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The Impact of Local Cinema
Overview
November 05

Need for upgrading cinema theaters in the country

Based on personal experience, one has observed that many cinema halls tend to be dirty or the people who enter are unhygienic due to many reasons -

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and this can be a health hazard for the many people who come to a cinema hall to have a good time. THERE ARE many cinema theatres located across the country in metropolitan cities, towns, and districts where the inner surroundings are not up to the required standards. In India watching movies in theatres has proven to be the most popular form of entertainment for the masses. However, there is a concern that if the inside atmosphere in a movie theatre is not congenial, then during the average three hours time spent inside could result in mankind contacting infectious disease.

This report was produced with the support of:

Contents
Executive Summary Foreword 3 6

3 1. Introduction 2. Outline of Study 2.1 Overview of five case study cinemas 2.2 Issues to be explored at each case study cinema 2.3 Structure of this report 7 10 10 13 13

3. The social, cultural and environmental impact of local cinema 14 3.1 Who visits the cinema? 14 3.2 What impact do the cinemas have on their visitors and the wider 20 community? 4. The impact of local cinema on the local economy 4.1 Overview of income and expenditure 4.2 Measuring local money flows: cinemas’ local spending in their communities 4.3 Other direct and indirect local economic impacts Acknowledgements 53 Appendix 54 45 45 46 50

1. They enhance learning opportunities through links with local schools and colleges. the British Film Institute and the UK Film Council commissioned a study to measure and assess the impact of local cinemas on the social. The venues foster a sense of place and provide a focus for the local community. • This report is aimed at cinema exhibitors. reaching out to otherwise underserved elements of the local population. cultural and economic life of their communities. development agencies and those interested in cinema provision and/or the vitality of smaller towns. improving the skills and knowledge base of the community. a multi-method approach was adopted with the following elements: • initial desk research to explore existing literature on impact measurement methodologies • selection of five case study cinemas Then for each of the five cinemas: • a site visit • depth interviews (and regular follow-ups) with cinema manager and staff • focus group with cinema audience .0 Summary • This overview demonstrates the wide range of positive impacts local cinemas have on their communities.1 Background to report • In 2003. The cinemas play an important social inclusion role. the use of local suppliers. EM Media and Film London. local authorities. also funded case study elements of the project. encouraging the evening economy and increasing footfall. whilst enhancing local cultural life through the provision of mainstream and/or specialised film. and their (albeit limited) impact on the local labour market 1. • Cinemas contribute to the local economy through audience and visitor spend.1 Methodology To meet the aims of the study. Two Regional Screen Agencies. • Cinemas also contribute to the vitality and vibrancy of town centres.4 Executive Summary 1. This often has a positive impact on safety and security.2 Measuring impact The study had two aims: • To investigate and describe the impact of local cinemas on their communities • To develop a package of “impact measurement” tools that could be used by other research teams to assess the impact of other small venues 2.

locally owned and operated cinemas were selected (The Savoy. and were selected to cover a range of characteristics . including interviews and a postal survey with local residents. • The opportunity to see mainstream films in a non-multiplex atmosphere is attractive to some sections of the audience. and The Metro. trust and public funding. enhancing local cultural life. • Special events and activities target various community groups which would otherwise be excluded. Film festivals. screenings and courses. although lack of funding often restricts the range of educational activities. single screen and multiple screen cinemas. The Lonsdale. The Metro. • Cinemas enhance local learning opportunities through links with local schools. They either provide a mainstream programme where no other cinemas exist in the locality. Derby holds special screenings for children with autism and with hearing impairments. 2. • The case study cinemas are also involved in the delivery of “lifelong learning” opportunities through courses around film. .5 • telephone interviews with some of the cinema's local suppliers.2 Selection of case studies • Five independent. Derby).1 Local social and cultural impacts All five case study cinemas enhance the social and cultural lives of their local communities in the following ways: • Local cinemas play a crucial part in fostering a “sense of place” for their communities as key venues with a community focus. Clevedon. For example. particularly for elderly people who would otherwise not have the opportunity to watch films “for them” in an easily accessible “traditional” environment. • Moreover. Their role in improving the skills and knowledge base of the community is recognised by participants and practitioners alike. and for other excluded groups such as young parents with babies. The Rio. the local council and the local press Additional fieldwork was conducted for certain case studies. The cinemas are “re-introducing” people to film. and private.both urban and rural settings. special screenings and educational initiatives often reach underserved subgroups of the population. the cinemas play an important social inclusion role. Penzance. mainstream and specialised programmes. • The cinemas are located across the UK. a focus group with educational programme participants and a cinema audience survey. Dalston. They provide a strong social function as a meeting place and centre in which to socialise. community groups or educational organisations with links to the cinema. • The venues widen the range of cinema-going opportunities for local residents. Annan. 3. or a specialised alternative in those areas with multiplex provision. The Curzon. Two of the case study cinemas also enhance access and participation among otherwise excluded local minority ethnic groups through film festivals and special screenings of world cinema.

food shops and take-aways as part of their cinema trip. Links with Film Societies have a strong impact on local film culture. secure venues fostering independence among young people. • Association with the cinema. with its prominent local image. and the local labour market. restaurants. Local cinemas are seen in general as affordable leisure options for families. creates important marketing opportunities for other businesses. and make the local area feel safer. try to seek out local suppliers in favour of more distant alternatives. • The cinemas have a direct. . 3. For example. The Curzon makes part-time jobs available to older residents not in search of a full-time job. • Staff training and provisions of career development opportunities enrich local labour markets.6 • • • Cinemas also make an important social contribution to their local communities through the provision of volunteering opportunities. 3.3 Local economic impacts The case study cinemas contribute to the local economy in terms of audience/visitor spend. • All five cinema managers. the sourcing of local suppliers. • Their presence has a positive knock-on effect for other traders in the vicinity. The cinemas encourage footfall. with fewer concerns over travel and food costs than other activities. • The cinema audiences generate money for the local economy through visits to local bars. bakeries. where the market allows it. positive impact on their local labour markets through the employment of local residents as staff. particularly in the evening. The cinemas are seen as safe. and often taking the lead in booking films. they should try to help sustain the local economy. albeit limited. • The cinemas also provide valuable job opportunities to otherwise excluded groups. There is a feeling that. creating a positive architectural ambience and providing a strong focal point in the town centres.2 Local environmental impacts The local cinemas make a positive contribution to the built environment and town centre vitality: • Most of the cinemas retain a traditional façade. with the cinemas providing a venue. as small businesses themselves.

other mores. The magic of cinema in the cinema is connected to two unique conditions – the sharing of an experience in an audience and the contemplation of images projected on a scale beyond the perspective of normal perception. other values. mouths. The apparently universal ability of film to excite and enthral audiences. smiles. which is the cinema. kisses. It allows us to inhabit new identities. Film brings us news of other cultures. eyes. On a cinema screen. local cinema is not perhaps as celebrated as it might be. for good or bad. providing access to this most democratic and popular cultural pursuit of our times is at the heart of the argument but it’s also evident that a well-supported local cinema can make less obvious contributions to small communities. A face in an average television screen approximates to our sense of the human head.7 Foreword Film has the power to inspire us. pulling us into their power. Anthony Minghella . This document aims to draw attention to the many benefits of local cinema provision. confronting social exclusion. It’s also clear from the report that such advantages are often forgotten. Of course. to provoke laughter and tears. mysterious and international of art forms. makes it the most pungent. to encourage empathy and compassion. It is my real hope that this report will act as a valuable resource to those who support and champion local cinema. Such a significant and popular medium should be accessible to all communities in its most potent form. guns are amplified. providing economic benefit. enhancing tourism. to make them think. hear new voices and to see the world from many different perspectives.

This has resulted in an increase of 232% between 1995-2004 of multiplexes from 730 to 2426 and a decline of 28% in traditional cinemas from 1275 to 916 in the same period. The background to this study lies in the dramatic changes that have taken place in the cinema landscape over the last two decades which has seen the rise of multiplex cinemas and the consequent decline of town centre or ‘traditional’ cinemas.1 This is actually a relatively low figure and reflects a level of screen density which has increasingly lead operators to explore these ‘smaller’ population areas. and films which appeal to underserved audiences. . Films where ethnicity.8 1. disability or sexual orientation are key themes. 61 The UK Film Council defines a specialised film as one which engages current political. p. PPG13 had its background in the mounting concern at the increased reliance on the private car to support out of town developments with its consequent environmental.000 whereas a few years previously double this population would have been required. The Guidance meant that accessibility by public transport should now be a key feature in drawing up development plans. challenging English language films. Nevertheless. Recent years have seen a concerted policy effort by local and central government to address this decline and arrest the development move away from the centre. cultural and economic life of their communities. Foreign language films. the arrival of newly built multinationally-owned town and city centre midi and multiplexes has had an additional but more complex impact on existing local cinemas (e. The prevalence of out of town developments was a particular feature of the multiplex transformation which has paralleled a general decline in town centres. The Dodona Cinemagoing report of 2000 noted that multiplexes were increasingly being planned in towns with a population catchment area of 50. Furthermore. Local authorities and central government have 1 2 Dodona . new developments should take place in the town centre.g.000. Archive films. social and cultural issues. Introduction In 2003. PPG6 stated that wherever possible. Many smaller communities or areas with low population densities have therefore lost access to cinema through the closure of so many traditional sites and the inability/reluctance of larger operators to take their place.Cinemagoing 8. funding case studies in Derby and Hackney respectively. the mainstream programming of the vast majority of multiplexes has restricted the breadth of the cinemagoing experience for audiences outside the major metropolitan areas wishing to see more specialised films2. UK minority indigenous language films. Two Policy Planning Guidances were of particular note here. the British Film Institute (bfi) and the UK Film Council commissioned a study to measure and assess the impact of local cinemas on the social. Joining the two national bodies were the Regional Screen Agencies EM Media and Film London. This is part of a general trend which has also manifested itself in other ways. the majority of multiplexes remain in higher population areas – for example in 2002 only 1% of multiplexes were in populations of less than 55. The decline of shops and services in town centres was seen to have a negative impact both on the town itself and on the surrounding area. Scunthorpe and Nottingham). transport and social exclusion impacts. Classic films. In the last 3-4 years.

1 Background to the report This report is aimed at cinema exhibitors. The Rural White Paper which was presented to Parliament in 2000 focused on sustainability of local communities and on the issues of quality of life in areas of smaller population.9 increasingly recognised the importance of revitalising small towns – market towns in particular have been the focus of attention in recognition of their hub role for the surrounding catchment area.000 weekly cinema provision was required.000-25. and 3 Rural white paper p. In 1999.000-10. The establishment of the regional film theatre network was overseen and developed by the bfi throughout the 1960s and 1970s and many of these were in smaller communities (often part time). Diversity is key to all UK Film Council strategy. aimed at local authorities in particular. Delivering Local Cinema. 1. The interest of the bfi in the area of local cinema goes back many years. It seeks to build on previous work in the field by establishing a more robust evidence base upon which to support the case for local cinema provision. The UK Film Council supports distribution. This template of provision was used as the basis for Government’s policy of ‘asking public service providers to make Market Town provision a key element in their strategies’ 3 1. along with East Midlands Arts and Eastern Arts. exhibition (theatrical and nonthreatrical) and audience development through a variety of funds. 76 . The National and Regional Screen Agencies also perform a vital role at a local level in terms of supporting regional and national distribution and exhibition. the white paper proposed a set of facilities that should be available in a market town of a given size. the bfi commissioned a report.2 Measuring impact The research team were clear from the outset of the study that the local impact of cinema would be by no means a simple thing to measure. Most recently. the bfi publication At a Cinema Near You: Strategies for sustainable local cinema (2002) has been widely distributed and offers practical advice and guidance to those wishing to set up a cinema in their area. For a community with a population of 2. Using work done by the East Midlands Development Agency. local authorities. and this research will directly inform future initiatives. development agencies and those interested in cinema provision and/or the vitality of smaller towns. The need for a vibrant evening economy (or indeed any evening economy) and the role of leisure in this has been at the heart of small town initiatives. for a larger town with a population of 10. During the 1990s the bfi was involved in various early initiatives to create enhance the provision of cinema in rural areas including the CineLincs consortium project and the Cinemobile touring cinema.000 it proposed a full time local cinema as desirable. and the role of local cinema in terms of social inclusion and community cohesion is directly relevant to its ambition for a vibrant UK film culture. The Case for Rural Cinema. which considered the issues around rural cinema exhibition and various models of provision and was followed up in 2000 with a conference.

to measure and take account of all circumstances in individuals’ lives and in the local area. we have attempted to build on the best methodologies currently being used in impact measurement. It would be impossible. . in this study. within the constraints of a research project with a limited budget. Previous impact measurement studies have been criticised for lack of conceptual clarity. Throughout the development of this project. So our aim was to develop a simple methodology which can be used to give an indication of the likely impact. lack of methodological transparency. over-reliance on data from small unrepresentative samples. and to provide a greater understanding of the value of cinema to the social and cultural lives of the community. and the environment. and over-claiming conclusions. However. the local economy. the research team made efforts to avoid these shortcomings.10 that ultimately it would be impossible to prove a cause and effect relationship between cinema services or characteristics and a measured outcome in individuals or the local area. One of the aims of the study was to develop an ‘impact measurement package’ which could be used by local venues wishing to measure their own local data. given the complexities of the context in which the cinema is operating.

1 Overview of the five case study cinemas The research team decided to focus on independent. locally owned and operated cinemas.the Metro in Derby and the Rio in . mainstream and specialised programmes. Clevedon Lonsdale.11 2. Penzance Curzon. Dalston Metro. 2. two . a focus group with participants in the cinema's educational programme was conducted. Annan Rio. Derby The cinemas were located across the UK. together with a quantitative survey of the cinema audience and a small-scale local resident postal survey. and private. local residents (who were not necessarily regular visitors to the case study cinemas) were also interviewed. single screen and multiple screen cinemas. And in one of the case study areas.both urban and rural settings. and the five case studies selected were: • • • • • The The The The The Savoy. and were selected to cover a range of characteristics . While three of the cinemas were offering the only significant filmscreening service in the local area. Outline of study The study had two aims: a) To investigate and describe the impact of local cinemas on their communities b) To develop a package of 'impact measurement' tools that could be used by other research teams to assess the impact of other small venues To meet these aims. the study involved the following elements: • initial desk research to explore existing literature on impact measurement methodologies • selection of five case study cinemas Then for each of the five cinemas: • a site visit • depth interviews (and regular follow-ups) with cinema manager and staff • focus group with cinema audience • telephone interviews with some of the cinema's local suppliers • telephone interviews with some of the community groups or educational organisations with links to the cinema • telephone interviews with the local council • telephone interviews with the local press In two of the case study areas. trust and public funding.

