVance the cause of peace and prevent war is enhanced
today by the eXistence of the World socialist system vis-d.-vis the world
capitalist system. In addition to Ihe SOcialist COunhies, many other
states are tdking a sland agaJllst war. Quite a few of the
once colonidl countries have now crealed their own 'iovereign states
Forces are sprinRing up flRht in the capitalist countries, leady to fight
for peace. Under these conditions, wars tire no longer H1evitable, and
can be prevented.
Prof. Govinda Chanddr Dev of Ih I . , o.
. . ' e oglc and metap lySI .....
section dt the thIrd seSSion of the Pdkistan Ph, h., C de
. I osop ICaollgress, rna .
the phdosophy of the future the Subject of h· dd d
. -" IS a re$'S. Hc venture
the OpLnlon thai our alZe IS hOStilc to ,}hH . h'" ,.
.. asap Y an,] that 'Ln our
tImes phIlosophy IS generdlly taken to occuPY, bl d
II f
" a SI1M I Corner Tn a JI1
a cy 0 sCIence.
If he had in mllut modern POSItivism dnd th b . d
e pnnciples an concluSlOllS of t dt school, he WdS undOUbted I
. y TIght. But ProL Dev ignored the phIlosophy of dl<l.lectlcal materialism, h
Wile hOllollnng its
. IS lie lI'P'" tcdly :lsSured s in ollr tdk" 'l'iletiwf. Dia.
"C 1t 111\/e h r I· Ihe
T{'pT.') "Sill the scientific ph lusop y ,) our lilies, I v-
I IIlllcrt. _. h., h
" me the basic shortcommgs of prevlOu, P IOSOp _
hirh h'-lS overco Id
sophy W I olatioll from life. the reflective Mlure of the 0
rms(llelrlS ..
i(al .e . "1. n, Ihe unscientific. spec.!!.lalive nature vf Id.eallsm.
h Slcal molena IS , .. .. . h
metap y . of s cUla!Lve as-against SClen!lhc_. It al>
the eXdltatlOllI.
. ::'e as all instrument of scientific k!lowledge as the
demonstrater 1 S v h h II the sciences of nature and society and
I I which runs t roug a f h
metlO( _. olent with the development 0 t ose
I f'comillg Tlcher In co h
is in turn ). . h h' h has accomplIshed the hlRhe;l synt eSls
-ences as the phLlosop y W IC
'" r 'f all the achievements of human thouRht. .
so ar 0 . f science <lnd philosophy I fi:1'1 the future
".. Tn d IIdPIlY marnage 0 bl I dust under the preJ;sure of
. " otherWise crum e m 0 [
of man who nllg I . TIl(! ulliun 0
' 1" II like the nudedf weapo .
deadly en!,!illes of destruc 10 tfer" the key to the future
" h Prof Dcv went on, 0 >
science <lnd phi osop y,. . Ike the birds and to SWIm
h '0 fly in the air I
of man "who kllows ow I -e on earth."
I h Ies but not how La I\' f
in water like tie s 1 , . I kong fOI He is looking or
d d what Prof Dev IS 00 I _ h ,
\Ve can un erstan . h ·"I"al wJt po I-
. I' k n's hig er Spl ... f
hilosophy that WIll m rna , 'a.k
' of the de\'elopment 0
d the practlca . d
tive scientific knowledge an Id h Iosophy wilh ils
II . f frolll the 0 p I _ _ r an
society, for Olle equa } ar sltlvists with their rejection 0
for science and rrom the modern PO" t we have found stich a phIlo ...
. . I We believe la
integrated phLiosop Iy. . . iCdl materialism- .
I ··t is dialectic,d dnd hrstor h said that th •. I!reate"t
oJ> ly, I bly riRht when e . ed
Prof. Dev was unquestiona . s 'nthetic thlnkers_ He mt'nllon
. f the worl{1 were dIWdY'» . would add to the roll
0 H el and others; v.e n whose
Aristotle, SplIlo/a, Kant, _e
Man:, Engels aud Lenr, h.
- of the w
phllosoP r . hill synl e
the . I the fullest alld S( :entl I( h-' f r which Prof. Dev
ywrks reprf'scn I pment of phiIOSOP} ()
- tendency in the deve 0
tiC f the future will be cha-
called. Prof Dev, the philosohy 0 _ Ton or in words,
AccordiTlJ! to, . tellect and lIltm I ,
. its synthesis of: (1) m iritualism and (3) a mate-
raclensed by .. (2) mdleridlls
and sp _ ht f this concepllon,
d religion, ]fe In the IIg 0
science illl . I"dlistic dttltude to I " "',oplliC<11 r<1: .. .Hul
. -\lid spIn... Iller 0 p II v !
rlalistlc < , clanly "I nun " ilnrl "nutler am
f) . 0 ". nse aUd reason f
Prof. e\-· f]"ets between I gc and dlld or
analyse the coni -\ fOf reality IS Clan
·t" nohnR tId Tty
Splfl , . i.Jblhty and durabl I ' articuldrly tned to make 111 hiS papel
leason, st . IS Prof. De
P and reason matter and
f the polll If between sense , h
One a . real gil . ratter chant:!e: synt eSls
tl ere IS no . ·s constancy, ° III , I
was that I of the SPlfl
I .. t us that reality is at one an(
spirit. The essenc:1I through Intultlo,ll t;a; iI is just as challRedble as It
dnd r{'dS d SplrLtlld •
of sense olter;al <In
time m
the s.:Jllle

}W a
, I II TI"s was the !E'llmotJ\' of plOf. I1P,,'i plllio ll'h\'
IS (IUdl(,.
I "'0 I,ave a true (II 1I',dll\' WI' 111\; I II
Meal{ In,t! y,
maller, but also materialise SPITJ! '
Prof. Dev's attempt to arrin" at tI dt'hlllll,)11 (II 1II.\"eol tlcn Itleod
from the r('fuled approach of Os\w,\ld's f'IH'r!::Hun M,IIIN, he \<IL I
"IS no olher than energy III different dlll'CtltlOS. Ilu Io...k II 1Uhst<l1l
lialion from modern sCIence, tiIlWIl£ \,tht'l tiUIlCS tiM! thu
theory of relativity "by welding togethl'r sp..In' tlilil Ilnll' 1< s I'lken
away the last vesllge of durabIlity in rndUl'1 If hlll(' is thl' IOUlih dllll(,ll.
sion of space as it IS made Qut, the st,lbl{' world of thing:i
becomes automatically reduced to an endless Chilill (If ,'\"t'llis Jlld
to be solid."
Prof. Dev's theory of knowledRe was Ilkln.£! oll from
Bergson he stressed the limitations of sense dlld 1('{lSO/l <\/ld the /Iced
to believe in supra-logical intuition which' reldins III It the bnlliance of
both sense and reason minus Iheir defeels."
The efforts of Prof. Dev and other Pakistani philosophers tl,
reconcile science and religion, reason and faith had a very Mchalc rinj:1.
Paying homage to intuilion, Prof. Dev said, "in having objeCtivity, it
goes all the way with sense, in having neceSsity it goes all the way
with reason; but in having these two characters Simultaneously, it trans-
cends them bolh .... Inlellect and intuillon, reasoll and faith_ science
and religion, meet 10 their mutual Sd\tsfaclton and advantage."
\Ve have spoken here only of Ihe main trend of PIOr. Dev's papel;
it abounds in true and interesting ideas Qn which we cannot dwell here
for reasons of space. We shall Confine OUrselves to a few remarks on the
basic conceptions of the paper.
Prof. Dev draws no distincti:ln between metaphYSical materialism
and dialectical materialism. What he has to say about the exaggera-
tions of materialism, the ltmitations of sensory experience unrelated {o
reason, the one-Sidedness of Aristotle's logiC, and many other things is
perfectly t rue- but not of dialectical materialtsm. Dialectical ma terialism
achieves the highest union of sense, reason and experience, an. 1 is thus
able to resolve the conflicts which arise In Ihe COu rse of man's contacts
with the real world and which, as ProL Dev correctly notes, cannot be
resolved either by the old philosophies or by modern positivism. H must
be remembered that dialectical materialism does not see a Rulf between
matter and spirit. The Contrast between matter and Spirit, experience
and thought must not be exaggerated and made a metaphysical one.
Gnosiologically we do oppose matter to spirit and maleriailslll 10 ideal-
ism, and Ihis is essential-but only Within the limits of Ihp. basic philo.
sophical problem of what IS matter Or Spirit. Thoughl is a func.
tlon of the brain and the bram IS the highest prodUct of matter, and so
thought or spirit can no more be seDarated from matter Ihan they can
bt' [4 llifll
wit I I If! OPI
, , , I
:1114 I .It:.lor 01
Il uug
btlnj,"!' V • onl!lry Iu • l!' 'II I
Hut dl' fit r (' ,'px' I III 1
, .
plOoh=m 0'
2 Iy
,', j p.II ....·t
:JIIII or I t. I, I ·1I1t0r. IIIP b Iwe n
ed 1 1 .
h IMU J b
I_mil m r: P )r'/flll
In II! 11 h )k LAmn like -f II x t:. ..
1111" 11111("11 II I tlnd Ille Jrm
11 dtl,.mphl II I ( ak I we'e l; \1(' CQ 14 :J Will
/I ,I. 1)1 II' ,hllolll(ll • ' u ... /
T1ah,trI (lnd
IiIV!' .. I lIV lInn, Jk ... ...
bef. e h . 11spos.ra 01
I, II tl b e We
. I I ell m,dI'Udh'llI tI d I.pel d '" ;oap II tl •.
did ('.' I " I" 'Ifl Ihal w (. eM Uv n ny r
E pwo - .f! • to 1 J'dlt .In to
m I ,k,II" In'' II hi' pldl)${Jf· ,I'. w Id
\\·c .11(' 1111 a .., k 1 r .. w rl;1turl! bJI we wou
d pi cliall'ltlr II !lhlleTlailsfT ,n p y 10 to 1<3)". al Ilul
it II I With (;JI Jh.:, I
I k
" them 10 <1(''1
1<11111 1 Ie. - .j ........ nI5 W Ie our
I '- I 551' ns iT'!...... . !
·nd Ind so lortdy ollr Illi(U, 1 '.<Inc H'l!- f,mJ!'Clr Will
d " Lmvt!'Slly, or n • I ed
in the dlSulsslon tit Deiced _ h wou'l hud V hn·2 aim !
the prinCiples of dldlettlC:al mtt?1 I SID I)e 1:1 _ t hail
as he d:d that till' IIPW phYS1CS 'b' the electron and )the, eleme'lary
broken up the atom. replaced II I d L Jt ow \hdt. frL] lee sldnd-
particles, and so on. Our .IS 0 fO
POint o( dialectical mdteflaillin. d ("hao cal roUena1;smj h I
( the 01 , me • n l.S
(conlrary the posltlun 0 I "howed lh I I" ell" .ro. Iter
l"sm and Lenlf • ed the claiJ1s hdt ma
I h dlom and expos I" I 10 deSignate all
inexhausltble as Ie. a philosophical conc p fleeted in It.
red Matter IS f the mind but re
had dlsappea . . • Independently 0 _ . d merel,)re Ihe
. eahty eXlstlll endle». an I
- - ---- ells mallllestatious Me modern physICS mere Y
It IS lIlexhausllbt , d other pc1T11cles by I. It IS unlor.
h electron an _ I maler:a Ism
discovery of I e f of the truth of dldleclICd f lIowed .n the
offers additional prooOCiill sCiences programmes. and Leni·r. flRure only
hat in the S \.1 x d nd
lunate t . I names "I . al - . . political leaders, a
schools of Paklstc1n t of economics and al> -slUn in our opinion.
I of Ihe s serious omll> .
as exponen s hers which is a h of Pakisl(ln, we can
PhllosoP· h philosop ers . t
"ot once as ·ews of t e h 'eaq pretence a
. the VJ f rse Ie.
In characlensltlg I bal wlthoul. 0 cou . r hiS "Jews. The great
t nenllO
q, -anllOdllOn 0 h- I idea;;
hardly fail a I llost cursory ex 1 led his philosop Ica
anythi ng more Ihan .I Iqbal affll:l-'hO was often catled Ihe
I and philosopher I politJcal leader ed India 1\t the Round
Islam- He In 1932 :; out lhe InJ!an consti-
spiri tual falher 0 London conven
T bl
e Conference in . the world was created by
a he Quran. h bo-
. e ,,'as I led to God as I e em
lutlon. f depa
bal appea d h.s
baI's point 0 change. Iq of God he subordinate _ I
Iq d was In constant and 10 thiS Idea hs theory of bfe as action,
God, an Ie JUstICe, 1 of beIng, I
f supren hes
diment 0 as the hlg JO,'i
theory of man

