RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT REPORT NO.

RD 1045

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF GABION WALL

Mainland North Division Drainage Services Department Version no. : 3.0 November 2006

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Table of Content
Page 1. 2. 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5. 6. Scope and Qualifications General Background Design Considerations of Gabion Wall used in River Embankment Treatment of the Foundation of Gabion Wall Provision of Gabion Aprons Provision of Geotextile Filter Construction of Gabion Wall Packing and Assembly Installation and Filling Gabion Stone Placement Lid Closing Installation of Reno Mattress Sample Particular Specifications, Method of Measurement and Schedule of Rates for Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress Maintenance Related Considerations and Maintenance Requirements Reference Documents 1 1 2-5 2 2-5 5 6-8 6 6-8 8 8 8-9 9

7. 8.

9-11 11

Appendix A. Typical Layout of Gabion Wall B. Design Calculations for Gabion Wall C. Sample Particular Specifications, Method of Measurement and Schedule of Rates for Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

1.

Scope and Qualifications

This paper gives technical guidance for the design of gabion wall used in river embankment. It also stipulates the requirements for Reno Mattress against the local scouring at the toe of gabion wall. This paper is not applicable to revetment structures other than the vertical faced gabion wall structures for the protection of river embankment. This paper does not take into consideration wave forces or other hydrodynamic forces arising out of supercritical flow, curvature flow, ship waves etc. acting on the gabion wall. Therefore, the designer should treat the guidance with great caution when using the guidance for the design of gabions used for coastal protection and in engineered channels. If in doubt, the designer should consult engineers with knowledge/experience on hydrodynamics and suppliers of gabion structures. This paper assumes that gabion wall would sit on top of good soil foundation. Before carrying out the design of gabion wall, the designer should ensure that the foundation of the gabion wall should have been properly investigated.

2.

General Background

Gabions are employed for many uses due to their versatility, which includes hydraulic structures in river training works and in protection works for roads and land reclamation. The gabions are steel wire cages that vary in size and are designed to abate the destructive forces of erosion. Gabions are uniquely woven by twisting each pair of wires one and one half turns continuously providing the inherent strength and flexibility required. Gabion cages are normally designed to contain quarry run or river run stones available at the site of erection. Cages are stacked to construct structures of great durability and flexibility. The formed structure is capable of carrying stress in biaxial tension. Gabion cages are not merely containers of stone since each unit is securely connected to each adjacent cage during construction. The wire mesh is monolithic through the structure in three dimensions, from top to bottom, end to end, and from outer face to inner face. It is, therefore, apparent that the wire reinforces the stone filling in tension. Gabions form flexible structures that can deflect and deform to a certain limit in

Date: November 2006

Page 1-

DSD any direction without fracture. used in river embankment are shown in Appendix B. Gabion structures behave as perforated barriers. Design Considerations of Gabion Wall used in River Embankment There is currently no universally accepted method for designing gabion walls. Gabion structures are regarded as permanent. In the early stages after installation. designers should consider the requirements of treatment of foundation case by case. However.1 Treatment of the Foundation of Gabion Wall Foundation treatment is important to the stability of gabion wall as weak foundation may result in bearing failure or soil slip. siltation takes place between the stone fill promoting vegetation and adding to the permanency of the structure. rockfill and/or other appropriate measures as determined by the designers should be adopted to stabilize the formation before placing gabions. Second Edition. It is recommended that the gabion apron in the form of Reno Mattress. It can withstand the movement of ground without inordinate structure deformation. (refer to Section Date: November 2006 Page 2- . This is a valuable characteristic in that hydrostatic pressure never builds up behind or under the structure and cause failure to the gabion design. 3. In view of the environmentally friendly nature of the gabion construction as compared to concrete. allowing water to gradually pass through them. that gabion walls should be considered as gravity retaining wall for the purpose of design. it is suggested in GEOGUIDE 1 – Guide to Retaining Wall Design.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division.2 Provision of Gabion Aprons Gabion aprons are commonly used to protect the toe of a gabion retaining wall structure from scour that could cause undermining in channel works applications. The detailed design calculations for gabion wall of retaining height ranging from 1m to 4m. 3. gabions are becoming more popular in engineering works in river embankments which demand a natural looking environment with growth of vegetation and potential for ecological lives. Since it largely depends on the soil conditions which may varies significantly for different locations. This attribute enables the gabion structure to be built with a minimum foundation preparation. If necessary. 3.

This will ensure that the gabion apron reaches beyond the outer limit of the anticipated scour hole that may form. Fourth Edition.00 0.55 Date: November 2006 Page 3- . DSD 5. The flow obstructed by the gabions form a horizontal vortex starting at the upstream end of the gabions and running along the toe of the gabions. Froehlich's Live-Bed Scour Equation where: K1 = Coefficient for shape Shape Coefficients Description Vertical-wall Vertical-wall with wing walls Spill-through K1 1.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. The length of the gabion apron shall extend beyond the toe of the structure a minimum of 2 times the anticipated depth of scour formed under the apron.0) be a minimum of 300 mm in depth. In accordance with Hydraulic Engineering Circular No.82 0. 18 – Evaluating Scour At Bridges. Froehlich's live-bed scour equation can be used to obtain the potential depth of scour. For fast-flowing rivers. Scour occurs at toe of gabion retaining wall when it obstructs the channel flow. and a vertical wake vortex at the downstream end of the gabions. designers need to determine the exact depth and extension of Reno Mattress case by case with the consideration of scouring at river invert during peak flow.

2 Orientation of embankment angle. θ. at peak flow.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division.13 ( θ < 90° if wall points downstream θ > 90° if wall points upstream ) L´ = Length of active flow obstructed by the wall. m3/s ya = Average depth of flow on the floodplain (Ae/L). m/s Qe = Flow obstructed by the wall and approach structure. m Ae = Flow area of the approach cross section obstructed by the wall. m L = Length of wall projected normal to the flow. 3. DSD Fig.1 Abutment shape K2 = Coefficient for angle of embankment to flow = ( θ / 90) 0. m2 Fr = Froude Number of approach flow upstream of the wall = Ve/(gya)1/2 Ve = Qe/Ae. 3. m Fig. m ys = Scour depth. to the flow Date: November 2006 Page 4- .

Date: November 2006 Page 5- .01 7.31 13.97 5.3 Provision of Geotextile Filter The gabion apron will require minimal excavation and grade work.22 1.79 10.25 2. 3.3 Determination of length of embankment blocking live flow for abutment scour estimation Example: Assume K1 = 0.75 3. Generally the gabion apron and gabion block are placed directly on the ground utilizing a geotextile filter fabric between the gabions and soil interface to prevent leaching of soils underneath the gabions.74 8.72 6.25 2 4.06 1 3.25 2.71 11.59 8.35 6.75 2.01 3.32 10.25 3. K2 = ( 90 / 90) 0.5 2. Computed Scour Depth.82.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division.03 ya 1 2 3 4 L´ 1.71 15.10 0.15 8.5 4.54 4.34 11. DSD Fig.13 = 1 L´ and ya are the base width and retaining height of the gabion wall as shown in the drawing in Appendix A.73 0.5 2.45 7. ys as follow: Fr 0.78 5.49 7.

1 Packing and Assembly Packing (i) For ease of handling and shipping. 4. Finished gabion structures shall have no gaps along the perimeter of the contact surfaces between adjoining units. the ends and the diaphragms of each unit into vertical position. Lift the sides. (ii) Date: November 2006 Page 6- . used in river embankment. (iii) Attach the sides of four corners together with locking wire fastener or tying wire and the diaphragms to the front and back of the gabion. The tying wire is laced around the selvedge through each mesh all the way to the bottom of the cage. 4. Construction of Gabion Wall 4. the gabions are bundled folded flat. All gabion baskets shall be properly staggered horizontally and vertically.2 Installation and Filling Installation (i) Empty gabion baskets shall be assembled individually and placed on the approved surface to the lines and grades as shown or as directed.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. (iv) The tying operation begins at the top of the cage. with the position of all creases and that the tops of all sides are level. Assembly (i) (ii) Open the bundle and unfold each unit. DSD The drawings in Appendix A show the details of gabion wall of retaining height ranging from 1m to 4m.

The basket units then shall be partially filled to provide anchorage against deformation and displacement during the filling operation. They shall be placed in a manner to remove any kinks or bends in the mesh and to uniform alignment. and common sides with adjacent units thoroughly laced or fastened. DSD Fig.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. 4. mesh-mesh wire connection is prohibited unless necessary. Date: November 2006 Page 7- .1 Abutment shape (Courtesy of and adapted from TerraAqua Gabions) (iii) All adjoining empty gabion units shall be connected along the perimeter of their contact surfaces in order to obtain a monolithic structure. Filling (i) The initial line of gabion basket units shall be placed on the prepared filter layer surface and adjoining empty baskets set to line and grade. All lacing wire terminals shall be securely fastened. (iv) All joining shall be made through selvedge-selvedge wire connection.

3 Gabion Stone Placement (i) The stone fill shall be placed into the gabion units in 300 mm lifts. (ii) (iii) The voids shall be minimized by using well-graded stone fill and by hand placement of the facing in order to achieve a dense. ends and diaphragms in the same manner as described for assembling. is minimal. Page 8- Date: November 2006 . All stone on the exposed face shall be hand placed to ensure a neat compact appearance. Mattresses should be placed with its internal diaphragms at right angles to the direction of the slope. Thus. 4. 5. Connecting wires shall be installed from the front to back and side to side of individual cell at each 300 mm vertical interval for gabions of depth exceeding 500 mm. especially on the wall face. The fill layer should never be more than 300 mm higher then any adjoining cell. the procedure for installation of reno mattress is similar to the construction of gabion units. to assure that the PVC coating on the gabions will not be damaged if PVC is utilized. (iii) Gabions shall be uniformly overfilled by about 25–40 mm to account for future structural settlements and for additional layers. DSD (ii) Deformation and bulging of the gabion units. Cells shall be filled to a depth not exceeding 300 mm at a time. compact stone fill. 4. Care shall be taken. shall be corrected prior to additional stone filling. position the Mattress with the internal diaphragms at right angles to the direction flow. when placing the stone by hand or machine. due to gravity or flowing current. On river beds. Particular attention should be paid to the following : (i) Mattress units should be placed in proper position so that movement of rockfill inside the cage.4 Lid Closing (i) The lids of the gabion units shall be tightly secured along all edges.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division.0 Installation of Reno Mattress Basically. Gabions can be filled by any kind of earth filling equipment. on slopes. The maximum height from which the stones may be dropped into the baskets shall be 900 mm.

The necessary maintenance requirements should be judged on a case-by-case basis. when Mattresses are laid on a radius.5]. 6. MM and SoR for gabion wall and Reno Mattress are shown in Appendix C. for example. In addition. Generally speaking. such as PVC coated galvanized steel wires. Gradation of stone aggregates should be based on gabion thickness and grid size. the size of stone measured in the greatest dimension should range from 150mm to 300mm. maintenance requirements should be duly considered during both the design stage and during routine inspection after completion of works [Ref. However. it may be necessary to cut the Mattress diagonally into triangular sections and tie the open side securely to an intact side panel. As a rule of thumb. The suitability of the gabion structures to be used in such river/stream environment should be within manufacturer’s recommendation. corrosion protection measures should be applied to wires.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. some of the important considerations required to be considered during detailed design stage and routine inspection are listed below. Sample Particular Specifications. Suggested considerations on maintenance requirements to be looked at during design stage : The water quality of river/stream would affect the durability of the wire used in the basket. Detailed discussion on the maintenance requirement both in detailed design stage and routine inspection are beyond the scope of this Technical Report. If necessary. Method of Measurement and Schedule of Rates for Gabion Wall and Reno Mattress Sample clauses of PS.5 and 13) may be referenced for the basis of providing a general guideline on maintenance of gabion walls. 8. DSD (ii) The Mattresses may be either telescoped or cut to form and tied at required shape when necessary. 7. Maintenance Related Considerations and Maintenance Requirements Geoguide 1 (Sections 9. the smallest stone size must generally be larger than the wire mesh openings (usually of Date: November 2006 Page 9- . For a sharp curve.

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. Date: November 2006 Page 10- . the stones will start to crush into pieces small enough to fall outside the gabion net. its function. DSD about 100mm). Package of stone aggregates should be manually performed instead of mechanically performed. However. The opening of the gabion net can be torn away by the continuous thrust of materials carried by runoff (e. In this case. and its adherence to the lower layer of gabions should be ensured before surperimposing the next layer. and Gabions structures are generally composed of superimposed layers of gabion baskets. The remaining part rests directly on the earthfill. Any displacement or shifting of the wire baskets should need to be corrected immediately. an over fill of about 25-40mm is considered to be adequate. only a part of the superimposed layer rests on a lower layer of gabions. Poorly packed gabions will cause undue movements as well as excessive abrasion to the PVC coating. gravel. When the net opens. and the structure loses all its weight and. consequently. sable. To allow for the settlement of the stone aggregates. Suggested considerations on maintenance requirements to be looked at during routine inspection : A gabion structure needs to be inspected annually and after each flood event. The stress created by the violent flood flow against gabions will lead to the shaking and mutual thrust of stones inside gabions. a newly placed gabion structure is recommended to be inspected for every 3 months or after each rainfall event whichever is the less. Special attention should be paid on gabion structures with a stepped shape.g. However. The strength of the stone aggregates should be durable to resist the impact from flood flow particularly if the flood flow is violent. the stone filling it up fall out. If the stones are fragile. manually packing of stone aggregates should not be over emphasized. and rubble) against iron wires. the underlying earthfill has to be compacted carefully. Signs of undercutting or other instability should also be checked. The mechanically package can cause unwanted stress to the net.

Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Second Edition. Division of Water. 8. Environmental Department of Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center. and Checking for the wires of panels/cages for any signs of rusting and wear should be included. DSD Checking on the sign of damage or erosion of the river embankment should be included.4 Tricardi. Water Planning. Storm Water Best Management Practices Decision Support Tool #129 – Gabions 8.5 Geotechnical Engineering Office. Stream Guide.S.3 U.S. the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region. Reference Documents 8. October 2003. May 2001. “GEOGUIDE 1 – Guide to Retaining Wall Design”. Fourth Edition.S. Department of Transportation. Watershed Management – Use of Gabions in Small Hydraulic Works 8. Stream Management Guide No. 18 – Evaluating Scour At Bridges”.2 U. Date: November 2006 Page 11- .1 U. 15 – Gabion Revetments 8. Civil Engineering Department. Federal Highway Administration.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. “Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 8.

DSD Date: November 2006 Page 12- .Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division.

DSD Appendix A Typical Layout of Gabion Wall .Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division.

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A . bearing or soil slip failures. designers should determine whether any ground treatment for foundation is required in consideration with sliding. m ys = Scour depth.1 .00 0. Determination of Potential Scour Depth by Froehlich's Live-Bed Scour Equation 3. 2. m Ae = Flow area of the approach cross section obstructed by the wall. m L = Length of wall projected normal to the flow. Depending on the soil conditions.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. m3/s ya = Average depth of flow on the floodplain (Ae/L). where: K1 = Coefficient for shape Shape Coefficients Description Vertical-wall Vertical-wall with wing walls Spill-through K1 1. All dimensions are in millimeters unless otherwise specified. DSD Drawing Notes: 1. m2 Fr = Froude Number of approach flow upstream of the wall = Ve/(gya)1/2 Ve = Qe/Ae.13 ( θ < 90° if wall points downstream θ > 90° if wall points upstream ) L´ = Length of active flow obstructed by the wall.55 K2 = Coefficient for angle of embankment to flow = ( θ / 90) 0.82 0. at peak flow. m/s Qe = Flow obstructed by the wall and approach structure. m App.

Computed Scour Depth. 6. galvanized and coated with PVC in a similar way to the mesh wire.45 7.25 2 4.78 5.25 2.49 7. The gabion mesh shall be formed with 2.2 mm and 3. All wires shall be mild steel to BS 1052. 10. 8.01 3. has an average thickness of 0.5 4.0 mm respectively.32 10. diaphragms and end panels shall be mechanically selvedged App.31 13.79 10.97 5. K2 = ( 90 / 90) 0.06 1 3. Mesh shall be hexagonal double twist and shall not ravel if damaged.73 0. 9.35 6.54 4. ys as follow: Fr 0.74 8.10 0.4 mm. 5. The dimensions of the hexagon shall be 80 x 100 mm.82. hot dip galvanized to BS 443 and further coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC).59 8. A . The gabion shall be formed from one continuous piece of mesh which includes the lid. All edges of gabions. The PVC coating shall be dark green in colour.5 2. The diameter of the mild steel lacing wire and selvedge wire shall be 2. 7.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division.01 7. DSD Example: Assume K1 = 0.22 1.13 = 1 L´ and ya are the base width and retaining height of the gabion wall as shown in the sketches in the calculations in Appendix B.75 2.72 6.7 mm diameter mild steel wires.71 15.25 2.5 mm and nowhere less than 0.15 8.25 4.71 11.03 Ya 1 2 3 4 L´ 1.5 2.75 3.2 .34 11.

Infill to gabion shall be rock fill material of size 150 mm to 300 mm and shall be placed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. 12. A . DSD in such a way as to prevent ravelling of the mesh and to develop the full strength of the mesh. 13.3 . All front and side faces of the gabion wall shall be fixed with hand packed square stones of approximately 300 x 200 x 200 mm in size. App. 11. The gabion shall be divided by diaphragms into cells which length shall not be greater than 1m.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division.

DSD App.4 . A .Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division.

5m gabion wall Design of 1. DSD Appendix B Design Calculations for Gabion Wall Annexes A.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. D1 – D4 Page E. Stone sizes and critical velocities for gabions (courtesy of and adapted from Maccaferri Gabions) E1 – E3 . C1 – C6 D.5m gabion wall A. C. B1 – B8 C. B. A1 – A10 B.5m gabion wall Design of 3. D. Design of 4.5m gabion wall Design of 2.

. with a minimum tensile strength of 350 N/mm 2 . top and sides should be formed from a piece of mesh. 47 (v) The gabion base. 9. Design Data (I) Materials (A) Requirements Geoguide 1 Para. i. The smallest dimension of the rock should at least be twice the largest dimension of the mesh aperture . 9. (x) For welded mesh. (iii) Hexagonal woven wire mesh is mechanically woven in a continuous sheet. (ii) The preferred size is 150mm to 300mm . 1990b) before weaving.5m Gabion Wall Design Statement 1.5m Gabion Wall Design Statement Reference Remarks Design of 4. the mesh panels should be hot dip galvanized to BS 729 (BSI.Annex A page 1 - . (iv) The edges of the mesh should be selvaged with wires of a diameter of about 1.5. The ends and diaphragms can be attached to this mesh by helical wires or other methods.3 (1) & Fig. (vii) The wires used for the wire mesh should be mild steel wire to BS 1052 (BSI. (vi) The mesh can stretch or contract in two directions in its own plane and thus a rectangular wire-mesh basket filled with rock fragments can deform in any direction.5m Gabion Wall Annex A Prepared by Checked by Subject : : : NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Design of 4.7mm in diameter and galvanized.3 (1) Gabion Materials (i) They should not be susceptible to attack by fire and ultraviolet light. 1986b). PVC (polyvinylchloride) coating should be provided to the wires. (ii) They should be in form of hexagonal woven or square welded.Project : Design of 4. whichever is less. 'double-twisted' to form the mesh.e. (xi) If the soil and water conditions are aggressive. 1986c) after welding. 9.3 (1) Infill material (i) Maximum size of rock should not exceed two-thirds the depth of the gabion to be filled or 300mm . The wires should be twisted together in pairs through three half turns. Geoguide 1 Para.5. (viii) The wires should be at least 2. The PVC coating should be at least 0. Geoguide 1 Para.5mm thick and should meet the requirements of BS 4102 (BSI. The making of panels with galvanized wires welded together is not recommended as the welds are left unprotected.5 times that of the wire-mesh to prevent unravelling. 1991c). (ix) For hexagonal wire-mesh the wires should be galvanized to BS 443 (BSI.5.

4 m/s Parameter Geoguide 1 Para. The groundwater level behind the proposed gabion wall is assumed to be one-third of the retaining height.Annex A page 2 - .2. c' (c) Effective friction angle.81 kN/m3. φ' = = = 21 kN/m3 0 kPa 35 o = = = 19 kN/m3 5 kPa 35 o (II) Loadings Dead loads Self weight of the proposed protection wall.6 0. δ = = = 2. Mesh Size 8cm x 10cm x 2. Imposed load Geoguide 1 Para.0 Backfilling Material behind the existing wall The properties of backfilling material are assumed to be Geoguide 1 Table 8 (a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength. 9.1 The gabions are in modules of 2m x 1m x 1m. φ' Insitu Soil beneath the wall (foundation material) The properties of insitu soil are assumed to be (a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength. The unit weight of water was taken as 9.5.5. 9. 7.2 (1) Specific gravity of the rock. . cycle tracks and play areas) (III) Water level of the pond It is assumed that the most critical situation should be when the channel is completely dry.(B) Assumptions Gabion and Infill Materials Block Size Geoguide 1 Para. Gs Porosity of the infill Mobilized angle of wall friction.7mm Size of Infill Material = 250mm Refer to Annex E Maccaferri Gabions Critical Velocity for water flow = 6. earth pressure and hydrostatic pressure are taken to be dead load for design. (Footpaths isolated from roads.4 0. c' (c) Effective friction angle.2 and Table 16 5kPa surcharge was assumed on the land side. which is taken to be the design case.

Geoguide 1.2 Limit state checks would be carried out at selected planes through the gabion wall. Checking the Stability of the Protection Wall 4. 6. 2. hence active state pressure is assumed and compaction-induced lateral pressure is not considered. clause 9. 3.4 is adopted. clause 4. stability checks would be carried out at each major change in section shape. Second Edition.Guide to Retaining Wall Design.5.2. Geoguide 1.3.2. Design Methodology In accordance with Geoguide 1. For stepped walls. Table 6 and Table 7 Partial safety factor approach stipulated under Geoguide 1.4. The minimum factors of safety recommended in Geoguide 1 are adopted.5m Gabion Wall . Design Reference and Codes Design Code 1. ignoring the resistance contributed by the cage material and the connections between the cages. the structures would be designed for both the ultimate limit state (ULS) and the serviceability limit state (SLS).Geoguide 1 Para. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993). clause 4. Geoguide 1 .Annex A page 3 - . Table 20 and Figure 13 Proposed retaining walls have no restraint against translation and rotation about the base.3. Per meter run of the proposed retaining walls is considered for simplicity.

A5.Ultimate Limit Statement (ULS) Refer to Annex A1.5 1.Annex A page 4 - .0 0. A6. A7 & A9 para. Checking Bearing Capacity [OK if bearing capacity > bearing pressure] Height of Toe above foundation 0.5 m m m m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK! Refer to Annex A1. A8 & A10 para. Checking Overturning [OK if restoring moment > overturning moment] Height of Toe above foundation 0. A5.5 2. 1 Step 6 1.5 m m m m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK! Refer to Annex A1.5 3.5 2. . A3.5 1.5 3. A7 & A9 para. A7 & A9 para.0 0. A3.0 0. A3. Checking Sliding [OK if resisting force > sliding force] Height of Toe above foundation 0. A5. 1 Step 6 1.5 1.5 2.5 3. A4.5 m m m m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK! Serviceability Limit Statement (SLS) Refer to Annex A2. Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity [OK if the resultant force acts within the middle third of the wall base] Height of Toe above foundation 0. 1 Step 8 3.5 2.5 3. 1 Step 7 2.5 m m m m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK! For details of calculations.5 1.0 0. please refer to the Annex A1 to A10.

(ii) The lids of the gabions should meet the top edges of the sides and ends when closed. a drainage layer of adequate permeability would be provided at the base of the wall to guard against erosion of the foundation material. Geoguide 1 .Guide to Retaining Wall Design. Geoguide 1 . as well as to the tops of the sides and ends.5 (i) A geotextile filter would be provided under the base and behind the rear face of the gabion wall to prevent migration of fines from the backfill into the coarse rock infill. 9.5.Annex A page 5 - . (iii) The mesh of the lids should be tied down to the tops of any diaphragms provided. Second Edition. (ii) Drainage layers at the rear face are normally not warranted. References 1.4 (i) Horizontal internal bracing wires should be fitted between the outer and inner faces at about 300mm centres in woven mesh gabions which are deeper than 500mm. without leaving any gaps. However.Construction Aspects Geoguide 1 Para. (iv) Whenever possible.5. Drainage provisions Geoguide 1 para. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993). 9. the vertical joints between the units should be staggered in adjacent courses.

2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.3. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.50 4. clause 5.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. W4.6 Fig.2 30. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1((tan φ')/γm )) o φcv' 30 Length of wall 100 Kah 0.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.4.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex A1 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 4.1 3. Table 6.3.) .4.2 30.50 1. Table 7 and Table 8 W1 Pav 3000 Pa1 Pa2 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 1500 W5 = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.12 Geoguide 1.W.3 4.2 24. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.6 0.2 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1. clause 6.9 1. clause 4.3 o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m3 kN/m o 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f 5 0 4.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. clause 4.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1((tan φ')/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. W2. Pa3. W3.Annex A1 page 1 - . Table 6.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2.

85 132. the mobilised angle of wall friction.2.20 4.50 x 1.00 402.42 31.76 -31.80 4.00 0.25 2.50 / 3 = = = = = 2.35 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 125.85 ) / ΣV 146.50 / 3 Pwh 11.10 118.00 Pa2 = 0.6 x 0.76 4.10 2.00 1.2 x 2 Pav 0.55 3.run) Pa1 = 0.00 4.04 32.2 2.85 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 4.83 Geoguide 1.40 W5 32.Annex A1 page 2 - .28 4.34 53.50 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 7.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .50 Pa3 31.00 kN/m .50 2 = = = = = = = ΣV= 20.run Step 3 Wt.15 490.34 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 7.50 x x x / 3.run 0.70 77.330 x 3.17 3.30 W2 30.50 0.80 -88.330 x 5.6 x 0.65 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.50 1.04 5.75 0.6 x 0.2 Arm (m) / / / / / / 2 2 2 2 2 3 = = = = = = = 3.08 1.00 Pa4 = 0. Clause 5.00 kN/m .20 x x x x x / 1.42 4. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x W5 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.25 1.60 68.92 23.2 4.20 0.17 31.( 490. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.20 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 71. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 / 3 + 1.08 73.6 x 1.17 4.50 21 21 1.63 125.211m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .25 85.50 / 2 Pa2 31.6 x 0.20 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 490.35 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr - 0.50 2.00 = 213.30 1.28 30.50 ΣM = Moment 16.2 = 0.00 1. δ is taken as 0.00 146.04 4.08 11.42 41.2 1.34 .00 Pa3 = 0.37 2.50 1.2 3.50 0.95 W3 41.20 Pwv -31.330 x 3.34 4.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.99 98. Thus.40 4.50 / 2 Pa4 4.50 x x x x x 4.50 0.00 1.17 1.88 2.65 + 88.50 4.95 2.65 3.2 1.23 2.11.42 4.35 ΣMo ) / 213.00 1.65 W4 53.

3 /2 /2 ) ) x x 1 1 tan tan φ'f 30 For Shape Factors.4 0.88 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 85.3 Nc 30.20 = 3.58 = 85. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 14634.08 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 146.88 = 38.08 146.34 x x 100 100 = = 8508 kN 14634 kN Thus.96 ( ( 30.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( 2 tan ( + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0.08 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.00 = / 377.14 Nq 18.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.78 B' 3. Eccentricity e = 0.211 m Effective Width B' B = 4.02 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.96 0.98 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.39 kN/m run => OK! > Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 85.78 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .02 + + + + Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.34 kN / m ΣH = 85.73 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .78 B' 3.3 x x φ'f 30.78 B' x x x / / / 3.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 146.78 = L' = B' = 3.584 1 1 Nq 18.Annex A1 page 3 - .30 π 3.34 x 0.78 ΣH ΣV = m x x 2e 2 x = 0.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.211 100 377. 2 Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan (π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.78 2 2 23. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.

5 0.3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0 . Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.88 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.22 x 1 x 23. all tilt and ground slope factors tq = tc = tγ = 1 equal 1.27 mi + 1 2.96 iq mi 1.49 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.98 x 1 x 1. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.96 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.5 x x kPa 0.78 0.96 x 0.5 x 18.49 + + + + Qn 14634 B' B' 3.78 x 1.78 + + / / / / cf ' 4.Annex A1 page 4 - .30 x 4.02 x + 0.42 kPa qult qmax => > = 38.49 Ki 0.e.76 + 23.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 377.27 iq 0.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.50 + 52. i.5 o As a result.27 x 1 x 1 = 29.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.78 3.73 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.14 x 1 x 1 + x 0.22 1 1 1 1 .For Inclination Factors.96 Ki = Qs / ( = 8508 / ( = 0.17 x 30.14 ( ( 0. gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.5 x 9 x 3.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.02 => OK! OK! .27 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.( .17 = 105.

W4.00 Pa3 = 0.20 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.3 o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f 5 0 4.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.3.1 3. clause 5. clause 4.2 24.08 73.17 31. W3.50 x x x / 3. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.42 31.330 x 3.4.330 Back batter. W2.2 30.2 30.2.50 1.6 0.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.50 1.12 Geoguide 1. Pa3.25 85. clause 4.50 x x x x x 4. θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.330 x 5. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.) Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .50 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 7.50 1.00 Pa4 = 0. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2.83 . Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.00 1. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1. Table 6.3 4.00 Pa2 = 0.9 1.330 x 3.4.6 Fig. clause 6.3. Table 6.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.50 4. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2 W1 Pav 3000 Pa1 W3 Insitu soil Pa2 W4 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 1500 Toe Pwv W1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1((tan φ')/γm )) o φcv' 30 Length of wall 100 Kah 0.50 21 21 1.08 11.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.Annex A1 page 5 - . 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1((tan φ')/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.17 4.run) Pa1 = 0.W.10 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.