000. The Savoy Cinema. Jon had successfully led a campaign in the 1970's to purchase the Rio cinema.merlincinemas. all of which are available to non-cinema goers. and the Savoy's nearest non-Merlin cinema is a 50 minute drive away in Truro. purpose-built in 1912 and claims to be the longest continuous running cinema in England (a claim also made by another case study cinema . Redruth. A brief overview of each case study cinema is given below. The Savoy differs from the other case study cinemas in that it has an on-site restaurant.the Curzon in Clevedon!). It is located in the centre of the town and offers a largely mainstream programme. Penzance www. Old Church Road. Causewayhead. which is a small coastal town in West Cornwall with a population of about 17. Clevedon www. As a community cinema. The cinema has one screen. with a population of about 22. It is one of a chain of five cinemas run by the Merlin group: four cinemas in West Cornwall (Penzance. and 16 regular part-time staff.uk Clevedon is a seaside town in Somerset. another of the cinemas taking part in this study. with monthly Film Club screenings of more specialised films. and he is supported by a small group of part-time staff who work in the projection room and front of house. and he put together a similar business plan to buy and run the Curzon. more diverse group of staff than some of the other cinemas in the study.000 tickets a year. The cinema was threatened with closure in the mid-nineties. local people are now involved in all aspects of the Curzon's operation: there is an elected management body. The Curzon Cinema. As a result of this additional provision. It is the only cinema in the town. and its nearest competitors are more than 12 miles away.co. with most major releases secured on date. The Savoy sells more than 90.php The Savoy cinema is the only cinema in Penzance. A full report on each individual case study is available separately in sections 5-9. but was saved as a result of a successful 'Save the Curzon' campaign run by Jon Webber. and to operate it as a community business. due to a seasonal influx of visiting tourists during the summer months.12 Hackney . The Curzon cinema is a purpose-built cinema dating from 1912 with an art deco facade. The cinema sells about 55. It is also unique in the study in that its audience profile varies considerably with the time of year.curzon. The Merlin group has little cinema competition in West Cornwall.000 tickets every year. It is a threescreen cinema with 273 seats. and proudly claims to be the longest continuously running cinema in England. St Ives and Helston) and one in Torquay. Devon. The Savoy offers a predominantly first-run mainstream programme. The manager is the only member of full-time staff at the cinema.000. with a capacity for seating 380 people. employing four regular full-time staff.were presenting a more specialised programme alongside other more mainstream multiplex cinemas. the Savoy has a larger. This added dimension clearly makes an important contribution to the town as a place to meet and socialise.uk/penzance. a local resident and the ex-manager of the Rio cinema in Dalston.org. take-away pizza and ice-cream kiosk. and a substantial pool of local volunteers who help out .

000 tickets every year.lonsdalecitycinemas.2 million to restore the cinema to its former Art Deco glory. with a further 12 or so part-time staff working front of house. Film London provided extra funding to the Rio cinema in order to conduct a resident’s discussion group and widen the scope of the study. programme is screened at both cinemas. The building's use has varied over the years.000 tickets a year. mostly part-time. Moat Road.ndirect. and although within walking distance of Derby City Centre.uk/metro-cinema Metro cinema in Derby. and four part-time staff. offering a mainly specialised programme. The Lonsdale Cinema. both specialised and mainstream. The Rio Cinema. The cinema has two permanent full-time staff. its location is in a residential area and not well sign-posted. and the cinema is supported by a voluntary board of 13 directors. finance and other operational matters. although in recent years. who help with marketing. The Lonsdale cinema in Annan is linked to a sister cinema in Carlisle. It is the only cinema in Hackney. Kingsland Street. While it is the only specialist cinema in Derby. with 1930s art deco facade. maintenance. and sells about 30. . Annan www.co. Dalston www. The recently refurbished Annan cinema has two screens. established in 1981. although there are a number of both mainstream and more specialised cinemas within the neighbouring wards of Islington and Tower Hamlets. The same. Hackney. owned by the University. It is a one-screen cinema with 402 seats.000) Scottish market town near the English border. The cinema is currently working with the local community to raise £1. The Rio is a purpose-built cinema dating from 1915 and is an English Heritage Grade II listed building. It offers a mainly specialised programme and offers a range of educational activities from pre-screening talks to courses in film studies and screen-writing. stock control and so on. Although it is the only cinema in Annan. there are competing cinemas. in nearby Carlisle and Dumfries. but it has been used as a cinema since early in the 20th century. The Metro Cinema. 6 part-time).uk The Rio cinema is located in Dalston.000 tickets a year. providing an important social function in the town. seating 126 people.riocinema. seating a total of 150 people. There are 23 members of staff on the pay roll.2 million as "match funding" as part of a Lottery bid for £5. both run by the same family-owned company. Green Lane.ac.13 with day-to-day ushering. Derby www. Metro employs nine permanent members of staff (3 full-time. The cinema is currently housed in a Grade II listed building. also showing an increasing number of popular mainstream films.80. with an additional six casual staff working as projectionists or front of house. is the only cinema in the study that receives significant amounts of public funding from a variety of sources. The Rio sells about 70.derby. It is a single screen cinema. with a world cinema screening every week. predominantly mainstream.000 .co.uk Annan is a small (population: 8. there are two mainstream competitors within the city. It sells about 25.

data items have been identified as potentially informing more than one of these three impact types. cultural. The research tools are all included in section 11. along with the intended purpose behind collecting each piece of data. Note: Where tables in this report present percentages. This will result in a purpose-built. suppliers. This was the only cinema for which separate audience and local resident surveys were conducted. . provision of access to film for local residents. This may mean that on occasion. the methodological toolkit.2 Issues to be explored at each case study cinema At the outset of the study. In addition. In many cases. This in turn affects the cinema's local economic impact . and so on. This list is presented in the appendix as a series of tables.e. percentages do not sum to 100%. All documents relating to this project are available from the UK Film Council website (www. which were used for the interviews with cinema managers. local residents. i.a Derby based contemporary visual arts organisation . figures have usually been rounded to whole numbers. whether it was of potential use in informing an assessment of the social. * is used to indicate a value that is less than 0. which provide a methodological discussion and a set of impact measurement tools for use in similar projects. which gave the research team scope to collect more detailed data. audience.3 Structure of this report The rest of this report is structured as follows. accessible building in the centre of Derby. council staff and so on. economic or environmental impact of the cinema. For example.org. and will include three additional screens for an expanded Metro programme and audience. the research team put together an initial checklist of the sorts of issues to be explored. ticket sales are likely to be high.if residents are impressed with the range of films on offer. Section 3 looks at the social.14 The Metro is currently working with Q Arts . a good range of films offered by the case study cinema could be assessed in terms of its social and cultural impact. Sections 5 to 9 present the findings of individual case studies in full.ukfilmcouncil. with participants in the Metro's educational programme. published separately. bringing more money into the cinema. 2.e. These issue checklists were then converted into a number of topic guides and questionnaires.on the planning of a major building and relocation project. The Derby case study received additional funding from EM-Media.uk/statistics/localcinema). and are published separately. We also held an additional discussion group in this area. which can then in turn spend it on the salaries of local staff. Also available separately are sections 10 and 11. followed by section 4 which examines the impact of local cinema on the local economy. cultural and environmental impact of local cinema. 2. and buying services from local suppliers.5%. i.

000 and 90.000 ticket sales every year.000 3. As mentioned earlier. Derby 1 126 Specialised 25.1 Regular cinema audience Clearly. Annan 2 150 Mainstream 30. Clevedon 1 380 Mainstream 54.000 Small market town Annan 8. who benefit from the cinema’s programme of films. Table 3.1. and were selected to cover a range of characteristics .both urban and rural settings. and the demographic profile of the local population.2003 % of annual screenings . and are offering the local residents the opportunity to see current or recent mainstream films on their doorstep. Penzance Number of screens Number of seats Main type of programme Annual number of ticket sales Type of location 3 273 Mainstream 92. Three of the case study cinemas are operating as the only cinema in their towns. mainstream and specialised programmes.15 3. cultural and environmental impact of local cinema As described earlier.000 Inner city Town / borough Population of town / borough Derby 222. On the other hand. the cinemas attract between 25. Dalston 1 402 Specialised 75. The social. the Metro cinema in Derby and the Rio in Dalston both have several competing cinemas within their local areas.000 Seaside town Clevedon 22.1 Who visits the cinema? 3. Table 3.1 Analysis of cinema programmes 2002 .000 Hackney 201. one of the main groups of people on whom the five cinemas have a direct impact is their regular audience.000 Lonsdale.000 Curzon.1. trust and public funding. and private. The more specialised programmes of the Metro and Rio are designed as an alternative to the mainstream fare available at the local multiplexes.000 Seaside town Penzance 17.000 Metro. single screen and multiple screen cinemas. the five case study cinemas were located across the UK.1 Main characteristics of case study cinemas Savoy. The type of audience attracted by the different case study cinemas is a reflection of both the film programme that is on offer. rather than having to travel further afield.000 Urban Rio.

outside the school holidays. female members of the audience. Love Actually and The Hours. and . Derby 65 35 72 28 6 11 17 53 13 Rio. Clevedon 13 87 97 3 17 16 37 24 3 Lonsdale . this is likely to be at least partly due to the local population profile which is notable for its high proportion of residents over 64. However. The Lonsdale. The cinema manager at the Lonsdale suspects that this shortfall is due to the fact that local teenagers are drawn towards the multiplexes in Carlisle. Penzanc e Specialised films Mainstream films English language Foreign language Certificate U PG 12 / 12A 15 18 7 93 99 1 17 31 30 19 4 Curzon. sees this sector of both the local and the tourist population as an important part of its audience. and correspondingly low proportions of residents under 25. The vast majority (93%) of the Savoy screenings are of mainstream films. and students. However. usually a key group of mainstream cinema visitors. and about half of the annual screenings are of films with certificate PG or U. in the top ten most popular films shown at the cinema during 2003 were Calendar Girls. Both the Curzon and the Lonsdale report that 15-24 year olds. The Savoy in Penzance. However. particularly those with young children.16 Savoy. and a high proportion of the films at the Savoy are screened to appeal to families. and this is a reflection of both the cinema's programming (which includes weekly matinees with free tea and biscuits for older audiences) and the profile of the local population Annan has a higher than average proportion of pensioners amongst its residents. The Curzon. for example. Annan 6 94 99 1 29 31 24 14 1 Metro. Chicago. Its programme therefore caters for both groups. and adults (predominantly women) aged 35 or older. The Haunted Mansion and Looney Tunes: Back in Action. Dalston 55 45 65 35 18 9 19 40 14 Mainstream cinemas The three mainstream cinemas all cater well for families with children. A third of the screenings are of PG or U certificate films (70% are films of 12A and below). and has a significant proportion of residents interested in the arts. Among its most successful films in 2003 were Peter Pan. are under-represented in their audiences. Therefore. there are three or four weekly screenings on a Sunday and Monday of a specialised film. the cinema also does well with older people. films which appealed to the older. For the Curzon. which are more likely to screen first-run films. and 60% of the annual screenings were of films were certificate PG or U. the cinema manager also recognises the fact that the local Penwith population is older than the national average. Clevedon views its audience as a mixture of family groups. Annan similarly caters well for families.

However. it also has a varied programme of events and activities targeted at specific local community groups. a minority of their annual screenings are of mainstream films. While the Metro does not try to compete directly with the multiplex cinemas in Derby by showing popular mainstream films. and as a result the audiences. The Rio. As a result. both specialised cinemas also actively seek to complement this niche film enthusiast audience by scheduling films and events to appeal to otherwise excluded groups of the local community such as the minority ethnic population.2 Additional cinema visitors targeted by special events As well as their main programme of films. Both cinemas have specific programme aims.17 offer additional entertainment and catering options that are attractive to this age group. 3. as detailed in the next section.2 Examples of special events and screenings at each case study cinema Savoy. bringing to Derby a diverse selection of titles which would otherwise never reach the city". middle aged. and the Metro aims "to offer choice beyond the commercial mainstream. For both cinemas.typically described by the cinemas as predominantly middle class. Penzance • End of term screenings for local primary schools • Annual screening for local Further Education (FE) college students • Occasional screenings for local hospital patients • Weekly screenings of "arts films" for Penwith Film Society • Cinema occasionally hired out for meetings & conferences to local groups • Savoy restaurant used every year for local bank's Christmas party . well-educated and interested in independent film. Specialised cinemas The programmes. although predominantly specialised. The Rio aims "to bring the best of world cinema to north and east London". at the Metro and Rio cinemas are quite different. And compared with the other case study cinemas. and about three in ten screenings are of foreign language films. is also the only cinema in Hackney. all five cinemas sought to engage particular sub-groups of the local population through a series of specific screenings and events. there are far fewer films designed to appeal to children and young families.1. and therefore tries to ensure that a substantial proportion of its screenings are of popular films of wide enough appeal to attract a mainstream audience from Hackney.1. both cinemas tend to attract a particular sub-group of the local population . Table 3. Examples of these types of event are detailed in the following table.

g. Derby multi-faith centre. involving various local primary and secondary schools. screenings preceded by talks. Derby . and local people with Lonsdale. series of lesbian/gay films. such as wedding receptions. to help raise funds for various local societies • Cinema occasionally hired out as a venue for non-film events. e. events aimed at KS3 to A level students. documentary about local man's attempt to swim the Irish sea.g. Derby African Association. including film-illustrated lectures.g. such as Girls' Brigade. special screening of Land Girls for local ex-land girls • Saturday morning birthday parties for young children. local Tibetan society • Extensive programme of educational activities. e. involving private screening and special trip to the projection box • Regular end of term screenings for several local primary and secondary schools • Regular private screenings for local youth groups. and often linked to the National Curriculum • Regular screenings of work by film students at local FE college • Involvement in film and video production courses for local African-Caribbean youth group. Scouts and Beavers • Weekly Tea & Biscuit matinees for older people • Weekly world cinema screenings • Cinema occasionally hired by local groups for special fund-raising events • Films included in the programme to appeal to particular sections of the local community. films shown as part of Black History Month.18 Curzon. Derbyshire Cuba Network. Japanese films for local Japanese community • Regular private screenings for South Asian women's group • Monthly sign-interpreted screenings for children with hearing impairments and their families • Monthly screenings for children with autism and their families • Special screenings for adults with complex needs • Special events for various local community groups. Clevedon • Weekly Cinema and Baby club • Weekly Tea & Biscuit matinees for older people • (Until recently). e. concerts • Rent-free space provided for Curzon FM. colleges and youth clubs. a local community radio station • Occasional screenings of films with particular local interest. Kid's Clubs matinees • End of term screenings for local primary and secondary schools • Involvement in local primary school's local history project • Involvement in video production training course at local youth clubs: resulting reels screened at cinema before main feature • Monthly Film Club screenings of specialised films • Regular charity screenings. Annan Metro.