:.J\\f {1
and his theory of socil't)' A("l"ordlllR to hUll. rllt' PI') f. I.H) """
he who could drdw rl('dr 10 (;od wllhuul ill'lI/.! dr.lwlI II 0 Iun IJu
rdlher drdwmg God illln IUIIIM·II, Tht' hllllJdll ve lu (, II
plish this and come Ile,lr 10 Cud. till' Ir('('St hl'lII\! III ,III. The l.'h'lIll y
of life lies in contest. he SdIU .• Ind cunlt'st Ihp In,bvlcill,(1 <H"hlt!.
yes immortality dnd ('ollquels SIM("l' ,U1(t hlllt'. lit' 100lIHilull'd m"llo
of the ideal sOcrety and Iht:' Ideal :-otdte dS Eqlhllity, Snliddlrly elll'l
Liberty. He opposed pri\'dte property, whidl Ul'dtl.'d "kIllRS dnd I)('R
gars"; everything belonged to (;0£1 and hence to s('{'Jety dnd thc
which were to be based on the prinCiples of til(' Qur,lIl, SUe'h was
Iqbal's basic social concept.
It is clear frOIll the above that Iqbal spoke from Idedlrstic philos!)ph.
real positions, there were !1lany redlrslic elements l!1
philosophy. He objected to mdteridlism. but did not Wrlgc the active
campaign againsl Marxism and Ihe Soviet system attribuled to him by
a section of Pakistan's press.
A clue to iqbal's ideas may !)e found in Ilis trilogy known as
Lenin, Angers Song and God's Command, in which the poet
expressed feelings of gratitude to the great leader. He says that after
death Lenin came face to face With the God he had refused 10 accept
in life; Lenin asked. "Where is the Man whose God Thou art? For the
East, gods are Ihe whites of Europe; for the West, gods fire shining
dollarsl" He turned to God with these words:
Thou art All Powerful and Just, but in Thy world
The lot of the hapless labourer IS very hard!
When will this boat of Capitalism be wrecked?
Thy world is waiting for Ihe Day of Reckoningl
Then the said to God:
o Painter Divine, Thy ilainlmg is still lacking III something.
LYlOg m ambush for mankind are the libertine
. the theologian, the find the monk:
In Thy Umverse the old order still continueth!
God found Lenin's words to be just, and commanded the angels
"to burn every ear of corn in the field, which is not used as food
for the cultivator", to the humble Sparrow strength to fight
the falcon," 10 smash the Rlass-blower's workshop" of modern
Iqbal's work, his poems In Urdu Parsee and P" b· d
. "unJa I. awaIt our slu y.
We were presented WIth a colleclion of his WOrk, h· hied
- w IC we have pac
in the custody of the InslLtule of PhilOsophy of th US S R {
. . e .... Academy 0
Sciences, where an lIltenslve stUdy is to be unde I k f . d
. " r a en 0 the lrfe an
aCtivity of thIS great man who loved his people '"d
.. extolled his home- land and its fighl for freedom.
I S. A Vdhid, Iqbal, His Art and Thoughl, p. 116.
",h ( 1
r It" {I JdIN .. ' I'"
(m lip f. II r
• • •
:) he fUi Jr C 'J!
w Jl til,: V
II up
III the
]1 ;r.
ron S WI'I]
de pt 'ldk , II nil III II J
n l' lin!.! I, we '" III (] Y F.:
rf' Ifl<Jl k WI l' n dRdlr.' OUt
of "II uh! r ut." e\"'n
teSI;>e 10/ ,.
(w t w f:It Y Ihc " 'I, h J tr.::lny
e Y' 11' taere II d( r..> I lPfl :)("
, JllfJ k Ot !.leo Oil), In JC. It.lny
"'h:.t drd n)1 .h re c. d p 111 JphlCdJ
e) r;YJI e' JIllI
It l!l flllr 11m h.;al W{ .l( eejc:J Ii f<.. :I;r IIltuest
Ihe Sdu,JMS III l'o:IkISI,I/. 10 ill Jee II :II dl d t tonc J I ;ate IIsm!t II dll
tire more .'!f,(tolYIIIl: rn thdl fOI ttl ::y :c •• )rs ..... e ptob rep'esenlell
their first chtl/lcl' II) helt Co ]Vlnp "'-Idr "'r.>OSltlOl 0'1 to IIr
firsl-htlrHI lOll! With &lvlet phllOi';h .(s. !>.i01 can r l':.! {Nerem.
phdSis(' the (nrc of the fa I, of :lUrse II the worle.: oJ
the nation which has hUiIt I. hsm <m.:i (lilted ,ur So ..- et stdte,
one of Ihe mdJnsldYS of wnho!! p)hcy respe t k . _ :J£.>pendence
of other Stdtes tlnd other peoples, cam
on the pdt! of Pdklstan's intellrgcDiSlc..
t: ev)k. Ihe ke nest mtNi'sl
I - 10 , .... h)w uterested th9 It gdve our delegation great p ...
people of Pakistdn were In all aspects of Me :he s.., .. ·.el linlon. In
the economic dnd cuiturdl achie"cmenl5 of Ihe So. et people., d
• ed lh the \\Cork of the PC»!ld ..... "r. Punjdb dn V\e were acqudllli .... ,
Dacca Universilles. VISited the Unh'ersrly of Karachi and M'veral. rese
went 10 a number 01 .secondary schols, spoke at
arch IIlstilutes there.. h of the So"lel phllo,;ophers' delelZallon.
receptIOns organised In hers and :arious pllblic talked
were the $!uesls of professors. eacwhere,'er we .....em, whome\'er we met,
to people to all walks of Ide. and bout the Soviet people. their life.
e e desire 10 learn more a
we saw a SIllC r . f Iheir phlloso;>hy, of educa-
their factories and collectne arms.
U "erslty and so forth. h
lion, I\loscow nn, h I assured Ihey ..... ould cheris
' oodbye 10 us. our os s
On g Ih and we could fee! thdt their
f their meetllljZs WI us,
the memory 0 h IS They lold us about their impre,;.
, ht from their ear . d
words c,lllle strdl!! Iher Soviet scholar,; dnd artisls who ha
. eetlngs wllh 0 Ih I
SLons of therr m " I and asked us to pdSS on the messdge a
visited P,lkistan pre' IOUS y, not only to Karachi, but to other
Htlsls to come
they would like our, d th I they would welcome more frequent
I e - III Pakistan well an., d 10" The)' also asked us 10 transmit
CI I . S ,Ulu ae .
·1 b)' SOviet mUSICian . kers dnd young people III the SO\'1el
VISI s . t <ifl "or , .
reClings to sncn I " k d things we would gladly quote If space
lei . other III
' " The)' s,ud "Mlly
mo", .
II I d. ddmlre RUSSIan muSic ;)nd lIlera.
perml ('(. r k -!dll lo\'(' dll
TI [>el1ple III d knoW Pushkin, Tolsloy. Dostoyevsky
Ie classical. They
ture, espeCiallY