34 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0. δ is taken as 0.10 W2 30.42 ( 3. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x W5 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.995 0.51 3.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 7.17 Pa4 4.39 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr - 0.71 106.76 -31.run 0.00 1.995 0.995 0.00 kN/m .37 2.995 0.49 137.6 x 0.11.00 431.42 Pa2 31.00 x 0.00 = 213.70 126.50 1.50 ( 4.10 Pwv -31.70 77.22 69.76 ( 0.6 x 0.550 3.00 1.63 125.11 2.50 = = = = = 2.30 1.100 3) ) ) ) ) ) x x x x x x 0.10 W3 41.40 4.62 519.6 x 0.04 ( 1.50 0.00 kN/m .run Step 3 Wt.34 .17 Pa3 31.25 tan θ = 0.Annex A1 page 6 - .10 W5 32.2 Arm (m) + + + + + / 3.41 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 4.00 0.65 3.20 4.93 3.06 2.50 3.04 5.28 ( 4.20 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 79.Geoguide 1.50 1.00 x 0.875 2.75 0.92 23.65 + 87.500 2.50 0.50 ΣM = Moment 16.( 519.34 ( 2.95 2.50 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.00 146.34 53.2 x 2 Pav 0.10 W4 53. Thus.2.100 Arm (m) 4.225 2.50 x 1.50 2 = = = = = = = ΣV= 20.6 x 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.6 x 1.995 0.79 4.76 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 519.28 30.50 0.41 ) / ΣV 146.76 0.39 ΣMo ) / 213.25 2.20 x x x x x / 1.59 2.00 4.08 Pwh 11.2 = 0.995 = = = = = = = 3.42 41.04 32.39 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 125.25 x 0.00 x 0.65 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.27 -87.00 x 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction. Clause 5. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.009m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .00 1.00 1.

20 = 4.18 ΣH ΣV = m x x 2e 2 x = 0. Eccentricity e = 0.2.03 kN / m Geoguide 1.89 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 85.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0.16 = 35. Figure 41 Mechanism 1 Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ .3 x x tan tan φ'f 30.96 ( ( 30.ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω .2.ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 85. Clause 9.78 2 2 23.14 Nq 18.18 = L' = B' = 4.08 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.69 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 70. Fr = = 102.Annex A1 page 7 - .3.3.30 π 3.34 x x 100 100 = = 8508 kN 14634 kN Thus.3 /2 /2 ) ) . at the level just below 500mm rock fill.69 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 14634 = / 418.009 100 418.009 m Effective Width B' B = 4.08 146.ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ .03 kN / m 75.584 1 1 Nq 18.ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 70. 2 Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan (π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18. Fr = = 75.00 Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω .Step 7 Check Sliding Geoguide 1.08 kN / m 102.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.00 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ + q' Nq sq iq tq gq For Bearing Capacity Factors.3 φ'f 30.89 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding. Figure 41 Mechanism 2 Sliding along a foundation soil surface o Ω= 0.16 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 85. Clause 9.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.

44 tγ 5.Annex A1 page 8 - .27 x 5.5 0.78 B' 4.17 x 30.78 ) ) x x 2 2 tan tan φ'f 30.96 Ki = Qs / ( = 8508 / ( = 0.00 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.48 Ki 0.( .27 iq 0.23 1 1 1 1 .44 x 1 + x 0.18 4.18 0.18 B' x x x / / / 4.02 => OK! OK! .3 Nc 30.5 x 18.96 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.3 ) ) Since inclination of ground slope equal 0 .54 = 638.03 x + 0.19 + 332. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.For Shape Factors.69 x 23.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.27 mi + 1 2.27 0.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 418.02 + + + + Nq 18.18 + + / / / / cf ' 4.98 x 1 x 1.96 x 0.44 x 1 = 175.5 As a result. tc = tq 5.44 .71 tq 5. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.48 + + + + Qn 14634 B' B' 4.5 x 9 x 4.78 x 1.48 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.3 ) ) For Tilt Factors.30 x 4.14 ( ( 0.( 1 1 1 1 - ω 5.18 B' 4.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30. γ' 9 4. all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = 1 equal 1.14 x 5.96 iq mi 1.3 Nc 30.98 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.44 tan tan ) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30.03 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.23 x 5.4 0.18 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 For Inclination Factors.e.44 5.60 kPa qult qmax => > = 35.96 0.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.5 o Effective Surcharge q' = = = x x kPa 0. i.( .16 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.87 + 130.

Table 6.9 3.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28. Table 6. W4.50 4.2 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R. Pa4 Pwh Pwv W5 W1 Pav 3000 Pa1 Pa2 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 1500 = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.Annex A2 page 1 - . Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1.9 1 35. clause 4. Pa3.0 30 0.6 Fig. clause 4.W.50 1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan ((tan φ')/γm )) -1 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. clause 6.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2.4.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 4. clause 5.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex A2 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 4. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.0 5. W2.6 0.85φcv' ) ( = tan-1((tan φ')/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. W3.4.12 Geoguide 1.3. 19 δbf Kp .3.0 28. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.

50 / 3 Pwh 11.50 / 3 = = = = = 2.10 25.00 / 3 + 1.67 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.2.00 1.10 2.2 4.34 0.2 / 2 .271 x 3.35 = 0.60 68.00 1.23 2.35 11.2.95 W3 41.10 118.28 4.35 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.45 ) / 0.6 x 1.50 1.35 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 4.04 32.00 1.00 kN/m .50 2 / / 2 2 Pah = Geoguide 1.75 0. δ is taken as 0.20 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 490.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 104.30 1.00 kN/m .21 1.00 Pa3 = 0.00 Pa4 = 0.50 0.85 132.6 x 0.10 4.00 1.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .61 3.11.00 146.88 2.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.50 2 = = = = = = = ΣV= 20.42 4.99 98.61 3.72 64.76 4.65 W4 53.run) Pa1 = 0.25 71.45 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 192.50 0.28 30.40 W5 32.68 5. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x W5 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.65 3.2 1. Table 14 = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 6.50 x x x x x 4. the mobilised angle of wall friction.40 4.50 2.( 490.92 60.50 4.271 x 5.run 0.34 4.064m OK! OK! .34 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 6.42 41.25 1.700m > ΣV 146.6 x 0.2 / 6 - 0.50 / 2 Pa4 3.20 0.30 W2 30.2 1. Clause 5.50 21 21 1.76 -31.50 1.25 + 88.34 53.20 4.50 x 1. Thus.00 = 192.04 4.2 3.00 Pa2 = 0.50 Pa3 25.00 402.25 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.50 x x x / 3.6 x 0. B/6 = 4.20 Pwv -31.6 x 0.run Step 3 Wt.80 -88.61 1.35 1.55 3.15 490.02 19.064m By Middle-third Rule.2 x 2 Pav 0.50 ΣM = Moment 13.2 2.50 0.20 x x x x x / 1.20 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 71.63 104.00 4.25 2.50 / 2 Pa2 25.61 25.00 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.271 x 3.95 2.2 Arm (m) / / / / / / 2 2 2 2 2 3 = = = = = = = 3.Annex A2 page 2 - .80 4.

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2

W1 Pav 3000 Pa1 W3
Insitu soil

Pa2

W4 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 1500

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271
o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m
o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah

5 0 4.5 1.5 4.2

kN/m m m m

2

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan ((tan φ')/γm ))
-1

kN/m2

Back batter, θ =

1

:

10

=

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1((tan φ')/γm ))
2

o

kN/m
o

( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

δbf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 3.00 Pa3 = 0.271 x 3.00 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.50

x x x x x

4.50 21 21 1.50 1.50

x x x /

3.00 1.50 1.50 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai =

6.10 25.61 25.61 3.35 11.25 71.92 60.67

- Annex A2 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, δ is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x W5 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.50 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 3.40 4.20 4.20

x x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 2

= = = = = = = ΣV=

20.28 30.42 41.34 53.04 32.76 -31.50 0.00 146.34

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 6.10 Pa2 25.61 Pa3 25.61 Pa4 3.35 Pwh 11.25 tan θ = 0.100 Arm (m) 4.50 3.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.50 = = = = = 2.25 2.50 0.75 0.50 0.50 ΣM = Moment 13.72 64.02 19.21 1.68 5.63 104.25

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 ( 4.00 x 0.10 W2 30.42 ( 3.00 x 0.10 W3 41.34 ( 2.00 x 0.10 W4 53.04 ( 1.00 x 0.10 W5 32.76 ( 0.25 x 0.10 Pwv -31.50 ( 4.2 x 2 Pav 0.00 4.2

Arm (m) + + + + + /

3.550 3.225 2.875 2.500 2.100 3)

) ) ) ) )

x x x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = = = =

3.93 3.51 3.06 2.59 2.11 2.79 4.20 ΣM = ΣMr =

Moment 79.71 106.70 126.49 137.22 69.27 -87.76 0.00 431.62 519.39

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 104.25 + 87.76 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 519.39 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 4.2 / 2 - ( 519.39 = -0.137m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 4.2 / 6

-

0.00

=

192.01

kNm/m run

=

ΣMo ) / 192.01 ) / 0.700m >

ΣV 146.34 -0.137m OK! OK!

- Annex A2 page 4 -

Project

:

Design of Gabion Wall
NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex A3

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

4.5m Gabion Wall
Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation)

750 800 700

650 1300

5

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

W1 Pav 2667 Pa1
Insitu soil

Pa2 1333 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

W5

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3
o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m3 kN/m
o 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f

5 0 4.00 1.33 3.4

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm ))

o φcv' 30 Length of wall 100 Kah 0.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan δb/γm ))
2

o

kN/m
o

( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

δbf Kp

(Note: γ m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex A3 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 2.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 2.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.33

x x x x x

4.00 21 21 1.33 1.33

x x x /

2.67 1.33 1.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai =

6.60 24.63 24.63 3.22 8.89 67.96 59.07

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, δ is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.33 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 3.40 3.40

x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = = ΣV=

20.28 30.42 41.34 53.04 -22.67 0.00 122.41

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 6.60 4.00 / 2 Pa2 24.63 2.67 / 3 + 1.33 Pa3 24.63 1.33 / 2 Pa4 3.22 1.33 / 3 Pwh 8.89 1.33 / 3

= = = = =

2.00 2.22 0.67 0.44 0.44 ΣM =

Moment 13.19 54.72 16.42 1.43 3.95 89.72

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 3.4 1.30 W2 30.42 3.4 1.95 W3 41.34 3.4 2.65 W4 53.04 3.4 3.40 Pwv -22.67 3.4 x 2 Pav 0.00 3.4

Arm (m) / / / / /

2 2 2 2 3

= = = = = =

2.75 2.43 2.08 1.70 2.27 3.40 ΣM = ΣMr =

Moment 55.77 73.77 85.78 90.17 -51.38 0.00 254.11 305.49

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 89.72 + 51.38 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 305.49 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr

-

0.00

=

141.09

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 3.4 = 0.357m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr - ( 305.49 ΣMo ) / 141.09 ) / ΣV 122.41

- Annex A3 page 2 -

96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.58 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .4 0.69 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .59 = 45.78 2 2 23.96 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 122.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 122.3 x x φ'f 30.357 100 268.357 m Effective Width B' B = 3. 2 Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan (π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( 2 tan ( + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0.43 kN/m run => OK! > Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 67.41 kN / m ΣH = 67.59 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 67.69 B' x x x / / / 2.3 For Shape Factors.96 ( ( 30.02 + + + + Nq 18.14 Nq 18.40 = 2.58 = 71.3 /2 /2 ) ) x x 1 1 tan tan φ'f 30.41 x x 100 100 = = 6796 kN 12241 kN Thus.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors.78 B' 2.41 x 0.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.Annex A3 page 3 - .96 122.02 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.96 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 12241. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.30 π 3. Eccentricity e = 0.33 = / 268.69 ΣH ΣV = m x x 2e 2 x = 0.3 Nc 30.69 = L' = B' = 2.69 B' 2.

59 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.58 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.28 x 1 x 1 = 30.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.28 0.23 1 1 1 1 .17 x 30.02 x + 0.78 x 1.5 x 18.23 x 1 x 23.( . gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.30 x 4.5 o As a result.84 = 94.29 kPa qult qmax => > = 45.97 Ki = Qs / ( = 6796 / ( = 0.02 => OK! OK! .14 ( ( 0.48 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.85 + 23.28 mi + 1 2. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.14 x 1 x 1 + x 0.For Inclination Factors.Annex A3 page 4 - .48 + + + + Qn 12241 B' B' 2.5 x x kPa 0.97 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.97 iq mi 1.5 x 9 x 2.48 Ki 0.99 x 1 x 1.60 + 39.69 0.28 iq 0.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.69 2. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0. i.e.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4. all tilt and ground slope factors tq = tc = tγ = 1 equal 1.69 + + / / / / cf ' 4.3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0 .( 1 1 Ki 0.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 268.96 x 0.5 0.

Pa3. clause 4.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0. clause 4.3 o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f 5 0 4.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 6. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.33 x x x x x 4.4.9 1.330 x 5.run) Pa1 = 0.12 Geoguide 1.6 Fig.63 3. W4. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.96 59.2 30.3.2 24.2.33 1.67 Pa3 = 0.) Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .33 1.07 . W3.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) o φcv' 30 Length of wall 100 Kah 0.3 4.33 3. θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.00 Pa2 = 0.330 Back batter. Table 6.67 1.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.Annex A3 page 5 - .4.33 x x x / 2.6 0.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28. clause 6.67 Pa4 = 0. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.63 24.3.00 1. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2.89 67. W2.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.22 8.2 30.330 x 2.60 24.00 21 21 1. Table 6. clause 5.10 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.1 3.40 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2 W1 Pav 2667 Pa1 W3 W4 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Insitu soil Pa2 1333 Toe Pwv W1.330 x 2.

42 1.10 W4 53.00 3.4 = 0.41 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 89.04 -22.40 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 62.00 2 = = = = = = ΣV= 20.22 Pwh 8.26 3.72 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.50 x 0.Annex A3 page 6 - .36 -51.995 0.10 W3 41.34 ( 1.run Step 3 Wt.12 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 327.2.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 6.28 ( 3. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.6 x 0.075 1.4 x 2 Pav 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.89 tan θ = 0.67 1.33 1.44 0.00 1.29 327. Clause 5.( 327.00 276.00 2.750 2.42 41.6 x 0.97 91.4 Arm (m) + + + + / 2.00 kN/m .33 1.50 x 0.41 .63 Pa4 3.41 ΣMo ) / 140.95 2.41 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr - 0.65 3.34 53. the mobilised angle of wall friction.11.04 ( 0. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.700 3) ) ) ) ) x x x x x 0.28 30.33 x 1.50 x 0.74 2.84 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 3.00 2.22 0.00 1.run 0.00 = 140.10 W2 30.60 Pa2 24. Thus.995 0.00 kN/m .33 = = = = = 2.00 1.6 x 0.42 ( 2.Geoguide 1.41 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.84 ) / ΣV 122.30 1.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.43 3.12 0.66 2.40 x x x x / 1.00 122.67 0.995 0.08 2.100 Arm (m) 4.995 = = = = = = 3.44 ΣM = Moment 13.10 Pwv -22.95 89. δ is taken as 0.21 1.63 Pa3 24.19 54.50 x 0.67 0.995 0.67 ( 3.56 80.53 92.425 2.6 x 1.40 3.72 + 51.72 16.176m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .

16 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult . 2 Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan (π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω . Clause 9.60 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 67.60 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 55.49 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 55.176 m Effective Width B' B = 3.3 /2 /2 ) ) .40 = 3.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ + q' Nq sq iq tq gq For Bearing Capacity Factors. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.3 x x tan tan φ'f 30.2. Fr = = 85.584 1 1 Nq 18.41 x x 100 100 = = 6796 kN 12241 kN Thus.38 kN / m Geoguide 1.96 ( ( 30.3.ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 67.96 kN / m 85.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.05 ΣH ΣV = m x x 2e 2 x = 0.30 π 3.ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ . Figure 41 Mechanism 1 Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ .82 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 67.49 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.14 Nq 18.00 Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω .78 2 2 23.82 = 40. Clause 9.96 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.96 122. Figure 41 Mechanism 2 Sliding along a foundation soil surface o Ω= 0. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 12241 = / 304. Fr = = 63.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.38 kN / m 63.Step 7 Check Sliding Geoguide 1.Annex A3 page 7 - .3.05 = L' = B' = 3.2. Eccentricity e = 0.176 100 304.3 φ'f 30.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.

78 x 1.05 + + / / / / cf ' 4.05 B' 3.( .2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 304.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.44 tγ 5.97 iq mi 1.05 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 For Inclination Factors.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.e.71 tq 5.5 x 9 x 3.5 x x kPa 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.47 + + + + Qn 12241 B' B' 3.28 mi + 1 2.97 Ki = Qs / ( = 6796 / ( = 0.For Shape Factors. all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = 1 equal 1.46 + 134.4 0.44 .4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.05 0.3 Nc 30.69 x 23.02 => OK! OK! .78 ) ) x x 2 2 tan tan φ'f 30.16 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.97 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.05 B' x x x / / / 3.24 x 5.82 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.02 + + + + Nq 18.47 Ki 0.05 3.44 tan tan ) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30. tc = tq 5.00 + 258.5 o As a result.( .3 ) ) Since inclination of ground slope equal 0 .99 x 1 x 1.17 x 30.98 kPa qult qmax => > = 40.02 x + 0. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.15 x 5.02 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.24 1 1 1 1 .28 0.( 1 1 1 1 - ω 5.Annex A3 page 8 - .28 iq 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.44 x 1 = 182.47 - ) ) ) ) iq 0. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.96 0.96 x 0. i.44 x 1 + x 0.15 ( ( 0.5 0. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.44 5.51 = 574.28 x 5.30 x 4.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.3 Nc 30.3 ) ) For Tilt Factors.78 B' 3. Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.5 x 18.

0 30 0.5m above foundation) Reference 1. W2.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 4.5m above foundation) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan φ'/γm )) -1 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.6 Fig.Annex A4 page 1 - .Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex A4 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 4.4 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R. Pa4 Pwh Pwv W5 W1 Pav 2667 Pa1 Insitu soil Pa2 1333 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1. clause 6. clause 5.00 1.33 3. Table 6.12 Geoguide 1.3. Pa3.3.6 0. clause 4.85φcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.0 28. W3.9 3.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.4. clause 4. 19 δbf Kp . W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2.4. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. W4. Table 6.W.9 1 35.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.0 5.

40 x x x x / 1.271 x 2.00 254.84 44.65 W4 53.49 1.41 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 2 = = = = = = ΣV= 20.34 3.22 0.95 W3 41.23 1.89 57.4 1.00 1.11.00 kN/m .23 2.65 3.4 x 2 Pav 0.33 / 2 Pa4 2. Thus.75 2.6 x 0.42 41.38 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 305.43 48.38 0.49 = 0.18 3.67 3.27 3. B/6 = 3.4 1.42 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.00 21 21 1.4 3.43 2. the mobilised angle of wall friction.33 / 3 = = = = = 2.65 8.run) Pa1 = 0.49 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 3.49 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.42 4.95 2.42 + 51.44 ΣM = Moment 10.34 53. δ is taken as 0.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = Geoguide 1.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .89 1.6 x 0.4 2.41 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 5.00 2.23 20.17 -51.30 W2 30.2.80 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 125.67 0.11 305.00 = 125.33 x x x / 2.271 x 2.30 1.00 Pa2 = 0.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 74.54 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.67 / 3 + 1.4 / 6 - 0.Annex A4 page 2 - .42 3.4 / 2 .567m > ΣV 122.40 Pwv -22.40 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 55.77 73.232m By Middle-third Rule.33 x x x x x 4.33 1.67 0.04 3.00 1. Table 14 = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 5.23 2.4 Arm (m) / / / / / 2 2 2 2 3 = = = = = = 2.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.67 Pa3 = 0.67 Pa4 = 0.33 / 3 Pwh 8.04 -22.( 305.77 85.run Step 3 Wt.232m OK! OK! .80 ) / 0.70 2.08 1.33 1.44 0.run 0. Clause 5.00 3.6 x 1.67 1.28 3.33 x 1.95 74.00 / 2 Pa2 20.00 122.65 1.78 90.33 Pa3 20.00 1.40 3.42 20.2.96 13.6 x 0.271 x 5.28 30.00 kN/m .

clause 4.67 1.0 28.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.2.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 4. clause 4. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.4. clause 6.33 1.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2 W1 Pav 2667 Pa1 W3 Insitu soil Pa2 1333 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh W4 Toe Pwv W1. W3.33 x x x / 2. 19 δbf Kp Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m . Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan φ'/γm )) -1 kN/m2 Back batter.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.67 Pa4 = 0. clause 5.9 1 35. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2.W.42 20.00 1.9 3.271 x 5.3.23 20.43 48.Annex A4 page 3 - . Pa3. Table 6.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 5.23 2. θ = 1 : 10 = 0.271 x 2. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.0 5.00 Pa2 = 0.65 8.6 Fig.4 kN/m m m m 2 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.54 .10 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. W4.33 1. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.89 57. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.33 3.33 x x x x x 4.00 21 21 1. Table 6.4.271 x 2.run) Pa1 = 0.12 Geoguide 1.0 30 0.3. W2.6 0.67 Pa3 = 0.

4 Arm (m) + + + + / 2.995 0.18 3.995 = = = = = = 3.10 W3 41.04 -22.29 = 0.( 327.00 2.89 tan θ = 0.6 x 0.95 74.run 0.54 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 125.100 Arm (m) 4.33 x 1.2.30 1.52 80.995 0.2.29 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 3.00 kN/m .42 ( 2.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 5.65 Pwh 8.67 1.40 4.26 3.00 = 125.50 x 0.6 x 1.28 ( 3.4 / 2 .21 1.00 2 = = = = = = ΣV= 20.42 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.96 13.00 1. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.12 0.10 W2 30.74 2.052m OK! OK! .04 ( 0.44 ΣM = Moment 10.40 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 62.23 Pa3 20.Geoguide 1.93 91.50 x 0. Thus.00 2.50 x 0.995 0.00 1.35 -51.67 ( 3.34 53.6 x 0. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.567m > ΣV 122.22 0.00 kN/m .00 1.08 2.750 2.12 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 327.995 0.33 1.42 41.00 3.075 1.95 2. δ is taken as 0.42 Pa2 20.4 / 6 - 0.17 327.44 0.41 0. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.052m By Middle-third Rule. the mobilised angle of wall friction.84 44.33 1.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.67 0.54 ) / 0.42 + 51. Clause 5.65 3.20 x x x x / 1.Annex A4 page 4 - .23 Pa4 2.10 W4 53.11.41 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.67 0.10 Pwv -22.28 30.4 x 2 Pav 0. B/6 = 3.49 1.33 = = = = = 2.34 ( 1.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 74.66 2.00 276.29 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.49 92.run Step 3 Wt.700 3 ) ) ) ) ) x x x x x 0.50 x 0.00 122.425 2.6 x 0.

6 0.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.00 1.3 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f 5 0 3.2 30.5m above foundation) Reference 1.9 1.4. Table 7 and Table 8 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 2000 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 1000 W5 = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock. W3.5m above foundation) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1.3 4.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.2 30. Table 6.6 Fig. Pa3. clause 6.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex A5 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 4.1 3.3. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1. clause 4.) .2 24. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.W.Annex A5 page 1 - . clause 4. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.00 2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan δb/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.3. Table 6. W4.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.4.65 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R.4 (= 0. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2. W2. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.12 Geoguide 1. clause 5.

85 13.88 146.00 / 2 Pa2 13.65 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 40.85 2.85 1. Clause 5.41 0.00 = 63.00 1.11 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2.00 / 2 Pa4 1.00 122.41 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 146.25 0.56 50.29 ΣMo ) 63.Annex A5 page 2 - .00 21 21 1.65 2.29 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 39.00 78.78 -23.00 / 3 = = = = = 1.95 3. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.70 + 23.77 2.00 2. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.28 2.11 ) / / ΣV 78.81 5.00 2 = = = = = ΣV= 20.93 0.00 1.00 1.269m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .00 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 4.50 1.00 1.run 0.29 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.50 0.6 x 0.00 x x x / 2.( 146.67 0.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .34 -13.30 W2 30.85 1.95 2.00 Pa2 = 0.run) Pa1 = 0.6 x 1.00 1.00 39.33 1.67 39.2.79 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.65 x 2 Pav 0.65 1.00 Pa3 = 0.00 1.34 2.330 x 2.65 x x x / 1.42 23.60 1.00 x 1.11.65 = 0.09 6.42 2.68 1.00 Pa4 = 0.46 34.00 1.00 / 3 Pwh 5.00 Pa3 13.330 x 2.65 2.run Step 3 Wt.65 1.330 x 5. the mobilised angle of wall friction.81 1.95 W3 41.25 2.00 kN/m .65 Pwv -13.33 0.00 / 3 + 1. δ is taken as 0.95 13. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.70 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1. Thus.6 x 0.46 Geoguide 1.33 ΣM = Moment 7.00 x x x x x 3.65 Arm (m) / / / / 2 2 2 3 = = = = = 2.28 30.42 41.95 54.79 .30 1.00 kN/m .

3 /2 /2 ) ) tan tan φ'f 30.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0.3 Nc 30.30 π 3.269 100 211. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.3 For Shape Factors.Annex A5 page 3 - . sc = 1 = 1 = 1. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.11 B' 2.97 kN/m run > => OK! Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 39.11 B' x x x / / / 2.14 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 39.4 0.78 2 2 23.14 Nq 18.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.32 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .46 78. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 7879.584 1 1 Nq 18.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors.01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.96 0.79 x 0.01 + + + + Nq 18.96 ( ( 30. Eccentricity e = 0. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.58 = 45.269 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.00 = / 211.46 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 78.46 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.11 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .79 x x 100 100 = = 3946 kN 7879 kN Thus.3 x x φ'f 30.11 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.14 = 37.78 B' 2.79 kN / m ΣH = 39.65 = 2.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 78.11 = L' = B' = 2.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.

all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = tγ = equal 1.34 x 1 x 1 = 39.34 mi + 1 2.30 1 1 1 1 .42 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.21 + 29.17 x 30. 1 gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.20 ( ( 0.42 Ki 0.36 + 43.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 211.96 x 0.01 => OK! OK! .Annex A5 page 4 - .30 x 4. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.e.11 2.( .32 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.5 x x kPa 0.11 0.98 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.20 x 1 x 1 + x 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.98 iq mi 1.5 x 9 x 2.01 x + 0.30 x 1 x 23.91 kPa qult qmax => > = 37.34 = 111. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.14 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 3946 / ( = 0.11 + + / / / / cf ' 4.78 x 1.5 As a result.34 iq 0.For Inclination Factors.5 x 18.42 + + + + Qn 7879 B' B' 2. i.3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o .5 0.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.34 0.99 x 1 x 1.

330 Back batter. clause 6.W.2.00 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 4.85 1.95 13. W4.00 1.2 24.46 34. Table 6.4.46 . W3.00 39.330 x 2.9 1. W2.run) Pa1 = 0. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) o φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 x 2.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2 W3 W4 W1 Pav Pa1 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 2000 1000 Toe Pwv W1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.00 x x x / 2.00 1.6 0.10 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.6 Fig.00 1.2 30. clause 5. clause 4.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.65 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.00 x x x x x 3.00 Pa3 = 0.Annex A5 page 5 - . Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.) Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .12 Geoguide 1.4 (= 0.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. clause 4.4.3.3 o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f 5 0 3.00 1. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.00 2. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2. Pa3. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.00 Pa4 = 0.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.85 13.00 21 21 1.3 4.330 x 5.3. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1. Table 6. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.2 30.1 3. θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.81 5. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.00 Pa2 = 0.

00 2 = = = = = ΣV= 20.2.00 = 63.29 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 157.93 0.24 1.run 0.00 1.00 ) / / ΣV 78.85 Pa4 1.34 ( 0.91 157.79 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0. Thus.Geoguide 1.65 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 45.50 x 0.67 39.995 0.40 55.325 ) / 3) x x x x 0.00 133.42 41. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.25 ( 2.65 = 0.00 2.95 Pa2 13.00 kN/m .70 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.65 x x x / 1.00 1.00 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.6 x 0.33 0.29 0. δ is taken as 0.76 2.00 1.65 x 2 Pav 0.95 2.00 78.82 1.10 W3 41.run Step 3 Wt.81 Pwh 5.09 6.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.28 ( 2. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.20 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 39.00 1.25 0.30 1.995 0.00 1.70 + 23.37 1.50 x 0.11.675 ) + 1.00 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2.50 x 0.50 1.79 .42 23.60 1.65 Arm (m) + 2.00 tan θ = 0.00 = = = = = 1.00 2.10 Pwv -13.24 56.000 ) + 1.50 0.995 = = = = = 2.129m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .65 2.34 -13.20 ΣMo ) 63.33 ΣM = Moment 7.Annex A5 page 6 - .995 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction. Clause 5.( 157.67 0.85 Pa3 13.56 -23.10 W2 30.6 x 1.28 30.00 kN/m .00 x 1.42 ( 1.6 x 0.20 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.100 Arm (m) 3.