Playcentre Matinees. plus regular end of term screenings for local schools.19 few or no qualifications • Programme of lifelong learning activities. Both cinemas schedule events and activities to appeal to their local minority ethnic communities. Dalston • Annual Turkish and Kurdish film festivals • Provision of space in cinema building for Turkishspeaking youth video training project. for audiences living in rural areas Rio. For example. play schemes and youth groups • Monthly free classic matinees for older people • Annual screenings as part of Hackney Festival for Older People • Annual Rio Tape Slide course. as well as incorporating direct requests for particular films from local ethnic groups. and study evenings on particular film genres • Monthly screenings for parents and babies • Screenings in community buildings and town halls. as well as one-off events or series of events in . films screened as part of Black History Month films. The cinema has a well-established link with a local group of South Asian women. screening work by local Hackney film-makers and young people. As the above table shows. informal and formal film studies courses.g. workshops on black visual artists. e. plus screening of course members' work at the Turkish festival • Screenings for Black History Month • Special screenings and events for a mentoring organisation working with young black people • Subsidiary venue for Raindance East film festival. Local minority ethnic communities Both the Metro and Rio cinemas are located in areas with significant proportions of residents from minority ethnic backgrounds. local African dance group. organised with a local community college • National Schools Film Week screenings for secondary and primary school pupils. and School Holiday Matinees • Weekly Parents and Babies Club screenings • Free screenings available for primary and secondary schools. the Metro often actively promotes films from particular countries to appeal to local minority ethnic communities. event organised in collaboration with a local yoga group. The main Metro programme has also recently included Japanese films to appeal to the significant Japanese community living in the area (Toyota is a major employer in Derby). scriptwriting course. and films with connections to local communities from various ethnic backgrounds • Weekly Saturday morning Children's Picture Club. and holds regular private screenings of Indian films for them. special film show organised by Learning Difficulties Service in Hackney. in conjunction with Film Education • One-off events for local community groups and organisations. the case study cinemas are involved in a range of initiatives targeted at various local communities and groups. including prefilm talks.

and several cinemas also hold special screenings for local youth groups and FE college students. The extent of these links varies between the case studies. and the Kurdish Film Festival. Both the Curzon and Rio have been involved in the delivery of video and film production training courses to young people. The Rio has established good links with the Turkish and Kurdish communities in Hackney. film makers. This course is run in conjunction with Shoreditch Community College. and as part of the Black Filmmakers International Film Festival. and screenings preceded by talks. the purpose of which is to enable parents or carers with . It has also worked with a number of organisations that run training courses or activities for young African-Caribbean people. colleges and youth clubs. the Rio has screened films as part of Black History month. Congolese and Bosnian-Herzegovnian societies. in recent years. Children and families Several of the case study cinemas have recently introduced Parent and Baby screenings. The cinema regularly screens the work of students at two local FE colleges. targeted at local primary and secondary school pupils. African. and screenings are also programmed to coincide with books being studied on the National Curriculum. Tibetan. and is planning to extend this kind of event to local secondary schools. In addition to this educational work with school pupils and students. The Rio also offers a regular course open to all ages in tape slide production. and study evenings on particular film genres such as film noir or Japanese animation. college students and lifelong learners All five cinemas have established links with local schools. Curzon. and leads to a qualification accredited by the London Open College Network. now in its 12th year. The Savoy. Lonsdale and Rio all hold regular end-of-term screenings for pupils at local schools. The cinema helps with editing and screening their work. The Metro is the only one of the five cinemas to have a dedicated education officer. Local school pupils. and a more formal ‘Introduction to Film Course’ every year. are aimed at local children from Key Stage 3 to A level. Some of the screenings are preceded by introductory talks by academics. who organises an extensive educational programme. Given that about a quarter of the population of Hackney are Black or Black British. the Rio is also involved in various events and collaborations designed to appeal to and promote the work and issues of this section of the community. For instance. Jewish. Other Metro courses include an amateur script-writing course. Activities such as film-illustrated lectures. The Metro also regularly works with a local African-Caribbean group who run after school video-making clubs. There is also an informal ‘Talk Cinema’ course.20 conjunction with local Cuban. and screening of course members' work. now in its third year. and two key annual events for the Rio are the Turkish film festival. screen writers and other industry practitioners. the Metro also offers its older visitors a range of 'lifelong learning' options.

to varying extents. two of the cinemas are involved in additional initiatives targeted directly at young children. in addition to its film-watching visitors. Derby has become an important city for deaf people: the local population has about three times the national average of people with hearing impairments. As well as the regular programme of films. the Metro holds special events directed at this community: for example. as well as weekly Playcentre matinees and School Holiday Matinees of films to appeal to children. The Savoy. The Lonsdale arranges on request Saturday morning birthday parties for young children. The Curzon also provides rent-free space to a local community cinema. These include local charities that hire the cinemas' auditoria or meeting rooms for fund-raising events.21 babies under one year old to visit the cinema without having to find a baby sitter. The Metro has recently successfully applied for support from the charity Children in Need for an officer to organise screenings. The Metro reaches additional audiences in rural areas by screening films in community buildings and town halls across Derbyshire. . In addition to this. a recent screening of work produced by deaf people. Curzon FM. to local residents who are interested in viewing films outside the popular mainstream. The Rio runs a weekly Saturday Morning Children's Picture Club. the Curzon's Film Club screenings are held monthly.2 shows. or worry about their babies causing a disturbance. which are also open to the public. The officer works two days a week. in part due to the location in Derby of the Royal School for the Deaf and the Derby College for Deaf People. including regular BSL-interpreted screenings of children's films. The Lonsdale also programmes weekly world cinema screenings. In addition to the Children in Need work. the Rio also holds an annual screening as part of the Hackney Festival for Older People. attracts customers to its first floor bar and restaurant. often preceded or followed by tea and biscuits. Independent film enthusiasts The three mainstream case study cinemas all cater. Both the Savoy and the Curzon schedule regular Film Club or Film Society screenings.1. The Savoy holds several screenings per week of a film selected by the Penwith Film Society. events and outreach activities for deaf and autistic children and their families. and the street-front pizza and ice-cream outlets. and local societies for which the cinemas hold special private screenings. there are a variety of other occasional users of the case study cinemas. and the Curzon holds special screenings for the residents of local nursing and retirement homes. Older people Three of the case study cinemas hold regular (weekly or monthly) matinees for older people. local dance or theatre groups who hire the venue as performance space. involving a private screening and a special trip into the projection room for the birthday child. organising special events for them every few weeks. Other cinema visitors As table 3.

22 3.2 What impact do the cinemas have on their visitors, and the wider community? In the previous section, we described the type of people that visit the case study cinemas. In this section, we explore the type of impact that the cinemas have on their visitors, and the local community as a whole. This section draws on the views expressed by regular audience members, the cinemas' suppliers, local schools and youth groups, and representatives from the local press and councils. 3.2.1 Local access to a cinema As the only cinema in Hackney, the Rio is seen by local residents as an important resource, enabling them to see films without having to travel further afield. Although there are other cinemas within a few miles, travel across London to these for Dalston residents can be costly and timeconsuming. For some in the local community participation can also be inhibited by a lack access to affordable tickets in addition to the travel costs. Similarly, as the only cinemas in their towns, local residents in Penzance, Clevedon and Annan see their cinemas as important local venues. Although there are alternative cinemas in each area, these are ten to fifteen miles away and local public transport to and from the towns is generally regarded as inadequate, particularly in the evenings. So the case study cinemas are seen as providing a valuable service to residents without cars, who would be unable to access cinemas in other towns. All five case study cinemas are centrally located, on or near the high street. This, together with nearby or adjacent car parking for most of the cinemas, helps to ensure good access for residents living in the immediate vicinity. Several of the cinemas reported that a significant proportion of their audience walked from home. "Me and my friends come here because it is just a ten minute walk, and you can see films in the evenings. Whereas if you want to go to a Warner Village, there is a bus there and it takes up a whole Saturday to go and come back. This is much more convenient" Regular Curzon visitor Poor public transport, particularly in the evening, was cited by cinema visitors in all five areas as a barrier to access for some local residents living further afield. For instance, the lack of good public transport to outlying villages in the Penwith district, and the distance of the cinema from Penzance bus or train station, meant that rural residents without cars were under-represented in the Savoy audience. And in Dalston, it was thought that the lack of a tube station in the area put off some potential visitors from other parts of Hackney or adjacent boroughs, although the cinema is served by numerous bus routes and Dalston Kingsland train station is a five minute walk away. Although the central location of each cinema is seen as positive, there are some aspects of the cinemas' neighbourhoods that were identified as possible problems for the cinemas. The perceived safety of the area is an issue for the Metro, Rio and Savoy. The Metro and Rio are both located in

23 areas of their cities that are slightly run-down and have reputations for crime; and the Savoy is located on a pedestrianised street, the southern end of which has been a meeting place for rough sleepers and drinkers. While most of the visitors to these three venues felt safe when visiting the cinemas, it was acknowledged that some potential audience might find the areas a little intimidating and stay away as a result. In the Lonsdale audience discussion group, it was felt that the scarcity of good eating and drinking places near the cinema made it difficult for the cinema to generate good audiences. For people who wanted to "make an occasion" of a trip to the cinema, bars and restaurants were a key factor in their decision about which cinema to choose. 3.2.2 Local access to varied programme of films All the case study venues, to varying extents, were screening both mainstream (i.e. big budget “Hollywood” films) and specialised cinema (i.e. independent, challenging, sometimes foreign language films). In focus groups with regular cinema visitors, this access to a mixed programme of films was welcomed. Importantly, both the Savoy and Curzon were seen as offering access to unusually varied programmes for such small towns. In interviews and discussion groups with regular audience members, all were impressed at both the number and range of films on offer every week, and appreciated the opportunity to see interesting films on their doorstep, for which they might otherwise have to travel to Bristol or London. This suggested a clear cultural impact on members of the community who would not otherwise have access to such a variety of film. Similarly, in a focus group of local Rio audience members, the cinema's programme variety - again ranging from blockbusters to lesser known foreign films - was greatly welcomed, and was compared favourably both with the nearby multiplexes which offered only mainstream films, and with some other independent cinemas in London that tended to show only one or two films all week. There were a few Rio regulars who would prefer a more predominantly specialised programme. However, they also recognised the need for the Rio, as the only Hackney cinema, to screen popular films in order to attract the custom of a wider range of Dalston residents. "The programming is surprisingly diverse: I have the opportunity to see films here that I might have expected to have to go to London for" Regular Savoy visitor "I think it's wonderful because you do get to see a whole range of films from the blockbusters like Lord of the Rings, down to small films you wouldn't normally see in Clevedon" Regular Curzon visitor "My partner and I come to quite a range of films here, from blockbusters to quite a good selection of foreign films, which are not as easy to find elsewhere"

24 Regular Rio visitor Although the weekly world cinema screenings at the Lonsdale were also recognised by local residents as an unusual programme for such a small cinema, they were fairly poorly attended with average audiences of only six or seven. This is likely to be in part due to the size of the town - only 8,000 residents - and possibly also the Sunday evening screenings. Several people in the Lonsdale audience focus group felt that Sunday night was a time for the family, and that the screenings might be more successful if they were shown on a weekday evening. As discussed earlier, the Metro's programme was predominantly specialised, aiming to offer a choice of films beyond the commercial mainstream; and the regular Metro audience welcomed the opportunity to see films that were not available at local multiplexes. In a survey of the Metro audience, 70% said that the main reason they had chosen to visit the Metro that day was because "the particular film was showing only at the Metro". "We come to see the sort of films that you can't see at other cinemas" "Knowing there is something else, knowing there is really good cinema to be seen, if only you can find it. And cinemas like this offer that. You would never get that from mainstream multiplexes" Regular Metro visitors As well as the regular programme of specialised cinema, the Metro also screens a number of mainstream films, several weeks after their first release. Although some Metro visitors found it frustrating that the Metro didn't show more first run mainstream films, many appreciated the opportunity to see these more popular films in a non-multiplex atmosphere, and when they had missed their initial run. The varied programmes at the case study cinemas were seen as helping to expand people's horizons, introducing them to films they might not otherwise consider. And world cinema screenings were recognised as an opportunity to learn about different societies and ways of life: "I have found that I have come to see films that I thought I wouldn't enjoy. So it's actually made me step outside of what I thought I would enjoy" Regular Curzon visitor "The Rio is good if you want to learn something about other cultures" Regular Rio visitor In Penzance, the link between the cinema and the Film Society was highly valued. Society members felt very fortunate that they were able to select their own films, and then view them in a "real" cinema, unlike their

. This demonstrated the social value of the cinema as a safe place for the children to exert some independence. were seen as a very important way of increasing cinema access for families. The time involved in such a trip to neighbouring towns or districts was also seen as a problem that cinema visitors were delighted not to have to contend with. when we had our three boys at home. pop out to the cinema to see the film. the following quotes were typical of the discussion among audience members in Annan: .. The safe. But here it's so cheap" Regular Lonsdale visitor The Savoy's weekly bargain price screenings of family films.3 Access to film for families. The combination of the cinemas' convenient town centre locations. friendly environment of these small independent cinemas. Family trips to the multiplexes further afield were sometimes seen as prohibitively expensive. and they feel a strong sense of loyalty to the cinema" The more personal atmosphere in small cinemas meant that on family trips to the cinema. once the travel costs. "The price has to be a consideration. It's a really nice atmosphere. I mean. we just couldn't do it.25 counterparts in most other film societies who had to meet in church halls and other community buildings. at which a £1. meant that a trip to the cinema was an affordable option for local families. and then be back at home very quickly.. they love it. it meant that for families with very small children. As one Rio regular explained: "I come on a Saturday morning to the Picture Club. higher ticket prices and expensive confectionery on offer at multiplexes were taken into account. Keeping ticket prices low was a way of ensuring that films were accessible to as many local residents as possible.99 ticket covered admission. which is brilliant with my two children.2. and they come week after week. Parents welcomed the opportunity to take their children to a local cinema. children and teenagers Films and events targeted at families and children were welcomed by regular visitors to all five case study cinemas. well. I mean a fiver for each child. particularly important in locations like Penzance and Dalston. they could eat their tea at home. where we lived before. 3. but it also meant that local parents were happy for the older children to go to the cinema on their own. compared to bigger more impersonal establishments. As a regular Curzon visitor explained. was also an important draw for family audiences. and the cheap ticket and confectionery prices. the parents or guardians could be more relaxed about keeping an eye on their charges at all times. a small carton of popcorn and a drink. For example. which made the trip much more manageable for everyone. we used to think twice about going to the cinema. some areas of which are among the more deprived in England and Wales.