'OW a
f and

) (lnd Gorky. We regret that they do lIot know contemporary SOVIet
writers as weI!.
The talk we had WIth members of the Inslttu\e ul fsidlTIu; Culture
made a particularly deep impression on liS. \\'l' WPre rordidlly receIved
by our venerable hosts. The iOIlR dISCUSSIon !hdt enSiled tllrned mdinly
on problems of religion and philosophy. We nllRht say that (here We
saw with our own eyes how freedoill-ioving. democratic idea!:. can becomE:
interlocked 1Il peculiar ways WIth reliRious concepts. But we were
convinced once agdin that differences in the outlOOk of the Peoples of
different countries with different SOCial, economic and political systems
do not rule out the POSSIbili t y of their working together for peace,
democ ratic institutions, and progress, dgainst war, colonialism and the
other ulcers of modern capilalist civilisa tion.
We were highly stimulated by our excursions to t he anCient cunu-
ral monuments of Pakistan, t he delightful old buildings of its towns, the
pictllresque and unexcelled Shalimar Gardens, the magnificent tomb
of Jahang;r in Lahore, the museums with their rare collections of
miniatures and ancient bronze and stone statues. We were sorry that
time was shorl and we could not more ,than a cursory view of
But our most lasting impression will be that of the talented and
industrious Pakistan people, all of whose deeds and thoughts bespeak
an insatiable desire for freedom, and just pride in thei r count ry and its
newly-gained independence. The people of Pakistan, like people all over
the world, want to live in peace With other nations
They are working
hard to consolidate the sovereignty and independence of their mother-
land and remove all obstacles in the way of its economic and cultural
The Soviet people share the desire of the people of Pakistan a nd
other countries for peace, freedom and a happy li fe.
• •

The Visit of aUf small group of Soviet philosophers to Pakistan, OUi"
partiCipation in the third seSsion of the Pakistan Ph' l h' I C
I asap ICi! (lDgress,
and our personal contacts with many '"P,"sentat r h t '
Ives a t e coun ry s
intellectual life offer convincing proof of the user I r h h
u ness a suc exc an-
ges and show how instructive rneell ngs belween ' 'II
. - SC.lentlsts and Inle ec-
luals of different countnes can indeed be Des t
- .. . PI e serious differences
and sometimes even Irreconcilable Contradiclions I k h
. - . -. In out oo', the exc an-
Res of opiniOn and ltvely diSCUSSions broaden th ' , d
. , en viewpoints an
ennch all those who take purt III the get-together< U II
... Sua y aside from
differences, there is also some commOn grOund wh '
ere all participants
in the international scientific forums can meet and
h P k
' t ' I get close. We nre
glad to note that all tea ani s and "nl II I
t: c.: uals whom it
,lle •. ui UI" tIl meet He oncerned, hke the Soviet people, With
0 111 .
II" m I)f thp lie/II e-fo.ll (oex ... Ience of nalions, SOCltll and
lilt' pr
) .- .
U ll nIPrrupt(>'i e (Jnr,mtr and cultural development.
stead y, '
.1\.1.E. Omelyano\O;ky, I.M. Muminov,
K.r-f. Froio\'
Reor n.e:) Voprosy
("Prob;erns of pi losophy" No 6, I(J5ti
Fourth Session
The fourth sesSIOn of the Paki!.!an Philr50phical Cungret .. look place
F h ry 15 tl, 17 1957 III the city of OdCCd. Edst Pakistan.
from e rua . , . SA
It was attended by scholars from the U.S.S.R. IndJa. the U. . .,
C d Egypt and other countries. In addition to ph'loc;ophers, there
ana a, . loo'sts historians. Pakist.:mi UllJ-
were also many SOCIO b
, • . . _ I" _ t!
h d
epresentatives of various sCientIfic, re Iglous an
verslty teac ers an f
other organisations. . f ther countfles, ourselves mclu-
All the delegates and VISitors rom a t of the Congress Prof.
I ceived by the secre ary .
ded, were warm Y re M Sharif, president of the Congress. paid us
G. Ch. Dev. He and Prof. M .. l. elin us as dear guests ",nd VOlshtng
a visit the very day we arnved, gre g
us success and well-being. b,ects. (I) The Nature of
s devoted to two su .
The fourth session wa . h It a- marked by great
, d (2) Reason and Fait. w " ,
SOCial Dynanll
an The plenary meetings, symposia
activity on the par t of the delegates II' 'tended. Aside from their parti·
' gs were we a .
d ot her section mee tn I d n Soviet alld AmerIcan
an tngs the n la .
"pation in the Congress mee I . h _ fellow delegates and ill\'lted
bl- lectures for t elr . nd
delegates gave pu IC d t dents of the univers':les a
ests and also for the faculty an s u
gu, h I k· 'pubhc
other higher sc 00 s. _ of wide circles of Pa Istan s
The session focused the attentlon
b' the intelhgentsia and student
th keen lnteres )'
d was foilowe WI
an d ng from the Ouran and an
Youth . fler a rea I . r J
. UniverSity, a _ h'n'ellor the Chle us-
At the Dacca -t 's vlce-c "... .
h by the univerSI Y d the fourth session open.
, gural speec h d pronounce I
mau Amin A rna , r the presidium aO(
f EllSl Pakistan, the members 0
lice 0' were presented W . ev took the floor to introduce
Rower garlands -d nt Prof. Shant. Prof. D h made short speeches.
ess pre,,1 e , nd they eac
the Cong
visitors, a 'u n the delegate from
. d legates.. Soviet mo.
the foreign e hllosophef:oi of the ., work and expressed con-
lf of the p ceSS 111 I 5
On beha ° d the session sue ,hilosophiCdl problems by
S R wl"he f curren p
the U.s. ' ° -OInt discussions 0 ould cultural lie.s betwee,l
fidence that J " lit coUtllneS YI understanding and coope-
f om c\w
. promote III
scholars r those countries, 109
the peoples of

10W 0
s the
1 the
, other

i1 and

. . ,d",neillg /l/lilosophicdi thought, and contrrbute to the 0," ratIon III • "
raj mo\"emenl for world peace.
AK. Brohi, who presided at the fourth session, gave il talk, and he
was followed by the president of the Pakistall PhIlosophical Congress
M.M. Sharif.
The speakers at the sympoSium on reason and faith were Athar
Rasheed, principal of the Government College (Quelta). Kazimllddin
Ahmad, professor of the department of philOSOphy and PSYchOlogy
at Dacca University, Prof. AbdUl Qayyum of the Islamia College
(Peshawar). and M. Hye, principal of Ihe Rajshahl Government
At the symposium on the nature of SOCial dynamics, the speakers
were Prof. KG. Newman of the Dacca University politIcal SCience depart_
ment, Dr. S.M,H. Zaidi of K<lrachi UniverSity, B.A. Dar of the Institute
of isl<lmic Culture (Lahore), PrOf. K.M. Jamil, head of the department
of philosophy at the University of Rajshahi, and Prof. Fazlur Rahman 01
the department of philOSOphy of the Sind MUSlim Col1eg
preSident of the Congress section on the philOSOPhy of religioll.
The follOWing lectures were delivered before largE' dlldlences of
guests, university profeSsors and stUdents: Prof. Goheen of Sldnford
University in the United SllItes, Oil the Philosophy of History; Prof.
v.F. Berestnev of the U.S.S.R. Academy of SCiences Institule of Philo.
sophy all the MaVin!? Forces of SOCial Development; the indian dele.
Rdtes, Oil the of PhilOSOphy and The Ind;\':dual and CUlture.
Th, So"" d",.", "'0 P"'''''d , P'pe, "DeI',"'ini,m 'nd Te/,%_
gy", prePdred for the Congress by Prof. T. I. Olzerman of Moscow UniverSIty.
/, Ih, I"P'" 01 Ihe P,'''''"' Philo,oPh,,,, 'oCi" philo,ophy,
meld physics and the PhilOSOPhy of reliRion were viewed
/'om U" pO",ho,,, 0/ .d"h"n ".d Ih, "h,.oo, phUo,ophy 01