14 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 39.95 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .39 kN / m Geoguide 1. Clause 9. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.2. Clause 9.129 100 239. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.30 π 3.3 φ'f 30.39 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.Step 7 Check Sliding Geoguide 1.39 kN / m 41.02 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 39.584 1 1 Nq 18.46 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.3 x x tan tan φ'f 30.10 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.14 Nq 18. Fr = = 41.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0. Fr = = 57.79 x x 100 100 = = 3946 kN 7879 kN Thus.39 = L' = B' = 2.02 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding. Eccentricity e = 0.2.3.Annex A5 page 7 - .785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.46 kN / m 57.96 ( ( 30.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ + q' Nq sq iq tq gq For Bearing Capacity Factors.ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ .14 = 32. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 7879 239.3 /2 /2 ) ) .3.78 2 2 23.129 m Effective Width B' = B = 2. Figure 41 Mechanism 1 Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ .10 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 31.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω .65 = 2.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω .46 78. Figure 41 Mechanism 2 Sliding along a foundation soil surface Ω= 0.ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 39.ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 31.

99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.21 ( ( 0.44 x 1 + x 0. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.44 + 164.For Shape Factors.44 tγ 5.44 5.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.59 + 278. i.41 Ki 0.96 x 0.35 mi + 1 2.21 x 5.31 x 5.44 x 1 = 232. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.5 x 9 x 2.( .01 + + + + Nq 18.3 Nc 30.31 1 1 1 1 .98 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.39 B' 2.35 iq 0.98 iq mi 1.35 0.78 ) ) x x 2 2 tan tan φ'f 30.e.Annex A5 page 8 - .3 ) ) For Tilt Factors.35 x 5. tc = tq 5.5 0. all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = equal 1.39 0.( 1 1 1 1 - ω 5. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.4 0.01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.5 As a result.3 ) ) Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o .41 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.71 tq 5.5 x x kPa 0.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.39 + + / / / / cf ' 4.78 B' 2.01 x + 0.17 x 30.44 .96 0.3 Nc 30. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.94 kPa qult qmax => > = 32.39 2.99 x 1 x 1.39 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 For Inclination Factors.69 x 23.78 x 1.30 x 4.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 3946 / ( = 0.5 x 18.01 => OK! OK! .95 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.( .91 = 675.44 tan tan ) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30.39 B' x x x / / / 2.41 + + + + Qn 7879 B' B' 2.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 239.14 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.

00 1. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock. W3. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 3.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex A6 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 4. Table 6. clause 4.0 5.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.6 Fig. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) Reference 1.9 3.4.Annex A6 page 1 - . W2. W4.W. Table 6. Pa4 Pwh Pwv W5 W1 Pav Pa1 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 2000 1000 = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1. clause 5.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.6 0. 19 δbf Kp . Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.12 Geoguide 1.5m above foundation) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1. clause 6.3. Pa3.85φcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2.65 kN/m m m m 2 Surcharge at the wall Height of R. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) kN/m2 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.3.9 1 35.00 2.4.0 30 0. clause 4.0 28.

65 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 40. Clause 5.29 = 0.00 1. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.88 146.30 W2 30.95 54.00 / 3 Pwh 5.79 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.65 / 2 .41 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 146.33 ) / 0.00 Pa3 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.38 2.25 2.65 Arm (m) / / / / 2 2 2 3 = = = = = 2.00 / 2 Pa2 11. Thus. B/6 = 2.33 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 56.65 2.65 1.78 -23.29 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2.49 5.6 x 1.29 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.00 / 3 + 1.38 1.00 x x x x x 3.06 3.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .50 1.97 5.00 2.( 146.271 x 5.34 -13.run Step 3 Wt.77 2.65 / 6 - 0.28 30.49 1.32 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.00 1.00 x x x / 2.32 28.run 0.00 122.00 2 = = = = = ΣV= 20.65 x 2 Pav 0.56 50.25 0.00 1.41 0.38 11. the mobilised angle of wall friction.00 1.run) Pa1 = 0.65 Pwv -13.00 1.00 2 / / 2 2 Pah = Geoguide 1.00 21 21 1.10 18.00 / 2 Pa4 1.271 x 2.442m > ΣV 78.00 1.2.00 33.06 11.33 1. Table 14 = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 4.79 0.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 32.00 Pa2 = 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.6 x 0.92 + 23.42 41.00 Pa3 11.34 2.00 kN/m .50 0.67 0.50 1.28 2.183m By Middle-third Rule.95 2.67 32.00 Pa4 = 0.Annex A6 page 2 - .33 0.69 0.2.38 1. δ is taken as 0.95 W3 41.30 1.33 ΣM = Moment 6.183m OK! OK! .65 2.00 / 3 = = = = = 1.271 x 2.92 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.65 1.00 78.68 1.6 x 0.65 x x x / 1.00 x 1.42 2.11.00 1.00 kN/m .00 = 56.

65 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R. W3.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 3.271 x 5.32 28.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.12 Geoguide 1. clause 4. clause 6. clause 5. Table 6.00 1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.06 11.W.0 28.9 3.0 30 0.10 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. Pa3. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan φ'/γm )) -1 Back batter.00 x x x / 2. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. θ = 1 : 10 = 0. W4. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.3. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.6 0.00 Pa3 = 0. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.00 1.6 Fig.32 . Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.Annex A6 page 3 - .5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 2000 1000 W4 Toe Pwv W1.271 x 2.4.3.00 1.38 11.49 5. Table 6.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) o kN/m2 o Geoguide 1.2.00 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 4.00 Pa4 = 0.00 1.run) Pa1 = 0.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.0 5.9 1 35.00 21 21 1. W2. 19 δbf Kp Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .00 2.38 1.4.00 33. clause 4.00 x x x x x 3.271 x 2.

00 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 32.00 x 1.33 0.29 0.00 = = = = = 1.06 Pa2 11.00 1.00 1.00 2.6 x 0. Thus.82 1.34 -13.21 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 56.10 Pwv -13.65 Arm (m) + 2.995 0. B/6 = 2.Geoguide 1.49 Pwh 5.442m > ΣV 78.65 / 6 - 0.6 x 1.50 x 0.28 30.76 2.run 0.67 32.00 2.25 ( 2.38 Pa3 11. Clause 5.00 1.10 18.65 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 45.29 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 157.00 1.50 1.97 5.00 kN/m .30 1.2.37 1.65 / 2 . the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.85 157.38 Pa4 1.28 ( 2.65 x 2 Pav 0.69 0. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.95 2.000 ) + 1.10 W2 30.79 0. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.50 x 0.25 0.6 x 0.22 56.00 = 56.92 + 23.79 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.42 41.( 157.995 0.50 x 0.34 ( 0.00 1.65 4.00 2 = = = = = ΣV= 20.10 W3 41.675 ) + 1. the mobilised angle of wall friction.50 1. δ is taken as 0.100 Arm (m) 3.run Step 3 Wt.50 0.55 -23.00 kN/m .67 0.15 = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.Annex A6 page 4 - .2.24 1.00 133.00 78.15 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2.995 0.92 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.21 ) / 0.15 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.33 ΣM = Moment 6.42 ( 1.995 = = = = = 2.044m OK! OK! .325 ) / 3 ) x x x x 0.044m By Middle-third Rule.38 55.00 tan θ = 0.11.20 x x x / 1.

W3.00 0.6 Fig.W.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan δb/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.5m above foundation) Reference 1.2 30. W2.67 1. clause 4.2 24. clause 6. Table 7 and Table 8 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh W5 = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.3.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex A7 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 4.3.4 (= 0. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 2.Annex A7 page 1 - . 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.5m above foundation) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.3 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f 5 0 2.9 1.3 4. Table 6. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.2 30. W4.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28. clause 5. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.1 3.) . Table 6.95 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R. clause 4. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2. Pa3.4.4.6 0.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 2.12 Geoguide 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.

81 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .16 6.67 x x x x x 2.30 2.18 0.20 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.36 29.86 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.95 x 2 Pav 0.67 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 3.45 0.86 + 8.( 56.00 1.95 1.28 30.run W1 = 26 x 0.95 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 26.30 6.30 W2 30.33 0.95 Arm (m) / / / 2 2 3 = = = = 1.95 Pwv -6.67 0.02 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 12.02 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.00 2 = = = = ΣV= 20.64 16.30 6.30 1.95 1.00 21 21 0.11 0.16 0.67 / 3 = = = = = 1.20 .Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .84 2. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.run) Pa1 = 0.57 56.45 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 56.42 Geoguide 1.330 x 1.22 18.33 0.22 0.run Step 3 Wt. Clause 5.67 x x x / 1.98 1.00 1.00 / 2 Pa2 6.22 ΣM = Moment 3.49 12.30 0. δ is taken as 0.330 x 1.67 / 3 Pwh 2. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.11.16 1.50 0.190m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .67 / 2 Pa4 0.33 Pa4 = 0.05 0.2.31 ) / / ΣV 44.67 x Pav = 0.33 / 3 + 0.95 x x / 1.33 Pa3 = 0.00 44.00 1.30 1.50 1.67 Pa3 6. Thus.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.Annex A7 page 2 - .28 1.02 ΣMo ) 21.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.00 = 21.00 kN/m .31 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.330 x 5.42 1.67 0.00 1.66 -8.42 -6.00 47.00 Pa2 = 0.95 = 0.16 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.22 0.81 2.95 1.

99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1. Eccentricity e = 0.3 x x φ'f 30.57 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .78 2 2 23.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors.20 kN / m ΣH = 18.58 = 25.20 x x 100 100 = = 1864 kN 4420 kN Thus.57 B' 1.06 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 18.00 = / 157.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 44.64 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.64 44.190 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.4 0.3 For Shape Factors.06 = 28.96 0.95 = 1.Annex A7 page 3 - .01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.14 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult . qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.3 Nc 30.01 + + + + Nq 18. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 4420.57 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.78 B' 1.57 B' x x x / / / 1.584 1 1 Nq 18. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.64 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 44.96 ( ( 30.3 /2 /2 ) ) tan tan φ'f 30.57 = L' = B' = 1.20 x 0. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.79 kN/m run > => OK! Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 18.30 π 3.190 100 157.

44 iq 0.98 iq mi 1.Annex A7 page 4 - .57 1.5 As a result. i. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.44 x 1 x 1 = 53.e.5 x 9 x 1.41 x 1 x 23.44 mi + 1 2.30 x 4. all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = tγ = equal 1.34 + + + + Qn 4420 B' B' 1.96 x 0.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.78 x 1.5 x 18.29 x 1 x 1 + x 0. 1 gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.29 ( ( 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.01 => OK! OK! .( .3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.57 0.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 157.06 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.17 x 30.57 + + / / / / cf ' 4.98 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.34 Ki 0.41 1 1 1 1 .99 x 1 x 1.34 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.5 0.12 + 38.67 kPa qult qmax => > = 28. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.17 = 139.For Inclination Factors.38 + 48.14 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 1864 / ( = 0.5 x x kPa 0.01 x + 0.44 0.3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o .

67 x x x / 1.4.9 1.95 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.330 x 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.330 x 5.Annex A7 page 5 - . clause 5.330 Back batter. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.33 Pa3 = 0.33 Pa4 = 0.16 6.4.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. W2.67 x x x x x 2.6 Fig. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.330 x 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1. clause 4. θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.64 16. Table 6.3 4. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) o φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 2.6 0. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2.67 1.22 18.33 0.42 .4 (= 0.00 21 21 0.3.67 0.67 0.2.2 24. clause 4.2 30.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0. W3.3 o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f 5 0 2.3.16 0. Pa3. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1. Table 6.67 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 3.00 Pa2 = 0.30 6.2 30.00 0.1 3.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. W4.W.10 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.run) Pa1 = 0.81 2.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 W3 W4 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Toe Pwv W1.12 Geoguide 1.) Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m . clause 6.

975 ) / 3) x x x 0.run Step 3 Wt.Annex A7 page 6 - .41 0.49 12.( 60.28 30.67 = = = = = 1.995 = = = = 1.00 = 21.95 Arm (m) + 1.100 Arm (m) 2.02 1.22 tan θ = 0.84 2.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.16 Pa3 6.00 44.95 x 2 Pav 0. δ is taken as 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3. of wall + water uplift kN/m .00 1.50 ( 1.26 31.00 2 = = = = ΣV= 20.03 -8.42 ( 0.86 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.33 0.092m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .20 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.11 0.29 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.29 1. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.95 = 0.30 Pa2 6. the mobilised angle of wall friction.30 6.67 0.05 0.16 Pa4 0.86 + 8.67 x Pav = 0.run W1 = 26 x 0.42 -6.00 kN/m .Geoguide 1.27 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.50 0.10 W2 30.95 1.67 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.2.44 1.995 0.28 ( 1.95 x x / 1.00 1.81 Pwh 2.33 0.95 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 29.300 ) + 0.88 60.00 1.22 ΣM = Moment 3.20 .41 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 60.10 Pwv -6. Thus.995 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.29 ΣMo ) 21.50 x 0.50 x 0.00 1.18 0.11.00 51. Clause 5.29 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 12.67 0.22 0.27 ) / / ΣV 44.30 1.00 1.

92 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.2. Clause 9.04 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult . Clause 9.96 ( ( 30. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.3 φ'f 30.584 1 1 Nq 18.54 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 18.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ + q' Nq sq iq tq gq For Bearing Capacity Factors. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 4420 176. Figure 41 Mechanism 2 Sliding along a foundation soil surface Ω= 0.092 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.95 = 1.78 2 2 23.13 kN / m 23.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω . Fr = = 23.25 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 14. Eccentricity e = 0.3.64 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.3 /2 /2 ) ) . at the level just below 500mm rock fill.ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 14.2.ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 18. Figure 41 Mechanism 1 Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ .092 100 176.Step 7 Check Sliding Geoguide 1.54 = 25.92 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 18.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.Annex A7 page 7 - .25 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.20 x x 100 100 = = 1864 kN 4420 kN Thus.13 kN / m Geoguide 1.3.77 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.64 kN / m 33.30 π 3.64 44. Fr = = 33.77 = L' = B' = 1.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0.ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ .ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω .14 Nq 18.3 x x tan tan φ'f 30.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.

5 0.45 x 5.4 0.17 x 30.71 + 305.96 x 0.44 .42 x 5. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.45 iq 0.78 B' 1.Annex A7 page 8 - .5 As a result.44 5.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 176.77 + + / / / / cf ' 4.5 x x kPa 0.99 x 1 x 1. tc = tq 5.31 x 5.01 x + 0.77 B' 1.07 kPa qult qmax => > = 25.( 1 1 1 1 - ω 5.04 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.69 x 23.78 x 1. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.44 x 1 + x 0.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.77 0.5 x 18.( . mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.3 ) ) Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o .For Shape Factors.44 tan tan ) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30.( .01 => OK! OK! .78 x x tan tan φ'f 30. all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = equal 1.33 + + + + Qn 4420 B' B' 1. i.e.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.71 tq 5.3 ) ) For Tilt Factors.42 1 1 1 1 .77 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 For Inclination Factors.45 mi + 1 2.3 Nc 30.77 1.30 x 4.96 0.01 + + + + Nq 18.12 = 831. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.33 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.33 Ki 0.54 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.77 B' x x x / / / 1.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 1864 / ( = 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.3 Nc 30.31 ( ( 0.44 tγ 5.01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.45 0.78 ) ) x x 2 2 tan tan φ'f 30.5 x 9 x 1.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.44 x 1 = 312.23 + 213.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.98 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.98 iq mi 1.

W2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 2. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2.4.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 2.9 3.5m above foundation) Reference 1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.0 30 0.4.85φcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.0 28. Table 6.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.3. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan φ'/γm )) -1 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 5.Annex A8 page 1 - . W3. Pa3.9 1 35. 19 δbf Kp .5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 2.00 0. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock. clause 4.6 0.6 Fig. Table 6.67 1.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex A8 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 4. clause 5.95 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R. Pa4 Pwh Pwv W5 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.12 Geoguide 1.W.3. clause 4. W4. clause 6.5m above foundation) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1.

00 1.67 x x x / 1.69 0.00 47.02 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.2.67 x Pav = 0. δ is taken as 0. B/6 = 1.49 10.67 / 3 = = = = = 1.66 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.95 / 2 .33 / 3 + 0.15 0.run) Pa1 = 0.66 2.( 56.95 1.71 5. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.95 Pwv -6.02 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9. the mobilised angle of wall friction.95 1.71 13.95 x x / 1.271 x 1.95 1.271 x 1.33 Pa3 = 0.67 Pa3 5. Thus. Clause 5.30 0.67 0.95 / 6 - 0.33 Pa4 = 0.06 1.67 0.71 5.95 x 2 Pav 0.67 / 2 Pa4 0.49 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.00 21 21 0.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 10.98 1.run W1 = 26 x 0.06 5.36 29.28 30.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.22 ΣM = Moment 2.11.11 ) / 0.30 1.71 2.42 1.66 -8.28 1.325m > ΣV 44.33 0.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .57 56.11 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.45 0.00 kN/m .45 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 56.66 + 8.00 / 2 Pa2 5.00 Pa2 = 0.140m OK! OK! .30 W2 30.22 0.271 x 5.2.20 0. Table 14 = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 2.95 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 26.33 0.00 1.06 0.00 2 = = = = ΣV= 20.02 = 0.11 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 19.42 -6. of wall + water uplift kN/m .95 Arm (m) / / / 2 2 3 = = = = 1.00 1.67 / 3 Pwh 2.50 1.20 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.run Step 3 Wt.66 0.67 2 / / 2 2 Pah = Geoguide 1.30 1.67 x x x x x 2.00 1.Annex A8 page 2 - .00 = 19.22 0.22 15.62 1.50 0.140m By Middle-third Rule.06 0.00 44.

clause 4.22 15.0 5.271 x 5.00 21 21 0.33 Pa4 = 0.67 0.4.67 0. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) o kN/m2 o Geoguide 1.33 Pa3 = 0.00 0.67 x x x x x 2.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 2. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.66 2.3.12 Geoguide 1.271 x 1.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 W3 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh W4 Toe Pwv W1.95 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R.67 1.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0. W4.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0. 19 δbf Kp Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .4.9 3.10 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. Table 6.0 28.W.67 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 2. Table 6.9 1 35. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.06 0.06 5.6 0.00 Pa2 = 0.67 x x x / 1.Annex A8 page 3 - . Pa3.33 0. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock. W2. clause 5. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. clause 6. θ = 1 : 10 = 0.0 30 0.271 x 1.71 13.6 Fig.run) Pa1 = 0.2. W3.49 . Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan φ'/γm )) -1 Back batter. clause 4.3.71 5.

11.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 10.( 60.50 x 0.06 Pa4 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .28 ( 1.043m OK! OK! .50 x 0.00 1.22 tan θ = 0.06 Pa3 5.22 ΣM = Moment 2.300 ) + 0.95 4.10 W2 30.run Step 3 Wt.Geoguide 1.2.Annex A8 page 4 - .41 0.28 30.995 0.67 = = = = = 1. the mobilised angle of wall friction.66 + 8.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.22 0. Clause 5.42 ( 0.00 1.50 ( 1.995 = = = = 1.29 1. Thus. B/6 = 1.11 0.00 1.10 Pwv -6.00 = 19.26 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.00 2 = = = = ΣV= 20.33 0.33 0.95 / 2 .26 = 0.043m By Middle-third Rule.30 1.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.95 Arm (m) + 1.20 0.100 Arm (m) 2.995 0.run W1 = 26 x 0.20 x x / 1.71 Pa2 5.25 31.42 -6.49 10.50 0.00 1. δ is taken as 0.66 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.71 5.66 Pwh 2.20 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.2.67 0.41 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 60.26 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.62 1.69 0.86 60.67 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.95 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 29.07 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 19.00 kN/m .44 1.07 ) / 0.975 ) / 3 ) x x x 0.67 x Pav = 0.00 44. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.02 -8.95 x 2 Pav 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.15 0.00 51.02 1.325m > ΣV 44.95 / 6 - 0.00 1.67 0.

clause 4.3.6 0.12 Geoguide 1. clause 6.2 30. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.) . clause 4.2 24.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 3.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan δb/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.5m above foundation) Reference 1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1. W4.9 1.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.3 4.5m above foundation) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1.4. Table 7 and Table 8 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 W5 = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.4 (= 0.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex A9 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 4. Table 6.30 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. W3.1 3. Table 6. Pa3.2 30. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 3.00 0.Annex A9 page 1 - . W2. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.6 Fig. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.33 1.4.3.3 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f 5 0 1.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. clause 5.

67 / 3 + 0.00 1.30 1.67 Pa4 = 0.33 0.18 ΣMo ) 3.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0. Thus.00 kN/m .28 -2. the mobilised angle of wall friction.26 0.06 2.30 Pwv -2.56 0.33 / 2 Pa4 0.67 0.11 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.00 21 21 0.3 Arm (m) / / 2 3 = = = 0.02 0.54 1.56 0.86 0. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.33 x x x x x 1.30 x / 1.93 Geoguide 1.Annex A9 page 2 - .33 x x x / 0.33 / 3 Pwh 0.00 11.11 .330 x 5. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.48 4.137m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .00 18.20 0.02 + 1.82 0.90 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.54 0.67 Pa3 = 0.( 13.11 ΣM = Moment 0.33 0.02 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20. δ is taken as 0.00 Pa2 = 0.2.33 x Pav = 0.87 1.3 1.88 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 13.11.90 / ) / ΣV 18. of wall + water uplift kN/m .50 0.54 0. Clause 5.00 1.65 0.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .3 = 0.run Step 3 Wt.65 1.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1.88 0.56 5.33 / 3 = = = = = 0.17 1.run W1 = 26 x 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.30 13.20 0.330 x 0.00 2 = = = ΣV= 20.18 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.11 0.18 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 2.54 0.17 0.65 1.00 / 2 Pa2 1.run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 0.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 = 3.17 0.30 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 13.28 1.33 Pa3 1.18 -1.

03 = L' = B' = 1.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 18. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 + + + + Nq 18.Annex A9 page 3 - . Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 1811.11 x x 100 100 = = 548 kN 1811 kN Thus.11 x 0.48 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.30 = 1.30 π 3.33 = / 102.03 B' 1.67 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .14 Nq 18.48 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 18.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.137 100 102.51 = 17.137 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.03 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.57 kN/m run > => OK! Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 5.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors.78 2 2 23.58 = 10.96 ( ( 30.3 For Shape Factors.3 x x φ'f 30.11 kN / m ΣH = 5.584 1 1 Nq 18.3 /2 /2 ) ) tan tan φ'f 30. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 1.03 B' x x x / / / 1.48 18. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.4 0.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.96 0.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.03 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0. Eccentricity e = 0.3 Nc 30. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.78 B' 1.51 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 5.

48 ( ( 0.96 x 1.5 As a result.99 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.62 0.e.00 x 1 x 1.78 x 1.22 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.60 1 1 1 1 .5 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.94 = 181.51 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.01 x + 0.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.62 iq 0. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.22 Ki 0.85 + 51.56 kPa qult qmax => > = 17.62 x 1 x 1 = 76.For Inclination Factors.67 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 102.03 1.Annex A9 page 4 - .3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o .5 x 9 x 1.01 => OK! OK! . 1 gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.62 mi + 1 2.60 x 1 x 23.17 x 30.( .99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.03 + + / / / / cf ' 4. i.22 + + + + Qn 1811 B' B' 1.99 iq mi 1.5 x 18. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.03 0.48 x 1 x 1 + x 0.5 x x kPa 0.77 + 52.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.30 x 4.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0. all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = tγ = equal 1.

30 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0. clause 5.330 Back batter. Table 6.33 0.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.48 4. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28. W2.3. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 3.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1.1 3.2 30.W.) Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2 W3 W4 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 Toe Pwv W1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) o φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.00 0.00 21 21 0.67 Pa4 = 0.65 1. Pa3.4 (= 0.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.6 0. W3. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.54 0.6 Fig.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. clause 6.3.67 0. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2.2.56 5.3 o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f 5 0 1.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.330 x 0. θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.4.12 Geoguide 1.93 .33 1.10 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.Annex A9 page 5 - . Table 6. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.330 x 0.33 x x x / 0. clause 4.2 24.33 0.67 Pa3 = 0.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.4.run) Pa1 = 0.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. W4.330 x 5.2 30. clause 4. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.3 4.20 0.9 1.33 x x x x x 1.54 1.

87 0.11 .085m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .10 Pwv -2.20 Pwh 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.13 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr - 0.00 2 = = = ΣV= 20.86 1. the mobilised angle of wall friction.17 0.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 0. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.00 1.26 0.54 Pa3 1. Thus.run W1 = 26 x 0.67 0.06 2.28 -2.28 ( 0.Geoguide 1.50 0.11 0.00 1.87 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 14.30 x / 1.02 + 1.33 x Pav = 0.02 0.Annex A9 page 6 - .89 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.30 1.100 Arm (m) 1.13 ΣMo ) 3.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .02 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.17 0.56 0.13 -1.89 / ) / ΣV 18.run Step 3 Wt. Clause 5. δ is taken as 0.( 14.3 = 0.995 0.70 0.2.650 ) / 3) x x 0.3 Arm (m) + 0.00 = 3.56 tan θ = 0.13 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 2.86 0.50 x 0.11 ΣM = Moment 0.33 = = = = = 0.30 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 14.54 Pa4 0.26 14.11.00 12.995 = = = 0.82 0.33 0.00 kN/m .995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.00 18.11 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.17 ( 1.65 Pa2 1.33 0.

3.30 π 3. Figure 41 Mechanism 2 Sliding along a foundation soil surface Ω= 0.3 /2 /2 ) ) .99 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.48 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.Step 7 Check Sliding Geoguide 1.78 2 2 23.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ + q' Nq sq iq tq gq For Bearing Capacity Factors.65 kN / m Geoguide 1.99 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 5.584 1 1 Nq 18.2.Annex A9 page 7 - . at the level just below 500mm rock fill.13 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.11 x x 100 100 = = 548 kN 1811 kN Thus.48 kN / m 15. Fr = = 15.2.13 = L' = B' = 1.30 = 1. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 1811 113. Clause 9.03 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .3.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.48 18. Fr = = 9.085 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.3 φ'f 30.03 = 16.ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 3.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω .ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ .ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω .ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 5. Eccentricity e = 0. Clause 9.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0.03 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 5.085 100 113.65 kN / m 9.14 Nq 18.65 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.65 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 3.3 x x tan tan φ'f 30. Figure 41 Mechanism 1 Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ .

61 1 1 1 1 .69 x 23.13 B' x x x / / / 1.96 0.5 x 9 x 1.81 + 292.00 x 1 x 1.21 Ki 0.50 ( ( 0.78 B' 1.90 + 317.30 x 4.5 As a result.3 ) ) For Tilt Factors.e.96 x 1.5 x 18.01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 1.78 x 1. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.5 x x kPa 0.13 0.5 0.For Shape Factors. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.( .03 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.61 x 5.72 = 1055.03 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.21 - ) ) ) ) iq 0. tc = tq 5.13 1.44 x 1 = 444.( 1 1 Ki 0.Annex A9 page 8 - .( .63 0.44 5.99 iq mi 1.44 tan tan ) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30.3 ) ) Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o . sc = 1 = 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.63 mi + 1 2.50 x 5.44 .63 x 5.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.4 0. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.13 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 For Inclination Factors.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.3 Nc 30.01 x + 0.01 => OK! OK! .( 1 1 1 1 - ω 5.99 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0. all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = equal 1.01 + + + + Nq 18.43 kPa qult qmax => > = 16.71 tq 5.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.21 + + + + Qn 1811 B' B' 1. i.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.44 tγ 5.13 B' 1.17 x 30.78 ) ) x x 2 2 tan tan φ'f 30.3 Nc 30.13 + + / / / / cf ' 4.63 iq 0.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 113.44 x 1 + x 0.

Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.5m above foundation) Reference 1.12 Geoguide 1. clause 4.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 3. W3.W.9 3. Table 6. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 3.00 0.5m above foundation) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex A10 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 4. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan φ'/γm )) -1 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.0 30 0. W2. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.33 1.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 1.30 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R.85φcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.6 Fig.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0. Table 6. 19 δbf Kp .4.3. Pa4 Pwh Pwv W5 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1. Pa3. clause 5.9 1 35. clause 6.0 28.6 0. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.3. clause 4.0 5.Annex A10 page 1 - . W4.4.

26 0.88 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 13. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.217m / ) / > ΣV 18.21 0. B/6 = 1.30 Pwv -2.11 ΣM = Moment 0.26 0.3 / 2 .Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m . Clause 5. δ is taken as 0.30 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 13.35 1.33 / 3 Pwh 0.33 x x x / 0.18 -1.02 0.2.28 -2. the mobilised angle of wall friction.30 1.00 21 21 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.50 0.17 1.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 1.3 / 6 - 0.70 0.33 0.26 1.00 Pa2 = 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.118m By Middle-third Rule.65 0.17 0.33 0.67 Pa4 = 0.( 13.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = Geoguide 1.56 4.30 x / 1.run Step 3 Wt.17 0.3 Arm (m) / / 2 3 = = = 0.18 = 0.26 0.run) Pa1 = 0.55 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) 3.118m OK! OK! .68 0.56 0.00 11.00 1.00 1.18 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.18 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.05 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.56 0.67 / 3 + 0.28 1.2.run W1 = 26 x 0.67 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.11 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.87 1.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 2 = = = ΣV= 20.11 0.55 0.00 kN/m .3 1. Thus. Table 14 = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1.67 + 1.33 x x x x x 1.33 / 2 Pa4 0.88 0.00 / 2 Pa2 1.06 1.11.67 0.Annex A10 page 2 - .17 0.35 1.30 13.67 Pa3 = 0.00 18.17 0.271 x 0.61 4.271 x 0.271 x 5.11 0.33 x Pav = 0.33 / 3 = = = = = 0.33 Pa3 1.00 = 3.