All of the residents in this group were multiplex visitors rather than Metro visitors. Within the focus group. and they explained that a key driver behind cinema choice for them was the desire of their children to see the latest family films. it did not appear to be offering this service to all families. without having to find a . to continue enjoying trips to the cinema.. I would probably be waiting outside for them" "Parents are probably more willing for them to come here on their own than travel to Carlisle. These were proving very popular. In Annan. I could take a group of ten kids. "It's a family thing. there was a shared view that the Metro would be an attractive cinema to which to bring their children if there was a more family-oriented programme. In the city. and I knew people well enough so they would keep an eye on them while you took the others to the toilet. "I was sad when we lost Long Eaton's [cinema] as I always used that.. and its nearness to the shops and eating places. if it were to show more family films. enabling parents.26 "You know maybe in a big cinema. So having that personal touch does make you feel better" Local Derby residents The central location of the Metro. And so they can have their bit of independence by coming here without mum and dad" Regular Lonsdale visitors This view of small cinemas as offering a safer. it was suggested that as there were not that many options for family entertainment in the town. It was a family run cinema.. three of the case study cinemas had recently introduced Parents & Babies clubs. because it was seen as a safer place to take children than the large multiplexes. because it was easy to get to. the cinema was providing an important opportunity for families to do something together that they could all enjoy. It was where the old fashioned sweetie shop was. would also make it an attractive option for families at the weekends. small" "With the smaller cinema. We were always there. who were keen movie-goers before becoming parents. more personal environment than multiplexes was repeated in Derby during a discussion group with local residents. it was ever such a little place and the kids loved it. you might not even let them go to the toilet on their own.. and several members of the group fondly recalled trips to another local independent cinema (now closed). You enjoy it together and talk about it when you get home" Regular Lonsdale visitor As mentioned earlier. whereas here you know it's OK. always took a group of kids. Although the Metro gave special screenings of these type of films for children with hearing impairments and autism.

This is an important point when considering the potential social and cultural value of the local cinema for some young people who may be excluded by unfavourable ticket price structures. the food is a big factor . For some major blockbuster films. such as Lord of the Rings and Harry Potter.27 babysitter or worrying about their baby disturbing other cinema-goers.. especially for the kids. "If I go with a group of friends. cafes in which to "hang out".they all want the whole experience. The hotdogs. so the youth market probably go to the Warner Village to see those films" Regular Curzon visitor Ticket price was also an issue for young people: one young Dalston resident explained that although she was interested in going to the cinema. the popcorn.. who can otherwise be an excluded group. the massive drinks. . Cakes [at the Rio] don't attract the junk food loving youth of today" The fact that the smaller cinemas were not always able to secure mainstream films on the date of their release could also be a deterrent for this age group. That's a shame" Regular Lonsdale visitor "Here. As one mother was recently quoted in the Hackney Gazette: "I thought I'd have to wait for the latest films to come out on DVD before I saw them. the opportunity to choose from a number of mainstream films on any one day. most of her contemporaries were not. In Clevedon. While most of the cinemas were doing well with young children. This issue was discussed with various participants in the study. and had led to new friendships being made. and it was felt that the modern multiplexes were more of a draw for this age group for various reasons the bigger screens and sound. and that many preferred to hire videos or DVDs because it was cheaper. and the food on offer at the cinema. the less "old-fashioned" image. the two week wait before the film was screened at the local cinema was just too long for some people to wait. these screenings were particularly welcomed by local authority youth workers as a good way of including mothers under 21. particularly children and teenagers. but now I go to the cinema more than my partner" These weekly or monthly screenings were also a social occasion for new parents. so you feel you have to go and see it somewhere else. you do sometimes have to wait for the big films. and parents of young babies. the cinemas were not always engaging so well with older children and young people. "A film like that. they want to see it straight away.

It's often the only opportunity that these children have of experiencing a trip to the cinema. an event where they could socialise with people in a similar situation. 3. giving them the opportunity to learn basic skills such as how to sit still. and learning to be flexible about the choice of film.2. In this case. Sometimes. Because the screening is exclusively for autistic children and their families. or does the supermarket shopping. Again. The content of the films themselves was also seen as having an impact: even for children who didn't understand the plot. And there were benefits for the families too . the Metro was seen as providing a unique opportunity for hearing impaired children and their families to see sign-interpreted films at the cinema.4 Access to film for children with autism & hearing impairments At the Metro in Derby. it means that parents and siblings can accompany the autistic child. without worrying about his/her behaviour. A representative of the Derby Deaf Children's Society reported similar sorts of benefits to hearing impaired children and their families. It was an opportunity for families with hearing impaired children to access cinema in the same way that hearing families are able to do. other benefits were mentioned such as introducing the children to new experiences. experiencing similar difficulties. As well as increasing access to film and cinema for these children and their families. how to behave in a cinema. The representative of the Derbyshire Autistic Support Group sees these screenings as a "godsend" for autistic children and their families. And where children were taken to the screenings by the Support Group. Families with autistic children often lead very fragmented lives. the cinema is having a clear positive social and cultural impact for those families who may otherwise be excluded from such activity.the screenings could be a social occasion. There is also some indication that this opportunity to visit the cinema has increased some of the older children's interest in cinema. although the main programme was not very familyoriented. with two young people expressing interest in taking drama lessons and a third wanting to get involved in film making. at which families could meet other people in similar situations.2. this could be a welcome break for the families. there were frequent screenings for children with autism and hearing impairments. Telephone interviews were conducted with representatives of local support groups for deaf and autistic children. and both were strongly supportive of the Metro's work. It was also seen as a social occasion for the children and their families.5 Access to film for older people . with parents taking turns to care for the autistic child while the other parent takes out the siblings. knowing that they are in the company of understanding people. or particular characters. they often came out of the films talking about the colours. this is the only opportunity that families have to go out together.28 3.

An interview was conducted with one of the organisers of the Hackney Festival for Older People. because my mother now may come back again. initially wholly funded by Hackney Council. that's great. many of the older Clevedon residents who were currently enjoying this service would not dream of travelling for miles to visit the cinemas further afield. "They wouldn't go to the cinema at all if it wasn't here" Members of the Lonsdale audience focus groups felt that these screenings were a valuable service for this section of the population. it was the first time they had been to the cinema for 20 or 30 years. They enjoy it when they get there. who might not have attended for years: "My mother came to see Calendar Girls. Regular Curzon visitor "We make a point of keeping Tuesday afternoon free. it was pointed out that without a local cinema. and she hadn't been to the cinema in 30 years.. The events... Everybody says hello" Regular Lonsdale visitor These matinees were also an opportunity for carers to come to the cinema with their charges. it's really sociable. Lack of independence or mobility. they just need the push" The screenings were seen as a real social occasion for the audience: "They're a god send. These special screenings. with no worries about transport to and from the cinema. or paying for the tickets. or sheltered housing.29 As mentioned earlier.. particularly for those who did not like going out in the evenings. At a Curzon audience discussion group.. it became clear that for many of the older people in the audience. at which refreshments were served and . The matinees for older people were seen as a "godsend". and have a wonderful experience". poor access to transport. A significant proportion of the audience at these screenings were living in old people's homes. you come here. and a way of reintroducing people to the cinema. who came from across the borough of Hackney.. and also fears about the safety of going out (particularly at night time) were common barriers to people visiting the cinema. so were often reliant on others to organise outings for them. have a hot drink and a biscuit. lack of money. sit down and watch it in a great atmosphere. and the older residents were seen as an important part of both cinemas' audiences. the local populations of Annan and Clevedon were older than the national average. She had been heavily involved in setting up the annual Rio screenings. and had received a lot of very positive feedback from the audience at these events. In the first of these screenings. no partners or friends to go with. had provided them with an opportunity to see films in a safe environment.

and proud to be part of such a rich and diverse community . The following comments were received after screenings of films about Rosa Parks and Marcus Garvey. The festival representative also felt that the festival was a service to the community. he felt strongly that the festival was giving the East London Kurdish community access to films that would not otherwise have an outlet in this country. the Rio reduces the prices of its own refreshments for these screenings to keep costs manageable for the audience and helpers. He felt sure that some people who had attended the Rio for the first time at the festival had gone on to become regular Rio audience members. The fee is taken out of the ticket sale income. both the Rio and the Metro were located in multicultural areas. Feedback was also extremely positive following the 100 Black Men of London screenings for young people and their parents (in 2003). and hiring the cinema. and refreshments are no longer provided. 3. both audience and local residents felt that more could be done within the main year-long . in that it drew people into the cinema who would not normally attend. The Rio's various festivals and special screenings of world cinema were welcomed as a very positive way of engaging the local minority ethnic communities in Hackney. both important figures in Black history: "This is an ideal opportunity to teach our children about someone so prominent in our history" "I found the showing of Rosa Parks amazing. However.thank you" While these festivals and special events were welcomed. The Rio's practical help with organising the festival. He pointed out that the festival would have been impossible without the Rio's agreement not to charge an up-front fee for obtaining the films. but being in a room with black women and men and most importantly children" "Can I just say how much we enjoyed the screening on Sunday.30 entertainment provided were seen as a welcome social occasion for older people of all ethnic backgrounds. and raising funding has also been invaluable. in an interview with one of the organisers of the Kurdish festival. For instance. transport now has to be organised by the various nursing homes and other community organisations involved. New funding arrangements are currently being explored. and a positive way of increasing the quality of life of older people in Hackney.2. We all felt that we came away better informed and enlightened. Not just the film.6 Access to film for particular local minority ethnic groups As described earlier. A small charge is now made for each ticket. in order to keep these events running. Attendance at these events had dropped off since the Council withdrew some of the funding. and were engaged in programmes and events designed to appeal to particular local minority ethnic groups.

Lonsdale. there was felt to be scope for better targeting of advertising of such films. In Derby. For instance. would generate a year-round audience for the cinema. However. Secondly.2. which is owned and run by the University of Derby. There are no dedicated toilets for disabled customers. while the festivals and special events were a good way of making links with the various local minority ethnic communities. Savoy and Rio all offered wheelchair access to their screens and toilets.7 Access to film for people with disabilities The case study cinemas varied in the level of access they provided for people with disabilities. who promote the work of black filmmakers. like the Rio. these women would probably not feel comfortable attending regular cinema screenings. By doing this. Interviewees suggested two ways of tackling the problem: firstly. In an audience survey conducted as part of this study. these links were not being maintained outside these special events. and no unassisted access to the . However. Local community organisations could also be enlisted to help with spreading the word about films or events of particular interest to them. The shared view was that. It was particularly noticeable that in a borough in which one in four residents were Black or Black British. and have used the Rio's basement to run a digital video production training course for socially disadvantaged young people. the Metro sought to programme a diverse range of films designed to appeal to the various local minority ethnic communities. The Metro's ability to offer access to people with mobility problems is limited by its current building. to include regular screenings of films throughout the year that appeal to these different communities. the local Vietnamese and Chinese communities. one initiative that is worth noting is the wellestablished link with a local group of South Asian women. For cultural reasons. This was a view supported by other participants in the study. for example in Turkish newspapers. including members of both the Kurdish and Turkish Festival committees. the Metro appeared to be attracting a disproportionately high percentage of residents from a white ethnic background. but also to view them in a female-only setting. 13% of the local population were from minority ethnic backgrounds. restaurants and kebab shops. a local Turkish newspaper. and the director of Kush Promotions. the local population was not as ethnically diverse as in Hackney. a change in programming. a change in the marketing strategy was recommended.31 film programme to engage the various minority ethnic groups living in Hackney: including more films which would appeal directly to the sizeable African-Caribbean population in Dalston. the Metro agreed to set up private screenings of Indian films for the group. 3. The Curzon. In response to an initial request from the group. and there were not enough films in the main year-round programme to appeal directly to these local residents. the Metro is enabling this group not only to see Indian films which might not be screened elsewhere in Derby. and as discussed earlier. and the Turkish and Kurdish communities. the regular cinema audience fewer than one in ten of the regular Rio audience came from this ethnic background.

all five case study cinemas have established links with local schools or colleges. in his role as a local businessman. and a media studies teacher at an FE College in Derby. Several cinemas tried to accommodate school requests to screen particular films with links to subjects being studied by pupils. had given presentations to the college's tourism and media students about how to market services to the local community. and often took her A level students to Metro screenings. It was also suggested that the screenings were a particularly important provision for children from poorer families and those living outside Annan. To illustrate the sort of benefit that these links can have. The Regal cinema in Redruth is the most accessible. when the cinema relocates to the new QUAD development. The Curzon also offers audio description facilities on selected films. 3. the Merlin Cinema group is in the process of adapting some of its other cinemas in West Cornwall for disabled users.8 Opportunity to learn new skills or knowledge As discussed earlier. The school. The Curzon provided another example of direct involvement in local pupils' studies. and found that children really benefited from the experience. The Curzon and Rio also have infra-red assisted hearing systems or induction loops for the hard of hearing.32 cinema. These screenings were of clear educational benefit to the pupils: for example. The teacher was herself sometimes a guest lecturer at Metro. The Savoy does not currently offer wheelchair access to its restaurant and bar. She described the purpose of the screenings as "educational pleasure". organising discussions of the content of the film in class before and after the screenings. She saw the links with the Metro as having many benefits for her students. And the Savoy cinema manager. The Metro is fully equipped to screen films for people with hearing impairments. disabled access will be improved.2. An interview was conducted with a media studies teacher at an FE college in Derby. The Annan primary school teacher explained that her school had been organising twice-yearly screenings for its pupils for the last four years. as described in an earlier section. At the simplest . both socially and educationally. However. The cinema had recently been the focus of a local history project (organised by the Watershed in Bristol) for pupils at a local primary school. However. tried to link the trips to literacy skills. interviews were conducted with a teacher from a local primary school in Annan. It also provides sign-interpreted screenings. Children who might go to the cinema with their parents got a particular pleasure out of going with a group of peers. through Dolby screentalk. These children might otherwise not get the opportunity to visit the cinema. who were isolated by lack of transport. and is equipped with an infra-red system. wherever possible. There are no facilities in the Savoy for induction loops or subtitling. a special screening at the Lonsdale of The Pianist for local secondary school pupils to coincide with the school's Remembrance Day lessons about the holocaust.