It is genC'r<lliy known that 11\ counlries like Indonesld dud i'akistdn
Ih, ideology 01 /"'m h" fo, '/nil, • lo,g ho" 'ow pJ'Y'd • _ di"mol
m/, in U" mov'''',,1 ""'''1 oolO,i'lis
ood fo, n",o,,,, eqo./,Iy "d
so"''',nly, .nd Ih'l " " st,1I "'y impon,OI m Ihe 1,/, of U,"" cOUlitries.
Th, P>edom"""" of ""' ideology hos """y "Ooe''''d Ih'
de",op,,,,,, 01 II" 'P",'"" hI, 0/ P""loo, 'I, ph,'o,oph",/ ""nee
In his Pdpe>r On the slale and taSks of philos
h A K B I
P y, .. ro II, presl-
(h'lIl of tilE' fOurth session ot Ihe Pakistan hi' d
. ""-'P Ica Congress, VOIce
the OpInion Ihdl pllJlosOphy had relinqUiShed Its I
. . . OrmCr role as d source
(,f Wisdom alld humdllll'lrlalllsm, that it had (0 f .
r elted lis m{Juence JII
fhe modern wOlld and ceased to be lhe /
r a mankmd. instead,
s'"ience teaching peuple the me<1nm!? alld
an dcaclellllc ...
I become
f concep s. I this condition of phtlosop ly a ,
use a f the reasons or .. _.,
spe,k,ng ° d eenlu"" h,d be" ,mo" \
" "id Ih" Ihe p,eee mg I /'ith wh,,,,, 00' "OIo,y w" ""kly J
Bro,,' lIas centuries 0 , ked
tilers by Car Y e, of scepticism and atheism, au age mar
°k,owledged 1o be " m,ti,m ,"d ,mp"""m Ph,'"ophy h,d
a the wide spread of p g nd been divided up into dlflerent
," ""hly "d .":::eom',nolo,,, 1o, .. , "e. To be '"'"
h s· epistemology, P h of the science 01 ph.Josop y
branc of these Important branc t continued Brohl, one could
a measure of of vital syntheSIS. The task
help regreHing vitality and give it back its proper
a restore pula
noW was f
1, played in tile history a
place. descnbe the Man
A K Brohl went on to Hegel, and, finally, James. .
. . Kant, Fichte, Schelling, set Ihe hmlts <)f human
philosophy by d bled to Kant for havmg ""'SSIn" phase
·d was III e . cd as a mere,..... ,.
kind, he sal, h agnosticism Kant defln W ht If mdn wanted 10
knowledge. Bul I e I veiopment of human to break down
'" Ih, hi,,",y 01 I" Ih, wo"" )
reach a higher leve. sent consciousness. WI. f'ce on which
the elose bounds of hiS pre the only plane of expe'lc.·;hieve a new
I knowledge as Id have 10 0 1/'
of conceptua . Philosophy wou d I
'o",·,·ousness can function. . nd re£enerdte dn
• • d ,pint, a ..
eason dn . n"c
nthesis 0 Id of exoene" \
p the war .
accordingly. h us how to h\?hl u ut of Ihe m,lfal and
Philosophy nHist teac . d 11ft manklll_d 0 hy be Ihe
of the Splrtt - l<1psed. Phllosop Now WtlS Ihe
with the rays . which It has 1 f the spin\.
intellectual decline 1Il10
b rth into the worl( further l>Jlinludt evolu.
's secon I of mcln s
midwife of man de an instrum
time for It to be ma s Sacidt Dynamics: po:a.
an's IXiper wa I problem ilS 11e
tion. f KG Newm !I sldte<1 1 s f SOCI. The
t tie of Pro. .. Slate anc I the matst 0
1 in the ' tahilily In the
EqUllibTlU/ll stltulionaJ S of past history,
rities and I and con. hort survey A,,-. tolle had onl.e h l
or poJltlca hiS s I I,) and., II.
searc From h t what P a hIe 10 eXIst WI . "'Y
dynalllic forces. on I d t being a
w the conelusl sociely no. cooper<llion III
speaker dre the stale and harmonIOus for Ihe pres.
postulated aboul t sses and and Irue
out functional. c a ace was stl f IIbelt)' alll:
f SOCial pe h concepts 0
interests 0 dVi.lnced t.. e_ . .. r cedom dill.!
. Ilad d •• - .. [ fralernlty. I
ent day. Revolullon concept 0 . . opmion, and so It F
ench 10 Ihe h s.uu.;:er S I"
The r _" Ihem s \"e In Ie· H )htl('s conSI( ....
nd W..... exclu I, Ihe two. Thomas , equality a nutuaJlY reconCllc
. were I Iy 10 III equahty fra
devolved upon

I /lle
I other
I and

n'y JanguaRe the passions heeded. huw{'ver. fhe trldll", ...
red [orce leo .. '"
Iy and fraternity Ihercfor(> Ildd 10 be SIIPport(>(j by
of liberty, equa J
force and made a rectangle.
After examining various forms of government (mondrchy, oliRarC'hy,
) P,o
f Newman concluded Ihat the most desirable Irom th!:
democracy, .
standpoint of the satisfaction of all human ne.eJs and the stability 01
I was a
"'onslitulional government combllllng dll fOur
socle y ... '.
The true art of successful government was hndinR a dynamic equihbriunt
in Ihe gn.'en sitUation at the given time.
Prof. Newman's attempt to outline the foundatLons oi SOCial
dynamics wenl no further than general <ibstractions. There was practl.
cally no analYSis of concrete forms of government rUle. The general
tendency was to Justify modern class relations in it.e covntnes
and bourgeOis democracy, the latter being allegedly capable of enSUring
the stability of the state and social progress by mailltalning <In equili.
brium of Social forces.
Prof. Goheen of the United States brought an idealistic apprOach
to Ule subject of the philosophy of history. The speaker beRan by
that the problems of the philosophy of hislory, Very important and com-
plicated problems today, were being elaborated in tile of Toynbee\
historical and Sociological conception. HisloTlcal events were
interpreted by different philosophers ant'! only the futurp could say
which of their appraisals was correcl. H:storical knowledge was there-
fore rather relative.
Prof. Goheen's efforls to analyse the problems of the philOSOphy of
history laid bare the inability of modern idealism 10 explain the laws
of histoncal development. That -idealism rests on the poslti(..n of sociolo-
gical agnosticism and denies the Very POSSibility of knOWing and usinJ;!
the objective laws of SOcial development.
Many of the papers and speeches of the delegates were inspired
by the Ideas of modern neo-Freudianism, POsi tivism (Ind other trends of
Subjective Idealism.
The philOSOphy of religion and philol;Ophy of Isltlm Were !,!'iven a
bi.'! place in the deliberations. The paper "PhilOSOphy and Religion" by
Dr. K.M. JamB proceeded from the idealistic premise that philosophy
and reliji1ion were not distinctly differentiated Ilelds. In the opinion of
Dr. Jamil, modern science tended increaSingly to admit the existence of
fields of knowledge lying beyond the reach of SCience, whereas pOi-
\osophy did not countenance that View. Speaking of SCientists who tned
so hard 10 mterpret religiOUS expenence in close connection with physi.
cal and SOcial realities, Dr. Jami\ Said that the intereSI of in
"".,on was .,vmg n,w hop, 1o tho" who wanl," 1o ,man"pa"
hum,mly ['om Ih, "owmg mnu,n" 0' mat'''a''sm. Enoou".Od by Ih,
,d"'''I" oondus<ons o[ ""'m ""nl"Is, oono'u"ons wh"h '" pow".
, ,HolJ\ems of SCience, Dr. Jamil voiced the hope Jilin the new ..
lesS to cxp ledo to dn olliance of philosophy and rehf/lon. .
",I this would " Ihe fanaltcilim, intolerance and persecution
U' I condemneu _ h
Dr Jaml the Middle He asserted th.t Muslim philosop ers
f sCientists In then. to explain the nature of the real 'Worlel.
done morc thdn .dn,y 01 Muslim philoiophy on Europe
. t was precise y .
lind that I h s irit of rlltionaitsm there.
that had bolstered t e t: s ak of the role and signrficance of fslamlc
He then :--ent on !led ':e sole and unique road to true knowledge.
mysticism, which he cia, was regarded by Pakistani philosophers not
'nl,d out that s am as a sort of uO\versal
He pOI h'l hy but more
"y as a religious p I asop , 'Ihe social political and spiritual
m' g all aspects 0 , ..
I encolllpasslll . f 11 human acltvlty.
:,g;od"y-,: ,o"o'ogisls,
The great ac IVI . I ed in their efforts to sprea _ _ I
.. h'storians have dlsp ay .t special attention. Sovle
the ideology of Islam :re engaged in the study
of an d Orientahsts-w a nt them.
philosophy and its
of the developmen 'th the key points of that I 'th popula-
selves WI . Ie in countries WI ,
status and ItS fO h
contemporary d paper entilled "On I e
tions. V F Berestne
rea a _ d-ffered tn its
Soviet philosopher .. I" Although It I -t
SOCial Developmen. fundamental problems I
MOVing Forces of. I position and tn, other delegatES, the So",.pe".:
underlying ideologlca and speeches 0 per respect for
sed. from the papers d rnterest and pro
'th profoun en
was received WI . I delegiltes were glv
'fi achievements. sian the Sovle ,-'lolars, heads oi
scienh c . d after the ses
Pakistan: '- f
Both dunng an I and conler WI d other 0
Iy to mee tudents an
the opportum bl"shments, s f
. educational esla I. Sharif. President 0
h,gh" Iry's ;nl.Jligoo""· ,," wah ",of. M. hi/osophi",1 "i.n"
the coun of our long the state 0 P need to
In the highlighted Soviet
Ihe Pakistan its prospeclS, wehilOsoPhers of Pakistan haed the highest
in Pakistan an !acts between the hers of Pakistan allac
delegation in
slrengthen coSnharif said Ihe phil:
ihe Soviet contacts, which
- Prof. . -patlon ed that sUU'
Union. he parltci . ns and urg . hbouring coun-
importance to I Congress philosophers of nelg
k of Ihe b tween
the wor peratiO
e t were greatly Inte.
promoted COO lhened. the scholars of PaklS an lves wllh the state
tries, be noted thatwlshed to acquaml U.S.S.R. They also
Prof. u.s 5 R. higher education \,IOSOPhY, Islam, and
rested LIl t IS of sCIence ut our study of Ara P
and prospe<: VI more abO
wanted to kno 11:3
so on.