67 0.2.6 0.Annex A10 page 3 - . Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock. W4. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan φ'/γm )) -1 Back batter.56 4.33 x x x / 0.4.0 28.6 Fig.4.271 x 5.3.271 x 0. 19 δbf Kp Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .9 1 35.00 Pa2 = 0.33 x x x x x 1. W2. Pa3.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 Insitu soil W4 Toe Pwv W1.3. W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2. clause 6. clause 4.00 0.12 Geoguide 1.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 1.9 3. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. clause 5. Table 6. θ = 1 : 10 = 0.271 x 0. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 3. clause 4.61 4.35 1.33 0.00 21 21 0.run) Pa1 = 0.3 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R. Table 6.33 1.0 30 0.26 0.67 Pa4 = 0.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.17 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.10 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.0 5.05 .26 1.33 0. W3.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) o kN/m2 o Geoguide 1.67 Pa3 = 0.W.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.

25 14.650 ) / 3 ) x x 0.33 0.21 0.56 0.28 ( 0.12 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.11 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.11 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.run W1 = 26 x 0.066m By Middle-third Rule.2.3 x 2 Pav 0.17 0.26 Pa4 0.11.56 tan θ = 0.3 Arm (m) + 0.00 18.17 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.30 4.17 Pwh 0.33 x Pav = 0.87 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 14. δ is taken as 0.67 + 1. of wall + water uplift kN/m .995 = = = 0.50 x 0.20 x / 1.67 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.00 kN/m .30 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 14.54 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) 3.066m OK! OK! .06 1.100 Arm (m) 1.Annex A10 page 4 - .12 = 0. Clause 5.26 Pa3 1.50 0.00 2 = = = ΣV= 20. B/6 = 1.87 0.28 -2.33 = = = = = 0.run Step 3 Wt.3 / 2 .3 / 6 - 0.11 ΣM = Moment 0.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.995 0.( 14.70 0.35 Pa2 1.86 1.12 -1.11 0.217m / ) / > ΣV 18.17 ( 1.70 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.00 1.02 0.Geoguide 1.54 0.00 0.12 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.68 0.00 12.33 0.00 1. Thus.00 = 3.10 Pwv -2.2.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 1. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.67 0.

whichever is less.3 (1) & Fig.5mm thick and should meet the requirements of BS 4102 (BSI. The ends and diaphragms can be attached to this mesh by helical wires or other methods.5 times that of the wire-mesh to prevent unravelling. 1986b). 1990b) before weaving.7mm in diameter and galvanized.e. (viii) The wires should be at least 2. (iv) The edges of the mesh should be selvaged with wires of a diameter of about 1. (ii) The preferred size is 150mm to 300mm . 'double-twisted' to form the mesh.5m Gabion Wall Design Statement Reference Remarks Design of 3.5. 9. 9. (iii) Hexagonal woven wire mesh is mechanically woven in a continuous sheet.5. Geoguide 1 Para. (ix) For hexagonal wire-mesh the wires should be galvanized to BS 443 (BSI.3 (1) Infill material (i) Maximum size of rock should not exceed two-thirds the depth of the gabion to be filled or 300mm . (vii) The wires used for the wire mesh should be mild steel wire to BS 1052 (BSI. 1986c) after welding. with a minimum tensile strength of 350 N/mm 2 . i. PVC (polyvinylchloride) coating should be provided to the wires.5m Gabion Wall Design Statement 1. 1991c). (xi) If the soil and water conditions are aggressive. top and sides should be formed from a piece of mesh. the mesh panels should be hot dip galvanized to BS 729 (BSI. (x) For welded mesh.Project : Design of 3. (ii) They should be in form of hexagonal woven or square welded. The wires should be twisted together in pairs through three half turns. Geoguide 1 Para.3 (1) Gabion Materials (i) They should not be susceptible to attack by fire and ultraviolet light. Design Data (I) Materials (A) Requirements Geoguide 1 Para. 9. The smallest dimension of the rock should at least be twice the largest dimension of the mesh aperture .5. The making of panels with galvanized wires welded together is not recommended as the welds are left unprotected.Annex B page 1 - . . (vi) The mesh can stretch or contract in two directions in its own plane and thus a rectangular wire-mesh basket filled with rock fragments can deform in any direction.5m Gabion Wall Annex B Prepared by Checked by Subject : : : NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Design of 3. 47 (v) The gabion base. The PVC coating should be at least 0.

9. which is taken to be the design case.0 Backfilling Material behind the existing wall The properties of backfilling material are assumed to be Geoguide 1 Table 8 (a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength. 7.2.2 and Table 16 5kPa surcharge was assumed on the land side. .1 The gabions are in modules of 2m x 1m x 1m.5. φ' Insitu Soil beneath the wall (foundation material) The properties of insitu soil are assumed to be (a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength. Mesh Size 8cm x 10cm x 2.5. δ = = = 2. c' (c) Effective friction angle. The groundwater level behind the proposed gabion wall is assumed to be one-third of the retaining height. The unit weight of water was taken as 9. cycle tracks and play areas) (III) Water level of the pond It is assumed that the most critical situation should be when the channel is completely dry. 9. earth pressure and hydrostatic pressure are taken to be dead load for design. (Footpaths isolated from roads. c' (c) Effective friction angle.Annex B page 2 - .4 0. φ' = = = 21 kN/m3 0 kPa 35 o = = = 19 kN/m3 5 kPa 35 o (II) Loadings Dead loads Self weight of the proposed protection wall.6 0.81 kN/m3.2 (1) Specific gravity of the rock.4 m/s Parameter Geoguide 1 Para.(B) Assumptions Gabion and Infill Materials Block Size Geoguide 1 Para. Gs Porosity of the infill Mobilized angle of wall friction.7mm Size of Infill Material = 250mm Refer to Annex E Maccaferri Gabions Critical Velocity for water flow = 6. Imposed load Geoguide 1 Para.

4. 3. The minimum factors of safety recommended in Geoguide 1 are adopted. stability checks would be carried out at each major change in section shape.2 Limit state checks would be carried out at selected planes through the gabion wall.Geoguide 1 Para. 2. clause 4. ignoring the resistance contributed by the cage material and the connections between the cages. Table 6 and Table 7 Partial safety factor approach stipulated under Geoguide 1.5m Gabion Wall . Design Reference and Codes Design Code 1. Table 20 and Figure 13 Proposed retaining walls have no restraint against translation and rotation about the base. clause 9. the structures would be designed for both the ultimate limit state (ULS) and the serviceability limit state (SLS).5.2.Guide to Retaining Wall Design.3. clause 4.4 is adopted. Geoguide 1. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993). hence active state pressure is assumed and compaction-induced lateral pressure is not considered.Annex B page 3 - . Geoguide 1 . Geoguide 1. Design Methodology In accordance with Geoguide 1.2. Checking the Stability of the Protection Wall 3. Per meter run of the proposed retaining walls is considered for simplicity. Second Edition. For stepped walls. 6.3.

B3.Annex B page 4 - . B6 & B8 para.5 1.5 m m m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! Refer to Annex B1.5 1. Checking Sliding [OK if resisting force > sliding force] Height of Toe above foundation 0.5 2. B3. 1 Step 7 2. B5 & B7 para.5 2.0 0. B5 & B7 para. 1 Step 8 3.5 2. B4.0 0. Checking Bearing Capacity [OK if bearing capacity > bearing pressure] Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 m m m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! For details of calculations. 1 Step 6 1. Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity [OK if the resultant force acts within the middle third of the wall base] Height of Toe above foundation 0. please refer to the Appendix B1 to B8.5 1. .5 m m m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! Serviceability Limit Statement (SLS) Refer to Annex B2. Checking Overturning [OK if restoring moment > overturning moment] Height of Toe above foundation 0.5 m m m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! Refer to Annex B1.0 0. B3.5 2. 1 Step 6 1.Ultimate Limit Statement (ULS) Refer to Annex B1. B5 & B7 para.5 1.

Second Edition.5. References 1. as well as to the tops of the sides and ends. 9.Construction Aspects Geoguide 1 Para. a drainage layer of adequate permeability would be provided at the base of the wall to guard against erosion of the foundation material. (iii) The mesh of the lids should be tied down to the tops of any diaphragms provided.4 (i) Horizontal internal bracing wires should be fitted between the outer and inner faces at about 300mm centres in woven mesh gabions which are deeper than 500mm.Annex B page 5 - . Geoguide 1 .Guide to Retaining Wall Design.5. (ii) Drainage layers at the rear face are normally not warranted. However. 9. (ii) The lids of the gabions should meet the top edges of the sides and ends when closed. the vertical joints between the units should be staggered in adjacent courses. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993). Drainage provisions Geoguide 1 para.5 (i) A geotextile filter would be provided under the base and behind the rear face of the gabion wall to prevent migration of fines from the backfill into the coarse rock infill. without leaving any gaps. Geoguide 1 . (iv) Whenever possible.

Pa3. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan δb/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.) .12 Geoguide 1.Annex B1 page 1 - .4 (= 0. W2. W3. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 3.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1.6 0. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.95 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.4.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock. clause 4.3 4.3.50 1.3 o o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.W. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4 W1 Pav 2333 Pa1 Insitu soil Pa2 1167 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Toe Pwv W1. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.6 Fig. clause 6. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.4. Table 6.2 30.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.2 30.1 3.9 1.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex B1 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 3. clause 4.2 24.17 2. clause 5. Table 6.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.3. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.

the mobilised angle of wall friction.95 Geoguide 1.6 x 0.22 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 61.85 2.( 297.2. Clause 5.00 1.50 21 21 1.17 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 5.21 0.95 = 0.00 = 95.167m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .95 2.65 61.10 1.21 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2.17 x x x x x 3.58 135. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.39 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 5.21 2.70 W3 35.22 ΣMo ) 95.00 1.81 52.95 Pwv -17. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.84 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 297.84 0.00 2.80 1.6 x 1.17 1.69 64.96 2.95 1.95 2.75 45.00 154.94 0.21 ) / / ΣV 154.00 0.16 26.47 6.85 2.77 18.33 Pa3 = 0.88 92.11.40 2.330 x 2.18 55.00 kN/m .04 2.39 0.00 kN/m .52 35.48 1.6 x 0. δ is taken as 0.33 Pa4 = 0.10 1.17 Pa3 18.50 2 = = = = = = ΣV= 17.88 2. Thus.95 2.85 1.95 x 2 Pav 0.17 x 1.16 2.52 2.39 ΣM = Moment 10.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.70 2.6 x 0.33 / 3 + 1.run) Pa1 = 0.95 1.75 1.97 2.36 + 33.17 x x x / 2.00 Pa2 = 0.17 / 3 Pwh 6.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .47 1.10 W2 26.81 1. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.95 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 41.36 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.85 18.30 2.17 1.330 x 5.95 Arm (m) / / / / / 2 2 2 2 3 = = = = = = 2.38 297.22 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.76 -33.17 / 3 = = = = = 1.330 x 2.39 .66 11.10 36.run Step 3 Wt.00 0.Annex B1 page 2 - .33 1.run 0.00 263.95 x x x x / 1.77 3.30 W4 92.58 0.17 / 2 Pa4 2.50 / 2 Pa2 18.04 -17.

167 100 261.167 m Effective Width B' = B = 2. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 15439.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.39 x 0.95 = 2. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.62 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .3 x x φ'f 30.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors.62 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.39 kN / m ΣH = 52.75 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan ( x x 1 1 2 + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0.02 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.09 kN/m run > => OK! Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 52.62 B' x x x / / / 2.3 /2 /2 ) ) tan tan φ'f 30.96 0.69 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 52.4 0.39 x x 100 100 = = 5275 kN 15439 kN Thus.96 ( ( 30.3 Nc 30.75 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 154.17 = / 261.62 = L' = B' = 2.00 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .02 + + + + Nq 18.30 π 3.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 154.58 = 90.69 = 59.584 1 1 Nq 18. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.62 B' 2. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.Annex B1 page 3 - .78 B' 2.3 For Shape Factors.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.75 154.14 Nq 18.78 2 2 23. Eccentricity e = 0.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.

86 + 92.62 2.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 0.( .78 x 1.5 x 9 x 2.97 iq mi 1.34 ( ( 0.99 x 1 x 1. all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = tγ = equal 1.06 + 42.62 0.69 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.49 mi + 1 2.30 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 261.30 Ki 0.5 x x kPa 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.46 1 1 1 1 .00 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.49 iq 0.96 x 0.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.Annex B1 page 5 - .26 = 194.34 x 1 x 1 + x 0.30 x 4.17 kPa qult qmax => > = 59.5 x 18.5 As a result.3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o .97 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.46 x 1 x 23.49 0. i.30 + + + + Qn 15439 B' B' 2.02 => OK! OK! .02 x + 0. 1 gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.e.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.62 + + / / / / cf ' 4.49 x 1 x 1 = 59.For Inclination Factors.97 Ki = Qs / ( = 5275 / ( = 0.17 x 30.

clause 6.17 1. clause 5.4. Table 6.10 φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.4.W.17 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 5.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.75 45.95 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 3.) Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .6 Fig. clause 4. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.50 1. clause 4. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.47 6.77 18. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2.33 1.330 Back batter.17 2. Pa3.330 x 2. θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.6 0.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.17 x x x / 2.2 30.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.2 30.2 24.run) Pa1 = 0.3.17 x x x x x 3. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.81 52.33 Pa3 = 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. Table 6.1 3. W2.330 x 5.85 18.3 o o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.17 1.33 Pa4 = 0.3. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 500 W2 W1 Pav 2333 Pa1 W3 W4 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Insitu soil Pa2 1167 Toe Pwv W1.12 Geoguide 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.9 1. W3.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.330 x 2.2.4 (= 0.00 Pa2 = 0.3 4.Annex B1 page 6 - .95 .85 2.50 21 21 1.

68 0.10 Pwv -17. Thus.97 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 61.00 1. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.50 2.47 Pwh 6.94 0.50 2 = = = = = = ΣV= 17.36 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.81 tan θ = 0.95 = 0.83 34.995 0.00 x 0.140m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .16 26.run 0.36 + 33.17 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.2.00 kN/m .01 -17.10 W4 23.30 208.21 0.77 Pa2 18.17 = = = = = 1.10 1.97 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.17 x 1.58 0.33 1.95 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 46.01 ( 0.( 208.10 36.95 x x x x / 1. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.04 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2.00 2.100 1.97 ΣMo ) 95.21 ( 2.800 1.00 175.00 x 0.475 3) ) ) ) ) x x x x x 0.17 1.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 5.36 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.00 = 95.6 x 0.65 61.30 2.995 = = = = = = 2.49 1.995 0.69 67.95 2.10 W2 26.34 -33.25 x 0. δ is taken as 0.70 2.88 23.89 1.88 ( 1.16 ( 3. Clause 5.00 0.66 11.29 1.96 2.36 .10 W3 35.Annex B1 page 7 - .00 1.69 2.10 60.11.100 Arm (m) 3.85 Pa4 2.Geoguide 1.6 x 0.52 ( 2.400 2.995 0.52 35.95 Arm (m) + + + + / 2. the mobilised angle of wall friction.6 x 1.995 0.00 x 0.68 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 208.6 x 0.00 0.run Step 3 Wt.85 Pa3 18.95 x 2 Pav 0.00 kN/m .39 0.39 ΣM = Moment 10. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.04 ) / / ΣV 85.96 2.17 1.00 85.75 1.

96 ( ( 30.10 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.3. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 8536 266.67 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0.75 85.78 2 2 23. Clause 9.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 52. Figure 41 Mechanism 2 Sliding along a foundation soil surface Ω= 0.96 kN / m Geoguide 1.94 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 52. at the level just below 500mm rock fill. Fr = = 62.98 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .Step 7 Check Sliding Geoguide 1.75 kN / m 62.98 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.140 100 266.36 x x 100 100 = = 5275 kN 8536 kN Thus.3 x x tan tan φ'f 30. Clause 9.98 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 43.94 = 31. Figure 41 Mechanism 1 Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ .5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ + q' Nq sq iq tq gq For Bearing Capacity Factors.3.ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ . qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 43.95 = 2.140 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.Annex B1 page 8 - .75 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.2.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.96 kN / m 43.ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω .10 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 52.3 φ'f 30. Eccentricity e = 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.14 Nq 18. Fr = = 43.67 = L' = B' = 2.3 /2 /2 ) ) .30 π 3.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω .2.

67 B' 2.25 mi + 1 2.3 Nc 30.Annex B1 page 9 - .5 x x kPa 0.4 0.53 = 457.67 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 For Inclination Factors.86 + 185.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 266.18 kPa qult qmax => > = 31.e.( .98 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.44 x 1 = 153.25 iq 0.99 x 1 x 1.97 Ki = Qs / ( = 5275 / ( = 0.44 x 1 + x 0.( .5 As a result.79 + 117.( 1 1 Ki 0. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.25 x 5.69 x 23.78 ) ) x x 2 2 tan tan φ'f 30.96 0.44 5.44 tan tan ) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.51 + + + + Qn 8536 B' B' 2.12 x 5.For Shape Factors.25 0.51 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.5 x 18.3 ) ) For Tilt Factors.3 ) ) Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o . all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = equal 1.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.17 x 30.97 iq mi 1.02 x + 0.94 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.21 x 5.02 + + + + Nq 18.97 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.5 x 9 x 2.71 tq 5. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.67 2.51 Ki 0.5 0.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.02 => OK! OK! .5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.21 1 1 1 1 .44 . i.78 B' 2.02 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.67 B' x x x / / / 2.67 0.3 Nc 30.67 + + / / / / cf ' 4.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.78 x 1.96 x 0. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4. tc = tq 5.44 tγ 5.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.( 1 1 1 1 - ω 5.12 ( ( 0.30 x 4.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.

clause 4. Table 6.50 1. W2.95 kN/m m m m 2 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.9 1 35. clause 5.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 3.17 2.0 5.Annex B2 page 1 - .6 Fig. clause 4.3.0 30 0.9 3.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4 W1 Pav 2333 Pa1 Insitu soil Pa2 1167 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Toe Pwv W1.12 Geoguide 1.4.4.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.W.85φcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. 19 δbf Kp . Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) kN/m2 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. W3. clause 6.3. Table 6. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2. Pa3. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.6 0.0 28. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex B2 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 3.

B/6 = 2.49 2.50 21 21 1.00 kN/m .49 2.run) Pa1 = 0.33 Pa3 = 0.17 / 2 Pa4 2.00 kN/m .95 x x x x / 1.00 1.95 Arm (m) / / / / / 2 2 2 2 3 = = = = = = 2.52 35.95 / 2 .95 2.30 W4 92.84 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 297.17 2 / / 2 2 Pah = Geoguide 1.6 x 0.271 x 2.38 297.89 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.33 / 3 + 1.80 1.099m OK! OK! .Annex B2 page 2 - .Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .04 0.17 x x x x x 3.271 x 5.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 50.74 15.52 2.00 263.69 64. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.58 135.run 0.17 1.04 2.6 x 1.17 x x x / 2.33 Pa4 = 0.39 ΣM = Moment 8.21 2.10 1.run Step 3 Wt.70 W3 35.11.22 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.17 1.40 2.49 15.74 ) / 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.17 x 1.48 1.00 1.16 26.18 55.65 50.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.00 = 84.03 1.95 1.17 / 3 = = = = = 1.95 2.00 2.271 x 2.50 2 = = = = = = ΣV= 17.75 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption. δ is taken as 0.88 2. the mobilised angle of wall friction.00 Pa2 = 0.10 1.89 + 33.95 1.39 0.79 2.04 -17. Thus.95 Pwv -17.70 2.10 W2 26.95 2.2.00 154.22 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2.22 = 0. Clause 5.6 x 0.95 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 41.84 0.95 / 6 - 0.03 6.( 297.75 1.97 2.88 92.492m > ΣV 154.21 0.33 1.49 1. Table 14 = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 4.6 x 0.74 3.74 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 84.2.76 -33.12 9.56 37.17 Pa3 15.81 1.94 0.099m By Middle-third Rule.81 44.39 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.50 / 2 Pa2 15.00 0.16 2.95 x 2 Pav 0.30 30.17 / 3 Pwh 6.30 2.39 0.58 0.

17 x x x / 2.17 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 4.271 x 5. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) Back batter.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.74 15.4. Table 6. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2. clause 5.0 30 0.17 1.271 x 2.17 1.75 .4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.56 37. W3.3.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.95 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R.271 x 2. Pa3. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 500 W2 W1 Pav 2333 Pa1 W3 Insitu soil Pa2 1167 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh W4 Toe Pwv W1.17 2.6 Fig.0 28.50 1. clause 4.W.2.33 Pa3 = 0.9 3.run) Pa1 = 0.49 15.9 1 35.10 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. θ = 1 : 10 = 0. 19 δbf Kp Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .33 Pa4 = 0.33 1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0. Table 6.17 x x x x x 3. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock. W2.0 5.50 21 21 1. clause 6.49 2.6 0.Annex B2 page 3 - .81 44.4.00 Pa2 = 0.12 Geoguide 1.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 3.03 6. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.3. clause 4.

25 x 0.89 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.17 = = = = = 1.69 2.12 9.52 ( 2.49 Pa4 2.00 1.29 1. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.92 = 0.00 278.65 50.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 50.17 x 1.50 2.68 0.run 0.58 0.17 1.33 1.002m By Middle-third Rule.00 0.25 311.16 26.10 W4 92.21 0.52 35.00 kN/m .00 2.67 67.10 1.75 1.39 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.400 2.49 Pa3 15.82 137.89 1.10 Pwv -17.30 2.00 kN/m .16 ( 3. B/6 = 2.04 0.00 x 0.89 + 33.30 30.50 2 = = = = = = ΣV= 17.100 Arm (m) 3.00 154.995 0.95 Arm (m) + + + + / 2.81 tan θ = 0.995 0.39 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.Geoguide 1.00 1.70 2.6 x 1.995 = = = = = = 2.49 1.95 x x x x / 1.17 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.95 / 2 .2.00 x 0.36 -33.95 / 6 - 0.04 -17.88 92.96 2.79 2.run Step 3 Wt.74 Pa2 15.492m > ΣV 154. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.68 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 311.57 ) / 0.39 ΣM = Moment 8.88 ( 1.21 ( 2.475 3 ) ) ) ) ) x x x x x 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.10 W3 35.03 Pwh 6.92 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.6 x 0.92 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2.95 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 46.800 1.100 1. δ is taken as 0.995 0.94 0.08 60.04 ( 0.( 311.95 2.6 x 0.Annex B2 page 4 - .95 x 2 Pav 0.995 0.6 x 0.39 0.57 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 84. Thus.2.17 1.10 W2 26.002m OK! OK! .11. Clause 5.00 x 0.00 = 84.

2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.2 30.3.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.) .3.4.W. Pa3.3 o o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.1 3. Table 6. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.4 (= 0. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 3.4.6 0. clause 4. clause 4.00 1. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.5m above foundation) Reference 1.3 4.00 2. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.Annex B3 page 1 - . Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 Fig. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.9 1. W2.30 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.12 Geoguide 1.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. Table 6. clause 5.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex B3 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 3.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan δb/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.2 24.5m above foundation) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 2000 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 1000 Toe Pwv W1. W3.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.2 30. clause 6.

50 0.95 13.50 2.00 = 57.85 2.Annex B3 page 2 - . Clause 5.75 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 39. δ is taken as 0.3 x 2 Pav 0.50 1.33 0.85 13.00 Pa3 = 0.run Step 3 Wt.53 2.330 x 5.70 W3 35.45 1.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .85 1.09 6.330 x 2.00 / 3 + 1.70 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.81 1.16 26.00 / 2 Pa2 13.93 0.00 1.00 Pa2 = 0.06 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.00 1.16 2.11 109.00 1.30 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 30.88 -11.6 x 0.( 109.95 3.00 21 21 1. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.30 x x x / 1.26 -17.3 1.50 0.60 1.3 1.00 39.75 1.46 34.00 / 2 Pa4 1.2.00 kN/m .10 W2 26. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.06 .00 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 4.3 = 0.6 x 0.15 1.10 1.30 Pwv -11.380m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .00 / 3 = = = = = 1.3 Arm (m) / / / / 2 2 2 3 = = = = = 1.85 1. the mobilised angle of wall friction.70 + 17.run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.6 x 1.75 ΣMo ) 57.52 2.30 2.67 39.63 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 109.00 kN/m .run 0.00 1.03 38.00 68.42 23.00 x x x x x 3.00 92.34 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.45 41.00 2 = = = = = ΣV= 17. Thus.75 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.00 / 3 Pwh 5.3 2.34 ) / / ΣV 68.70 2.88 2.00 x x x / 2.00 x 1.330 x 2.00 1.52 35.63 0.00 Pa4 = 0.33 ΣM = Moment 7.00 1.81 5.00 2.00 Pa3 13.67 0.46 Geoguide 1.11.

Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 6806.71 kN/m run > => OK! Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 39.46 68.Annex B3 page 3 - .3 Nc 30. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.06 x 0.14 Nq 18.3 x x φ'f 30.54 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.01 + + + + Nq 18.96 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 39.54 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.78 2 2 23.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.4 0.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 68.06 kN / m ΣH = 39.3 /2 /2 ) ) tan tan φ'f 30. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.54 B' 1.96 ( ( 30.30 = 1.380 100 154. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors.380 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.3 For Shape Factors.54 B' x x x / / / 1. Eccentricity e = 0.01 = 44.00 = / 154.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0.06 x x 100 100 = = 3946 kN 6806 kN Thus.19 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .54 = L' = B' = 1.30 π 3.584 1 1 Nq 18.58 = 39.46 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 68.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.46 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.78 B' 1. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.

25 iq 0.01 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30. all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = tγ = equal 1.25 mi + 1 2.96 x 0.5 x 9 x 1.50 Ki 0.37 + 21. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o . Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.e.50 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.98 iq mi 1.21 x 1 x 23.78 x 1.5 0.13 ( ( 0.54 1.13 x 1 x 1 + x 0.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 154.For Inclination Factors.01 x + 0.21 1 1 1 1 . i.50 + + + + Qn 6806 B' B' 1.19 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.54 + + / / / / cf ' 4.( 1 1 Ki 0.25 x 1 x 1 = 27.( .25 0.01 => OK! OK! .62 kPa qult qmax => > = 44.17 x 30.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.5 x 18.98 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.30 x 4.5 As a result.43 + 20.54 0.Annex B3 page 4 - .5 x x kPa 0.99 x 1 x 1.82 = 69.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 3946 / ( = 0. 1 gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.

Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 3. clause 6.00 39. Table 6. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.00 Pa3 = 0. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1. Table 6.2.95 13.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.00 x x x / 2. clause 4.330 Back batter.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 500 W2 W3 W4 W1 Pav Pa1 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 2000 1000 Toe Pwv W1.330 x 2.W.00 1.2 30.) Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m . clause 5. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.3.1 3.00 Pa2 = 0.00 1.run) Pa1 = 0.00 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 4.Annex B3 page 5 - .81 5.00 x x x x x 3.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.2 24.85 1.46 .3 4. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.00 Pa4 = 0.30 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.4.00 21 21 1. W2.4. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2.12 Geoguide 1.6 0. θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1. clause 4.10 φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.00 1.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.00 2.46 34.3. Pa3.9 1. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.85 13.330 x 2.2 30.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.00 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.6 Fig. W3.3 o o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.330 x 5.4 (= 0.

50 x 0. Thus.00 1.95 Pa2 13.3 = 0.150 ) / 3) x x x x 0.22 42.88 -11.09 6.Annex B3 page 6 - .67 119. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.30 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 34. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.750 ) + 1.85 Pa4 1.25 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2.00 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.450 ) + 1.995 0.11.run Step 3 Wt.2.00 1.16 ( 2.995 0.50 0.( 119.995 0. δ is taken as 0.240m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .25 ) / / ΣV 68.50 ( 2. Clause 5.50 x 0.50 x 0.3 x 2 Pav 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.60 1.52 ( 1.00 1.53 2.21 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 39.00 kN/m .52 35.19 1.85 Pa3 13.6 x 0.55 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 119.00 2.88 ( 0.55 0.84 -17.6 x 0.00 101.50 0.00 x 1.30 x x x / 1.33 ΣM = Moment 7.33 0.00 68.10 W2 26.70 2.93 0.70 + 17.100 Arm (m) 3.10 1.16 26.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.06 .00 kN/m . the mobilised angle of wall friction.Geoguide 1.50 1.00 = 57.995 = = = = = 1.10 Pwv -11.21 ΣMo ) 57.99 1.10 W3 35.21 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.06 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.00 tan θ = 0.70 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.67 0.15 42.00 2.6 x 1.3 Arm (m) + 1.67 39.run 0.81 Pwh 5.00 = = = = = 1.00 1.59 1.00 1.00 2 = = = = = ΣV= 17.30 2.42 23.