The good two-way communication between the college and Metro was much appreciated. particularly the younger people". As well as motivating the young people. and together with "Calling the Shots". some of the participants had decided to change their career ideas. The resulting film will be shown at the Curzon. There are also plans to start another newsreel project. As a result of the newsreel project. the Metro had held a media careers day at which students were able to learn more about various different sectors of the industry. links between the local cinema and young people in the community can be enhanced by the First Light scheme.33 level. One recent project involved a group of about seven 15-16 year olds. working under the guidance of a local production company. An interview was conducted with a Clevedon youth worker who had been involved in various projects with links to the Curzon. Rio and Metro were all involved in the delivery of training programmes in video and film production to local young people and other residents. The Curzon. course directors and youth workers. including this news reel project. and she could see clear benefits for the young participants. and served to increase their interest in cinema-going. a production company in Bristol. successfully applied for a First Light grant. Recently. including journalism. to explore the impact of such programmes on the participants. She very much welcomed the links with the Curzon and the enthusiasm of the cinema manager. The long-running tape slide course at the Rio is the only such course on offer in London. to be screened monthly in the cinema. and arranged end of year screenings of the work of student film-makers. and is unique in its direct association with a working . And the trips to the cinema were a good social occasion for the students. Clearly. making a "scary movie". They made local news reels. the link with the cinema is create new younger audiences for the Curzon. who were selected because of attention problems at school. Interviews were conducted with a number of the tutors. The education officer at the Metro was also proactive in organising behind-thescenes tours of Metro for interested students. Following this project. The Curzon has ongoing links with various local authority-run youth clubs. The links with the Metro were also valuable in providing students with career information. The screenings also helped to illuminate particular issues being studied on the A level course. She also felt that the project had been important in giving "a voice to the community. The resulting reels were screened at the cinema before the main feature. and pursue work in film production and other media-related sectors. who attends monthly youth forum meetings. and introducing them to new career ideas. and a local film editor who is on the cinema's management committee. their attendance at regular screenings was a valuable way of introducing them to a wider range of films than they would see at the multiplexes. in particular. Metro was very open to suggestions about programming that would fit in with specific aspects of the college course. the youth group had been inspired to start a new project. television and film making. and will be attended by other schools and youth groups in the area.

As part of this study. and for some had helped to reduce feelings of isolation . Completion of the course quite often led students towards further training courses. or opened up potential new career opportunities. for people new to the area. As well as helping to engage a group of socially excluded young people. making it much more clearly vocational and career-enhancing. run by Kush Promotions in the basement of the Rio from 2000 until December 2003. and you wouldn't get that in a multiplex. Kurdish and Turkish Cypriot backgrounds. fine art or film students seeking to expand their technical skills. it was clear that these courses and events were seen as a real selling point for the Metro. such as young offenders. Many of the course participants became regular Rio visitors after the course. The director of Kush Promotions also felt that having the course based at the Rio made the cinema appear more accessible to the wider local community. and an opportunity for people interested in cinema to expand their film knowledge: "It's different. Most of the students are local young people from Turkish. About 24-30 students per year participate in the Balik Arts Video Projects.I come to learn stuff" . a more formal Introduction to Film course. Similar benefits for participants were reported by the director of 'Bridge to Normal Living: a digital video production course'. but also to promote their finished product in a public arena. or for mothers who had felt excluded from work or learning networks while raising their families. who had been having problems with substance misuse and offending. an informal Talk Cinema course. That's why you come here . photography. ideas for future training and careers. The course leader reports similar benefits to those highlighted for the above courses: increased confidence. Metro offers its visitors a range of 'lifelong learning' options. As mentioned earlier. In the audience focus group..for example.. which are based at the Rio. enhanced social networks and an increased appreciation of film-watching (enhanced by the provision of free tickets to selected Rio screenings). It was also a good social network for course participants.women who wanted to come back to learning after raising families. The course attracts up to ten students a year from a range of backgrounds . the course enabled participants to learn new film-making skills.34 cinema. such as introductory talks before screenings of films. and meant that the students were able not only to view screenings of their work in progress. and introduced them to the joys of film-watching. and their portfolios. and Rio visitors and local residents simply interested in learning a new skill. And some of the projects are targeted at specific groups. The association with the Rio was felt to be invaluable for the course. It took the course out of a purely academic environment and placed it in a professional work environment. an interview was conducted with the course tutor to discuss what sort of benefits were gained by course participants. and various study evenings on particular film genres.

and has recently provided funding to enable the Rio to offer free screening events to local schools. with the current level of staffing. Hackney Council also acknowledged the huge untapped potential for the Rio to work with local schools. is very keen to expand the educational work of the cinema. I think to give people the opportunity to do that in some sort of organised but fairly flexible way is great. The Rio manager. and perhaps investigate more advanced film studies courses. The following quotes are typical: "I have certainly seem films that I wouldn't have done. and one of the main benefits was felt to be an introduction to new films and film genres.35 Regular Metro visitor A discussion group was held with people who were currently attending. There is an image of people coming out of a cinema animatedly discussing what they have just seen. or had recently attended. But it was one of the best films I have ever seen". "It motivates me to go out and see films that I probably wouldn't see otherwise". They were asked what they felt they had gained from attending the courses. It can be a way to meet people with like-minded interests" Other reported benefits were an increased interest and motivation to read more books about film. and for the Rio to continue this level of educational activities may require the appointment of an outreach and education post. or by particular directors. for example. The funding is only for a 3-month trial. the Introduction to Film or Talk Cinema courses. .it feels like a night out and a chance to talk. the Metro is the only case study cinema with a dedicated education officer. but had felt unable to make progress on this.. see more films of particular genres. but struggled to make any progress with this within the constraints of their budget and without additional staff. and it's become part of the culture. During the study.. it's been really good" Talk Cinema / Introduction to Film course participants Taking part in the courses and study evenings was also seen as an opportunity to meet like-minded people: "It doesn't feel like a course . It has broadened my horizons. As mentioned earlier. and that would just not have appealed to me. We saw one that was advertised as a film about two teenage boys in Spain. several of the other cinema managers explained that they were very keen to expand their educational activities and links with schools. "Now I have come in and seen things that I never would have thought of seeing. The manager reports a high level of interest from local schools so far.

the manager feels that the demand for school screenings may be decreasing. the cinemas' marketing and advertising strategies were highlighted as possible problems. directors or stars. it became clear during the study that both cinemas were less well engaged with the more general local population. In a focus group of local multiplex visitors in Derby. mainly because they did not recognise the film titles.2. this specialised image endures for many. Both cinemas were successful in attracting niche groups of film enthusiasts. and also had good links with specific local minority ethnic communities. Although some local schools are still clearly supportive of the cinema trips. However. a key issue that was raised during the study was their ability to attract a wide range of local residents. out-of-the-ordinary and subtitled films. in a focus group of Dalston residents who were not regular Rio visitors. as described earlier. several people mentioned that they were often not aware of what was showing at the Rio. only catering to those who were interested in "intellectual". The residents in these two discussion groups were regular multiplex visitors.000 brochures distributed locally every two months.36 The Curzon manager has met with local school teachers to discuss the possibilities or establishing more school links and educational projects. if the films don't appeal to certain people. and one of the cinema's future plans is to apply for funding for a part-time education officer. schools. even for simple trips to the cinema. none had been attracted to the Metro by the listings in the local press. In Annan. youth groups and so on. they are not going to come" In both the local resident groups. and also to the increasing technical ability of schools to project their films themselves from DVDs on the school site. When deciding to go the cinema. and puts people off. None of the local Derby resident group had seen the Metro brochures. they tended to be drawn to multiplexes as a result of the national advertising campaigns for the big budget blockbuster movies. including the screen and sound quality. As one local resident put it: "No matter how good it looks on the outside. and one of the features of multiplex cinemas that attracted them was the quality of the facilities. The perception of the cinemas as offering only a specialised programme appears to be one of the main deterrents for the wider local population. despite the 22. providing the appropriate licences are in place. . another potential problem was raised. 3.9 Specialised cinemas: Drawing in local audiences For the two specialised cinemas. and would like to see more prominent advertising on the outside of the building about current and forthcoming films. and despite the increasing numbers of mainstream films being screened at the cinema. In the Dalston resident group. and wider and more frequent distribution of brochures. Similarly. they felt that the Rio has had a rather specialised image. This is due in part to the increasing requirements for schools to carry out risk assessments and send out consent forms.

and it's very much a community in the afternoon. with a personal touch" "People get to know you . friendly atmosphere of the cinemas was repeatedly praised. rather than in a large “impersonal” out-of-town cinema. particularly appealing to local families. The group were also impressed with the links the Metro had with community groups.2. which would reduce their appeal to the current committed audience. There were repeated references throughout the study to the real "sense of community" that was part of the traditional cinema experience. the atmosphere is better" "In the multiplex. it's just not the same sort of experience at all. there was some interest in the idea of the Metro being a safe. Some were of the view that the cinemas should reach out to a more diverse audience from all sections of the local population. very cosy and very intimate. but felt that both the Rio and Metro could do more to create a stronger local image for the cinema.37 the comfort of the seats and the range of confectionery on offer. central cinema. It's very big and impersonal" . However. Among the regular Rio and Metro visitors. You meet other people and there is a real community thing" "The atmosphere is wonderful. As explained earlier. there were mixed views about whether the cinemas should attempt to appeal to a wider audience.10 Opportunity to see films in a "traditional" local cinema setting In interviews and discussion groups with the audience for all five case study cinemas. the cinemas would need to change the balance of their programmes between specialised and mainstream.. 3. Both Hackney and Derby City Councils were supportive of the cinemas' current work. The following quotes are typical of the discussions: "It's a charming little cinema. in particular the Metro.they recognise you. The cinemas were seen as providing the opportunity to see films in an intimate local setting. and extend their outreach activities. Whether the specialised cinemas. friendly. Multiple screen cinemas are also able to screen films for longer. should be casting their nets wider to appeal to more of the local population is an issue for debate. the idea of a community cinema was certainly something that appealed to the local Derby residents. build up a wider audience base. Others felt that in order to attract a wider audience. They had not seen any press coverage of this. and was not in evidence in the modern multiplex cinemas. and felt that the Metro could do more to promote itself as a community cinema. the cosy.. Small cinemas like the Rio and Metro would struggle to compete with the multiplexes on these terms. We've been welcomed with open arms" "I like to come here because it's very local. and have a chat.

it's friendly. well-worn nature of the facilities had its own appeal for the audience. you are just going to watch the film. It's quite cuddly. However. you really do come for the cinema experience. the food available at . the historic nature of the cinema building itself also contributed to the experience of watching films in a traditional setting. It has this nice building with the Art Deco feel" "It's smaller.. as the following quotes illustrate. and for younger people. that's why I come here. and I can't watch the film properly. it's nostalgic. Because you know that people generally are going to be avid film fans" Regular Metro visitor "I think that is what independent cinema is all about. the seats at the Metro were felt to be rather uncomfortable. It's cute" For some regular visitors at the Rio and Metro. For watching big action movies. different. It's to appreciate the movie" Regular Rio visitor But even for the committed Rio and Metro regulars. part of the appeal of the cinemas over the more commercial cinemas was the type of audience they attracted: "You do not get the kids here so often: that puts me off going to a mainstream cinema..... it's not for the young people to hang out. Anywhere else. going up the stairs. the multiplexes' bigger screens and higher sound quality were attractive.. Here. Metro and Rio For the audiences at the Rio and Curzon. "I think the Rio has a very nice personality. For instance. multiplexes were sometimes the cinema of choice.. The greater viewing opportunities available on any one day at multiple screen cinemas were also a draw.. and the quality of the sound and screen were not always as good as other Derby cinemas. the slightly dated. Lonsdale. You often can't hear anything. with kids screaming. as illustrated by these quotes from Metro regulars: "It's quirky" "I quite like the ticket office and the till. the kiosk in the corner. it has a bit of history to it" Regular Rio visitors "When you come here." Regular Curzon visitor It was recognised that the case study cinemas' facilities sometimes compared unfavourably with those of some multiplexes.38 Regular visitors at the Savoy. Curzon. you appreciate everything.