t 196,:

now a
. Her
IS the
n the
:l a/her
51 and
We found Ollr informal talks 'nth IIld I<hull'ltl; Ill.:hlv
1l1uffiinatmg. Through them we had thc oppurtunity to 'I, re JI v.",.
on problems of Uleory; Ihey gave us d bC'tter idt'd 01 he Ih?\'t. rln.l!n.
of philosophy dnu theory as well as the conuiti('lfls lor SClen'l,lf work
in Paklstan. dnd its progress in the fields of publi<' edll< ,illlln hlNdturl
art, elc.
After the session in Dacca, we went to I...lhoH' to oh!.\'!vl' the Sy.
stem of teacher and student training at the university <lntl thl' 1(,<lChlnl.:
of philosophy and olher subjects there. \\-e hdd mdlly \\'1Ih the
members of Ih£! philosophy fdC'ulties of Lahore Unin'fSitr dlld Ihe (IQv.
emment College; on one occasion we \'ll'WS on vctriou$
problems of philosophy, psychology, logic, and so on. Uur hOSt5 ex.
pressed Rred! inlerest in the study of the history of philosophy under
way in the U,S.S.R., especia!ly the history of Arab philosophy, dnd dlso
the study of psychology, Pavlov's ideas, our teachillj.! of 10,(1i(', etc. We
were told that the university programme for the Sludy of
now included a course students with Ihe founddlions of di.
alectlcal materialism-alon-g: with the other philosophical systems.
\Ve answered many questions, from the faculty members dnd also
from the sludents, about the Soviet system of sClenlJhc and
personnel. the problems on which Soviet philosopher,. were
working, psychology, SOCIOlogy, logic in the Soviet UnIOn. elc_
Great interest was expressed 10 the status of sCIentists and teachers
10 the U.S.S.R., the organisation elf their scientific and 50("ial activities,
their material POSItion, their teaching and research loads, etc.
It was our pleasure to meet with SCientists, sludents and journalists
in Pakistan. We must say that these sections of the intelligentsia play
an important role in Pakistan's social life and exerl a Rleal mOuence 011
other sections of the POpulation. The country's young
a high degree of SOCial and political activity. This is particularly
t rue of the students of East Pakistan, who are taking part In the strug-
gle for Ihe uemoCralisation of their country, the improvement of the
people's liVing conditions, in the siruggle for peace.
We would be remiss if we did not aCknowledge the interest the
Pakistani scholars and heads of the Philosophical Congress showed in
the Soviet delegation and the soliCitude and Courtesy With which they
surrounded us ali during our stay in Dacca and Lahore
The main conclUSion to which this Summary of ;he work of the
fourth session and our actiVity there POints is Ihat OUr visit and parti-
Ci]}atlOn in thai session were undoubtedly useful As ",. I Ih
• , • y
ened our ties With the philosophers of and'i I I d h
.. u SO nl 1.1 dn I e
other counlries represented at the session Particul"ly
. Important was
the of contacts with students of the Phil0SO h (I I .
So h , Pyo sam,
wil! help viet sc olars to arnve at a deeper an I I .
-. . ( C oser acqualll-
tann· WIth thf' role, influence and evolution of this ideolo I
gy, so popu ar
,I th,.
I !, PI .p
,I ,.
h. I·
" >
II Po> .,
'" "
he J.rab
" .
., h
h. n
k h
I , hil
11, h' (
, ,
, .
lUi .t ud y h' h
I_ tors
l<,VC1nOIl ...
of IIIl" t h.VI' 14 LJI (I III he \1('''.
TIlt' ("Oil WI" t jllHosop f'
[1l( rlLcllldll()1l "
,n Iulun' IIlluh 10 I)(' L(!S ,,,et 'me
I the t nRre r r.' 1 I
(l , _I 11 lIldwtc, 1)111"111,\1151 51' 1
to IOU' ,

1 Or'cn 11
, ", 01
Buddhism, I'te I, ,
, L('hIPVJlI)! dose( re a I( s
11111 itlC'l,)[s ,11 , I P', tabu ndld.
Im[>01 ' I ' I" frorn the ·'hol.ns I) dr> s
"'PI11(-'l1t 0 VISI., R I • trip'
are the t'U("OIlTtI" I . s f till' Edst) 10 till' ! S
. , I otill'r {'(lun riC 0 . nt! so oogisls
Indonesld dnl h ' sludents )f I"w e,f the
by Soviet phl\osoP, us, ol:
countries, od the c. .!On
to Pakistan, IJl(ild dnd f blications betwe. n the ..., 11•••.
systematic exchange 0 pu V_ F. /krcsln('v
R! p. tl J fro:n
ill iO/ii, X . 1957
Eighth Session hi al Congre5$ met in
f Ihe Pakistan Phllosop , " epresented
The eighth session 0 l.j 1961. The roreif:n Germany
J ary 11 to ' .\ R Indld \\ e",
Karachi from anu he U.s,S.R., U.s.A. U ... '.'ion' stood out from
by delegates included t d the Lebanon. ThIs sO;'» , respect to the
F e Ceylon an II -n Pakistan III ,
Belgium, ranc, annua Y I, 'der publicity gl-
--ons coov ... , d and Ihe w
the preVious sessl 'Is it attracte
f parllc1pan .
reater munber 0 me four sectlOns
I e country. ed monj2 the S<I .' .
ven it inside t I ssion WdS diVid a . hilosophy and
The work of the se ie and meldphYSICS, P 1llere were two ge-
as in preViOUS years: mordls dnd and the methodo-
psychology an.! educ,1 of the llallOna
roblems 'bT ty
I symposia on P ,reat respenSI 1 I
nera h idea that a ,_ the
logy of psychology. essioo was I e ormous discovenes III
of the s 'mes of en _ of the
The keynote . in our lIn the countnes
devolves upon social said Dr. B. A.
natural sciences back. the Wh,e;':raChi. in his speech of
"\loJe canno ily 0 h d been no a va
world h Univers 'f there d k
cannot work Ie<hnology and space roc •
10 the delegates. 'I revolution, no def of things,"
science, no Ihe Stdg
or 1/5
elry, no diSS01u I
n 196·;