2.30 π 3. Fr = = 35.3 φ'f 30.30 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 39. Eccentricity e = 0.09 = 37.ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 32.Annex B3 page 7 - .46 kN / m 49.82 = L' = B' = 1.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ + q' Nq sq iq tq gq For Bearing Capacity Factors.78 2 2 23.46 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.82 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.46 kN / m Geoguide 1.ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω .240 100 182. Figure 41 Mechanism 2 Sliding along a foundation soil surface Ω= 0.96 ( ( 30.21 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 32.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω .ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 39.ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ . Fr = = 49.3 x x tan tan φ'f 30.240 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.3.3 /2 /2 ) ) .21 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.06 x x 100 100 = = 3946 kN 6806 kN Thus. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 6806 182.3.09 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 39.46 68.38 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult . Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.46 kN / m 35. Figure 41 Mechanism 1 Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ . qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.Step 7 Check Sliding Geoguide 1. Clause 9.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.584 1 1 Nq 18.2.30 = 1.30 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0. Clause 9.

38 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.44 x 1 = 166.4 0.96 x 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.34 kPa qult qmax => > = 37.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 182.5 x 9 x 1. tc = tq 5.44 .94 + 124.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.5 x x kPa 0. all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = equal 1.( 1 1 1 1 - ω 5.23 1 1 1 1 .82 B' x x x / / / 1. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.99 = 432.( 1 1 Ki 0.69 x 23.98 iq mi 1.27 iq 0.82 B' 1.71 tq 5.78 x 1.44 x 1 + x 0.14 ( ( 0.96 0.01 + + + + Nq 18. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 3946 / ( = 0.14 x 5.3 ) ) For Tilt Factors.49 Ki 0.3 ) ) Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o .3 Nc 30.30 x 4.41 + 140.44 tγ 5.82 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 For Inclination Factors.27 0.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.01 => OK! OK! .5 0.23 x 5. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 x 18.01 x + 0.Annex B3 page 8 - .78 B' 1.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.( .98 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.09 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.49 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.78 ) ) x x 2 2 tan tan φ'f 30.01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.( .5 As a result.27 mi + 1 2.99 x 1 x 1.For Shape Factors.44 5.17 x 30.27 x 5. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.82 0. i.3 Nc 30.e.49 + + + + Qn 6806 B' B' 1.82 1.44 tan tan ) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30.82 + + / / / / cf ' 4.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.

Project

:

Design of Gabion Wall
NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex B4

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

3.5m Gabion Wall
Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation)

650 600

600 1100

5

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4

W1 Pav Pa1
Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

2000 1000

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271
o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m
o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah

5 0 3.00 1.00 2.30

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan φ'/γm ))
-1

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85φcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm ))
2

o

kN/m
o

( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

δbf Kp

- Annex B4 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 2.00 Pa3 = 0.271 x 2.00 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.00

x x x x x

3.00 21 21 1.00 1.00

x x x /

2.00 1.00 1.00 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai =

4.06 11.38 11.38 1.49 5.00 33.32 28.32

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, δ is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.00 x

1.10 1.70 2.30 2.30

x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = ΣV=

17.16 26.52 35.88 -11.50 0.00 68.06

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.06 3.00 / 2 Pa2 11.38 2.00 / 3 + 1.00 Pa3 11.38 1.00 / 2 Pa4 1.49 1.00 / 3 Pwh 5.00 1.00 / 3

= = = = =

1.50 1.67 0.50 0.33 0.33 ΣM =

Moment 6.10 18.97 5.69 0.50 1.67 32.92

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 2.3 1.10 W2 26.52 2.3 1.70 W3 35.88 2.3 2.30 Pwv -11.50 2.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.3

Arm (m) / / / /

2 2 2 3

= = = = =

1.75 1.45 1.15 1.53 2.30 ΣM = ΣMr =

Moment 30.03 38.45 41.26 -17.63 0.00 92.11 109.75

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 32.92 + 17.63 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 109.75 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2.3 / 2 - ( 109.75 = 0.280m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 2.3 / 6

-

0.00

=

50.55

kNm/m run

=

ΣMo ) / 50.55 ) / 0.383m >

ΣV 68.06 0.280m OK! OK!

- Annex B4 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 500 W2 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3
Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

2000 1000

W4

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271
o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m
o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah

5 0 3.00 1.00 2.3

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) Back batter, θ = 1 :

10

=

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm ))
2

o

kN/m
o

( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

δbf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 2.00 Pa3 = 0.271 x 2.00 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.00

x x x x x

3.00 21 21 1.00 1.00

x x x /

2.00 1.00 1.00 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai =

4.06 11.38 11.38 1.49 5.00 33.32 28.32

- Annex B4 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, δ is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.00 x

1.10 1.70 2.30 2.95

x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = ΣV=

17.16 26.52 35.88 -11.50 0.00 68.06

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.06 Pa2 11.38 Pa3 11.38 Pa4 1.49 Pwh 5.00 tan θ = 0.100 Arm (m) 3.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.00 = = = = = 1.50 1.67 0.50 0.33 0.33 ΣM = Moment 6.10 18.97 5.69 0.50 1.67 32.92

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 ( 2.50 x 0.10 W2 26.52 ( 1.50 x 0.10 W3 35.88 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -11.50 ( 2.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.3

Arm (m) + 1.750 ) + 1.450 ) + 1.150 ) / 3 )

x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = =

1.99 1.59 1.19 1.53 2.30 ΣM = ΣMr =

Moment 34.13 42.20 42.83 -17.55 0.00 101.62 119.16

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 32.92 + 17.55 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 119.16 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2.3 / 2 - ( 119.16 = 0.141m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 2.3 / 6

-

0.00

=

50.47

kNm/m run

=

ΣMo ) / 50.47 ) / 0.383m >

ΣV 68.06 0.141m OK! OK!

- Annex B4 page 4 -

3 o o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan δb/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.00 0.3. W2.W. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. Table 6.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex B5 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 3. clause 5.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 2.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.4.3.) .5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.2 30.3 4.Annex B5 page 1 - .2 30. clause 4. Pa3.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.67 1. Table 6.4 (= 0. W3.70 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.4. clause 6. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.6 Fig.12 Geoguide 1.5m above foundation) Reference 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.6 0. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock. clause 4.5m above foundation) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Toe Pwv W1.9 1.2 24. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.1 3.

29 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.67 / 3 = = = = = 1.00 1.16 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.33 / 3 + 0.42 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 42.00 38.330 x 1.54 -6.70 1.22 18.16 0.81 2.84 2.16 6.52 -5.01 .00 / 2 Pa2 6.67 / 2 Pa4 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.05 0.22 0.00 = 19.00 1.13 1.Annex B5 page 2 - .30 6.49 12.run W1 = 26 x 0.330 x 1.42 0.85 42.7 Arm (m) / / / 2 2 3 = = = = 1.73 22.16 1. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.67 x x x x x 2.64 16.33 0. δ is taken as 0.28 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.00 kN/m .33 Pa4 = 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.28 ΣMo ) 19.330 x 5.00 1.10 1.30 6. Clause 5.11 0.67 x Pav = 0.7 = 0.18 0.00 Pa2 = 0.7 1.81 0.00 2 = = = = ΣV= 17.86 + 6.42 Geoguide 1.67 1.run) Pa1 = 0.67 0.22 ΣM = Moment 3. Thus.52 1.16 1.01 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.245m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .22 0.28 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 12.00 35.67 x x x / 1.7 1.67 0.70 x x / 1.( 42. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.2.15 0.70 Pwv -5.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.30 2.16 26.67 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 3.67 Pa3 6.67 / 3 Pwh 2.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .11.33 Pa3 = 0.00 1. of wall + water uplift kN/m .10 W2 26.70 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 19.85 1.7 x 2 Pav 0.29 ) / / ΣV 38.67 0.86 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.33 0.run Step 3 Wt.00 21 21 0.

Eccentricity e = 0.21 B' 1. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 3801.78 2 2 23.64 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 38.3 Nc 30.78 B' 1.96 0.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.70 = 1.21 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .584 1 1 Nq 18.14 Nq 18.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 38. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.21 B' x x x / / / 1.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.64 38.96 ( ( 30. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.30 π 3.96 = 31. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.01 x 0.01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 1.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors.01 + + + + Nq 18.33 = / 120.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.21 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.3 For Shape Factors.3 x x φ'f 30.01 kN / m ΣH = 18.245 100 120.58 = 22.3 /2 /2 ) ) tan tan φ'f 30.43 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .245 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.Annex B5 page 3 - .4 0.96 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 18.18 kN/m run > => OK! Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 18.21 = L' = B' = 1.01 x x 100 100 = = 1864 kN 3801 kN Thus. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.64 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0.

94 kPa qult qmax => > = 31.36 mi + 1 2.22 x 1 x 1 + x 0.5 0.21 + + / / / / cf ' 4.01 x + 0.00 x 1 x 1.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 120.49 + 31.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 1864 / ( = 0.01 => OK! OK! .17 = 100.30 x 4.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.33 1 1 1 1 .22 ( ( 0.36 iq 0.17 x 30.e.78 x 1.40 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.99 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.21 1.5 x 18. 1 gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.For Inclination Factors. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.29 + 27.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 x 9 x 1. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.33 x 1 x 23.( .3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.96 x 1.96 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30. all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = tγ = equal 1.3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o .21 0.5 As a result.40 Ki 0.Annex B5 page 4 - .40 + + + + Qn 3801 B' B' 1.99 iq mi 1. i.36 0.36 x 1 x 1 = 42.43 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.

5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 500 W2 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 W3 W4 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Toe Pwv W1.81 2.30 6.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.00 Pa2 = 0.67 x x x x x 2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.run) Pa1 = 0. Table 6.12 Geoguide 1.4.3 4. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.330 x 1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 2.67 x x x / 1. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2.3.16 6. W2.Annex B5 page 5 - .00 0.67 0.2 24. clause 4.330 x 1.70 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.3 o o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R. W3.330 Back batter.2 30.) Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0. clause 5.67 0.4. Table 6. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.330 x 5.42 .10 φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.33 Pa4 = 0.6 0. clause 6.2 30.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.W.6 Fig. Pa3.00 21 21 0.64 16.2.4 (= 0.33 Pa3 = 0.16 0.67 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 3. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.22 18. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.1 3.3. clause 4.9 1.67 1. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.33 0. θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.

49 12.00 1.16 26. δ is taken as 0.84 2.10 1.95 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.Geoguide 1.56 45.67 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.70 x x / 1.7 Arm (m) + 1.7 x 2 Pav 0.67 0.11 0.01 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.7 = 0.( 45.00 1. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption. Clause 5.70 1.81 Pwh 2.00 1.30 6.22 0.67 = = = = = 1.13 1. of wall + water uplift kN/m .33 0.850 ) / 3) x x x 0.75 -6.11. Thus.20 23.00 39.95 ΣMo ) 19.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.22 tan θ = 0.67 x Pav = 0.39 0.00 1.run Step 3 Wt.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.50 x 0.86 + 6.67 0.00 1.00 kN/m .90 1.70 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 22.100 Arm (m) 2.995 0.00 2 = = = = ΣV= 17.22 ΣM = Moment 3.33 0.995 = = = = 1.95 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 12.50 x 0.25 ) / / ΣV 38.67 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.00 38.52 -5.150 ) + 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.148m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .86 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.01 .10 W2 26.29 0.39 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 45.16 ( 1.2.run W1 = 26 x 0.10 Pwv -5.52 ( 0.05 0.16 Pa3 6.16 Pa4 0.67 ( 1.995 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.Annex B5 page 6 - .30 Pa2 6.00 = 19.25 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.18 0.

Fr = = 19.ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ .40 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.75 kN / m 19. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.01 x x 100 100 = = 1864 kN 3801 kN Thus.3. Figure 41 Mechanism 2 Sliding along a foundation soil surface Ω= 0.3 x x tan tan φ'f 30. Fr = = 29.26 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 18.30 π 3.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ( ( 30.85 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 14. Clause 9.26 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.78 2 2 23.85 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.148 100 140. Clause 9.Annex B5 page 7 - .00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω . Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 3801 140.40 = L' = B' = 1.70 = 1.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0.2.14 Nq 18.148 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.64 kN / m 29.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ + q' Nq sq iq tq gq For Bearing Capacity Factors. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.3.64 38. Figure 41 Mechanism 1 Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ .Step 7 Check Sliding Geoguide 1.44 = 27.44 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 18. Eccentricity e = 0.ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 18.ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 14.07 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .2.3 /2 /2 ) ) .785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.64 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω .75 kN / m Geoguide 1.3 φ'f 30.

5 0.3 ) ) For Tilt Factors.99 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.5 x 9 x 1.01 + + + + Nq 18.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 1864 / ( = 0.39 Ki 0.39 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.30 x 4.44 tγ 5.34 x 5.78 + 176.01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.38 mi + 1 2.40 1.38 x 5.46 = 612. tc = tq 5.44 5.71 tq 5.40 B' x x x / / / 1.78 x 1.99 iq mi 1.78 B' 1.Annex B5 page 8 - .91 + 183.23 ( ( 0.For Shape Factors.( .78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.01 => OK! OK! .44 tan tan ) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.3 Nc 30. all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = equal 1.40 0.40 B' 1.( . sc = 1 = 1 = 1.44 .5 x 18.01 x + 0.23 x 5.96 x 0.78 ) ) x x 2 2 tan tan φ'f 30.( 1 1 Ki 0. i.39 + + + + Qn 3801 B' B' 1.40 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 For Inclination Factors.69 x 23.96 0.44 x 1 = 251.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.99 x 1 x 1.3 ) ) Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o . Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.17 x 30.5 x x kPa 0.3 Nc 30.e.38 iq 0.5 As a result.44 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.38 0.40 + + / / / / cf ' 4.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 140.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.14 kPa qult qmax => > = 27.( 1 1 1 1 - ω 5.34 1 1 1 1 .4 0.07 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.44 x 1 + x 0.

W3. clause 6. W2. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) kN/m2 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.12 Geoguide 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.9 1 35.Annex B6 page 1 - .271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 2.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.3. Table 6.W. Pa3.0 30 0.0 5.4. Table 6.00 0. clause 5. clause 4.6 Fig. clause 4.5m above foundation) Reference 1.9 3.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.6 0.70 kN/m m m m 2 Surcharge at the wall Height of R. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2.5m above foundation) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Toe Pwv W1.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex B6 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 3.67 1. 19 δbf Kp .85φcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.4.3. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.0 28. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.

Table 14 = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 2.00 = 17.67 0.16 1.67 / 2 Pa4 0.run) Pa1 = 0.( 42.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.85 1.06 1.00 Pa2 = 0.15 0.00 38.13 1.00 kN/m .71 2.67 0.62 1.06 5.49 10.28 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.71 13.run W1 = 26 x 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.08 ) / 0.67 1.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.67 x x x / 1.71 5. B/6 = 1.66 2.67 Pa3 5.run Step 3 Wt.01 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.22 0.73 22.67 / 3 Pwh 2.15 0.00 1.33 0.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .2.271 x 5.00 1.11.22 ΣM = Moment 2.00 1.7 Arm (m) / / / 2 2 3 = = = = 1.67 0.10 1.10 W2 26.08 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 17.16 26.00 21 21 0.7 / 6 - 0.67 2 / / 2 2 Pah = Geoguide 1.33 Pa3 = 0.06 0.11 0.66 + 6.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.Annex B6 page 2 - .70 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 19.33 / 3 + 0.42 0.52 -5.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 10.66 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .00 / 2 Pa2 5.06 0.70 1.00 1.54 -6. Clause 5. Thus.283m > ΣV 38.187m OK! OK! .70 x x / 1.7 1.28 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9. the mobilised angle of wall friction.66 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.00 35.271 x 1.7 1.2.70 Pwv -5.22 0.52 1.69 0.7 / 2 . δ is taken as 0.271 x 1.33 Pa4 = 0.22 15.33 0.71 5.67 x x x x x 2.67 / 3 = = = = = 1.00 2 = = = = ΣV= 17.01 0.49 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.67 x Pav = 0.7 x 2 Pav 0.187m By Middle-third Rule.42 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 42.28 = 0.85 42.

10 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.67 x x x / 1.22 15.33 Pa3 = 0. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.71 13.67 x x x x x 2. θ = 1 : 10 = 0.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 2.67 1.271 x 5.6 0.67 0.271 x 1.W. 19 δbf Kp Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .4.67 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 2.4.6 Fig.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.Annex B6 page 3 - . clause 6.67 0.7 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.00 Pa2 = 0. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2.run) Pa1 = 0. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.0 30 0.33 0.0 28.271 x 1.9 1 35.9 3.71 5. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.3. Table 6. W3. Pa3. clause 4.66 2. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. clause 4.0 5.3.00 21 21 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.12 Geoguide 1. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35. W2. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) Back batter.06 5.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 500 W2 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 W3 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh W4 Toe Pwv W1.00 0.06 0. clause 5.2.49 . Table 6.33 Pa4 = 0.

150 ) + 0.05 ) / 0.39 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.run W1 = 26 x 0. δ is taken as 0.70 2.71 5.16 26.71 Pa2 5.22 ΣM = Moment 2.995 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.283m > ΣV 38.22 0.2.50 x 0.Annex B6 page 4 - .67 x Pav = 0.00 1.06 Pa4 0.66 Pwh 2.90 1.50 x 0.69 0.7 / 6 - 0.10 1.33 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .93 = 0.( 45.11 0.67 0.850 ) / 3 ) x x x 0.00 1.100 Arm (m) 2.7 / 2 .66 + 6.00 2 = = = = ΣV= 17.run Step 3 Wt.995 0.39 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 45.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 = = = = = 1.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 10.7 Arm (m) + 1. Clause 5.93 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.090m By Middle-third Rule.62 1.13 1.66 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.10 Pwv -5.090m OK! OK! .2.52 ( 0.06 Pa3 5.33 0.05 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 17.01 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.00 1.7 x 2 Pav 0.29 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.52 -5.00 = 17. Thus.Geoguide 1.10 W2 26.22 tan θ = 0.00 1.18 23.67 ( 1.11.93 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.95 x x / 1.15 0. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.67 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.74 -6.67 0.995 = = = = 1.70 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 22.00 39.00 38.00 1.67 0.00 kN/m .49 10. B/6 = 1.16 ( 1.01 0.54 45.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.

3 4. clause 6.4.00 0.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.12 Geoguide 1.4.2 30. clause 4.1 3. Table 6.2 30.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 1. W3.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.W. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.6 0.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. clause 4.10 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.4 (= 0. W2.5m above foundation) Reference 1.6 Fig.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex B7 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 3. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.33 1.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 2. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.Annex B7 page 1 - . Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 2.2 24.3 o o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.) .9 1. clause 5.3.5m above foundation) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 Toe Pwv W1.3.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan δb/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1. Pa3. Table 6. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2.

1 x 2 Pav 0.50 0.00 Pa2 = 0.33 0.54 0.33 x Pav = 0.00 kN/m .44 ΣMo ) 3. δ is taken as 0.11.83 1.2.00 2 = = = ΣV= 17.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .1 Arm (m) / / 2 3 = = = 0.11 0.65 1.154m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.09 9.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1.17 0.36 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.( 9.44 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.00 15.20 0.82 0.34 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 9.06 2. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.10 Pwv -1.33 / 2 Pa4 0.55 0.00 / 2 Pa2 1.1 = 0.00 1.36 / ) / ΣV 15.02 0.run W1 = 26 x 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.33 0.00 1. Clause 5.00 = 3.93 Geoguide 1.330 x 0.20 0.33 Pa3 1.56 0.73 1.33 x x x / 0.33 / 3 Pwh 0. Thus.54 1.run) Pa1 = 0.10 1.44 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 2.33 / 3 = = = = = 0.34 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .11 ΣM = Moment 0.33 .1 1.67 Pa4 = 0.Annex B7 page 2 - .10 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 9.16 1.54 0.33 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.65 1.02 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.83 0.67 0.00 8.10 x / 1.67 / 3 + 0.26 0.56 0.330 x 5.330 x 0.02 + 1.44 -1.86 0.56 5.run Step 3 Wt.48 4.33 x x x x x 1.67 Pa3 = 0.16 -1.00 21 21 0.54 0.

Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.584 1 1 Nq 18.79 = L' = B' = 0.3 x x φ'f 30.154 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.33 kN / m ΣH = 5.25 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 5.00 + + + + Nq 18.Annex B7 page 3 - .33 x x 100 100 = = 548 kN 1533 kN Thus. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 1532.58 = 8.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.30 π 3.48 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.78 2 2 23.154 100 79.33 x 0.96 0.78 B' 0.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.94 kN/m run > => OK! Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 5. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.10 = 0.14 Nq 18. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.3 Nc 30.79 B' x x x / / / 0.00 sγ = 1 = 1 = 1.79 B' 0.3 /2 /2 ) ) tan tan φ'f 30.4 0.48 15. Eccentricity e = 0.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.79 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .25 = 19.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 15.79 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.96 ( ( 30.3 For Shape Factors.34 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0.48 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 15.67 = / 79. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.

mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.79 0.5 x 18.( .99 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.26 Ki 0.For Inclination Factors.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0. 1 gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.26 - ) ) ) ) iq 0. all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = tγ = equal 1.30 x 4.96 x 1.58 kPa qult qmax => > = 19.99 iq mi 1.3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o .40 ( ( 0.00 x + 0.17 x 30.26 + + + + Qn 1533 B' B' 0.00 => OK! OK! .Annex B7 page 4 - .78 x 1.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 79.00 x 1 x 1.52 1 1 1 1 .55 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.e.88 = 147.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.24 + 33. i.55 iq 0.5 x 9 x 0.25 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.55 x 1 x 1 = 67.40 x 1 x 1 + x 0.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.55 mi + 1 2.5 As a result.46 + 46.5 0.34 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.79 0.5 x x kPa 0.52 x 1 x 23.79 + + / / / / cf ' 4.

Table 6.330 x 5.Annex B7 page 5 - .2 24.56 5.4 (= 0.3. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.4.67 Pa4 = 0.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. clause 6.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.93 .3.00 0.3 o o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.65 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 2.330 x 0.10 φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0. clause 4. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.33 x x x x x 1. clause 5.4. W2.10 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1. W3.00 Pa2 = 0.33 0.48 4.6 0.67 Pa3 = 0.00 21 21 0.54 1.33 1. Table 6. Pa3.33 x x x / 0.67 0. θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.6 Fig.12 Geoguide 1.W.33 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 500 W2 W3 W4 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 Toe Pwv W1. clause 4.2 30.2 30. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 1.1 3. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.) Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1.330 x 0. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.3 4.run) Pa1 = 0.20 0.2.9 1.54 0.330 Back batter.

101m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .00 2 = = = ΣV= 17.10 Pwv -1.33 0.run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.16 -1.33 .1 x 2 Pav 0. Clause 5. Thus.995 = = = 0.00 = 3.16 ( 0.33 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .56 0.33 = = = = = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.Annex B7 page 6 - .67 0.run Step 3 Wt.00 1.24 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr - 0.00 kN/m .60 0.73 1.1 = 0.11.11 0. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.06 2.36 / ) / ΣV 15.56 tan θ = 0.1 Arm (m) + 0.17 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 1.24 -1.54 Pa3 1.20 Pwh 0.2.65 Pa2 1.11 ΣM = Moment 0.33 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.00 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.550 ) / 3) x x 0.10 1.02 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.50 x 0.10 x / 1.( 10.50 0.34 0.33 x Pav = 0.83 0.24 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 2.00 8. δ is taken as 0.26 0.36 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.00 15.34 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 10.24 ΣMo ) 3.02 + 1.91 10.Geoguide 1.995 0.10 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 10.100 Arm (m) 1.83 ( 1.02 0.54 Pa4 0.82 0.86 0.

Figure 41 Mechanism 2 Sliding along a foundation soil surface Ω= 0.12 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 3.14 Nq 18.Step 7 Check Sliding Geoguide 1.48 15.33 x x 100 100 = = 548 kN 1533 kN Thus.53 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.96 ( ( 30. Figure 41 Mechanism 1 Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ .ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ . Clause 9.3. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.Annex B7 page 7 - .12 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.53 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 5.90 = L' = B' = 0. Fr = = 13.92 kN / m Geoguide 1. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.87 = 17.30 π 3.3 φ'f 30.3.87 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 5.3 x x tan tan φ'f 30. Clause 9.90 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ + q' Nq sq iq tq gq For Bearing Capacity Factors. Fr = = 8.ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 3. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 1533 89.101 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.2.78 2 2 23.584 1 1 Nq 18. Eccentricity e = 0.3 /2 /2 ) ) .785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.05 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .92 kN / m 8.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω .2.101 100 89.48 kN / m 13.48 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 5.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0.10 = 0.ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω .

5 As a result.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.01 + + + + Nq 18.25 Ki 0. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.25 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.5 x 9 x 0.25 + + + + Qn 1533 B' B' 0.56 mi + 1 2.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.90 B' 0.44 .44 5.69 x 23.42 x 5.For Shape Factors.3 Nc 30.54 = 868.90 B' x x x / / / 0.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.42 ( ( 0. i. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.56 iq 0.01 => OK! OK! .90 0.01 x + 0.4 0.44 tan tan ) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30.96 x 1.Annex B7 page 8 - .01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 1.90 0.78 ) ) x x 2 2 tan tan φ'f 30.( .18 + 214.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.96 0.00 x 1 x 1.44 tγ 5.5 x x kPa 0.17 x 30. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.( 1 1 Ki 0.87 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.54 x 5.30 x 4.56 x 5.99 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.71 tq 5.3 ) ) Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o .44 x 1 + x 0. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.04 + 261.3 Nc 30.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.90 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 For Inclination Factors.5 x 18.( .05 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.e.78 x 1.56 0.78 B' 0.( 1 1 1 1 - ω 5.5 0.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.76 kPa qult qmax => > = 17.90 + + / / / / cf ' 4.54 1 1 1 1 . tc = tq 5. all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = equal 1.3 ) ) For Tilt Factors.99 iq mi 1.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 89.44 x 1 = 393.

19 δbf Kp .3. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 2.3. W2. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.5m above foundation) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 Toe Pwv W1. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.5m above foundation) Reference 1.6 0.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex B8 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 3. Pa3. clause 4.00 0. clause 5. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2.9 3.6 Fig.0 28. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.33 1.10 kN/m m m m 2 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.85φcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.4. clause 6.W.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 1.Annex B8 page 1 - .5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 2. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) kN/m2 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.0 30 0. W3. clause 4.12 Geoguide 1. Table 6. Table 6.4.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.0 5.9 1 35. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.

67 Pa4 = 0.17 0.70 0.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = Geoguide 1.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.44 = 0.17 0.83 0. B/6 = 1.10 1.run W1 = 26 x 0.131m OK! OK! .33 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.09 9.00 1.34 0.33 / 2 Pa4 0.1 1.44 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.11.16 -1.83 1.26 0.1 / 2 .33 0.131m By Middle-third Rule.34 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 9.33 / 3 Pwh 0.21 0.00 8.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 1.00 kN/m .1 / 6 - 0. δ is taken as 0. Table 14 = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1.02 0.56 0.67 0.33 0.1 Arm (m) / / 2 3 = = = 0.35 1.33 Pa3 1.67 Pa3 = 0.16 1.05 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.run Step 3 Wt.10 Pwv -1.67 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.33 x x x / 0.61 4.44 -1.02 0. Thus.00 2 = = = ΣV= 17.35 1.33 / 3 = = = = = 0.11 ΣM = Moment 0.50 0.( 9.06 1.00 21 21 0.00 = 3.33 x x x x x 1.26 0.1 x 2 Pav 0.26 1. Clause 5.44 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.run) Pa1 = 0.2.00 Pa2 = 0.55 0.56 4.17 0.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .10 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 9. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.271 x 5.67 / 3 + 0.00 15.271 x 0.183m / ) / > ΣV 15.73 1.33 0.00 / 2 Pa2 1. the mobilised angle of wall friction.02 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) 3.00 1.10 x / 1.26 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .11 0.2.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.271 x 0.68 0.67 + 1.56 0.Annex B8 page 2 - .33 x Pav = 0.

33 x x x x x 1.67 Pa4 = 0. W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2. Table 6.9 1 35. W2.3. Pa3. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) Back batter.56 4.33 1. clause 5.3.67 Pa3 = 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa 1000 1000 1000 500 W2 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 Insitu soil W4 Toe Pwv W1.0 5.00 Pa2 = 0. W3.271 x 0.00 0. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1.35 1.run) Pa1 = 0.00 21 21 0.05 .271 x 0.4. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 2. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.0 28.9 3.12 Geoguide 1.26 1.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.17 0. Table 6.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.6 0. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.10 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. clause 4.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.67 0.Annex B8 page 3 - .33 0. clause 4.0 30 0.6 Fig.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 1. θ = 1 : 10 = 0.2.33 0.26 0.4.33 x x x / 0.61 4.271 x 5. clause 6. 19 δbf Kp Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .W.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.1 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.

the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 = 3.00 8.83 ( 1. B/6 = 1.33 0.078m By Middle-third Rule.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 1.67 0.1 x 2 Pav 0.run Step 3 Wt.183m / ) / > ΣV 15.26 Pa4 0.33 = = = = = 0.33 0.00 1.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.50 x 0.56 0. Thus.17 Pwh 0.33 x Pav = 0.34 0.00 0.68 0.67 + 1.90 10.10 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 10.60 0.100 Arm (m) 1.16 ( 0.995 = = = 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .Geoguide 1.67 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.2.run W1 = 26 x 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.550 ) / 3 ) x x 0.02 0.73 1.33 0.24 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.10 Pwv -1.24 = 0.11 ΣM = Moment 0.10 2.078m OK! OK! .00 2 = = = ΣV= 17.21 0.83 0.06 1.00 15.00 1.17 0.1 / 2 .16 -1.50 0. δ is taken as 0.35 Pa2 1.( 10.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.995 0.34 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 10.01 0.70 0.Annex B8 page 4 - . Clause 5.2. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.56 tan θ = 0.95 x / 1.01 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) 3.1 Arm (m) + 0.00 kN/m .1 / 6 - 0.26 Pa3 1.24 -1.11.11 0.33 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.24 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.