a free newspaper distributed throughout North Somerset. Press support was strong for the Curzon and Rio. Role as local venue In all five areas. The Clevedon Mercury. Local press coverage One indicator of a cinema's place in the local area is the level of prominence it achieves in the local press. One regular Curzon visitor highlighted a potential negative social impact arising from cinema closure: "There would be a lot less for young people to do here if it closed down. and in improving the image of the locality. particularly the young people. and their towns were unusual in this regard. given there were no other cinemas in the borough. Clevedon and Annan. and there would be many more kids hanging around on the streets" Savoy. Curzon and Lonsdale visitors shared the view that small towns like theirs were "lucky" to have a cinema that showed such a variety of films every week. the Rio always featured as one of the key entertainment venues in the borough along with the Empire and Ocean. has adopted the . its committed regulars and the local press felt that the cinema was providing an important cultural service in Derby: "It helps to keep it [cultural life] ticking over in Derby. because the cultural pulse of Derby is very weak" "I think if the Metro was to close tomorrow. the cinema was regarded by local residents and the local press as a key entertainment venue. In Clevedon and Hackney. In Derby too. The extent of local press coverage varied among the five case study cinemas. It was seen as a vital resource for local residents. And the cinemas were seen as providing a vital service for local residents. there were not felt to be many other entertainment options in the towns: for example. the Clevedon Mercury described the Curzon as Clevedon's "only venue of note in the town". the local press has been actively involved in campaigns to support their local cinemas.2. 3. but less so for the Savoy. it would be a huge cultural loss to Derby" When lists of "places of interest" in Hackney were being compiled by the local paper. In Penzance.11 Contribution to a sense of place / Focus for pride in the local area Participants in the study were asked what sort of wider role the cinemas played in their local areas.39 the multiplexes was a more attractive option than the Rio or Metro refreshments. reasonably good for the Metro and Lonsdale. It was recognised that local cinemas had closed down in many other areas in recent years. although local residents were not always fully aware of the Metro.

who felt that beyond weekly advertisements of the film programme. For instance. such as its screenings for deaf children. and features appeared in both the Hackney Gazette and Time Out. The local papers also provided regular coverage of Metro news stories. Metro and Rio were well supported by their local councils. the local papers do tend to favour the Odeon cinemas over the Lonsdale. but also to the many fund-raising activities that have taken place. which led to the voicing of much local support. both in terms of programme listings and more substantial stories about the films or news stories. The Observer was also quick to produce a substantial piece. in the film reviews. its coverage is now limited to basic cinema listings in the local newspapers. links with local schools. but there was not much Council recognition of the Lonsdale or Savoy cinemas. This was confirmed in an interview with a representative from The Cornishman newspaper. it needed more local press coverage than multiplexes which benefit from the big national advertising campaigns associated with individual mainstream films. They recognised that as a specialised cinema. with colour photographs. In the nineties. largely due to the cinema's weekly adverts. regular coverage is given both to the cinema's programme of films. the cinema was not very proactive in getting press coverage for its events. The Curzon. The cinema manager is also fairly proactive in getting editorial coverage of the cinema's community initiatives. and the cinema logo features prominently above the paper's masthead logo. However. and a recent initiative with young mothers. In Derby. Since then. Local council support Another indication of a cinema's place in the local area is the level of Council support and recognition it receives. about the participation of the cinema in this study. In May 2003. and its recent refurbishment by the current owner). . Although the Savoy cinema has received good press coverage in the past (in 2002 the magazine Cornwall Today ran a feature about the history of the cinema. Both local papers tried to provide more coverage to the Metro than other cinemas in Derby. these stories were often written in response to Metro press releases.000 of its own money to help the community buy the cinema. and contributed £3. the Annandale Observer had recently published articles about school visits to the cinema. with a prominent reference to the article on the front page of the paper. The Lonsdale is reasonably prominent in local newspapers. the Mercury covered the story and fundraising efforts. The cinema has also been featured on local television news programmes.40 Curzon cinema as "its big campaign". the Metro was regularly covered by the local press. and its place in the QUAD development. an article in the Hackney Gazette alerted the Rio and its audience to a proposed development for Dalston which included a fourscreen multiplex in its plans. because prominence is usually given to the "big titles". The cinema itself rarely receives additional press coverage. The Rio management sought public support to oppose planning permission being granted. when the cinema was threatened with closure.

and its educational work with schools and colleges. The Council also make a practical contribution to the running of the Curzon through the presence on the management committee of two town councillors. in particular. Derby City Council is the principal funder of the Metro. In Clevedon. and was very keen that this work continue when the cinema relocated to its new building. and there are close day-to-day links between the Metro and Council staff. which supports specific programming such as the Turkish and Kurdish Film Festivals and a recently launched trial education programme. The Rio has received revenue support in the past from Hackney Council. and practical advice from Council staff in funding applications. All three of these cinemas also featured in Council tourism materials. North Somerset District Council provided a financial contribution to the community purchase of the cinema in the nineties. Derby City Council felt that the Metro was doing very important work through its links with various community groups such as children with hearing impairments. had a central place in the QUAD project: Derby's future visual arts and media centre. to expand the cinema's programming and organisational development and ensure that the cinema's future is secure. There is a member of the council on the Cinema Board. Both the Metro and Rio were also recognised by their local Councils as key community-based organisations. The Metro. While the Rio did not feature explicitly in Hackney Council's cultural strategy. and is a member of the steering group for the Council's Arts Strategy. and facilitating links between the cinema and other local events and organisations. Metro and Rio have all received both financial and practical support from their local Councils. buildings and libraries. The Council actively supported the Metro several years ago in its appointment of a permanent education officer. and its importance as the only cinema in the borough. and is now in receipt of Neighbourhood Renewal Funding. and the Council also displays the Rio's brochures in council offices. The Council have been working closely with the Rio's board and management in recent months. The Rio is featured in Hackney Council's "Discover Hackney" brochures. The Council saw this as the Metro's unique selling point. and via a North Somerset regional heritage and tourism information centre. And the Metro was briefly referred to in Derby tourism print and web publicity. the cultural development officer at the Council recognised the Rio as one of the three best known cultural institutions in Hackney. the Council Tourism Committee were seeking to promote the cinema in a number of ways. and further grants for the purchase or maintenance of equipment at the cinema. including on brown signs from the major roads. The Curzon and Metro cinemas were both identified as a key part of their Councils' cultural strategies. a project which the Council was part funding. such as the local museum. Hackney Council recognised the Rio as "a strong and vibrant community-focused institution". which are distributed throughout the borough. and council staff advise and assist the cinema on various aspects of local authority policy and funding. .41 The Curzon. and is marked on the Tourist Office city map. The Metro manager is involved in the Arts Community Forum.

In interviews and discussions in all five areas. pride and protectiveness towards their .000 has been raised. annual open-air concerts. Place within local community It became clear during the study that all five case study cinemas enjoyed strong support among local residents. The Savoy had been saved from almost certain closure in the early nineties by the current owner who had bought the cinema in 1990 and embarked on a five-year programme of improvements. owner Geoff Greaves received a considerable amount of local support for his efforts. The high regard in which the Curzon is held locally is demonstrated by the significant and ongoing involvement of local residents and businesses in fund-raising efforts for the Curzon Restoration Fund. The Rio supporters. despite applying. Recent fund-raising activities include sponsored parachute jumps and cycle rides.42 In Penzance and Annan. and planning permission for the new cinema was refused. when the Rio was threatened with a potential multiple screen cinema development in Dalston. In 2003. The local council was viewed as generally rather neglectful of Annan. neither the cinema nor its visitors felt that the Council recognised the value of the Lonsdale. and is marked as such by a plaque on the front of the building. In Annan. the council in Annan had not funded a town map. And unlike the nearby towns of Moffat and Gretna. Both the Savoy and the Rio had also enjoyed demonstrations of local support when they were threatened with closure. The Lonsdale audience focus group participants were not sure that the council would necessarily step in to help if the Annan cinema was threatened with closure. and Cornwall Today described him as a "knight in shining armour". By transforming it into a three-screen cinema and incorporating a bar. there was much less evidence of local council support for the cinemas. the cinemas' regular visitors expressed feelings of loyalty. the cinema sought public support to oppose planning permission being granted. he had successfully turned the failing single-screen cinema into a financially viable operation. Neither cinema was mentioned in their council's cultural or tourism strategy. seat sponsorship and black-tie events to celebrate the cinema's 90th birthday. had not benefited from the council's "high street facelift fund". £150. The cinema. letting some of the historic buildings fall into disrepair. where the cinema had been the focus of a major fund-raising campaign. although there was some promotion of the Savoy as a rainy day attraction by the local Penzance tourist office. marking key sites such as the cinema and swimming pool. During the renovations. This was particularly strong in Clevedon. A flurry of emails and letters were received by the Planning department supporting the Rio's position. To date. and had had to fund the installation of brown street signs to the cinema itself. both local and London-wide rose to the challenge. restaurant and take-away units. and the Savoy also features as one of twenty sites of historical interest on the local authority's "Penzance Trail".

central location in QUAD. which they saw as vital amenities for the local communities. but for the community as a whole. to reach out to a wider local audience. but everybody's... and its expansion to two screens will enable the cinema. Several of those attending the group had not even heard of the Metro cinema. The City Council hopes that Metro's new visible. it would be a tragedy for us. there would be an outcry. or what sort of films were being shown: "People don't have a clue as to where it is. in its main film programme. or what they are about" As has already been discussed in various sections of this report. it's not really going to have the funding to push big on the marketing like the Showcase and the UCI.. So people don't get to know that it's here. then you don't know how to get there" "If it's a local community cinema. The Curzon was a community-owned cinema. not just a particular group. all the cinemas were seen as playing a part in the local community to a greater or lesser extent. the Metro was highly valued by its regular audience of film enthusiasts. they don't know what films are on. it's the whole community's. The Metro and Rio were well established as community-focused . It's not in a prominent position. as the following quotes illustrate.43 cinemas. they would not really notice what had happened" This suspicion was given weight during interviews with local Derby residents who were not regular Metro visitors. As one Metro visitor put it: "If the Metro were to close. That's something to be really proud of" "I don't know what the community would do if we lost the cinema [Lonsdale]" In Derby. and the various local organisations and schools that were linked to the Metro. and those who were aware of its existence tended to be unclear about where the cinema was. and the local community were actively involved in supporting the cinema through their fund-raising activities and working as volunteers at the cinema itself. "I think people feel very protective towards the Rio because we don't want to lose it" "If it [the Savoy] were to close. and if they do know it's here. rather than its current limited appeal to a certain type of film enthusiast.. the cinema did not have a consistently strong image across the wider community. A focus group was conducted with residents who had been recruited in local streets and shopping centres. it would be a disaster" "It's [Curzon] our cinema. is it? If you don't know Derby town centre. However.

the Lonsdale had been a factor in attracting some of the newer residents to the town. With several of the older buildings in Annan falling into disrepair. the cinema's regular visitors felt that the presence of the cinema in the town affected people's decisions to move into or out of the area. Effect on local migration In three of the case studies. In Annan. and the toilets were described as "immaculate". and one of the reasons we chose Annan was because it had such a good range of facilities. it was recognised as a key local business in the area. regular Lonsdale visitors were impressed with the "real effort" that the cinema management had made with the upkeep of the cinema. This issue was discussed with study participants. the quality of the sound and screen.44 institutions through their work with various community organisations and schools. The owner's teaching background meant that he was well known among local children. The Savoy was perhaps rather less community-focused than the other four cinemas in terms of outreach work. local perceptions of the cinema were inextricably linked to perceptions of the cinema owner. as the following quotes from members of the audience group indicates: "It's just over a year since we moved here from Glasgow. These sentiments were echoed by one of the regular Savoy visitors in Penzance: "I would move back to London if it closed" Environmental impact on immediate vicinity Another way in which cinemas can contribute to the sense of a local place is via their environmental impact on their immediate vicinities. Savoy and Rio were all recognised as having played an important part in raising the image of the local area. and find one that has very up to date films was a great bonus" "We moved up from London about three years ago. In Annan. and regularly supported local charities and fund-raising events. The Lonsdale. and that was quite an event. The Lonsdale cinema was also a regular sponsor of local events and organisations. and his commitment to the local community was highly valued. So to come here. they did feel that the cinema was "a very good reason to stay once you're here". Several commented on how wellkept the building was. having fought for it twice over ten years. with an increasing . and he was often personally involved in local school events. We lost our local cinema on the south side of Glasgow. Girls Brigade award ceremonies as well as working as a local swimming coach. and the cinema was one of the considerations we took into account when we moved here. which included a cinema" While the Curzon regulars did not believe that the presence of the cinema in the town would necessarily attract people to move to the area. However. The cinema was seen as setting a good example in a town that was looking rather neglected.