now 0
. Hcr
/ Pnki-
i5 the
In the
d other
61 ofl;l

On Ih(' who/p, COlllempOr,Ii'Y 1\,kisl,rlU philosophy II d1d:ctdt'fI< -rl
hy Ib lueulistic, religIOus IsldmiC' Ir('ud orll'Il!('d 011 SUnh' 01 lh,. 10[(,.
most phi!().<;ophical idealists of th(' We ...1. TIu' P.lkiSI,1I11 pllJlnsopht'[s U,"_
sldnlly referred to Henri Bergson, S.ulluel Alt'XMldt'r. John D('w(.y,
\\',!1idm Jdmes, Alfred \\'hltehcdd, Bt'rtfdlHI Russ('!i <llId uther \'\"':;I£.'fl1
scholars. AccordIng 10 some 01 the spedkt'ls, Ill{' P,lllWlh 0/ Ilhlh'T!dh. 'n
was INdiO!? to mOTdl and spmllldJ <lnurdlY. As uPr>os('d It I Illdl
the}' ('dlled for dn alliance of pllllo!'iophy dlld sCil'n('(', With
re:nforced by a ralional <In:! prdRllldh: philosophr <J
leading roJe in Ihls alliance.
But life ROes ahead, and desplIe the overill! idedlist trend, the CiJ,!hlh
session, IJke the seVenth before it (which the ,HI thor of these lines
also attended). showed Ihat elemerHs of materialism were 10
ilp}X':dr sometimes inadvertently, at other tImes deliberately, in tlle work
of the Pdkistani scholars, especially the younger ones. One of the
speaker:; mucle the progressive point, for instance, thut religious, biola.
RiC<.ll, racial and language factors could not be conSidered decisive to
the formation of national character. Durmg the dISCUSSions on the
methodology of psychology there was conSIderable Criticism of the
premises of logical POsitivism and Freudianism, which many of the Pa.
kistdni scholars judged to be groundless and of little Use to the science
of psychology.
On the o:her hand, both they and their at the ses.
lOlon stressed the importance of I. P. Pavlov's contributions to psycho-
The leaning towards progressive modern philOSophical thought
was also felt in the Way the speeches of the SoViet SchOlars were reo
celved. Whether the subject was national chdracter, changes in the so-
Cla.! of the U.S.S.R., the development of PSychology in the
U.S,S,R., or OUr Work in the field of Oriental philOsophy, Our papers in.
vafldbly drew large and ·nl t d
I eres e audIences and innumerable questions
from the floar.
Our tdlks with the prominent P<1klStalli philosophers M M Sharif
M. lii.Jmlduddm, G. Ch. Dev, F. Rahman S Z Ch dl " ,
h " , .. au HII)' and other
('nfle ed Our l/lSlght into mOdern Pakistan PhilOSOPhy Many schola r ..
expressed reJ,!rets that so few So· h' '
able III translar h Viet p Jiosophicat Works were avail-
AI! th . Ion, ampenng acquaintance with them.
er e seSSIOn, the SOViet delegates y V S
(JdnY<lOts dnd yOur auth . . . . horokhoviI, M. T. Ste.
' or VISIted the towns f Lah h
where they dlso p"''''"ted 0 ore and Pes awar,
Reprlllted from
v. S. Scmyonov
Veslnlk AN 5SSR
("BUlletin of the U.S.S.R. Academy of
SCiences"), No.5, J 96J
Fifteenfh SeSSion
Th .. h'II-cull! ,IIIIIUdl (If thl! Jlulustdn Phl106llphiCdI COIIRrt'!S
111I't JI tilt! IInn'Nltlty flf I(dl!lhd/Ji III MdY J')fjfJ. This Wd!:i illtP.II'
dl"J hy d :"10VII:>1 d .. II"bltlon (If lire: 't v (" nklJ'.sky. Y \' SliM").
khoViJ ,Inll A F KfHOtJkfJV.
III thl' c/Juir ,11 ttw fifh ....·/llh /ifOSSlfm Sdt the womdll prt'SJ(Jenc
Akhldf Imam, Jln,fl.'SSfJr of phllf)s()phy at Ihe- Unlver:;lty of Dacca. The
dlstJllRuishpd f.IJ/OPUlly fll Pdkist4ni phllos(iph(!'rs dud scholars who took
part in Its work includp.d Dr, M, Ahmed, Pres;dent of the Palustan Phi.
10sophic,1I tlnd professors (JaIl .\1, \1. Abdul Hye
and C. A. Qddir.
In addLtion to the symposIa on "The Philosophical Basis of the
Ideology of Pakiswn" and "The Concept of Person in Contemporary
Thought", there were also Ihe meetings of the sections on logic and
metaphYSiCS, psychology and ethiCdI and SOCIal philosophy
and the philosophy of religion.
The predominant place given !o the problem of the
basis of the ideology of Pakistan was to be explained by the deme
of official government dIld philosophical circles to prove that the state
unily of the divisions of Pakistan, inhabited or peoples of dlnenng
national, ethnic and linguistic affiliations, hinged on a common Ideolo-
gy, The discussion of Ihis problem was oot WIthout I!S pracllcal Impll.
cations, considering the evidence of separatist tendenCIes both J/l West
and in East Pakistan.
, declared Islam the biJsis of this The speakers at the symposium .
. I f r PakiStan and the best SULted religion for It.
common Ideo ogy 0 h hi d t to
'b d that the vital core of Islam t al ('noll e I 8 H SiddIqi 0 serve , r
" ·d I ' I role was a monotheism radically d,stinct rom erform its I eo oglca, . . ,
Ph' of such religions as Christianity of Judaism. none
the monot elsm ,. A Ih
b 'I I ned with social reform movemen.s. no _ h· I h d ever een I( en I I .. .
of w IC I a f Islam in his view was its assocIatIon With
er distinguishing feature o. I and eoon;mic Justice. B. H. Siddiqi
'd r humanism i:QCld 0
the L eas 0 , ._ t that a close bond existed between Islam
d took to demonsu a e d
o.lso un er . Ih t the SOCial Justice and humanism espouse
mmumsm, except a
an co the eternal laws of the Ouran.
I had to rest on d th I
by Is am d there were many speakers who argue 11
h other han , ..
On len had assumed in Pakist<l!l ,today It could not sene
in the form Islal e the ideologiC<.l1 basis of the stale, It would
' I Y To becorn
et as an Ideo og. 'a 10rm comprehenSible to the people and Its
esented III ..
have to be pr . tep with modern SCientific and techntcal pro.
. brought JIlto s
r('ss. , I., mission assIgned to Islam, many speakers
f the sLng
. .
In view 0 f their way to defend It agalllst the thrusts of
' went out 0 h
!It the sesSIOn he .keynote of the papers presented at I e sym.
. This wdS I
now 0
. Hc!
s the
n the
J othc!
po..llUll (>11 'ThE> Cuncept of III Cl>1l1l-'mpnlM), Ih", 10
,hdrdctefJslll' \1(.'1Il)! ProL Inhllll'S lOtrodllclmy p,'I'('f I WlllC 1 hl' )1 "!h\
10 IH(lH' lh'" rooson or COIlSCIOllSllt'SS CdrHIO\ he ('\pl • It' I )y lh,' n
tUfdl SLWIlC{,S and Cdn only he Ull(\l'rstoo.1 hOIll tht' st,lldPOlllt )f fl'
II!:!ious dOl!mas an approd'l, she did not bdrk up wtlh Illl)" so It'IIILIJ(
arRumenls. by the way_
DUrlUg the .!;essioll the members 01 Ihl' SO\'!('! dl'le\!.IIItIll I,,,k p
in Ihe discussions of the P<lpers and spel.'Chcs ,md dlso lurthNl'd till'if
contacts with the scholar!' ..... ho hdd COIllt' to R<lJsh<lh: from tllffPH'nl
parIs of Pakistan. Eadl of the Soviet delcQat('s Rd\'(' d llullllwr of puillic
lectures in Rajshahi dnd Dacca.
.,- r !\(\frbko\
Repnnted flom Voprosy liIosOUi,
No.9, 1968
Marx K" EnRt'ls E, "Mdndf!'iln of the ':':()mmUnls! Party" Sclrctrd
Works in Two Volumes, vol. I. Moscow. 1958.
:Vlarx K., "Moralizuuyushchaya knLka moral",
K. Marx dncl F Engeb, ColirCIf'd Work .. [21 d Ed.). vol. 4. Mos.
cow, 1955.
Marx K., "Doklad generalnor;:o soveta 0 prave nasledovaniya", K. Marx
and F. Engels, Coliectcd Works, vol. 16, 1960.
Engels E, "Yuridichesky sotsialism", K. Marx and F. Engels, Collec/ed
Works, vol. 21, Moscow, 1961.
Engels F.. "Spf>cial IntroductIOn '0 the Enl!!lsh Edt;o:: (.! ·So-.db.)
Utopian dnd $cicnti hc''', K and F. Engels. Selected Works
in Two Volumes, vol. 2. P!:"iH
Engels E, Engels to C. Schmidt, October 27, 1890, K Marx and F. En-
gels, :'elcclcd WOfhs in Two Volumes, \'01. 2, 1958.
r"larx K., Engels r., Thc Fi/st IndlQll Wal 01 Independence 1857-J859,
Moscow (s.a).
Lenin \'. I., "How the So< Idllst·RevoiutiOflar:es Su;n. Up :he Re\·ol.utlOn
and How Ihe Revolution Has Summed Them Up Collec/cd \\ olks,
vol. 15, fI.·losco ..... , 1963. .
Lenin V. J. "ClasseS and Parties ItI Their AttItude to Religion and the
Church" Collrclcd \rorks, vol. 15. 1963, .
L - V I :'Th AWo:lken:n£ of ..\5:a". CoJ/ectcd \\ arks. vol. 19, 1963.
l en.m V· I -, "Thee Slate Revolution", Col/ecled WOlks, vol. 25, 1964.
y' 'I' "I perialls'm, the Highest Stage of Capitalism", Col/ec/ed
enUl .', m
Works vol. 22, "E Aid
' Y I' "C ",pectus of Feuerbach s Book xposltlOn. na YSIS an
enm '" 0 of Lelbmz' ",-Collected \Volks, vo\. 38
Critique of the PhilOSOphy ,
.1963. "cond Cougress of the Communist international",-Co/-
LeJl.itI V. I., Se 31 1966
Iccted WOlks, vol. '. f ihe Communist International".-Collec/cd
Lenin V. I., "Third Congress ()
Works. vol. 32, 1965.
Memoirs, Political Pamphlets,
Articles, Speeches
IVins Freedom.
:\n Au/obioglaphical Nartath'c,
Azad A. K, Indio
So '''Y 1959 I of J"'I"e",-Th .... Pokiston Times,
I' isian1ic ('oncep "" ... ...
22. II. 1963. 's COllcr)t of God's Mercy",-The Pakistan Times,
Faz\_j_Hamid. "Islam
I. 111. 1%3.