5.5.e. top and sides should be formed from a piece of mesh. (vi) The mesh can stretch or contract in two directions in its own plane and thus a rectangular wire-mesh basket filled with rock fragments can deform in any direction. 9. (ix) For hexagonal wire-mesh the wires should be galvanized to BS 443 (BSI. 1986b). (iv) The edges of the mesh should be selvaged with wires of a diameter of about 1. The making of panels with galvanized wires welded together is not recommended as the welds are left unprotected.5mm thick and should meet the requirements of BS 4102 (BSI.3 (1) & Fig. 9. with a minimum tensile strength of 350 N/mm 2 . the mesh panels should be hot dip galvanized to BS 729 (BSI.Project : Design of 2.7mm in diameter and galvanized. (ii) They should be in form of hexagonal woven or square welded. Design Data (I) Materials (A) Requirements Geoguide 1 Para. 1990b) before weaving.3 (1) Infill material (i) Maximum size of rock should not exceed two-thirds the depth of the gabion to be filled or 300mm . PVC (polyvinylchloride) coating should be provided to the wires. The PVC coating should be at least 0. (viii) The wires should be at least 2.5m Gabion Wall Design Statement Reference Remarks Design of 2. The ends and diaphragms can be attached to this mesh by helical wires or other methods. (iii) Hexagonal woven wire mesh is mechanically woven in a continuous sheet.5m Gabion Wall Annex C Prepared by Checked by Subject : : : NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Design of 2. (vii) The wires used for the wire mesh should be mild steel wire to BS 1052 (BSI. 47 (v) The gabion base.5 times that of the wire-mesh to prevent unravelling. (x) For welded mesh. 9. whichever is less. (ii) The preferred size is 150mm to 300mm . Geoguide 1 Para. (xi) If the soil and water conditions are aggressive. 'double-twisted' to form the mesh. The smallest dimension of the rock should at least be twice the largest dimension of the mesh aperture . The wires should be twisted together in pairs through three half turns.5. Geoguide 1 Para.3 (1) Gabion Materials (i) They should not be susceptible to attack by fire and ultraviolet light. i.Annex C page 1 - .5m Gabion Wall Design Statement 1. . 1991c). 1986c) after welding.

2 (1) Specific gravity of the rock.6 0. . φ' = = = 21 kN/m3 0 kPa 35 o = = = 19 kN/m3 5 kPa 35 o (II) Loadings Dead loads Self weight of the proposed protection wall. c' (c) Effective friction angle.81 kN/m3. Gs Porosity of the infill Mobilized angle of wall friction.2 and Table 16 5kPa surcharge was assumed on the land side.5.2. δ = = = 2. Mesh Size 8cm x 10cm x 2. Imposed load Geoguide 1 Para.7mm Size of Infill Material = 250mm Refer to Annex E Maccaferri Gabions Critical Velocity for water flow = 6.0 Backfilling Material behind the existing wall The properties of backfilling material are assumed to be Geoguide 1 Table 8 (a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength.Annex C page 2 - . 9. The groundwater level behind the proposed gabion wall is assumed to be one-third of the retaining height. 7.5. cycle tracks and play areas) (III) Water level of the pond It is assumed that the most critical situation should be when the channel is completely dry. φ' Insitu Soil beneath the wall (foundation material) The properties of insitu soil are assumed to be (a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength.1 The gabions are in modules of 2m x 1m x 1m. The unit weight of water was taken as 9.4 0.(B) Assumptions Gabion and Infill Materials Block Size Geoguide 1 Para. earth pressure and hydrostatic pressure are taken to be dead load for design. (Footpaths isolated from roads. which is taken to be the design case. c' (c) Effective friction angle.4 m/s Parameter Geoguide 1 Para. 9.

The minimum factors of safety recommended in Geoguide 1 are adopted.5m Gabion Wall . hence active state pressure is assumed and compaction-induced lateral pressure is not considered. clause 4. Checking the Stability of the Protection Wall 2. For stepped walls.5. clause 9.Annex C page 3 - . Second Edition.Guide to Retaining Wall Design. Design Reference and Codes Design Code 1. Per meter run of the proposed retaining walls is considered for simplicity. Table 20 and Figure 13 Proposed retaining walls have no restraint against translation and rotation about the base.2 Limit state checks would be carried out at selected planes through the gabion wall. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993). ignoring the resistance contributed by the cage material and the connections between the cages.2.Geoguide 1 Para. 6. 2. Table 6 and Table 7 Partial safety factor approach stipulated under Geoguide 1. Geoguide 1 . Design Methodology In accordance with Geoguide 1.4. the structures would be designed for both the ultimate limit state (ULS) and the serviceability limit state (SLS). 3. Geoguide 1.4 is adopted.2. stability checks would be carried out at each major change in section shape. clause 4.3. Geoguide 1.3.

. 1 Step 6 1.5 m m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! Serviceability Limit Statement (SLS) Refer to Annex C2. 1 Step 7 2. Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity [OK if the resultant force acts within the middle third of the wall base] Height of Toe above foundation 0. C3.0 0.5 m m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! Refer to Annex C1. C3.Ultimate Limit Statement (ULS) Refer to Annex C1.0 0. C4. please refer to the Appendix C1 to C6.5 m m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! Refer to Annex C1. Checking Overturning [OK if restoring moment > overturning moment] Height of Toe above foundation 0. & C5 para.0 0. & C5 para.5 1.5 m m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! For details of calculations. Checking Sliding [OK if resisting force > sliding force] Height of Toe above foundation 0. 1 Step 6 1. & C6 para.5 1. 1 Step 8 3. C3.Annex C page 4 - . & C5 para.0 0.5 1. Checking Bearing Capacity [OK if bearing capacity > bearing pressure] Height of Toe above foundation 0.5 1.

Drainage provisions Geoguide 1 para. (iv) Whenever possible. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993). Second Edition.5 (i) A geotextile filter would be provided under the base and behind the rear face of the gabion wall to prevent migration of fines from the backfill into the coarse rock infill.Guide to Retaining Wall Design.5. References 1.Construction Aspects Geoguide 1 Para. (ii) Drainage layers at the rear face are normally not warranted. 9. (iii) The mesh of the lids should be tied down to the tops of any diaphragms provided. the vertical joints between the units should be staggered in adjacent courses.Annex C page 5 - . without leaving any gaps. Geoguide 1 . However. Geoguide 1 . as well as to the tops of the sides and ends. (ii) The lids of the gabions should meet the top edges of the sides and ends when closed. 9.4 (i) Horizontal internal bracing wires should be fitted between the outer and inner faces at about 300mm centres in woven mesh gabions which are deeper than 500mm.5. a drainage layer of adequate permeability would be provided at the base of the wall to guard against erosion of the foundation material.

W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2. clause 4. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1. Table 6.3.3. W2.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.83 2.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1.50 0. clause 6. clause 5. Pa3.4 (= 0.Annex C1 page 1 - .4.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.6 0. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.3 4.W.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan δb/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) o kN/m2 o Geoguide 1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock. clause 4. Table 6.2 24.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 2.3 o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.6 Fig.1 3.2 30.12 Geoguide 1.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex C1 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 2.00 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m o φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.9 1.) .2 30. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) 500 500 1000 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 500 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1667 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 833 Toe Pwv W1.4.

60 2 1. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.67 Pa4 = 0.Annex C1 page 2 - .00 0.6 x 0. δ is taken as 0.00 x x x / 1.00 1.50 2 = = = = = ΣV= 15.95 ) / / ΣV 93.2.96 23.62 1.11 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 115.25 1.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .01 0.83 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 4.83 / 3 Pwh 3.00 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 23.50 2.33 2 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.40 -8.26 0.50 21 21 0.05 ΣMo ) 34.00 Pa2 = 0.00 2 Arm (m) / / / / 2 2 2 3 = = = = = 1.83 Pa3 9.00 = 34.33 0.00 kN/m .00 Pwv -8.07 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.83 x 1.40 2 2.83 0.run Step 3 Wt.33 2.00 93.62 Geoguide 1.07 .35 0.00 1.330 x 5. Clause 5.95 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2 = 0.39 0.6 x 0.60 23.67 Pa3 = 0.00 kN/m .run 0.40 62.25 1.( 115.67 0.6 x 0.62 9.12 9.83 x x x x x 2.00 103.330 x 1.139m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .83 / 3 = = = = = 1.15 13. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.40 29.40 2 1.67 / 3 + 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.50 1. the mobilised angle of wall friction.42 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.25 62.05 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 23.11.84 + 11.11 0.330 x 1.62 1.50 W3 62.00 1.05 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.28 0.83 x x x / 1.run) Pa1 = 0.26 3.50 / 2 Pa2 9.84 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.40 -11.09 24.94 115.36 4.62 0.12 2.47 0.00 W2 23. Thus.28 ΣM = Moment 5.83 0.83 / 2 Pa4 1.47 28.

30 π 3.07 x x 100 100 = = 2809 kN 9307 kN Thus.96 ( ( 30. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.3 Nc 30.72 B' x x x / / / 1.139 100 172.01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.06 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .96 0.58 = 54.4 0. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.07 kN / m ΣH = 28.78 B' 1.3 /2 /2 ) ) tan tan φ'f 30. Eccentricity e = 0.01 + + + + Nq 18. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.14 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 28.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 93.72 = L' = B' = 1.09 93.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.09 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.67 = / 172.Annex C1 page 3 - .99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.14 Nq 18.72 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .14 = 54.00 = 1.09 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 93.07 x 0.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 9306.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors.72 B' 1.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.3 x x φ'f 30.78 2 2 23.72 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.3 For Shape Factors. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0.30 kN/m run > => OK! Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 28.139 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.584 1 1 Nq 18.

98 Ki = Qs / ( = 2809 / ( = 0.06 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 172.01 => OK! OK! . Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.78 x 1.For Inclination Factors.5 As a result.40 x 1 x 1 + x 0.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.5 0.72 + + / / / / cf ' 4.( .5 x 18.54 x 1 x 1 = 66.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.27 Ki 0.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.27 + + + + Qn 9307 B' B' 1.99 x 1 x 1.52 1 1 1 1 .17 x 30.72 0.98 iq mi 1.76 + 71.05 + 46.41 kPa qult qmax => > = 54.98 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.52 x 1 x 23.Annex C1 page 5 - .72 1.01 x + 0.30 x 4. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o .e.( 1 1 Ki 0.59 = 184. i.40 ( ( 0.14 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.54 iq 0.96 x 0.5 x x kPa 0.54 mi + 1 2.27 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.54 0.5 x 9 x 1. all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = tγ = equal 1. 1 gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.

00 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.62 .67 Pa3 = 0.3.83 0.3 4. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 2. clause 4.62 9.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.9 1. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.50 21 21 0.330 x 5.83 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 4. clause 6.330 Back batter.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0. W2.3 o o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m3 kN/m o 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2.6 Fig.47 28. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.12 Geoguide 1.83 2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 500 500 1000 5 kPa 1000 1000 500 W2 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 1667 833 Toe Pwv W1.4 (= 0.09 24.4.330 x 1.62 1.3.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 1.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) o kN/m2 o Geoguide 1.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.00 Pa2 = 0.2.67 0.83 x x x x x 2.run) Pa1 = 0. Table 6.50 0. Pa3.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.10 φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.4.1 3.2 30.Annex C1 page 6 - .26 3.2 30.83 x x x / 1.83 0.6 0.) Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m . clause 4.2 24.W. clause 5. θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.12 9. Table 6. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.

Annex C1 page 7 - .28 0.62 Pa4 1.000 ) / 3) x x x x 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.500 ) + 1.83 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.6 x 0.27 .39 0.83 x 1.run Step 3 Wt.26 Pwh 3.01 0.10 Pwv -8.33 0.89 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2 = 0.10 W3 15.00 62.40 ( 1.995 0.run 0.27 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.00 kN/m .Geoguide 1. Clause 5.60 23.33 2.25 1.69 1.00 0.06 0.39 31.40 15.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.34 1.83 = = = = = 1.00 = 34.00 2.73 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.73 ΣMo ) 34.100 Arm (m) 2.00 x 0.67 0.12 Pa2 9.60 ( 2.83 0.42 0.68 73.2.995 = = = = = 1.73 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 23.10 W2 23.06 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 73.60 -8.250 ) + 1.84 + 11.995 0.02 1.11.91 -11.47 tan θ = 0.89 ) / / ΣV 46.00 1.33 ( 2 x 2 Pav 0.96 23.84 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.28 ΣM = Moment 5.60 ( 0.15 13.43 15.50 2 = = = = = ΣV= 15.35 0.50 2.25 x 0.00 1.50 1. δ is taken as 0.00 x x x / 1.995 0.00 kN/m .00 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 26.00 2 Arm (m) + 1.6 x 0.00 46.62 Pa3 9.6 x 0.36 4. the mobilised angle of wall friction. Thus.83 0.161m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .( 73.00 x 0.

78 2 2 23.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.09 46.56 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 23.33 kN / m Geoguide 1. Clause 9.68 = L' = B' = 1. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.161 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.33 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.09 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.96 ( ( 30.30 π 3.3 x x tan tan φ'f 30. Figure 41 Mechanism 2 Sliding along a foundation soil surface Ω= 0.3 /2 /2 ) ) . Fr = = 35.68 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.14 Nq 18. Clause 9.ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 28.ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ .33 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 28. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 4627 167.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0.3 φ'f 30.90 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 28.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.33 kN / m 23. Figure 41 Mechanism 1 Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ .Annex C1 page 8 - . Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω . Fr = = 23.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ + q' Nq sq iq tq gq For Bearing Capacity Factors.ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω .86 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 23.3.90 = 27. Eccentricity e = 0. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.Step 7 Check Sliding Geoguide 1.3.584 1 1 Nq 18.27 x x 100 100 = = 2809 kN 4627 kN Thus.2.161 100 167.2.00 = 1.09 kN / m 35.86 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.

14 x 5.44 5. i.27 mi + 1 2.( 1 1 1 1 - ω 5. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.17 x 30.68 + + / / / / cf ' 4.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 2809 / ( = 0.e.78 ) ) x x 2 2 tan tan φ'f 30.For Shape Factors.3 Nc 30.68 1.23 1 1 1 1 .48 + + + + Qn 4627 B' B' 1.5 x 9 x 1.27 0.68 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 For Inclination Factors.78 B' 1.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.3 ) ) Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o . tc = tq 5.96 x 0.78 + 133.44 x 1 = 169.78 x 1.5 x x kPa 0.14 ( ( 0.27 iq 0. all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = equal 1.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.Annex C1 page 9 - .68 0.5 0.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 167.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.56 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.96 0.43 + 127.48 Ki 0.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.3 ) ) For Tilt Factors. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.44 x 1 + x 0.98 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.4 0.30 x 4.( 1 1 Ki 0.69 x 23.01 = 430.90 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.68 B' x x x / / / 1.23 x 5.99 x 1 x 1.68 B' 1.5 x 18.71 tq 5.( .44 tγ 5.98 iq mi 1. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 0.01 => OK! OK! .44 .22 kPa qult qmax => > = 27. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.3 Nc 30.01 + + + + Nq 18.27 x 5.01 x + 0.5 As a result.48 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.( .44 tan tan ) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30.

Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex C2 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 2.9 1 35.00 kN/m m m m 2 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.0 28.6 Fig. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2.3.0 30 0.9 3. Table 6.Annex C2 page 1 - .0 5.4. clause 5.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 2. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.85φcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) 500 500 1000 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 500 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 1667 833 Toe Pwv W1. Table 6.W.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0. 19 δbf Kp .3.6 0.50 0.4. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock. W2. Pa3. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) kN/m2 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. clause 6.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.83 2.12 Geoguide 1. clause 4. clause 4.

67 Pa3 = 0.00 2.60 2 1.23 10.Annex C2 page 2 - .40 2 1.00 kN/m .96 19.83 / 3 = = = = = 1. Thus.83 x x x / 1.25 62.90 1.50 / 2 Pa2 7.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 19.83 / 3 Pwh 3.00 Pwv -8. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.87 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 30.98 3.25 1.94 115.83 / 2 Pa4 1.11.run 0.83 Pa3 7.6 x 0.25 1.00 93.00 1.00 1.83 0.11 0.05 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2 / 2 .50 21 21 0.29 0.50 1.83 2 / / 2 2 Pah = Geoguide 1.29 0.095m By Middle-third Rule.83 x 1.40 62.095m OK! OK! .50 2 = = = = = ΣV= 15.00 = 30.04 3.07 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.271 x 1.( 115.33 0.39 2.00 1.39 7. B/6 = 2 / 6 - 0.00 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 23.28 ΣM = Moment 4.60 23.2.67 / 3 + 0.40 2 2.00 W2 23.47 0.50 W3 62.76 + 11.05 = 0.23 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.83 x x x x x 2. the mobilised angle of wall friction.67 0.90 1.07 0.90 0.40 -11.00 kN/m .11 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 115.333m > ΣV 93.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.00 103.87 ) / 0. δ is taken as 0.50 2.271 x 5.271 x 1.00 Pa2 = 0.00 x x x / 1.05 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.83 0.76 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.39 0.90 7.00 2 Arm (m) / / / / 2 2 2 3 = = = = = 1.04 0.28 0.67 Pa4 = 0.70 20.33 2 x 2 Pav 0. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.42 0.run Step 3 Wt. Table 14 = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 3.6 x 0.00 0.40 -8. Clause 5.2.40 29.33 2.6 x 0.run) Pa1 = 0.47 23.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .

6 Fig.90 1.39 7. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan φ'/γm )) -1 Back batter. W2. θ = 1 : 10 = 0.83 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 3.23 .83 0.3. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.10 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.Annex C2 page 3 - .271 x 1.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 2.9 3.83 x x x x x 2.0 28.12 Geoguide 1. clause 4.90 7.83 2 kN/m2 kN/m m m m 2 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 1.3. 19 δbf Kp Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .00 Pa2 = 0.4.47 23.run) Pa1 = 0.83 x x x / 1.50 0. clause 6. clause 4. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.70 20.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) o kN/m2 o Geoguide 1. Table 6.0 5.2.4.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.83 0.W. Table 6. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 500 500 1000 5 kPa 1000 1000 500 W2 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 1667 833 Toe Pwv W1. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.04 3.67 0. clause 5.50 21 21 0.9 1 35.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 5.6 0.0 30 0. Pa3.

90 Pa4 1.00 kN/m .00 kN/m .00 = 30.40 ( 1.995 0.6 x 0. δ is taken as 0.42 0.37 121.23 10.run 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.07 0. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.96 19.25 x 0.43 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.00 x 0.98 3.06 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 121.63 -11.Geoguide 1.00 110.00 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 26. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.Annex C2 page 4 - .100 Arm (m) 2.( 121.83 = = = = = 1.6 x 0.04 Pwh 3.00 x 0.6 x 0.06 0.33 0.026m OK! OK! .28 0.81 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 30.67 0.33 ( 2 x 2 Pav 0.50 2.60 ( 2.43 = 0.47 tan θ = 0.83 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.39 0.11.000 ) / 3 ) x x x x 0.500 ) + 1. Thus.69 1.10 Pwv -8.10 W2 23. the mobilised angle of wall friction. Clause 5.10 W3 62.76 + 11.50 2 = = = = = ΣV= 15.29 0.00 93.00 2. B/6 = 2 / 6 - 0.run Step 3 Wt.40 62.25 1.2.37 31.00 x x x / 1.00 2 Arm (m) + 1.83 0.43 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2 / 2 .4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 19.00 1.026m By Middle-third Rule.90 Pa3 7.39 Pa2 7.995 = = = = = 1.50 1.250 ) + 1.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.00 1.29 0.34 1.40 ( 0.83 x 1.83 0.60 23.2.995 0.28 ΣM = Moment 4.00 0.995 0.42 63.02 1.333m > ΣV 93.07 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.40 -8.81 ) / 0.76 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.33 2.

2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.00 0.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.) . Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28. clause 5. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 2.5m above foundation) 500 500 1000 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 500 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Toe Pwv W1. Table 6.2 30.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1. W2.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. Pa3.Annex C3 page 1 - . Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex C3 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 2.3 4.67 1.1 3.6 Fig. clause 6. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.3. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.6 0.4 (= 0.2 24.W.3.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan δb/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) o kN/m2 o Geoguide 1. Table 6.4.5m above foundation) Reference 1.3 o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R. clause 4. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2. clause 4.12 Geoguide 1.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.9 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.2 30.4. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.50 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m o φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.

330 x 1.00 / 2 Pa2 6.5 Arm (m) / / / 2 2 3 = = = = 1.67 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 3.67 / 3 Pwh 2.64 16.22 ΣM = Moment 3.00 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.81 2.00 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 33.33 0.67 Pa3 6.67 x x x / 1.5 1. Thus. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.00 1.05 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .60 17.33 Pa4 = 0.67 / 3 = = = = = 1.00 1.33 Pa3 = 0.67 0.50 x x / 1.50 1.33 0.( 33.00 0.00 kN/m .00 0.60 23.2. Clause 5.67 x x x x x 2.30 2.40 -5.00 1.49 12.16 0. δ is taken as 0.11.16 6.33 / 3 + 0.22 0.300m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .67 0.00 = 17.55 -5.86 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.50 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 15.22 0.00 W2 23.50 Pwv -5.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.15 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 12.00 0.40 1.67 / 2 Pa4 0.86 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.15 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.15 33.75 1.60 1.00 1.30 6.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .00 1.86 + 5.5 = 0.00 28.00 2 = = = = ΣV= 15.330 x 1.run) Pa1 = 0.00 Pa2 = 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.42 Geoguide 1.00 .16 1.67 x Pav = 0.18 0.22 18.Annex C3 page 2 - .16 0.run W1 = 26 x 0.00 21 21 0.84 2.5 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.30 6.00 34.11 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.5 1.00 1.15 ΣMo ) 17.86 ) / / ΣV 34.330 x 5.81 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.run Step 3 Wt.

01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 1.3 For Shape Factors.14 Nq 18.00 kN / m ΣH = 18.50 = 0.3 Nc 30.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 34.78 2 2 23.90 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .84 kN/m run > => OK! Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 18.64 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 34.90 B' x x x / / / 0.90 B' 0.3 /2 /2 ) ) tan tan φ'f 30.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors.4 0. Eccentricity e = 0.78 B' 0.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan ( x x 1 1 2 + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 3400.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.30 π 3.584 1 1 Nq 18.00 = / 89.64 34.90 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.90 = L' = B' = 0.58 = 19. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.300 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.92 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 18.64 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.00 x 0. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.Annex C3 page 3 - .96 0. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.01 + + + + Nq 18.92 = 37.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.3 x x φ'f 30.300 100 89.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.00 x x 100 100 = = 1864 kN 3400 kN Thus.81 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .96 ( ( 30.

1 gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.16 x 1 x 1 + x 0. all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = tγ = equal 1. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.81 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.5 As a result. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.01 x + 0.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.96 x 1.5 x 18.17 x 30.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 89.00 x 1 x 1.90 0.5 x 9 x 0.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.99 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o .30 x 4. i.99 iq mi 1.25 x 1 x 23.5 x x kPa 0.29 x 1 x 1 = 32.46 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 1864 / ( = 0.78 x 1.25 1 1 1 1 .90 0.57 + 14.5 0.16 ( ( 0.01 => OK! OK! .Annex C3 page 5 - .29 mi + 1 2.For Inclination Factors.40 kPa qult qmax => > = 37.29 iq 0.05 = 72.e.90 + + / / / / cf ' 4.( .46 + + + + Qn 3400 B' B' 0.29 0.92 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.46 Ki 0.78 + 25.

81 2.67 0.64 16.33 Pa3 = 0.3.30 6.3. clause 4.330 Back batter. clause 5.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1. W2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.9 1.6 0.330 x 1.50 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.W.67 1. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.67 0.10 φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 x 1.2.16 0.1 3.67 x x x x x 2.2 24.3 4.Annex C3 page 6 - .42 .85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) o kN/m2 o Geoguide 1.12 Geoguide 1.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 500 500 1000 5 kPa 1000 1000 500 W2 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 W3 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Toe Pwv W1.22 18. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.00 21 21 0.) Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m . Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 2. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28. clause 6.run) Pa1 = 0. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2.4 (= 0.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.67 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 3.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.4. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.2 30.3 o o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m3 kN/m o 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.2 30.4. Pa3.330 x 5. clause 4. Table 6. Table 6.6 Fig.16 6.33 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33 0.00 0.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.67 x x x / 1.00 Pa2 = 0.

86 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.00 1.5 Arm (m) + 1.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.84 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.40 ( 0.00 1.50 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 17.18 0.85 18.84 ) / / ΣV 34.00 kN/m .30 Pa2 6. Clause 5.202m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .( 36. of wall + water uplift kN/m .00 1.22 0.00 = 17.10 Pwv -5. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.run Step 3 Wt.run W1 = 26 x 0.16 Pa3 6.2. Thus.11.Annex C3 page 7 - . δ is taken as 0.00 1.84 2.00 .67 0.000 ) + 0.48 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 12.5 x 2 Pav 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.48 ΣMo ) 17.50 x x / 1.Geoguide 1.00 1.00 ( 1.16 Pa4 0.750 ) / 3) x x x 0.00 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.63 -4.50 1.00 0.22 tan θ = 0.00 34.00 1.995 0.49 12. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.50 x 0.05 0.60 ( 1.11 0.48 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.67 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.80 1.00 31.33 0.30 6.98 0.50 36.5 = 0.33 0.100 Arm (m) 2.00 1.995 = = = = 1.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.60 23.81 Pwh 2.40 -5.67 = = = = = 1.86 + 4.14 0.67 x Pav = 0.10 W2 23.995 0.50 x 0.00 2 = = = = ΣV= 15.67 0.22 ΣM = Moment 3.98 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 36.

Fr = = 17.3.64 kN / m 26. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.65 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 3400 109. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.96 ( ( 30.09 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.64 = 31. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.2.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0.15 kN / m 17.00 x x 100 100 = = 1864 kN 3400 kN Thus.ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω . Figure 41 Mechanism 2 Sliding along a foundation soil surface Ω= 0.3 φ'f 30.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30. Clause 9.50 = 1. Fr = = 26.Step 7 Check Sliding Geoguide 1.3.ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 18.2.14 Nq 18.10 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.78 2 2 23.Annex C3 page 8 - .96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.15 kN / m Geoguide 1.202 100 109.64 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 18.64 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.3 /2 /2 ) ) . Eccentricity e = 0. Clause 9.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ + q' Nq sq iq tq gq For Bearing Capacity Factors.584 1 1 Nq 18.202 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.3 x x tan tan φ'f 30.ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ .00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω .30 π 3.ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 15.09 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 18.01 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .65 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 15.10 = L' = B' = 1.64 34. Figure 41 Mechanism 1 Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ .

tc = tq 5. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.45 Ki 0.88 + 106.10 B' x x x / / / 1.71 tq 5.10 + + / / / / cf ' 4.31 x 5.e.44 5.01 + + + + Nq 18.01 => OK! OK! .44 tγ 5.44 .( .44 x 1 = 198. all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = equal 1.44 x 1 + x 0.10 0.45 + + + + Qn 3400 B' B' 1.10 kPa qult qmax => > = 31.5 As a result.78 x 1.5 0.17 x 5.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.00 x 1 x 1.99 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.3 Nc 30.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.31 0.78 B' 1.3 ) ) For Tilt Factors.96 x 1.For Shape Factors.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.10 1.5 x x kPa 0.01 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0. sc = 1 = 1 = 1. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.3 Nc 30.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 109.74 + 144.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 1864 / ( = 0.31 mi + 1 2.17 ( ( 0.30 x 4.3 ) ) Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o .96 0.69 x 23.( .27 x 5. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.10 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 For Inclination Factors.78 ) ) x x 2 2 tan tan φ'f 30.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.27 1 1 1 1 .4 0.45 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.01 x + 0.64 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.Annex C3 page 9 - .5 x 9 x 1. i.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.5 x 18.17 x 30.99 iq mi 1.( 1 1 1 1 - ω 5.( 1 1 Ki 0.01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 1.31 iq 0.44 tan tan ) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30.10 B' 1.48 = 450.

Gs Porosity of the infill 2.12 Geoguide 1.4. Pa3. W2. clause 4. Table 6.85φcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) o kN/m2 o Geoguide 1. clause 4.5m above foundation) 500 500 1000 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 500 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Toe Pwv W1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.W. clause 6.9 3.9 1 35.0 5. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.6 0. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Table 6.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 2.50 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R.6 Fig.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.3.3.4.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.00 0.Annex C4 page 1 - .0 28. clause 5.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex C4 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 2.67 1. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2. 19 δbf Kp . Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.