People wouldn't probably hang out in the high road" At the time of this study. it was felt that its presence on Green Lane had benefited the immediate local area. with a fairly transient population. in the evening there will be nothing up here" Regular Metro visitor . The subsequent renovation of the cinema and the rest of the street has significantly improved the ambience of the area. and felt that this needed to be improved in order for the Savoy to properly create an impression of being an important building in Penzance. A representative of the Hackney Gazette described the Rio as "a local landmark . In this role. The nearby dwellings are largely flats and hostels. within a University building on a mainly residential street within five minutes walk of the city centre. and the neon signage of the cinema added considerably to the street and pavement lighting. we have a lot there . drugs and car crime. a lot of excellent Turkish restaurants. both for the cinema and other adjacent businesses. and the level of trade. and a big site near the Town Hall that has been derelict for several years. as it is in a prominent position" "Without the cinema. However. he has been directly involved in working with other local businesses to regenerate Causewayhead.there's the Rio. and hosts the association's meetings in the Savoy bar. "It brings life to Green Lane. In its present location. I could imagine that a lot of the cafes and restaurants wouldn't be here as they would lose the passing trade. the pedestrianised street on which the cinema is located.. the Metro was looking forward to its relocation to a more visible location in Derby. as part of a new visual arts and media centre being planned for the City Centre. The cinema had helped to improve feelings of safety in the area. In the early nineties. with its Art Deco frontage and being situated in the main shopping area. The comings and goings of the Metro audience increased "footfall" in the area considerably. and when it goes from here.. And I always think of the Rio first.45 number of empty shops on the high street. has risen as a result. and has been associated with prostitution. the theatre. Both Rio regulars and other local residents agreed that it created a focus for the high street. the cinema's presence was fairly unobtrusive. with many shop windows boarded up. The regular cinema-goers appreciated the cinema's interior and exterior renovations. in an otherwise fairly deprived area: "I think it is a symbol of the fact that Dalston is not a dump. particularly the foyer and toilets. the street was largely derelict. in an area which has a poor reputation. the jazz bar. The manager of the Savoy plays an active part in the local Trader Association. but some still described the cinema as "a bit tatty". which was important for generating passing trade for other businesses. The cinema is located on the edges of the City Centre and Normanton.most people know of it".

there was very little ongoing promotion of the historical aspects of the cinema. the Curzon's historical claim to be the "oldest. In Clevedon. which has an estimated readership of 280. always has listings for the Rio cinema. The Rio was recognised not only as a key entertainment venue for Hackney. the cinema has attracted the support of a number of well-known film makers based in the West of England who recognise the Curzon's importance in cinematic history. This article had outlined the history of the cinema from its 1912 opening. This historical claim. and that it should be seen as a selling point for both the cinema and the town. Time Out. Alan Rickman. but also as one of the key London art-house cinemas. For instance. and improved street lighting. Some of the cinemas had also generated some regional or national interest in the local area. and special coverage is always given to the . and enhancing the built environment. Tony Robinson and Sir Charles Elton who has lived in Clevedon all his life. give the Curzon some national as well as local kudos. David Sproxton and Peter Lord. and director Nick Park.46 Similarly. Other patrons include Terry Gilliam. purpose-built.000 and is distributed throughout London and the rest of the UK. contributing to the overall cultural image of the area. and its recent refurbishment. then people would come from miles around to see it" "It could become like a national treasure. would be an enormous benefit to the image of the town: "I think if they did the building up maybe back to its original look. the Lonsdale was felt to have improved security in its immediate vicinity through the building of a fence around the car park. but it was widely felt among those interviewed in Penzance that this historical claim was not well promoted beyond the plaque on the foyer wall about the 1912 opening. The cinema had received some regional attention in 2002 when it was the subject of an article in the magazine 'Cornwall Today'. However. The cinema has received some national press coverage as a result. through its various changes of ownership and fortune. on the BBC 6 o'clock news. once restored to its former glory. and on Sky television. and then pull in a wider audience" Generating regional or national interest in the local area We have already mentioned a number of ways in which the case study cinemas were seen as enhancing the image of the area: making it a more attractive place to live. continuously operated cinema in the world" is well marketed by the cinema via its website and annual Open Days. and felt that the cinema. all those interviewed during the study were keen to see a successful outcome to the cinema's Lottery bid. and this was felt by many to be a missed opportunity. Aardman founders. As a result. have all become patrons of the Restoration Fund appeal. and will often include a review of the film in its 'repertory and special screenings' section. The Savoy also claims to be the longest continually open cinema in the country. and these associations with senior figures in the film industry.

. In a poll of Time Out readers a few years ago. the Rio appeared as one of their top 15 London cinemas.47 Turkish and Kurdish Festivals.

Dalston 75 11 8 3 2 100 As shown in Table 4. The impact of local cinema on the local economy 4. As Table 4.1. In the four non-subsidised cinemas. this was particularly strong for the Savoy. ticket sales income was the biggest contribution to turnover in four of the cinemas. and fast food outlets serving the street directly. . unlike the other case study cinemas. Penzanc e Ticket sales Food.1.1 shows. Derby for which the biggest contribution . The exception was the Metro. employed permanent staff members who focused solely on education and community activities. Advertising revenue made up between 2% and 9% of annual turnover in the cinemas.42% of annual turnover was made by public funding from Derby City Council and EM Media.1 Overview of income and expenditure Each case study cinema provided details of their annual income and expenditure.5 100 Rio.1. Clearly.5 7. staff costs accounted for about half the annual expenditure (49%). film hire and staff costs tended to be the biggest expenses for each cinema. and staff costs accounted for between 16% and 39%. Table 4. Food and drink sales were the next biggest contribution to income for the cinemas. and catering costs accounted for almost a quarter of its annual expenditure (23%).48 4. Derby 34 2 2 42 12. The Savoy cinema in Penzance had a bar and restaurant. For cinemas with catering that was limited to a small kiosk or bar. In the Metro cinema which.1 Annual income of case study cinemas % of annual turnover (2002-2003) Savoy. Penzance which incorporated not just a cinema but also a bar. catering accounted for between 2% and 14% of annual expenditure. Clevedon 77 17 6 100 Lonsdale . restaurant and takeaway outlet. film hire accounted for between 25% and 40% of their expenditure. Annan 57 33 9 100 Metro.2. and film hire 17%. the extent of this expenditure varied with the type of catering arrangements being offered by the cinema. drink & merchandising Advertising revenue Revenue funding Project funding Other income Total 54 42 4 <1 100 Curzon. Another major item of expenditure included catering costs.

"local" was defined as within a 10-20 mile radius of the cinema. Other criteria were the geography. Dalston 39 31 5 5 3 5 2 3 2 1 2 2 4.2 excludes NI & pensions. public services and businesses do with that money. As stated in the Government's National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal (2000): "the problem is not necessarily that too little money flows into a neighbourhood. suppliers in the area.1. As the cinema was the only one in Hackney. In order to present directly comparable expenditure breakdowns for the five cinemas.2. and pattern of business between. and the location of. This was inevitably a rather subjective decision in each case. Annan 24 25 14 22 4 1 2 2 3 4 Metro. we discuss the extent to which the cinemas' expenditure stayed within the local area. the main criterion was the catchment area for the cinema audience. but on the whole. Table 4. it is what consumers. we wanted to look at the place of cinemas in their local economies. the borough of Hackney may have seemed the obvious choice. Penzanc e Staff costs Film hire Catering Repairs and maintenance Rent / mortgage Advertising and publicity Office costs and travel Fuel and utilities Insurance Subscriptions & licences Bank charges & finance fees Other expenditure (inc.1 gives a description of the local area for each cinema.49 Table 4. Derby 49 17 2 11 8 5 2 1 1 4 Rio. rates. educational activities) 29 30 23 3 6 2 3 2 1 * 1 * Curzon. In making these decisions. One of the most difficult definitions to agree was the local area for the Rio in Dalston. in order to calculate what constituted "local spending". In this section. this would not 4 Each case study cinema provided account information categorised in slightly different ways.2 Annual expenditure of case study cinemas4 % of annual expenditure (2002-2003) Savoy. and so immediately leaves the area". In order to measure what proportion of cinemas' income immediately left their local areas. it is spent on services with no local presence. Too often. Clevedon 16 40 13 7 9 4 4 5 * 1 1 Lonsdale .2 Measuring local money flows: cinemas' local spending in their communities As part of this study. Table 4. taxes and depreciation. Rather. transport links and travel patterns of the area. However.1. . the researchers and cinema manager first needed to agree a definition of "local".

or the unique nature of the London economy and distribution of businesses.50 have reflected the fact that the Rio's specialised programme attracts a more London-wide audience.1 Definition of "local area" for each case study cinema Savoy. . they should try to support other small local businesses where possible. as small businesses themselves. so all or the vast majority of staff costs (excluding NI and pension) could be classified as local expenditure. The four-borough definition which was agreed was an attempt to explore the cinema's relationship with geographically close businesses. the Savoy was very successful in using suppliers from Cornwall and Devon. There was a feeling that. tried to seek out local suppliers in favour of more distant suppliers. and this was often for geographical boundary reasons. However. Clevedon Lonsdale. as very few suppliers were based in the boroughs of Hackney. the "local area" definition agreed on initially. vehicle hire and accountancy. For instance. The five case study cinemas. on the whole.an area of West Cornwall that stretches from Lands End to Hayle Within a ten mile radius of Clevedon Within a twenty mile radius of Annan Derby The four neighbouring London boroughs of Hackney. Derby Rio. Islington and Haringey Cinemas were then asked to estimate how much of their annual expenditure was "local". Table 4. However. in order to help sustain the local economy. a significant proportion of the suppliers were located in the cinemas' localities. in that each cinema reported that most or all of their staff lived in the local area. this money automatically left the locality of each cinema. reported broadly similar patterns of local spending. only 19% went to businesses located within the Penwith district. printing and advertising. Tower Hamlets. Annan Metro. and as most film distributors are based in central London. supply of confectionery and other catering stock. 88% of the money spent on catering supplies and equipment went to businesses located within these two counties. But for services such as building upkeep. This proportion of local supplies did vary between the cinemas.2. where the market allowed it. but any such definition is somewhat artificial in such a highly concentrated area as London. one of the major expenses for all cinemas is film hire. or abroad. The Rio also reported a low local spending rate for its confectionery supplies. And all five cinema managers. Penzance Curzon. Dalston Penwith district .

rates. In order to present directly comparable local spending rates for the five cinemas. As table 4. Table 4. (Only local spending information was collected for the Curzon).2.2. the cinemas' overall local spending rates (after excluding taxes. Clevedon 50 100 0 81 90 100 100 96 0 0 0 74 Lonsdale .1 Savoy.3 shows the regional spending rates of the cinemas. Table 4.2. and if we look at the wider region.2. and these were often simple business decisions about saving money. The overall rate for each cinema was of course dependent. the wider region was defined as Cornwall and Devon. and sometimes the cinema wanted to maintain a long-standing contract with a particular supplier. staff NI and pension) ranged from 42% of annual expenditure to 62%. not only on the local spending rates for the different types of expenditure. Annan 43 100 0 67 12 0 100 22 0 0 0 79 Metro.2 shows. Therefore. for example.51 Tower Hamlets.3 exclude NI & pensions. depreciation. Islington or Haringey. its higher staff costs contribute a lot to its overall local expenditure rate. for the Lonsdale as 'within 40 miles of Annan'. but also by the extent to which different types of expenditure contributed to the cinema's overall annual expenditure. at the Metro with its relatively large number of local paid staff (several of whom were full-time). Derby 62 100 0 64 0 0 84 23 0 100 0 66 Rio. sometimes local suppliers were simply not offering value for money. For the Savoy.2. Other factors came into cinemas' decisions not to use local suppliers. as defined in Table 4. Regional spending rates ranged from 43% to 88%. rates. Dalston 43 85 * 23 30 100 45 5 0 0 12 0 42 100 0 19 36 0 1 48 0 100 0 7 Each case study cinema provided account information categorised in slightly different ways. The artificial nature of this "local area" definition was discussed earlier. the region was Greater London. Tables 4.2 and 4. Penzanc e All expenditure (after tax) Staff costs (excl.2.2 Local expenditure of case study cinemas5 % of annual expenditure (2002-2003) that was spent in the local area. NI and pension) Film hire Catering Repairs and maintenance Rent / mortgage Advertising and publicity Office costs and travel Fuel and utilities Insurance Subscriptions & licences Finance fees 5 Curzon. despite their geographical distance. when compared to more distant competitors. For instance. . with whom they had developed a good working relationship. the Rio spent 76% of its confectionery budget within Greater London. taxes and depreciation. For other cinemas. their reliance on volunteers and occasional part-time staff meant that their lower local staff costs had less impact. for the Metro as Derbyshire and for the Rio.

52 Other 90 0 0 32 55 .

and dividing by the initial income. The second round is the money spent locally by the cinemas.53 Table 4. Clevedon n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Lonsdale . rather than a precise measurement. we feel that this methodology could be a useful tool for . Penzanc e All expenditure (after tax) Staff costs (excl. we had originally intended to use a local multiplier tool. The first round of spending is the initial income of the cinema itself.2. LM3. and is designed to give an indication of the cinema's impact on the local economy. The LM3 tool is described in more detail in section 10. it was not going to be possible to calculate LM3 scores for the cinemas with any degree of confidence. in order to encourage staff and suppliers to participate in the study. only the first and second rounds of spending have been reported. based on the third round of spending with cinema staff and suppliers. Annan 43 100 0 67 13 0 100 22 0 0 0 79 0 Metro. Dalston 88 100 95 76 73 100 65 5 0 100 25 46 95 In this study. to help small businesses measure the impact of local spending in their communities. This LM3 tool is designed to track where money is spent in the local economy. much more face-to-face contact with the study participants would be required than the current research budget allowed. it became clear that within the budget of this study. along with an account of our experiences of adapting the tool for use with local cinemas. Derby 74 100 0 100 91 0 93 27 0 100 0 66 51 Rio. to reassure them of confidentiality and to advise them on the categorisation of the various items of expenditure. and the third round is the money spent locally by the cinema's staff and suppliers. A local multiplier score (LM3) can then be calculated by adding the money from all three rounds together. and would have enabled us to estimate what proportion of a cinema's income stays within the local economy. As described above. Although we have not therefore been able to report any quantitative indication of our case study cinemas' impact on their local economies. The LM3 tool measures only the first three rounds of spending.3 Regional expenditure of case study cinemas % of annual expenditure (2002-2003) that was spent in the wider region Savoy. which has been developed by the New Economics Foundation (NEF). For the tool to be used successfully. NI and pension) Film hire Catering Repairs and maintenance Rent / mortgage Advertising and publicity Office costs and travel Fuel and utilities Insurance Subscriptions & licences Finance fees Other 59 100 3 88 68 0 52 67 10 100 19 7 90 Curzon. As the work progressed. in partnership with the Countryside Agency and Esmee Fairbairn Foundation. and what proportion leaves the area.