I J96·;

now a
Is /he
n /he
:l other
61 onJ
"!be SPirit of .. IS. IiI, 1%3
/"a:r/·j·ll,lIllld .. Il-had 111 I:-'/,IHI. r.1I '(//,1.\[01/ 111/1.'" ?!'. 1\ Iii "
Jtnlldh M .. Speeches and \\'filings, Lahore, 1950, >.
Jmnah M., Speeches as Governor-General 01 1947-1948 .
. "'d·
Tach: (s. a.'.
Khan M. 1., "Difference of Ideologies: Islamic ilnd Western. .. I I
• S atnir Rel'iel\", \'01. X,XX\'JIJ, 1960, No ....
Lel/efs 01 Iqbal to Jinnah, Lahore, 1956.
Malik A. M., Labour PfOblems and Polic}, in Pakistan, Kdrdchl, 1954
:\faudoodl A A., Political Theor}, 01 Islam, Rdmpur (
MdUdoO(h A A., Nalionalism and India, Palhankot, ,(j,17
MdUdoodl A. A., Convocation Address, Rampur, 1951
Maudoodl A A., The Economic PlOblcm of 'Ion and lis Is/amic So.
lution, Rampur, 1954.
MaudoodJ A. A., The Ethical View-Point 01 Is/am, Rampur, 1954_
Maudoodi A. A, Islamic Law and Constitution, Karachi, 1955.
Maudoodi A A, The ,""lessage 01 Jamaat-i-Islami, Lahore, 1955.
Maudoodi A. A, The Oadiani Problem, Karachi, 1956.
Maudoodi A A, Process 01 Islamic Revolution, Rarnpur, 1959.
Maudooli A A, The Blessings 01 Humanity,. -The VOice of Is/am,
vol VIII. 1960, No. 12.
\ faudoodl A" "Political Concepts in the Ouran", The Voice of h/am,
\'01. IX, 1961, Nos, fl, 7.
M:ludoodi A A., Towards Understanding Islam, Delhi, 1961.
Mufakklr, '!\lasser's Islamic Sociali<:rn",' -The Pakistan TImes, 31. iJ!1.
14, IV 1963.
)JI _)4 ..... · ... ..
"'" J J.r.J
I' ., t - )y> 'Y - JJJ -'"" - J.>-:'''
I" , I -JY:>'Y - .i.e ... -I$JJJ.J'" .u;"::l,,-!I -'-:-
" .,. JY:> ':} - j ..:..::s::i:.... lC .. _ I$J J J.J'"' J! t .1::_
-)J<'Y-\f'":A_1 rlk; <J1k __ \.PJ'J- <!J'Y"I ",..
I"" 01,}-0L;. .1::-
. ..
"- -
Philosophical Works
A 01 ·"'Iuslim Plll/oSOPhy, ed. by M M
I. 1(6), wII, II, 1%6. _ .
Sharif, Wiesboden, vol.
Ahmdd A . "Sources of Iqbal's Perfect Man"_
Ahmad K D" "Re.lson and Faith",_ vol. 11[, 1958. No. I.
I, 19')8, "JI)_ .J. PhIlOSOPhical journal, vol.
.\IUll,ld 'fI.1 ( Till' I'III/f), f)flhy 01 tho Tf'(J('hinll.'1 0/ lsI '" h.
Inn 1'1.',:.
., ·=····,'.2·
A/nldl M.,. ','/WllII1II1H1 dllll J;lhl(!i" 1'100/, Vol II, IIJ()(), No.1.
All S_ A, 'r hI' )1 "<ilk Ian", vol. VIJI, 1959, No.1
Azral D. !-.-l, "NdtJOlldl ("JMrdc:lj'r". Pahi.,'an Phllosoph/ral Journal, VOl,
V, 1%1, No. I.
Azral D. M" "Plillosophy
Brohi :\. K. "In D"rl'jI(j'
Choudhurl S,Z" "Hf:clsrlll
vol. I, 19.')B, No. J.
III blsl i'dkisldfl",_ 1962. t\o 2
l{plt1!:on" Pahis/an, vol. V, No.2
,Hid [..11111" Phi/asophiw/ JOUrnal,
Dar B. A., "The Ide,1 of S,11'1II Ifl IqlHI and MJlion",_ -Iqbal.
f, 1952, No. I Vol,
Dar B. A., "Intellect d/lll [lIlIlltUJ/1 III dnd Suhs' ,_ Iqbal. vol, IV,
1956, No. ;J,
Dar B., A, Thought 01 },ayyid Ahmad Khan, Lahore, 1957. ,
Dar B. A, "Philosophy in Pdklstan", ·Pakistan, 1959, No.3.
Dar B. A., "What Is Islami<.: Culture?"" Islamic Cul/ure: a SympOsium,
Ka rachi, 1959.
Dar 8. A, Ouranic Ethics, Lahore, 1960.
Oev G. Ch., Idealism and Progress, Calcutta, 1952.
Dev G. eh., "A Glimpse of the Philosophy of the Future"
Third Session,
Pakistan Philosophical Congress, Lahore, 1956.
Dev G. Ch., "[dealism, a New Defence and a New Application", la.
hare, 1958.
Dev G. Ch., "Need of Philosophy ill the Modern WorJd,"-Pakistan
Philosophical Journal, vol. II, 1959, No.3. _ . ,
Dev G. Ch., "Basic Human Values",--Seventh Session. PakIstan PhIlo-
sophical Congress, Lahore, 1960.. _ ".
Erfan N., "What Is Common Between EXistentialists and Iqbal ,-Nmth
Session. Pakistan Philosophical Lahore, 1962.
Hakim H. A., Islum and Communism, Lahore, 1954."
Hamid A, "The ,\ldter,dJisllc ConceptIOn of History -Iqbal, vol. 11,
1952, No. I. . R , 38
HamiduJlah M., "Islam and Communism",-The IslamIC eview, va. ,
1950, No.3. /. L h 1959
J Th Ideology 01 Pakistan ancl lis Imp/ementa IOn, a ore, '
lqbb. " '-,' TellC Development 01 in Persia, London, 190R
Iq a ,,,., • I I
hal M Islam alld A/lnlGd/sm, L.<1lore s. a,.
Iq M. "The Recons/ruction 01 RCliglous T/rought in Islam, Lahore, 1962 .
Iqbal., . Symposium, Karachi, 1959.
IslamIC CUI/UTC. a, , A ldr(>ss" . Sixth SC$sian, Pakistan P/rilosophical
Jilani G., "PresJdenlm ( ,
Congress, u,hore, 1959. . " p ,._ to Philosophical
I - G "Problems of NatlOllal Character, - an's n
JI dill., I III 1959, No.1.
Journal, Eleventh Session. Pakistan Philosophical
Khanum N., 1964
Man", Iqbal, vol. J, 1952, No. I .
Khatoon J., Jq 1 God /llan and Universc in the PhilosophIC
J The Place 0 ,
Khaloon·, b I Kardchi, 1963.
System of Iq a, d Education".- Pakistan Philosophical Journal,
Lan I "Psychology an
I f, 1958, No.3. d Social Change" -International Social Science
"Islam an •
Latif S. ., I V 1953, No.4.
Bulletin, upon Ihe Nature of Response",-Traditional
Mekhry G. ivL South.East Asia, 1958.
CuI/utes In

now a
$ the

n the
)l and
L..-,.rir ( :\. '\f".:I1
11 ()I lie ,l.ahott' Iq:'iti
W. C '\' Reason otnd Fotlth"
1(1)8, No i,
J'alil:slan I'lli/osuphJHlI
)Urll<J/. vol.
Q<idtr C A. 'Economic Dt,ye!\)pment <lut! l\lmdl \ dlut' ,
It $tan 13.1. 1963.
Til' Pu.
Udd:r c. A_, "Y)uth and
14. 1\', 1963.

Th\ Pull/stlln T '1lt'
Qitdir C'. A. Ex.istentialism. A Crlti('a/ Examination, I.lhoTc, 1965,
fJayym Human Yalth.'''· ,"cn'nll, Pili.
losophical Congre"s, Lahore, I9\iO,
Qureshi I. H" "The Problem ()( t\'ollionill Ch<lJad{'f",
sophical Journal, \"01. V" 1961, No, I.
RaflUddin 1\1" "National C'harllcter" Puki.,ton JOU/flO/,
voL V, 19tH, No. 1.
Rahman F., "Communism, Islam and Scienttfic Social Order",/s/amlc
Re\,/('I\', vol. 44, 1956, No.5.
Rahman r" "Challenge to Modern Ideas dnd Social Values of Muslim
Society,"- --Pakistan, 1958, No. L
Rdhmotn E, "Muslim Modernism in the Indo·Pakistan Subcontinent",
Bulletin 01 the School 01 Orient and Afric.'a L"'ondon, vol.
XXI, 1958.
Rahman F. 'Reality and Value' Pakistan Phi/osophl('ol Journal, vol
II, 1959, No.3.
R<ihnan r
"The Sell and Ideal"
o 3.
Philosophical Journal, vol.
RaJ.IT F t "-ltlstence, Notion of Self-Consistency and Tntuitton",-
Eleven/n Session. Pakistan Philosophical Congress, Lahore, 1964.
Rasbe_d \., R('i,!;on and Faith",- -Pakistan Phi/osopltical Journal, vol.
.I, 19: 3, .0 3.
C' 1 q K 'Basic Human \'<i]ues ,- Sevcn/h Session. PUhrstan Philo.
sophiClI Congress, Lahore, 1960,
Sadiq K.l
. 'Philosophy of Life",-Pakistan PhiJosopllical Journal, vol.
VI, 1962, No.2.
M., MarXism Of Islam?', Hyderdbad, Ill51
S:r1d.qt M" "SociaLs lie Trends in Is]am",-fr/bal, vol. L 1%2, No. I.
Siddlq .. \1., Whal h Islam?, Rampur, 1954.
Siddiqi M., "IndiVidual and Social Aspects of Morality",-Pakiston, vol.
II, 1959, No, 4,
Siddiqi M., "The Problem of National Character" -Pakistan Philosophi.
cal Journal, vol. V, 1961, No, 1. '
S. M. "Islam and Social Welfure", _ The Pakistan Tjmes,
12. X.
::iharif M._ M" l'!uslim Thought. Origin and Aehie\'cment, Lahore, 1951.
M. "Dwlectical Monadism",_ Tlte ConlC'lnpofOfY Indian
Plli/osophy-, London, 1952.
"-h, rif M. M. "The Good Lile and Cthzensh,p' -:::i,xlI, Sesl.ion Pakistan
Lahore, 1959, .
.if M. .. Iqbal and His Thought, lahore, 1964
h • f M. M .. hlamlc and EdU('Q/lonal Studies, L<thore 1964
'hi! f 1\1, -Studies ill Aeslhetks, lahore, 1964. ' -
Vanid A. Iqbal. Hi.'; Art and Thought, l.ondon, t959.
In/lor: IUion 10 Iqbal, Karachi (s. a.l.