49 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.00 / 2 Pa2 5.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 10.00 0.250m > ΣV 34.50 Pwv -5.67 / 3 = = = = = 1.33 Pa4 = 0.33 Pa3 = 0. B/6 = 1.00 1.60 23.75 1.67 x x x x x 2.22 ΣM = Moment 2.5 Arm (m) / / / 2 2 3 = = = = 1.15 = 0.66 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 15.15 33.run) Pa1 = 0.( 33.50 x x / 1.271 x 1. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.2.236m By Middle-third Rule.5 / 6 - 0.00 1.33 0.00 21 21 0.11.00 1.40 -5.00 2 = = = = ΣV= 15.00 1.66 0.69 0.67 / 2 Pa4 0.00 1.66 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.50 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 15.67 / 3 Pwh 2. Clause 5.55 -5.00 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.15 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1. the mobilised angle of wall friction.00 Pa2 = 0.60 17.22 15.71 2.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 Pa3 5.33 / 3 + 0.00 28.60 1.00 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .2.50 1. Table 14 = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 2.00 34. δ is taken as 0.236m OK! OK! .00 1.71 13. Thus.15 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.71 5.06 5.66 + 5.22 0.271 x 5.67 x x x / 1.71 5.62 1.06 0.66 2.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.Annex C4 page 2 - .00 kN/m .06 0.00 0.49 10.06 1.67 0.00 1.271 x 1.22 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.run Step 3 Wt.40 1.33 0.00 W2 23.5 1.67 2 / / 2 2 Pah = Geoguide 1.15 0.00 0.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .5 / 2 .11 0.66 ) / 0.67 0.5 1.00 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 33.67 x Pav = 0.5 x 2 Pav 0.00 = 15.run W1 = 26 x 0.

Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) Back batter. 19 δbf Kp Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .4.run) Pa1 = 0. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2. θ = 1 : 10 = 0.67 x x x / 1. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28. Pa3.4.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 2.0 5.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.3. clause 6.10 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.67 0.0 28. clause 5.0 30 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 500 500 1000 5 kPa 1000 1000 500 W2 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 W3 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Toe Pwv W1.00 21 21 0. clause 4.271 x 1.06 5.67 1. clause 4.2.271 x 5.67 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 2. W2.12 Geoguide 1. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.00 Pa2 = 0.66 2.33 Pa4 = 0.71 5.6 0.Annex C4 page 3 - . Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.33 0.5 kN/m2 kN/m m m m 2 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.6 Fig. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.271 x 1.67 x x x x x 2.9 1 35.49 .67 0.W.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.00 0. Table 6.3. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.71 13.33 Pa3 = 0.22 15.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0. Table 6.9 3.06 0.

33 0.00 1.137m By Middle-third Rule. of wall + water uplift kN/m .00 1.11.06 Pa4 0.50 x 0.66 + 4.00 1. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.( 36.00 0.50 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 17.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.67 = = = = = 1.71 Pa2 5. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.80 1.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.100 Arm (m) 2.137m OK! OK! .00 = 15.62 1.60 23.46 = 0.2.14 0.84 18.5 / 2 .66 Pwh 2.22 ΣM = Moment 2.5 / 6 - 0.49 36.40 ( 0.5 Arm (m) + 1. Clause 5.63 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) / 15.10 W2 23.15 0. Thus.Geoguide 1.995 0.250m > ΣV 34.46 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.run Step 3 Wt.00 1.00 2 = = = = ΣV= 15.00 1.00 1.22 tan θ = 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.2.22 0.66 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.67 0.60 ( 1.50 x 0.63 ) / 0.Annex C4 page 4 - .11 0.40 -5.995 0.98 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 36.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 10.62 -4.49 10.00 34. B/6 = 1.67 x Pav = 0.71 5.5 x 2 Pav 0.000 ) + 0.06 Pa3 5.00 kN/m .46 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.run W1 = 26 x 0.33 0.50 2.67 0.750 ) / 3 ) x x x 0.00 1.00 0.00 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.00 31.995 = = = = 1.10 Pwv -5. δ is taken as 0.00 x x / 1.69 0.00 ( 1.98 0.

3 o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.00 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m o φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan δb/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) o kN/m2 o Geoguide 1.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex C5 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 2. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.4.3.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.9 1.4 (= 0. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 1.6 0.6 Fig.2 24.3 4. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. Table 6. Table 6.00 0.2 30.1 3. W2.12 Geoguide 1.33 1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1. clause 5.) . clause 4. Pa3.2 30. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.3.Annex C5 page 1 - .4. clause 6. clause 4.5m above foundation) Reference 1.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) 500 500 1000 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 500 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 Toe Pwv W1.W.

run Step 3 Wt. δ is taken as 0.20 0.00 2 = = = ΣV= 15.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33 0.80 -1.00 / 2 Pa2 1.330 x 0.33 0.93 .330 x 0.11 0.02 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.00 kN/m .33 Pa3 1.11.60 -1.50 0.run) Pa1 = 0.00 6.00 = 3.06 2.33 / 3 = = = = = 0.33 x Pav = 0.67 Pa3 = 0.48 4.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1.82 0.02 0.02 + 1.Annex C5 page 2 - .00 Pa2 = 0.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .93 Geoguide 1.80 ΣMo ) 3.54 0.60 1 1. Clause 5.17 0.00 21 21 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .67 / 3 + 0.( 7.67 0. Thus.00 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 7.67 0.50 0.11 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 7.86 0.56 5.69 7. the mobilised angle of wall friction.65 1.165m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .13 / ) / ΣV 13.67 1.330 x 5.00 x / 1.54 0.run W1 = 26 x 0.33 / 2 Pa4 0.33 x x x / 0.54 0.80 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.00 1. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.56 0.00 13.26 0.00 Pwv -1.11 0.56 0.33 x x x x x 1.11 ΣM = Moment 0.65 1.67 Pa4 = 0.93 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.00 1 Arm (m) / / 2 3 = = = 0.2.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.13 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1 = 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.33 / 3 Pwh 0.67 1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.54 1.80 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 2.20 0.

96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.67 = L' = B' = 0.00 sγ = 1 = 1 = 1.93 kN / m ΣH = 5.3 Nc 30.584 1 1 Nq 18.165 100 67.79 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .165 m Effective Width B' = B = 1. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.00 + + + + Nq 18. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.30 π 3. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 1393.3 /2 /2 ) ) tan tan φ'f 30.67 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .67 B' 0.3 For Shape Factors.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors.3 x x φ'f 30.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.78 B' 0.01 = 20.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 5.13 kN/m run > => OK! Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 5.96 0. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.96 ( ( 30.4 0.58 = 8.48 13.33 = / 67.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.14 Nq 18.67 B' x x x / / / 0.Annex C5 page 4 - .67 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 13.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0.93 x x 100 100 = = 548 kN 1393 kN Thus. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.78 2 2 23.48 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.93 x 0. Eccentricity e = 0.00 = 0.48 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 13.

82 + 42.00 x + 0. i.47 1 1 1 1 .( .5 x x kPa 0.For Inclination Factors.30 x 4.29 - ) ) ) ) iq 0. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.29 Ki 0.5 As a result.e.47 x 1 x 23. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.92 = 128.00 x 1 x 1.Annex C5 page 5 - .35 ( ( 0.79 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.17 x 30.50 0.5 x 18.67 + + / / / / cf ' 4.67 0.35 x 1 x 1 + x 0.5 0.95 + 24.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.99 iq mi 1.50 x 1 x 1 = 60.3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o .5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.67 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.01 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 67.68 kPa qult qmax => > = 20. all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = tγ = equal 1.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.99 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.50 iq 0.00 => OK! OK! .29 + + + + Qn 1393 B' B' 0. 1 gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.5 x 9 x 0.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.50 mi + 1 2.78 x 1.96 x 1.

54 1.2.00 Pa2 = 0.330 Back batter. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.67 0.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.1 3. clause 4. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.4.2 24.3.10 φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0. Table 6.330 x 0. clause 5.00 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.W.9 1.33 1.3 o o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m3 kN/m o 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.67 Pa4 = 0. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.) Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m . clause 6.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.run) Pa1 = 0.48 4. Pa3.6 0.3 4. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 500 500 1000 5 kPa 1000 1000 500 W2 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 Toe Pwv W1.00 0.54 0.65 1.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.Annex C5 page 6 - .4 (= 0. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.4.12 Geoguide 1.2 30.93 . θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.56 5.33 x x x / 0.3.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 5. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2.33 0.20 0. W2.00 21 21 0.2 30.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1.33 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) o kN/m2 o Geoguide 1.330 x 0. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 1. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.33 x x x x x 1. Table 6.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.6 Fig. clause 4.

26 0.43 8.33 0.54 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 2.run Step 3 Wt.55 0.67 0.11 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 8.10 Pwv -1.54 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr - 0.00 1.00 2 = = = ΣV= 15.11 0.995 = = = 0.00 0.02 + 1.11.20 Pwh 0.54 Pa4 0.33 = = = = = 0. Thus.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.112m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .00 kN/m .82 0.60 -1. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.67 0.00 7.60 ( 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.56 0.50 x 0.66 1.Annex C5 page 7 - .65 Pa2 1.995 0.13 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1 = 0.2.00 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 8.50 0.00 x / 1. of wall + water uplift kN/m .33 0.86 0. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.00 13.( 8.54 -1.Geoguide 1.17 0.00 1.11 ΣM = Moment 0.54 Pa3 1.00 1 Arm (m) + 0.02 0.13 / ) / ΣV 13.500 ) / 3) x x 0.54 ΣMo ) 3.93 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 ( 1 x 2 Pav 0.11 0.02 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.06 2.run W1 = 26 x 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.33 x Pav = 0. Clause 5.56 tan θ = 0.93 . δ is taken as 0.00 = 3.100 Arm (m) 1.

ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 4.ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ .93 x x 100 100 = = 548 kN 1393 kN Thus.Annex C5 page 8 - .2. Clause 9.3 /2 /2 ) ) . Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.78 = L' = B' = 0.2.Step 7 Check Sliding Geoguide 1.78 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.35 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.30 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 5.14 Nq 18.584 1 1 Nq 18.3 x x tan tan φ'f 30.112 m Effective Width B' = B = 1. Figure 41 Mechanism 1 Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ .35 kN/m run > => OK! Activating Force Fa = 4.68 = 17. Clause 9.3.00 = 0.3.06 kN / m 7. Fr = = 12. Fr = = 7.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.48 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.30 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding.112 100 77. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.06 kN / m Geoguide 1.30 π 3.ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 5.68 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 5.96 ( ( 30.ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω . Eccentricity e = 0.78 2 2 23.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0.48 kN / m 12.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω .3 φ'f 30.94 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .48 13. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 1393 77. Figure 41 Mechanism 2 Sliding along a foundation soil surface Ω= 0.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ + q' Nq sq iq tq gq For Bearing Capacity Factors.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.

96 x 1.28 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.5 x 18.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.78 B' 0.e.96 0.49 x 5.30 x 4.26 = 764.78 x 1.17 x 30.00 x + 0.94 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.49 1 1 1 1 .( 1 1 1 1 - ω 5.5 0.69 x 23.00 x 1 x 1. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.78 ) ) x x 2 2 tan tan φ'f 30.3 ) ) Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o .78 B' 0.52 iq 0.52 x 5.00 sγ = 1 = 1 = 1. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.44 tγ 5.44 x 1 + x 0.44 5.52 mi + 1 2.78 B' x x x / / / 0.78 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 For Inclination Factors.Annex C5 page 9 - .5 As a result.44 x 1 = 359. all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = equal 1.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.( .5 x x kPa 0. i. tc = tq 5.71 tq 5.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 77. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.52 0.37 ( ( 0.44 .16 + 241.78 0.99 iq mi 1.28 Ki 0.5 x 9 x 0.3 ) ) For Tilt Factors.3 Nc 30.00 => OK! OK! .For Shape Factors.28 + + + + Qn 1393 B' B' 0.44 tan tan ) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30.78 + + / / / / cf ' 4.( 1 1 Ki 0.68 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.78 0.3 Nc 30.00 + + + + Nq 18.54 + 164.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.4 0.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.37 x 5.96 kPa qult qmax => > = 17.( . sc = 1 = 1 = 1.99 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.

clause 5. Pa3.9 3.12 Geoguide 1.6 0.W.0 5. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.9 1 35. Table 6. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 1.85φcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) o kN/m2 o Geoguide 1. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex C6 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 2. clause 4. 19 δbf Kp .5m above foundation) Reference 1.0 28.5m above foundation) 500 500 1000 5 kPa 1000 1000 W2 500 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 Toe Pwv W1.00 0. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.Annex C6 page 1 - . clause 4.33 1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.6 Fig.00 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m Surcharge at the wall Height of R.4. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1. clause 6.4.3.3. Table 6.0 30 0. W2.

B/6 = 1 / 6 - 0.67 + 1.69 7.68 0.67 / 3 + 0.33 0. δ is taken as 0.11 ΣM = Moment 0.80 -1.00 1.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 1. Thus. the mobilised angle of wall friction.140m By Middle-third Rule.02 0.17 0.56 0.70 0.35 1.78 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) 2.( 7.00 13.00 x / 1.60 1 1.run) Pa1 = 0.26 1.00 2 = = = ΣV= 15.271 x 0.11 0.2.05 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.00 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 7.2.Annex C6 page 2 - .78 0.11.26 0.26 0.11 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 7.50 0.67 0.33 0.67 Pa3 = 0.80 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.run Step 3 Wt.00 = 2.93 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = Geoguide 1.33 / 2 Pa4 0.93 0. Clause 5.33 / 3 Pwh 0.80 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1 / 2 .17 0.00 21 21 0.06 1.50 0.61 4.00 Pa2 = 0.33 / 3 = = = = = 0.67 1 x 2 Pav 0.33 Pa3 1.271 x 5.00 / 2 Pa2 1.00 kN/m . Table 14 = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1.11 0.67 1.56 4.21 0.271 x 0.56 0.00 1 Arm (m) / / 2 3 = = = 0.35 1. of wall + water uplift kN/m .271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33 x x x / 0.67 0.140m OK! OK! .Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m . the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.run W1 = 26 x 0.00 1.167m / ) / > ΣV 13.60 -1.26 0.00 Pwv -1.67 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.33 x Pav = 0.33 x x x x x 1.67 Pa4 = 0.80 = 0.00 6.17 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.

271 x 0.0 30 0.10 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.67 Pa4 = 0.0 28. clause 4.26 0.00 21 21 0.33 1 kN/m2 kN/m m m m 2 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.61 4.4. clause 4.00 Pa2 = 0.6 Fig. clause 6. Table 6.0 5.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) Back batter.12 Geoguide 1.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 500 500 1000 5 kPa 1000 1000 500 W2 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 Insitu soil Toe Pwv W1.67 Pa3 = 0.67 0. 19 δbf Kp Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .35 1. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2.Annex C6 page 3 - .4.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 1.33 x x x x x 1.33 x x x / 0. Table 6.3.run) Pa1 = 0.6 0. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.2.56 4. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.271 x 0.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0. W2.33 0.00 0.271 x 5.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.33 0. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.26 1.17 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.W.3. Pa3.9 1 35. clause 5.05 . θ = 1 : 10 = 0.9 3.

67 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.43 8.087m By Middle-third Rule.11 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 8.67 + 1.run Step 3 Wt.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.00 0. Thus.Geoguide 1.11 ΣM = Moment 0.00 2 = = = ΣV= 15.26 Pa4 0.26 Pa3 1.00 1.66 1.00 x / 1.67 0.93 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.00 kN/m .100 Arm (m) 1.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.00 2.10 Pwv -1.500 ) / 3 ) x x 0.( 8.67 0.70 0.00 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 8.17 Pwh 0.33 = = = = = 0.00 7.Annex C6 page 4 - . δ is taken as 0.087m OK! OK! .56 0.17 0.995 0.68 0.93 0.00 13.11 0.78 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) 2.33 0.11 0. B/6 = 1 / 6 - 0.02 0.53 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1 / 2 .06 1.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.53 = 0.2.167m / ) / > ΣV 13.00 = 2.53 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.78 0.run W1 = 26 x 0.60 -1.33 0.33 x Pav = 0.995 = = = 0.50 0.35 Pa2 1.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 1.00 1 Arm (m) + 0.21 0.2. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption. the mobilised angle of wall friction.53 -1.60 ( 0.67 ( 1 x 2 Pav 0.50 x 0.55 0.11. Clause 5. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.56 tan θ = 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .

9. 47 (v) The gabion base. (viii) The wires should be at least 2. Design Data (I) Materials (A) Requirements Geoguide 1 Para.Annex D page 1 - . Geoguide 1 Para. The wires should be twisted together in pairs through three half turns. Geoguide 1 Para. i.3 (1) Infill material (i) Maximum size of rock should not exceed two-thirds the depth of the gabion to be filled or 300mm . (ii) The preferred size is 150mm to 300mm .3 (1) Gabion Materials (i) They should not be susceptible to attack by fire and ultraviolet light. 9. 1986c) after welding.e. the mesh panels should be hot dip galvanized to BS 729 (BSI. (iv) The edges of the mesh should be selvaged with wires of a diameter of about 1. The making of panels with galvanized wires welded together is not recommended as the welds are left unprotected. (iii) Hexagonal woven wire mesh is mechanically woven in a continuous sheet.5. (ii) They should be in form of hexagonal woven or square welded. 9. The ends and diaphragms can be attached to this mesh by helical wires or other methods.5.3 (1) & Fig. top and sides should be formed from a piece of mesh.5m Gabion Wall Design Statement Reference Remarks Design of 1. The PVC coating should be at least 0. (ix) For hexagonal wire-mesh the wires should be galvanized to BS 443 (BSI. (vi) The mesh can stretch or contract in two directions in its own plane and thus a rectangular wire-mesh basket filled with rock fragments can deform in any direction. 1986b). 'double-twisted' to form the mesh. .5m Gabion Wall Annex D Prepared by Checked by Subject : : : NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Design of 1. (xi) If the soil and water conditions are aggressive. The smallest dimension of the rock should at least be twice the largest dimension of the mesh aperture .5 times that of the wire-mesh to prevent unravelling.5. 1991c).5mm thick and should meet the requirements of BS 4102 (BSI. whichever is less.5m Gabion Wall Design Statement 1.Project : Design of 1. (x) For welded mesh. (vii) The wires used for the wire mesh should be mild steel wire to BS 1052 (BSI. PVC (polyvinylchloride) coating should be provided to the wires.7mm in diameter and galvanized. with a minimum tensile strength of 350 N/mm 2 . 1990b) before weaving.

81 kN/m3. φ' = = = 21 kN/m3 0 kPa 35 o = = = 19 kN/m3 5 kPa 35 o (II) Loadings Dead loads Self weight of the proposed protection wall. Imposed load Geoguide 1 Para. (Footpaths isolated from roads.4 m/s Parameter Geoguide 1 Para. earth pressure and hydrostatic pressure are taken to be dead load for design. 9.0 Backfilling Material behind the existing wall The properties of backfilling material are assumed to be Geoguide 1 Table 8 (a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength. 9.4 0. φ' Insitu Soil beneath the wall (foundation material) The properties of insitu soil are assumed to be (a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength. which is taken to be the design case.2.2 (1) Specific gravity of the rock. .5. cycle tracks and play areas) (III) Water level of the pond It is assumed that the most critical situation should be when the channel is completely dry.1 The gabions are in modules of 2m x 1m x 1m.2 and Table 16 5kPa surcharge was assumed on the land side.7mm Size of Infill Material = 250mm Refer to Annex E Maccaferri Gabions Critical Velocity for water flow = 6.6 0. c' (c) Effective friction angle.(B) Assumptions Gabion and Infill Materials Block Size Geoguide 1 Para. The groundwater level behind the proposed gabion wall is assumed to be one-third of the retaining height. δ = = = 2. The unit weight of water was taken as 9.Annex D page 2 - .5. c' (c) Effective friction angle. Mesh Size 8cm x 10cm x 2. 7. Gs Porosity of the infill Mobilized angle of wall friction.

Checking the Stability of the Protection Wall 1. For stepped walls. 3.Geoguide 1 Para. Geoguide 1.2 Limit state checks would be carried out at selected planes through the gabion wall. clause 4. Table 6 and Table 7 Partial safety factor approach stipulated under Geoguide 1.4. Table 20 and Figure 13 Proposed retaining walls have no restraint against translation and rotation about the base.Guide to Retaining Wall Design. Second Edition. Geoguide 1.4 is adopted. 6. The minimum factors of safety recommended in Geoguide 1 are adopted.3. the structures would be designed for both the ultimate limit state (ULS) and the serviceability limit state (SLS). 2.2. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993).5. ignoring the resistance contributed by the cage material and the connections between the cages. Geoguide 1 .3. Design Methodology In accordance with Geoguide 1. stability checks would be carried out at each major change in section shape. hence active state pressure is assumed and compaction-induced lateral pressure is not considered. Design Reference and Codes Design Code 1. clause 4.Annex D page 3 - .5m Gabion Wall .2. clause 9. Per meter run of the proposed retaining walls is considered for simplicity.

0 0.Ultimate Limit Statement (ULS) Refer to Annex D1 & D3 para. 1 Step 7 2. Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity [OK if the resultant force acts within the middle third of the wall base] Height of Toe above foundation 0. .5 m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! Refer to Annex D1 & D3 para. Checking Sliding [OK if resisting force > sliding force] Height of Toe above foundation 0.5 m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! Serviceability Limit Statement (SLS) Refer to Annex D2 & D4 para.0 0. 1 Step 8 3.5 m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! Refer to Annex D1 & D3 para. 1 Step 6 1.0 0.0 0. 1 Step 6 1. Checking Overturning [OK if restoring moment > overturning moment] Height of Toe above foundation 0.5 m m Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! For details of calculations.Annex D page 4 - . please refer to the Appendix D1 to D6. Checking Bearing Capacity [OK if bearing capacity > bearing pressure] Height of Toe above foundation 0.

5. without leaving any gaps. (iii) The mesh of the lids should be tied down to the tops of any diaphragms provided. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993). Drainage provisions Geoguide 1 para. (ii) Drainage layers at the rear face are normally not warranted.5 (i) A geotextile filter would be provided under the base and behind the rear face of the gabion wall to prevent migration of fines from the backfill into the coarse rock infill. 9.Construction Aspects Geoguide 1 Para.4 (i) Horizontal internal bracing wires should be fitted between the outer and inner faces at about 300mm centres in woven mesh gabions which are deeper than 500mm. Second Edition. 9. Geoguide 1 . as well as to the tops of the sides and ends. the vertical joints between the units should be staggered in adjacent courses. References 1. Geoguide 1 .5. However.Annex D page 5 - . (ii) The lids of the gabions should meet the top edges of the sides and ends when closed.Guide to Retaining Wall Design. (iv) Whenever possible. a drainage layer of adequate permeability would be provided at the base of the wall to guard against erosion of the foundation material.

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) 300 1000 5 kPa 1000 500 W2 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1000 500 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Toe Pwv W1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 1. Table 6.50 0.4 (= 0. clause 4. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.3 4.50 1.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.6 Fig. W2 Pa1 Pav Pa2.W.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan δb/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.2 30.2 24. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.6 0.4.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1.1 3.4.12 Geoguide 1. clause 6.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.Annex D1 page 1 - .Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex D1 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 1.30 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m o φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1. clause 4.) . Table 6.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. Pa3.2 30.3.3 o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.9 1.3. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28. clause 5.

47 3.00 0.60 1.25 0.45 1.00 kN/m .36 -2.50 / 2 Pa4 0.50 / 3 = = = = = 0.87 0.89 + 2.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.30 Pwv -3.17 ΣM = Moment 1.00 36.3 Arm (m) / / / 2 2 3 = = = = 0. Thus.21 5.80 0.30 x x / 1.50 2 = = = = ΣV= 15.84 ΣMo ) 8.03 38.86 2.46 1.48 26.10 9. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.47 1.25 0.46 0.50 21 21 0.3 = 0.run W1 = 26 x 0.50 x x x / 1.45 0.( 38.17 0.46 3.00 1. the mobilised angle of wall friction.50 / 3 Pwh 1.89 0.Annex D1 page 2 - .330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.00 / 3 + 0.50 Pa3 3.85 Geoguide 1.71 / ) / ΣV 52.run Step 3 Wt.00 Pa4 = 0.00 = 8.00 W2 40.82 0.50 0. Clause 5.91 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.84 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 5.65 0.00 0.50 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 2.25 1.30 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 12.330 x 1.50 / 2 Pa2 3.60 40.2.50 0.56 1.080m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .330 x 5.run) Pa1 = 0.25 11.00 Pa2 = 0.00 1.46 0.87 1.00 1.3 1.08 0.71 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.50 x Pav = 0.83 0.25 0. δ is taken as 0.56 -3.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .00 52.11.84 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m . the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.50 x x x x x 1.75 0.00 Pa3 = 0.330 x 1.82 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 38.89 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.3 1.30 1.3 x 2 Pav 0.91 .

10 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.14 Nq 18. Eccentricity e = 0.Annex D1 page 3 - .00 = / 113.14 B' 1.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 5291.10 52.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.30 = 1. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.14 B' x x x / / / 1.01 + + + + Nq 18.91 x 0.080 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.3 x x φ'f 30.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.91 kN / m ΣH = 11.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0.45 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult . Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.58 = 30.080 100 113.78 2 2 23.3 /2 /2 ) ) tan tan φ'f 30.3 Nc 30.14 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.91 x x 100 100 = = 1110 kN 5291 kN Thus.14 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .96 ( ( 30.78 B' 1.92 = 46.4 0.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 52.30 π 3.92 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 11.10 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 52.01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 1.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.87 kN/m run > => OK! Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 11.3 For Shape Factors.14 = L' = B' = 1.96 0.

55 x 1 x 1 + x 0.65 x 1 x 23. i.14 0. all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = tγ = equal 1.67 mi + 1 2.67 x 1 x 1 = 84. 1 gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.( .24 + 57.67 iq 0.( 1 1 Ki 0.e.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.00 x 1 x 1.18 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.Annex D1 page 4 - .55 ( ( 0.01 => OK! OK! .3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o .99 iq mi 1.5 0.67 0.5 x 9 x 1.28 + 65.18 + + + + Qn 5291 B' B' 1.62 = 207.45 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.01 x + 0.14 + + / / / / cf ' 4. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.99 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.65 1 1 1 1 .17 x 30.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.5 As a result.78 x 1.For Inclination Factors.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 113.5 x 18.18 Ki 0.5 x x kPa 0.92 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 1110 / ( = 0.14 kPa qult qmax => > = 46.96 x 1. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.14 1.30 x 4.

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 300 0 1000 5 kPa

1000 500 0 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1000 500 W3
Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3
o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m3 kN/m
o 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm ))

5 0 1.50 0.50 1.30

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 Back batter, θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0)

o

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

δbf Kp

(Note: γ m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 1.00 Pa3 = 0.330 x 1.00 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.50

x x x x x

1.50 21 21 0.50 0.50

x x x /

1.00 0.50 0.50 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai =

2.47 3.46 3.46 0.45 1.25 11.10 9.85

- Annex D1 page 5 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, δ is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.50 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.30 1.30

x x /

1.00 0.50 2

= = = = ΣV=

15.60 10.14 -3.25 0.00 22.49

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.47 Pa2 3.46 Pa3 3.46 Pa4 0.45 Pwh 1.25 tan θ = 0.100 Arm (m) 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.50 = = = = = 0.75 0.83 0.25 0.17 0.17 ΣM = Moment 1.86 2.89 0.87 0.08 0.21 5.89

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 ( 1.00 x 0.10 W2 10.14 ( 0.25 x 0.10 Pwv -3.25 ( 1.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.3

Arm (m) + 0.800 ) + 0.650 ) / 3)

x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = =

0.90 0.67 0.86 1.30 ΣM = ΣMr =

Moment 13.97 6.81 -2.80 0.00 17.98 20.78

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 5.89 + 2.80 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 20.78 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK!

-

0.00

=

8.69

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.3 = 0.113m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr - ( 20.78 ΣMo ) 8.69 / ) / ΣV 22.49

- Annex D1 page 6 -

Step 7 Check Sliding
Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ - ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ - ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 8.80 kN / m 11.74 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 11.74 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

8.80

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface Ω= 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω - ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω - ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 11.10 kN / m 18.54 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 18.54 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

11.10

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.113 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.30 = 1.07 = L' = B' = 1.07 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2

x =

0.113 100 107.49 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

11.10 22.49

x x

100 100

= =

1110 kN 2249 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 2249

107.49

=

20.92

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ

+

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 π 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.3 x x tan tan φ'f 30.3 φ'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex D1 page 7 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 sγ = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan φ'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.07 B' x

x x / / / 1.07

B' 1.07 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 1110 / ( = 0.37

+ + + + Qn 2249

B' B' 1.07 1.07 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 107.49

/ /

x x

cot cot

φ'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.25 ( ( 0.40 iq 0.40 0.37

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.37 Ki 0.37 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.40

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

φ'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 tγ 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

ω 5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

φ'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.07 0.25 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.40 x 5.44 x 1 = 270.13 + 154.76 + 187.41 = 612.30 kPa qult qmax => > = 20.92 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.37 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex D1 page 8 -

Pa3. W2 Pa1 Pav Pa2. 19 δbf Kp .0 28.12 Geoguide 1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) kN/m2 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex D2 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 1. clause 5.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.3.9 3. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 5. clause 4.W. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.30 kN/m m m m 2 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.0 30 0. Table 6. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.9 1 35. Table 6.50 1.4.3. clause 4.6 Fig.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28. clause 6.Annex D2 page 1 - . Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.50 0. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) 300 1000 5 kPa 1000 500 W2 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1000 500 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Toe Pwv W1.85φcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 1.4.6 0.