the money spent by cinema customers (and staff) on their way to and from the cinema in local shops. However.1. which regularly attracted the custom of cinema visitors.2 Impact on local labour market All five cinemas had a direct. full-time staff at cinema Total no. babysitters and so on.3. These issues are discussed in much more detail in section 10.3. and would be worth exploring further in the future. and as such. most cinemas also employed occasional part-time staff to help out in peak periods. One of the questions asked in the survey was about whether the visitor had been for a meal or drink before or after visiting the cinema. pensionable age.1 Additional local spend by cinema visitors The above section takes into account money spent by the audience on cinema tickets. bars and restaurants. in discussion groups with regular cinema visitors in all five case study areas. impact on their local labour markets through their employment of local residents as staff. 4. a number of local bars. 4. 9% had visited another bar. and drinks and confectionery bought from the kiosk. or approaching. In addition to these regular staff.1 Local expenditure by cinema staff Savoy. bakeries.54 small cinemas and similar venues. Penzanc e Total no. of part-time staff at cinema 4 16 Curzon. repairs and maintenance.3 Other direct and indirect local economic impacts 4.3. Derby. Clevedo n 1 13 Lonsdal e. as seen in Table 4. and on local transport. that is. . although the Metro's own bar was the most commonly frequented: 34% of Metro visitors had been for a drink in the Metro bar. finance and management. food shops and take-away outlets were identified. Half had done so. and 11% had gone for a meal at a local restaurant or pub. There is an additional impact to be considered on the local economy. Annan 1 4 Metro. and numbers of staff ranged from five to twenty-three. restaurants. It is also unique in that most of its staff and volunteers are of. As the scope of this study did not enable us to conduct audience surveys in each of the case study areas. However. Table 4. Precise information about how much cinema customers spent in this way was not systematically collected during this study. albeit limited. Dalston 3 20 The Curzon is unique in also drawing on a large pool of local volunteers. a quantitative survey was conducted with the audience of the Metro. Derby 3 6 Rio. most of whom were employed part-time. the cinema is providing valuable part-time working opportunities to older local residents who are not in search of a full-time job. who help out with ushering. none of these were large businesses.3.

although this situation is now improving with the recent opening of the nearby Eden Project and the Tate at St Ives which has extended the tourist season by several months. such as Photoshop. Staff also reported opportunities to learn skills from each other within the Metro office. All Savoy staff are expected to "multi-task". first aid and fire training. while the local film-maker (previously inexperienced in teaching) learned new teaching skills.the ones with the largest. Through the running of this course. the Metro staff member learned new film-making skills and knowledge. in a recent project. The Savoy was also fulfilling an important role in the seaside town of Penzance. A number of staff at the Metro are themselves keen film-makers. The Metro in Derby was another cinema that offered its staff good training and development opportunities. thus. The Metro also liked to enable collaborations between members of its staff and local film-makers. by being shown the ropes by more experienced staff members. Recent training had included externallyrun computer courses for office staff. most diverse staff base . For example. 4. The Savoy cinema in Penzance with its on-site bar.3 Cinemas' links with other local businesses . some cinemas . was able to provide its staff with good opportunities for progressing within the company.3.offered more training and development opportunities than others. Most cinemas offered selected staff in-house projectionist training. and its links to other cinemas in the Merlin group. He has since gone onto use these teaching skills on other courses. Because of the large influx of summer tourists. in that it was one of the few businesses that had been able to offer local people permanent year-round employment. For example. a film-making course was jointly run by a member of Metro staff and a local film-maker. in order to keep up to date with industry developments and contacts. mainly related to computer software. moving from cinema to catering as necessary. a job at the Savoy was seen as offering work experience in a number of different roles. restaurant and takeaway outlets. in which both the staff and the film-makers are able to learn new skills. and new recruits were generally inducted informally into the various elements of the cinema business. Key staff were also regularly sent to various film festivals. The cinema also sent its office staff on occasional externally-run Business Link courses. one long-standing staff member had moved from cleaner to chef to accounts. and the Metro sometimes provides them with opportunities to screen their own short films or trailers before the main feature. deaf awareness training to help staff work with deaf people.55 Staff training and the provision of career development opportunities are other ways of enriching the local labour market. However. and all five cinemas offered their staff training of some sort. traditionally much of the work in Penzance has been seasonal. and courses on marketing via the internet.

used it as an illustration for potential clients of the sort of work he could provide. And local businesses were used by the festival organisers: for example. some of which have fairly prominent local images. or to drive VIP guests around. It was clear from talking to local suppliers in Penzance that the manager of the Savoy was held in high regard as a key local businessman. for which the cinema had screened a Thai film and a nearby Thai restaurant had provided the food and drinks. The festivals brought in Turkish and Kurdish audiences from all over London and beyond. both highlighted a number of ways in which the festivals were important for the local economy. who visited many of Dalston's Turkish bars and restaurants. In interviews with the organisers of these festivals. local businesses often take out support advertising in the local paper. The Rio had made very good links with local Turkish and Kurdish businesses in Hackney through its annual screenings of Turkish and Kurdish film festivals. when the Merlin Cinema group launches a new venture. and had established good long-standing relationships with numerous local suppliers. In Penzance. such as a refurbished bar in one of its West Cornwall cinemas. in the Islington Hilton). The Rio had set up an occasional link with nearby cafes or restaurants. The international guests were put up at local hotels (sometimes in Dalston. who are then listed in the festival programmes. which helped to embed them within their local economies.56 As well as the cinemas' direct expenditure on local supplies and local staff wages. In fact. can be a marketing opportunity for local businesses. Association with the cinemas. Both the Curzon and the Lonsdale in Annan had engaged in similar discount deals with local restaurants. to varying extents. in turn they are acknowledged in the Curzon brochures and website. In Dalston. the Metro cinema saw one of its key roles to provide a meeting place and networking opportunities for local film-makers and film-making teachers. the cinema has provided free meeting and working space for various local industry organisations such as Script . Rolls Royce and Derbyshire Building Society sponsor the screenings for hearing impaired children at the Metro cinema in Derby. For example. all the cinemas. numerous Clevedon businesses have sponsored fund-raising events at the cinema. the Metro had organised a special Thai-themed event.sponsored by local Turkish restaurants and bakers. and four out of the five cinema managers reported this kind of relationship with local businesses. For example. a sign designer who had installed the new signage at the cinema. Receptions were held in local Turkish restaurants. in return for free advertising in the cinema brochure. had links with other local businesses. the Turkish and Kurdish film festivals are part. However. One of the Savoy's suppliers. which had offered discounted meals to cinema users on production of a cinema ticket. to the benefit of both organisations. to design the festival posters. local businesses tend not to advertise in the regular Savoy leaflets. For example. wishing the company well. and increasingly since its refurbishment. or contributed funds or goods in kind. Some of the case study cinemas had engaged in occasional collaborations with local businesses. Several of the cinemas also had links with local film industry practitioners.

Acknowledgments This report was managed and steered by: Ann Griffiths. Rio Cinema. Report author: Sarah Beinart. who has a holiday home nearby. Annan and Savoy Cinema. that were run from the cinema basement. including Aardman Animations and Sir Charles Elton. The Rio recently held an event to celebrate the work of local Hackney-born film director. The Curzon cinema had high profile patrons who were locally based. Also. and is also involved from time to time in offering training to local media and tourism students in how to market services to local communities. The Lonsdale in Annan had organised an event recently for local students. Penzance. bfi. The cinema also screened the work of a number of short film and video production making courses. Lonsdale Cinema. and has collaborated directly with local film makers in the delivery of such courses. Curzon Cinema. . For the impact measurement toolkit see section 11. who got involved with the day-to-day running of the cinema and educational events at the cinema. We would like to thank all those who kindly assisted us in this research project by either filling in a questionnaire survey. Derby. Sarah Beinart. has sometimes been the location for TV productions. Dalston. participating in a telephone interview or a discussion group. In particular. UK Film Council. The Savoy occasionally screens rushes for local shoots. Clevedon. For the other cinemas. Further reading • • • For details of the case studies see sections 5-9. For a full account of the methodology see section 10. as well as the occasional screening of less well-known film makers such as a short film about the anti-war rallies. our grateful thanks go to the managers and staff of the Metro Cinema. promoting the work of screenwriter Frank Cottrell-Boyce. one of the cinema's management committee was also a film editor. a Derby organisation that runs film-making courses. Film London.57 Engine and Derby Scriptwriters. It has also screened work for Mediaworks. providing key local data. The cinema also occasionally organises out of hours screenings for cast and crew of low budget films. links with film industry practitioners were not as central. Asif Kapadia. Sean Perkins. independent consultant. Ana Tovey.

Accessibility for people with disabilities Future development plans Distance from other first run cinemas / specialised cinemas in the region Table 3: Programming and pricing information Information Type of circuit / hub and spoke arrangements etc. Provision of other facilities: bar / restaurant / shops etc. Range of films showing (including special events.g. sound-proofing. drink and merchandising sales Advertising revenue (screen and brochure) Public / private funding Staff costs Marketing and publicity expenses Film rentals Premises costs Office costs and licences Programme enhancement / education costs Finance costs. sound equipment. office space etc. discounts. or close to. audit fees Annual gross turnover Table 2: Building / Facilities / Location Information Style of building / ‘fit’ with surrounding buildings and area Number of screens / seats Location (central / outskirts) Part of. genre etc) % capacity sold by type (certificate. festivals) Range of times showing Number and frequency of films showing by type (certificate. other leisure facilities Type of businesses adjacent to cinema (before & after) Parking facilities Accessibility by public transport Quality of seating. air-conditioning.58 Appendix Table 1: Cinema income and expenditure Information Ticket sales (and membership income) Food. or attracting audiences from further afield) Ticket pricing structures (including membership schemes. bingo. genre etc) Number of tickets sold by type (certificate. genre etc) Target audience (local only. amateur Impact Economic Economic Economic Economic Economic Economic Economic Economic Economic Economic Economic Economic Impact Environmental Economic/Social/Cultural Environmental/Economic Economic/Environmental/Soci al Economic/Environmental/Soci al Environmental/Social Social/Environmental Social/Cultural Social/Economic Social/Economic Social/Economic/Environment al Social/Economic Impact Social/Cultural/Economic Cultural/Social Social Cultural/Social Economic/Social/Cultural Economic/Social Social/Cultural/Economic Economic/Social Economic/Social . projection. screen. partnership offers with other businesses) Other cinema uses (e. toilets. interest.

price. or as a result of cinema attendance Use of. film choice. proximity to other facilities etc. views about other cinemas / cultural facilities / meeting places Awareness of cinema showings and services Views about range of films on offer Views about ticket prices Views about quality and range of cinema facilities Views about service quality Views about accessibility Views about transport links to cinema Views about location of cinema (security. noise. lighting. ethnic origin. if any Type of journey to cinema / time taken Barriers to use (accessibility. lack of interest in cinema etc.) Spend outside cinema as part of same trip. timing. awareness of . TV etc. socio-economic group. videos/DVDs.) Views about cinema as meeting place. focal point Level of interest in film generally Pros and cons of watching films in cinema vs. video/DVD etc.) Other film consumption (books. conferences) Future programming plans Social/Cultural/Economic Table 4: Profile of cinema audience & local residents Information Demographic profile (age. other media (TV. sex. transport. traditional cinema “Life after five” in the local area – for different age groups What services / qualities wanted from a local cinema Attitudes towards local cinema closures All above to be looked at from the point of view of different social and age groups Table 5: Employment and training by cinema Information Number of full-time / part-time jobs (permanent / temporary or casual) Demographic profiles of staff Training provision Skills level of staff Volunteering Table 6: Marketing and publicity Information Type of marketing Impacts Social Social Social/Environmental Social/Economic/Environme ntal Social/Economic Economic Social/Cultural/Economic Social/Cultural/Economic Social/Cultural/Economic Social/Cultural/Economic Social/Cultural/Economic Economic/Social Social/Economic Social/Environmental/Econo mic Environmental Social Social/Cultural Social/Cultural/Economic Social/Cultural/Economic/En vironmental Social/Cultural/Economic/En vironmental Social/Cultural/Economic Social/Cultural/Economic/En vironmental Social/Cultural/Economic/En vironmental Impacts Economic/Social Social Economic/Social Economic/Social Social/Economic Impacts Economic/Social/Cultural . disability.) Pros and cons of multiplexes vs. area of residence) Frequency of cinema visits.59 productions. litter.

sponsorship) Links with local production industry Links with other local groups (film societies.g. other groups Outreach activities Local relevant training / education provision (FE / HE / Adult education) Impacts Social/Cultural Social Social Social/Economic Table 9: Social inclusion/community cohesion activity Information Impacts Action aimed at minority or disadvantaged groups Social/Cultural (e. ticket discounts) Action aimed at fostering links with community Social/Cultural (historical / social) Table 10: Views of participants and tutors in educational / outreach activities Information Impact Gains / losses from participation during activity Social/Economic Gains / losses from participation after end of activity Social/Economic / course / workshop Ongoing contact with other participants. events. or independent of its existence? Proximity of cinema seen as benefit to Impacts Economic Economic Economic Economic/Environmental Economic/Environmental/Soci al .60 Local media coverage Any national coverage /corporate involvement Any local / national kudos associated with cinema Social/Cultural/Economic Social/Cultural/Economic Social/Cultural/Economic Table 7: Links with local business / organisations Information Local expenditure (local supplies etc) Other links / partnerships with local business (ads. community groups etc) Impacts Economic Economic Economic/Cultural Social/Cultural/Economic Table 8: Educational activity Information Educational activities in / linked with cinema (formal / informal) Links with local schools. colleges. as a result of or in association with cinema. specific initiatives involving particular groups. content of films.g. Social/Economic cinema staff etc Further enrolment / repeat participation Social/Economic Personal development Social/Economic Table 11: Views of local businesses Information Local spend Levels of trade associated with cinema users Potential / existing partnerships with cinema Cinema as focus for local regeneration / tourist promotion Reasons for location in area (e. tutors.

tourism promotion etc) al Potential of cinema to engage different sectors of Social/Cultural local population Awareness of / perceptions of any cinema-related Social/Cultural education / outreach work [Social benefits / community cohesion] .61 them?) Table 12: Views of local authority / other local officials about: Information Impacts Place of cinema in local cultural strategy All impacts Place of cinema in local regeneration / All impacts development strategy Public funding of cinema Economic Use of cinema as part of the image of the area Social/Economic/Environment (in local policy.

THERE ARE many cinema theatres located across the country in metropolitan cities. and districts where the inner surroundings are not up to the required standards. In India watching movies in theatres has proven to be the most popular form of entertainment for the masses. . However. there is a concern that if the inside atmosphere in a movie theatre is not congenial. one has observed that many cinema halls tend to be dirty or the people who enter are unhygienic due to many reasons .62 Need for upgrading cinema theaters in the country Based on personal experience.and this can be a health hazard for the many people who come to a cinema hall to have a good time. then during the average three hours time spent inside could result in mankind contacting infectious disease. towns.