:OJ .... ,
, ,
j' "".

, .
11 -'",

... ,
.lJ ,t..
\ II,. rt

" .

\ ... rh
,-,LA .. ,
\ .. I 'I j I T)-L:'"



. UT"" .L..
1 .. '\ r - I}"j ..... ...,n_
..... "
\ ... ' '\ -)Y> 'j - J '':l' 'r-4.
Works by Pakistani Historians, lawyers and Economists
Ahmad -\. :-'-1, LOI\' in Theory md Pn
Ahmad J., "Secular Demonacy and ISHmic Slate' T e I'll :('., ::
12. IV. 1963,
Ahmad M., Govell1ment and Polilics in Pakistan, 19SCI
Akhtar S. M., Tlte Economics 01 PakMan, Lahon 1951
Ali M. K" "Attempts to Stifle the Voi e of Pakistan,
mes, 3. V. 1963.
. ....
Azad M., The PrinCiples of Stafc and 'n Islal
Los Angeles, 1961.
Aziz A., Discovcry of PaJiislan. L:lhore, 1951. .
Aziz A., Islamic Modernism in India and Pal,slan
ford, 1961.
1157·1964, Ox-
Beg A., The QuiC'l Revo/ulion, KdfdCht. 1959,.
Brohi A. K., Fundamen1dl Ldll' Pdk:s:.:m !:'at I 'h
Choudhury G N., "The Isldmil' (oncep! of Slate n Pdl n ,
vol. VIII, 195B, r'\o, I,
Choudhury G. W" COlls(itulional in Pakistan, Lahore,
1959, r'_ I \ b" C 'I HJ'J ."
G 'V "Pdkisldtl under vetle"l ," yu . urrtn -30,.,. o\!( mf , •. ,
vol 40, 1961, No. 235. ,.
" A Islamic JuriSPlUdl'flC('. KlrdcJu,
Farukl K. ""II 'c Flmily Law in PakIstan III the Conll'ltt of Mo.
Farukt K. A, 5 a, in the World of Isldm' ,-Islamic Review,
dem RefornllS
vol. 53, No, 5, Economic Planninq. A Cas, Study 01 Pakistan,
Haq M., Thc .
,st!'n's New Dispensdtion' ·Commonwcalth JOurnal, vol.
Islam ., a
V, 1962'"N,O. 6',wd Tot.tlltoHidlllsm"
Khan M, I., Is am
Islami R('\'i('l\ \"oJ. 36, 1948,
No.3. . 10 &SI(, DemoNQer, KilTiU hi, 1960.
Khan S., An ·Forelgn Policy,
Kh S
an .,
raehi, 1961.

10W a
;) the
n /he
51 an;/
'ok is/an
\!os/('m .Va/iona/ism it! [milO PJkljlan, \\' :stlLlIJ;!ton 1%
Mdllk Ii. 'D po/Hirol Par/h.'s in ralliS/On. Lahore \fl.\.
.. I C I Sl U·'tUTf> of I ' "
' , G A ·'Ec()nOOllC.s ill I Ie :-.<,': <l . r m r lkl .<11
Par\("5 .
vol ,"Ill. 1 Cl58, 1'0. I . .
h'l H "The Concept of So.,Vt'c('I'!nly lInl EXN: It.v IOV In.
Qurcs I ,; p" 0 '('cdmgs of the 2m ,\f/·Pokislun rom 'al lonf("cn"
Karachi, 1952. _. _ .., _
'h I H The' Pakistani \\ or 01 Lik LIII.· t, 1:b7
QUTe5l .. , ,n' 'l I
Q -II I H Pakistan. An Is am/( erno, ral}. ,.\1,(11(> 1I.1I.),
' [' H "' The D('\'c/opmcnl 01 fndo-,\luslim Culture LlhuH' . d.)
ure5 l, .. h I' II I TI I '
Q h
' I H 'Islamic Elements In lE'O I 1(.\ 1\ of P<lkj.
ures J • -, , 'E ")'
stan", -Tradition, Values, and .sonD- ('onarnl( en' opm('n/. nur_
ham, 1961. _
Qureshi I. Ii .. ''The Background of Some. Trends In ,lsI,lm!C Political
Tradition, Values and Soclo·EconOrlll(' n('\'C'/opml'llt,
Durham, 1961.
Qureshi I. H., Aspects 01 tile Histor)', Cul/ure and RC'/iglon 01 Pakistan,
Sayeed K. B" 'The Jamaat-i-Isl?"u Movement Jtl Ptlklst,Itl",- Pacilit
Affairs, vol. XXX, 1957, No. I.
Sayeed K, S, "Collapse of Parliamentary Democr<lCY !Il PilkIS!,W' -Thc
.\lidd/(> Easl JouTllal, vol. XIII. 1959, No.4.
Sayeed K.8., Pakistan. The Formatl\'e Phase, 1960.
Sdyeed K. B., "Pakistan's Basic Democracy", _'liddle East Journa/, vol.
XV, 1961. No, 3,
Sayeed K. B., "Religion and National Building in Pakistan", -The Middle
Easl JouTlla/, Summer 1963.
Shafi M., Eleven Years 01 Lllbour Policy, Kaxadli. 1959.
Sulery Z. A. Whilher Pakistan, London, 1949.
Sulery Z. A .. Pakistan·, Lost Years. Being a Survey of a Deco/(: 01 Polilics
1948-1958, Lahore. 1962.
\ ' 0 'f )-,,,')I-./lii .r. ..,.r?,-.J ..::,_.d .. - Jl:J1 - J.
.. )J1 Jl:JI-0l..:.c1
- ''\oV- (
Official Documents
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Abbasids 48
ai-Afghani. Djamal ud·DlD. 23
Ahmad, Amin 109
Ahmad. Alhar t 10
Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam 53
Ahmed, M. 96, 111
Aird, J.5. 98
Alexander. S. t 16
Anikeyev, N. P. 11
Aristotle 35, 103, 104, III
Ashraf. M. 15
Aslam, Qazl M. 1OG-102, 117
Ala, Abul Kba5?n 87
Atrya. 8. L. tOO
8elayev. Y. A. 16
Bentham, J. 101
Berestnev, V.F. 110, 113
IIe,,,,,,,n, H. 29, 30. 37, 104, I,.
Bertels. Y.E. 28
B!I re lenet. P. 98
Binder, L. t 6
8mbl, A.K. 16, 45. 88, I lOt "'
Browne. E.G. 30
IS, 78. 117
103, III
110. 117
7-9, II, It,
</0, "'51. 68, 117,
12, 58,
;,;4D,;.I::' '03, III
A" 117. III
...... L 58, 511
til .... 3D. ...
.. .110
I. /flo
V'nill, \.1. 10.1, 10.'>, !HI;
1."\'I.str,uIMi, ('. 'lR
LiMIU.l! Ali Kh.m Hoi
I\fdh.ldl'vd J.'>
f-Iallk, AM, 78
f-Iahk, 0. 82
dl-M.HllUJI -Ill
Mallsoor, ft'rOle ud-Oin 15
Marx, K. 46, 58, 69, 74, 10.1,
H. Ih
MaudOO<!i, Alml Ala IS, 45, 47,
m, 82, 83, 87, 89, 91
Milton, J. 50
Muminov, Ulf 99, 100, 109
t. luhanlm,ld Ali 86
N('wmatl, K G, 110·112
Nif.>ILSCht' 30, 31, 37
Oizerllldn, TI, 110
Omelyanonky, t.1E. 99, 100, 109
Ostwald, WE 104
Pavlo\', I p, 114, 116
Perry, R. 56
Plato 35, 111
Plekhanov, G.'" 48
Polonskaya. LR. 10, 17
Pushkm 107
Qadir, C.k 40, 44, 117
(Jayyum, Abdul 55, 56, 110
Qureshi, IH 15, 16, 57, 84
Radhdkrishnan, S. 96
Rahuddin. M 57, 61
Rahman, Fazlur 38,110, 11 6
1{" .. AI ,II 40 110
H, 1M." II 101
II rlr.1Il1 I II,
S.ul"l, K!; )1
s..nt",'.lIld, (" II>
S.uYlti, 1'.1.,'\ 2.';
S"yt'\'d, K Ii. It>
S('hillp, P lUll
SI'IIlYll!lO\', V.S I IIi
\V :1,,>
Sh,lnkdl.j :15
Sh,mf, t.l.r..I. 15, :\.\ :Iii, :18, J!'l, 4!'l
51, (i i , 'hi. !'J7, ')'1, 10l), 110'
ILl,ll(i '
Sht>JnkhOVd, \.\ IUi,I17
Slddltti. IlH. 117
Siddiqi, Rd/.Jutldin q<:l
Sm(>I, RY, d(' 1(;
Smirnuv, 1'\ . .-\, irl
Smith, W.e 16, 17
Spinoza 103
Slep,IIlYdnls, M 9, Ilfi
Sulery. Z.A Iii
Tdylor, FW. 78
Tolstoy 107
Toynh('€" A.\, 112
\\'dl ulldh, Shdh 18·20
\VllItt'hl',1(1, A 116
YUrevich, L.l, 17
Zaidi, I. H. 110
CTtn.l ... " ..... M .. p ... :tlT.I THrp.l ... o ......
H C04Hor.orHR
lfCC VI: f
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Pall. : In