3 1.83 0.00 Pa3 = 0.69 0.30 1.50 21 21 0.88 + 2.03 38.50 / 3 = = = = = 0.Annex D2 page 2 - .25 0.00 Pa2 = 0.82 0.30 x x / 1.50 2 / / 2 2 Pah = Geoguide 1.run Step 3 Wt.52 2. Clause 5.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.00 Pa4 = 0.10 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.56 1.3 1.37 1.00 kN/m .4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 4.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.71 0.50 Pa3 2.84 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.271 x 1.00 W2 40.( 38.36 -2.60 40.3 / 2 .91 0.25 9.85 0.00 52.80 0. Thus.50 2 = = = = ΣV= 15. the mobilised angle of wall friction.061m By Middle-third Rule.85 1. of wall + water uplift kN/m .60 1.30 Pwv -3.03 1.21 4.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .50 / 2 Pa4 0.00 1.03 2.2.061m OK! OK! .00 1.87 1.3 / 6 - 0.85 2.271 x 5. δ is taken as 0.82 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 38.00 = 7.00 1.84 = 0.25 0.271 x 1.37 0.35 8.run) Pa1 = 0.25 0.3 x 2 Pav 0.50 x x x / 1.00 0.69 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) 7.06 0. Table 14 = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 2.217m / ) / > ΣV 52.11.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.50 x Pav = 0.91 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.30 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 12.17 ΣM = Moment 1.48 26.56 -3.17 0.85 0.50 / 2 Pa2 2.2.run W1 = 26 x 0.50 0.65 0.75 0.00 36.88 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.00 0.84 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.3 Arm (m) / / / 2 2 3 = = = = 0.50 x x x x x 1.00 / 3 + 0.50 / 3 Pwh 1.50 0.37 0. B/6 = 1.25 1.

85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.4.2.271 x 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 300 0 1000 5 kPa 1000 500 0 W2 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1000 500 W3 Insitu soil Pa3 Pa4 Pwh Toe Pwv W1. 19 δbf Kp Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .50 x x x x x 1.6 0.271 x 5.50 1. θ = 1 : 10 = 0.9 1 35.85 2.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28.00 0.12 Geoguide 1. clause 5. Pa3.3 kN/m2 kN/m m m m 2 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.00 Pa3 = 0.37 1.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0.50 21 21 0.4.6 Fig. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) Back batter.10 . clause 4. Gs Porosity of the infill 2. clause 6. clause 4.50 0.25 9.10 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.3. Table 6.50 0.0 5.W.9 3.271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 1.50 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 2.271 x 1. W2.03 2.85 0.00 Pa2 = 0.0 28.50 0.Annex D2 page 3 - . Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.0 30 0.3. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2. Table 6. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1.35 8. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.00 Pa4 = 0.50 x x x / 1.

00 1.88 + 2.3 / 6 - 0.800 ) + 0.2.3 Arm (m) + 0.50 2 = = = = ΣV= 15.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.00 0.68 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) 7.17 0.995 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.Geoguide 1.100 Arm (m) 1.56 -3.00 x 0.37 0.650 ) / 3 ) x x x 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .217m / ) / > ΣV 52.03 Pa2 2.96 27.6 x W2 = 26 x 0. Thus.run Step 3 Wt.75 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.52 2.17 ΣM = Moment 1.25 ( 1.25 x 0.Annex D2 page 4 - .016m OK! OK! .00 1.20 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.85 Pa4 0.00 = 7.50 0.86 1.25 0.( 41.68 0.50 0.00 1.06 0.21 4.10 W2 40.67 0.30 1.995 0. B/6 = 1.37 Pwh 1.50 = = = = = 0.3 / 2 .30 x x / 1. Clause 5.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 4. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 38.50 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.60 40.20 = 0.25 0.10 Pwv -3.00 kN/m .60 ( 1.25 tan θ = 0.11.40 41.50 x Pav = 0.91 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.83 0.91 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.71 0.00 52. δ is taken as 0.2.85 Pa3 2.20 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.24 -2.995 = = = = 0.80 0.00 0.run W1 = 26 x 0.50 1.30 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 13.80 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 41.56 ( 0.90 0.016m By Middle-third Rule.88 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.

4. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.5m Gabion Wall Remarks Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.2 30.2 30.3.6 Fig. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.) .85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan δb/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1. clause 4.3 o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.3 4.1 3.Project : Design of Gabion Wall NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5) Annex D3 Prepared by : Checked by Subject : : Design of 1. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 1. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1. Table 6.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.W.12 Geoguide 1. Pa3.330 (Note: γ m is taken to be 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.Annex D3 page 1 - . clause 6.33 1.3.00 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m o φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.4.00 0. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.4 (= 0. W2 Pa1 Pav Pa2.2 24.5m above foundation) 300 1000 5 kPa 1000 500 W2 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 Toe Pwv W1.6 0. clause 5.9 1. clause 4. Table 6.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.

00 13.00 x / 1.56 0.80 -1.48 4. δ is taken as 0.11 0.93 Geoguide 1.00 1.( 7.11 ΣM = Moment 0.13 / ) / ΣV 13.50 0.80 ΣMo ) 3.67 / 3 + 0. Thus.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.86 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.run) Pa1 = 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.33 0.67 1 x 2 Pav 0.33 / 2 Pa4 0.00 1 Arm (m) / / 2 3 = = = 0.330 x 0.13 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1 = 0.82 0. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.00 Pa2 = 0.33 / 3 = = = = = 0.165m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .65 1.56 0.60 1 1.54 0.67 Pa3 = 0.17 0.00 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 7.80 kNm/m run ΣMo => ΣMr > => OK! - 0.00 / 2 Pa2 1.02 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.33 0.60 -1.67 0.06 2.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1.20 0.26 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .11 0.330 x 0.02 + 1.93 .2.00 21 21 0.67 1.run Step 3 Wt.11.00 1.65 1.330 x 5.69 7.54 0.54 1.run W1 = 26 x 0.20 0.50 0.00 6.33 x x x / 0.54 0.67 0.33 / 3 Pwh 0.00 2 = = = ΣV= 15.33 x x x x x 1. Clause 5.11 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 7.56 5.67 Pa4 = 0.33 Pa3 1.80 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 2.Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .00 = 3.00 Pwv -1.33 x Pav = 0.93 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.Annex D3 page 2 - .02 0.00 kN/m .6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.

67 B' x x x / / / 0.33 = / 67. sc = 1 = 1 = 1.3 /2 /2 ) ) tan tan φ'f 30.96 0.3 x x φ'f 30.96 ( ( 30.165 100 67. Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30. Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 1393.14 Nq 18.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.3 For Shape Factors.165 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.00 + + + + Nq 18.48 kN / m Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan φ'f = Ns x = 13.00 = 0. Eccentricity e = 0.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.4 tan φ'f tan / / x x x 30.67 = L' = B' = 0.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 + q' Nq sq iq tq gq π/4 0.00 sγ = 1 = 1 = 1. qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.48 13.4 0. at the level just below 500mm rock fill.48 kN / m OK! Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above.30 π 3.584 1 1 Nq 18.93 kN / m ΣH = 5.01 m m2 Effective Length L' Effective Area A' L' 100 = Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn = x x L' L' = = 5.13 kN/m run > => OK! Sliding Force Fa = Σ H= 5.78 2 2 23.58 = 8.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ For Bearing Capacity Factors.78 B' 0.3 Nc 30.67 L' 100 L' / / / L' 100 100 .67 B' 0.93 x x 100 100 = = 548 kN 1393 kN Thus.01 = 20.79 kPa To calculate Bearing Capacity qult .Annex D3 page 3 - .67 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2 x = 0.93 x 0.Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = ΣV= 13.

00 => OK! OK! .67 0.For Inclination Factors. 1 gc = gγ = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.35 x 1 x 1 + x 0.47 x 1 x 23.( 1 1 Ki 0.68 kPa qult qmax => > = 20. all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = tγ = equal 1.00 x 1 x 1.01 / / x x cot cot φ'f 30.67 + + / / / / cf ' 4.5 x 18.79 kPa + q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.5 As a result.5 x x kPa 0.17 x 30.5 x 9 x 0.Annex D3 page 4 - .99 iq mi 1.2 L' L' 100 100 x x ) ) ) ) A' 67.78 x 1. i.50 0. Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.29 Ki 0.96 x 1.82 + 42.67 0.3 ) ) Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o .29 + + + + Qn 1393 B' B' 0. mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.3 ) ) iγ = = = = = = = = = ( ( 0.78 x x tan tan φ'f 30.00 x + 0.e.29 - ) ) ) ) iq 0.50 x 1 x 1 = 60.95 + 24.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.92 = 128.5 0.( .50 mi + 1 2.47 1 1 1 1 .30 x 4.35 ( ( 0.50 iq 0.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.99 ic ) / ( ) / ( Nc 30.

12 Geoguide 1.00 kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.10 φcv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.3 4.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.2 30.4.20 0.1 3. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 5 0 1. Table 7 and Table 8 = = = = = = Unit Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Value 21 0 35 1.330 Back batter.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) o kN/m2 o Geoguide 1.330 x 0.33 0.33 1.67 0.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1.run) Pa1 = 0. clause 5.65 1. Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation Geoguide 1.6 0.00 Pa2 = 0.93 .2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition. clause 4.00 21 21 0.6 Fig.) Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.54 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 300 0 1000 5 kPa 1000 500 0 W2 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Insitu soil Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 Toe Pwv W1.330 x 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.2 24. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1.48 4. clause 4.4 (= 0.2. Table 6.56 5. W2.3 o o Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f kN/m3 kN/m o 2 Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.3.330 x 5. clause 6.2 30. Pa3. Table 7 and Table 8 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f c f' 19 5 35 34 28.3.Annex D3 page 5 - . Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.4.67 Pa4 = 0.54 1.00 0.67 Pa3 = 0. 19 δbf Kp (Note: γ m is taken to be 1.W. Table 6.33 x x x x x 1.9 1.33 0. θ = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.33 x x x / 0.

17 0.11 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 8.33 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.66 1.56 0.02 + 1.56 tan θ = 0.10 Pwv -1.00 x / 1.54 -1.50 x 0.100 Arm (m) 1.54 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr - 0.26 0. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption.13 / ) / ΣV 13.86 0.run W1 = 26 x 0.67 0.33 = = = = = 0.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.Annex D3 page 6 - .00 13.13 kNm/m run OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1 = 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.67 0.43 8.60 ( 0.00 = 3.20 Pwh 0.11 ΣM = Moment 0.00 2 = = = ΣV= 15.2.06 2.00 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 8. of wall + water uplift kN/m .Geoguide 1.00 1.50 0. δ is taken as 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1. the mobilised angle of wall friction.00 1 Arm (m) + 0.65 Pa2 1.995 0.60 -1.54 Pa4 0.33 x Pav = 0.995 = = = 0.00 0. Clause 5.( 8.112m / / 2 2 ( ΣMr .33 0.11.55 0.93 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0. Thus.54 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 2.54 ΣMo ) 3.82 0.500 ) / 3) x x 0.00 7.11 0.93 .run Step 3 Wt.54 Pa3 1.02 0.00 1.67 ( 1 x 2 Pav 0.11 0.00 kN/m .02 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.

Step 7 Check Sliding
Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos θ - ΣV x sin θ = (ΣV x cos θ - ΣH x sin θ) x tan θb = 4.06 kN / m 7.35 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 7.35 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

4.06

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface Ω= 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = ΣH x cos Ω - ΣV x sin Ω = (ΣV x cos Ω - ΣH x sin Ω) x tan φ' + c' l = 5.48 kN / m 12.30 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 12.30 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

5.48

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.112 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.00 = 0.78 = L' = B' = 0.78 ΣH ΣV m x x 2e 2

x =

0.112 100 77.68 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

5.48 13.93

x x

100 100

= =

548 kN 1393 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 1393

77.68

=

17.94

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ

+

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(πtanφ'f) tan2(π/4+φ'f/2) = = = Nc = = = Nγ = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 π 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tanφ'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 π/4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + φ'f 30.3 x x tan tan φ'f 30.3 φ'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex D3 page 7 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sγ = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.00

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan φ'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 0.78 B' x

x x / / / 0.78

B' 0.78 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.28

+ + + + Qn 1393

B' B' 0.78 0.78 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 77.68

/ /

x x

cot cot

φ'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.37 ( ( 0.52 iq 0.52 0.49

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.28 Ki 0.28 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.52

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

φ'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 tγ = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 tγ 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

ω 5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( φ'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

φ'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = gγ = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = γ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 γ ' B' Nγ sγ iγ tγ gγ = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.00 x + 0.5 x 9 x 0.78 0.37 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.52 x 5.44 x 1 = 359.54 + 164.16 + 241.26 = 764.96 kPa qult qmax => > = 17.94 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.49 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.00

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex D3 page 8 -

Project

:

Design of Gabion Wall
NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex D4

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

1.5m Gabion Wall
Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation)

300 1000

5

kPa

1000 500 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3
Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Toe Pwv W1, W2 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271
o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m
o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.00

kN/m m m m

2

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm ))

kN/m2

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85φcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm ))
2

o

kN/m
o

( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

δbf Kp

- Annex D4 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai =

1.35 1.26 1.26 0.17 0.56 4.61 4.05

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, δ is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.00

x /

1.00 2

= = = ΣV=

15.60 -1.67 0.00 13.93

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.35 1.00 / 2 Pa2 1.26 0.67 / 3 + 0.33 Pa3 1.26 0.33 / 2 Pa4 0.17 0.33 / 3 Pwh 0.56 0.33 / 3

= = = = =

0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 ΣM =

Moment 0.68 0.70 0.21 0.02 0.06 1.67

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 1 1.00 Pwv -1.67 1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1

Arm (m) / /

2 3

= = =

0.50 0.67 1.00 ΣM = ΣMr =

Moment 7.80 -1.11 0.00 6.69 7.80

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 1.67 + 1.11 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 7.80 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1 / 2 - ( 7.80 = 0.140m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1 / 6

-

0.00

=

2.78

kNm/m run

=

ΣMo ) 2.78 0.167m

/ ) / >

ΣV 13.93 0.140m OK! OK!

- Annex D4 page 2 -

271 o o Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m o 3 2 Fill (Behind the Wall) γ c' φ' γm φ'f φcv' Kah 5 0 1. θ = 1 : 10 = 0.05 .5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 300 0 1000 5 kPa 1000 500 0 W2 W3 W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3 Pa2 Pa4 Pwh 667 333 Insitu soil Toe Pwv W1.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0. clause 4.2.3. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0. W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2.61 4.12 Geoguide 1. Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust Abbreviation Geoguide 1. Table 7 and Table 8 Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock.17 0. Table 7 and Table 8 Value 21 0 35 1 35.33 2 / / 2 2 Pah = = = = = = ΣΗ= ΣPai = 1.33 x x x / 0. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) Back batter.271 x 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan φ'/γm )) 2 o kN/m o ( = c' / γm ) ( = δb / γm ) (β/φ = 0 δ/φ = 0) Geoguide 1.W. W2.6 0.00 21 21 0.67 Pa4 = 0.3. Table 6.33 x x x x x 1.26 1.6 Fig.0 5.00 Pa2 = 0.0 30 0.33 0.4.35 1.26 0.33 1 kN/m2 kN/m m m m 2 Surcharge at the wall Height of R.67 0.run) Pa1 = 0. Table 6.271 x 5.0 28.Annex D4 page 3 - . Pa3.9 1 35. clause 5.33 0.67 Pa3 = 0.4 γ c' φ' φcv' δb γm φ'f cf' 19 5 35 34 28. Gs Porosity of the infill 2.56 4.610 kN/m3 kN/m2 o o o (= 0. clause 4.271 x 0.4. 19 δbf Kp Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m .10 Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall) Geoguide 1. clause 6.00 0.9 3.

67 0.93 0.50 x 0.43 8.2.68 0.33 0.00 ΣM = ΣMr = Moment 8.2.56 tan θ = 0.11.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0. B/6 = 1 / 6 - 0.50 0. the mobilised angle of wall friction.53 (kNm/m run) (kNm/m run) Geoguide 1 Clause 9.11 0. the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.10 Pwv -1.70 0.00 7.00 0.35 Pa2 1.Annex D4 page 4 - .66 1.30 x / 1.11 Restoring Moment ΣMr = 8.60 ( 0.33 x Pav = 0.67 ( 1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.02 0. of wall + water uplift kN/m .26 Pa3 1.11 ΣM = Moment 0.995 0. Clause 5.78 0.087m By Middle-third Rule.167m / ) / > ΣV 13.17 Pwh 0.53 = 0.26 Pa4 0.55 0.11 0.4 Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment ΣMo = 1.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.100 Arm (m) 1. δ is taken as 0.93 Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos θ = 0.( 8.00 = 2.run W1 = 26 x 0.087m OK! OK! .53 -1.67 (kNm/m run) Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.56 0.67 + 1.500 ) / 3 ) x x 0.33 = = = = = 0.00 1.00 kN/m .33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.00 1 Arm (m) + 0.67 0.06 1.Geoguide 1.21 0.53 kNm/m run ΣMo > => OK! => ΣMr ( ΣMr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1 / 2 .78 kNm/m run = ΣMo ) 2.00 13.run Step 3 Wt.60 -1. Thus. Table 14 Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption.33 0.00 2 = = = ΣV= 15.17 0.995 = = = 0.

curvature flow. This paper is not applicable to revetment structures other than the vertical faced gabion wall structures for the protection of river embankment. ship waves etc. General Background Gabions are employed for many uses due to their versatility. the designer should ensure that the foundation of the gabion wall should have been properly investigated. from top to bottom. Scope and Qualifications This paper gives technical guidance for the design of gabion wall used in river embankment. This paper does not take into consideration wave forces or other hydrodynamic forces arising out of supercritical flow. Therefore. Gabion cages are normally designed to contain quarry run or river run stones available at the site of erection. If in doubt. acting on the gabion wall. This paper assumes that gabion wall would sit on top of good soil foundation. 2. and from outer face to inner face. therefore. Cages are stacked to construct structures of great durability and flexibility. the designer should treat the guidance with great caution when using the guidance for the design of gabions used for coastal protection and in engineered channels. Gabion cages are not merely containers of stone since each unit is securely connected to each adjacent cage during construction. It also stipulates the requirements for Reno Mattress against the local scouring at the toe of gabion wall. end to end. Before carrying out the design of gabion wall. Gabions are uniquely woven by twisting each pair of wires one and one half turns continuously providing the inherent strength and flexibility required. It is. the designer should consult engineers with knowledge/experience on hydrodynamics and suppliers of gabion structures. which includes hydraulic structures in river training works and in protection works for roads and land reclamation. The gabions are steel wire cages that vary in size and are designed to abate the destructive forces of erosion. The formed structure is capable of carrying stress in biaxial tension. DSD 1. apparent that the wire reinforces the stone filling in tension.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. The wire mesh is monolithic through the structure in three dimensions. Gabions form flexible structures that can deflect and deform to a certain limit in Date: November 2006 Page 1- .

If necessary. DSD any direction without fracture. Since it largely depends on the soil conditions which may varies significantly for different locations. Design Considerations of Gabion Wall used in River Embankment There is currently no universally accepted method for designing gabion walls. This is a valuable characteristic in that hydrostatic pressure never builds up behind or under the structure and cause failure to the gabion design.2 Provision of Gabion Aprons Gabion aprons are commonly used to protect the toe of a gabion retaining wall structure from scour that could cause undermining in channel works applications. Second Edition. Gabion structures are regarded as permanent. It can withstand the movement of ground without inordinate structure deformation.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. 3. it is suggested in GEOGUIDE 1 – Guide to Retaining Wall Design. It is recommended that the gabion apron in the form of Reno Mattress. However. gabions are becoming more popular in engineering works in river embankments which demand a natural looking environment with growth of vegetation and potential for ecological lives. In view of the environmentally friendly nature of the gabion construction as compared to concrete. Gabion structures behave as perforated barriers. siltation takes place between the stone fill promoting vegetation and adding to the permanency of the structure. The detailed design calculations for gabion wall of retaining height ranging from 1m to 4m. 3.1 Treatment of the Foundation of Gabion Wall Foundation treatment is important to the stability of gabion wall as weak foundation may result in bearing failure or soil slip. 3. (refer to Section Date: November 2006 Page 2- . that gabion walls should be considered as gravity retaining wall for the purpose of design. designers should consider the requirements of treatment of foundation case by case. allowing water to gradually pass through them. used in river embankment are shown in Appendix B. rockfill and/or other appropriate measures as determined by the designers should be adopted to stabilize the formation before placing gabions. In the early stages after installation. This attribute enables the gabion structure to be built with a minimum foundation preparation.

Scour occurs at toe of gabion retaining wall when it obstructs the channel flow. DSD 5. Froehlich's Live-Bed Scour Equation where: K1 = Coefficient for shape Shape Coefficients Description Vertical-wall Vertical-wall with wing walls Spill-through K1 1.82 0. This will ensure that the gabion apron reaches beyond the outer limit of the anticipated scour hole that may form. and a vertical wake vortex at the downstream end of the gabions. The flow obstructed by the gabions form a horizontal vortex starting at the upstream end of the gabions and running along the toe of the gabions. designers need to determine the exact depth and extension of Reno Mattress case by case with the consideration of scouring at river invert during peak flow. 18 – Evaluating Scour At Bridges. Fourth Edition. Froehlich's live-bed scour equation can be used to obtain the potential depth of scour. For fast-flowing rivers.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. The length of the gabion apron shall extend beyond the toe of the structure a minimum of 2 times the anticipated depth of scour formed under the apron. In accordance with Hydraulic Engineering Circular No.55 Date: November 2006 Page 3- .00 0.0) be a minimum of 300 mm in depth.

13 ( θ < 90° if wall points downstream θ > 90° if wall points upstream ) L´ = Length of active flow obstructed by the wall. 3. m2 Fr = Froude Number of approach flow upstream of the wall = Ve/(gya)1/2 Ve = Qe/Ae. m L = Length of wall projected normal to the flow. m Fig.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. m Ae = Flow area of the approach cross section obstructed by the wall. 3. m ys = Scour depth. θ.1 Abutment shape K2 = Coefficient for angle of embankment to flow = ( θ / 90) 0. at peak flow. m3/s ya = Average depth of flow on the floodplain (Ae/L). DSD Fig. to the flow Date: November 2006 Page 4- . m/s Qe = Flow obstructed by the wall and approach structure.2 Orientation of embankment angle.

54 4.71 15.15 8.49 7.03 ya 1 2 3 4 L´ 1.97 5.5 4.25 3.13 = 1 L´ and ya are the base width and retaining height of the gabion wall as shown in the drawing in Appendix A.06 1 3.82.75 2.72 6.35 6. Computed Scour Depth.3 Determination of length of embankment blocking live flow for abutment scour estimation Example: Assume K1 = 0.5 2.79 10.01 7.31 13.25 2.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division.78 5.3 Provision of Geotextile Filter The gabion apron will require minimal excavation and grade work. K2 = ( 90 / 90) 0.74 8.25 2.01 3.59 8. ys as follow: Fr 0.73 0. 3.25 2 4. Date: November 2006 Page 5- .10 0.75 3.22 1.45 7.5 2. DSD Fig. Generally the gabion apron and gabion block are placed directly on the ground utilizing a geotextile filter fabric between the gabions and soil interface to prevent leaching of soils underneath the gabions.32 10.34 11.71 11.

The tying wire is laced around the selvedge through each mesh all the way to the bottom of the cage. All gabion baskets shall be properly staggered horizontally and vertically. used in river embankment. 4. the ends and the diaphragms of each unit into vertical position.2 Installation and Filling Installation (i) Empty gabion baskets shall be assembled individually and placed on the approved surface to the lines and grades as shown or as directed.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. DSD The drawings in Appendix A show the details of gabion wall of retaining height ranging from 1m to 4m. the gabions are bundled folded flat. with the position of all creases and that the tops of all sides are level. Construction of Gabion Wall 4.1 Packing and Assembly Packing (i) For ease of handling and shipping. (ii) Date: November 2006 Page 6- . Assembly (i) (ii) Open the bundle and unfold each unit. (iv) The tying operation begins at the top of the cage. Finished gabion structures shall have no gaps along the perimeter of the contact surfaces between adjoining units. Lift the sides. (iii) Attach the sides of four corners together with locking wire fastener or tying wire and the diaphragms to the front and back of the gabion. 4.

and common sides with adjacent units thoroughly laced or fastened. Date: November 2006 Page 7- . They shall be placed in a manner to remove any kinks or bends in the mesh and to uniform alignment. DSD Fig. 4. (iv) All joining shall be made through selvedge-selvedge wire connection.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. The basket units then shall be partially filled to provide anchorage against deformation and displacement during the filling operation.1 Abutment shape (Courtesy of and adapted from TerraAqua Gabions) (iii) All adjoining empty gabion units shall be connected along the perimeter of their contact surfaces in order to obtain a monolithic structure. mesh-mesh wire connection is prohibited unless necessary. All lacing wire terminals shall be securely fastened. Filling (i) The initial line of gabion basket units shall be placed on the prepared filter layer surface and adjoining empty baskets set to line and grade.

compact stone fill. The fill layer should never be more than 300 mm higher then any adjoining cell. Gabions can be filled by any kind of earth filling equipment. position the Mattress with the internal diaphragms at right angles to the direction flow. Particular attention should be paid to the following : (i) Mattress units should be placed in proper position so that movement of rockfill inside the cage. (ii) (iii) The voids shall be minimized by using well-graded stone fill and by hand placement of the facing in order to achieve a dense. Mattresses should be placed with its internal diaphragms at right angles to the direction of the slope. Cells shall be filled to a depth not exceeding 300 mm at a time. the procedure for installation of reno mattress is similar to the construction of gabion units. Care shall be taken. 4.4 Lid Closing (i) The lids of the gabion units shall be tightly secured along all edges. Page 8- Date: November 2006 . (iii) Gabions shall be uniformly overfilled by about 25–40 mm to account for future structural settlements and for additional layers. On river beds. 4. All stone on the exposed face shall be hand placed to ensure a neat compact appearance. ends and diaphragms in the same manner as described for assembling. Connecting wires shall be installed from the front to back and side to side of individual cell at each 300 mm vertical interval for gabions of depth exceeding 500 mm. due to gravity or flowing current.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. when placing the stone by hand or machine. especially on the wall face. 5.0 Installation of Reno Mattress Basically. Thus. on slopes. shall be corrected prior to additional stone filling.3 Gabion Stone Placement (i) The stone fill shall be placed into the gabion units in 300 mm lifts. is minimal. DSD (ii) Deformation and bulging of the gabion units. The maximum height from which the stones may be dropped into the baskets shall be 900 mm. to assure that the PVC coating on the gabions will not be damaged if PVC is utilized.

DSD (ii) The Mattresses may be either telescoped or cut to form and tied at required shape when necessary. 7. In addition. the size of stone measured in the greatest dimension should range from 150mm to 300mm. the smallest stone size must generally be larger than the wire mesh openings (usually of Date: November 2006 Page 9- . Maintenance Related Considerations and Maintenance Requirements Geoguide 1 (Sections 9. The suitability of the gabion structures to be used in such river/stream environment should be within manufacturer’s recommendation. Sample Particular Specifications. For a sharp curve. 8. Suggested considerations on maintenance requirements to be looked at during design stage : The water quality of river/stream would affect the durability of the wire used in the basket. As a rule of thumb.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. when Mattresses are laid on a radius. corrosion protection measures should be applied to wires. for example. such as PVC coated galvanized steel wires. Method of Measurement and Schedule of Rates for Gabion Wall and Reno Mattress Sample clauses of PS. The necessary maintenance requirements should be judged on a case-by-case basis. Detailed discussion on the maintenance requirement both in detailed design stage and routine inspection are beyond the scope of this Technical Report. However. 6. it may be necessary to cut the Mattress diagonally into triangular sections and tie the open side securely to an intact side panel. some of the important considerations required to be considered during detailed design stage and routine inspection are listed below. maintenance requirements should be duly considered during both the design stage and during routine inspection after completion of works [Ref.5]. Gradation of stone aggregates should be based on gabion thickness and grid size.5 and 13) may be referenced for the basis of providing a general guideline on maintenance of gabion walls. Generally speaking. MM and SoR for gabion wall and Reno Mattress are shown in Appendix C. If necessary.

manually packing of stone aggregates should not be over emphasized. an over fill of about 25-40mm is considered to be adequate. Package of stone aggregates should be manually performed instead of mechanically performed. In this case. and rubble) against iron wires. However. The remaining part rests directly on the earthfill. Any displacement or shifting of the wire baskets should need to be corrected immediately. sable. To allow for the settlement of the stone aggregates. Poorly packed gabions will cause undue movements as well as excessive abrasion to the PVC coating. the underlying earthfill has to be compacted carefully. The stress created by the violent flood flow against gabions will lead to the shaking and mutual thrust of stones inside gabions. Special attention should be paid on gabion structures with a stepped shape. only a part of the superimposed layer rests on a lower layer of gabions. and its adherence to the lower layer of gabions should be ensured before surperimposing the next layer. If the stones are fragile. its function. the stone filling it up fall out. and Gabions structures are generally composed of superimposed layers of gabion baskets. and the structure loses all its weight and. gravel. Suggested considerations on maintenance requirements to be looked at during routine inspection : A gabion structure needs to be inspected annually and after each flood event. However. Signs of undercutting or other instability should also be checked.g. The strength of the stone aggregates should be durable to resist the impact from flood flow particularly if the flood flow is violent. Date: November 2006 Page 10- . The mechanically package can cause unwanted stress to the net.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. The opening of the gabion net can be torn away by the continuous thrust of materials carried by runoff (e. the stones will start to crush into pieces small enough to fall outside the gabion net. DSD about 100mm). consequently. When the net opens. a newly placed gabion structure is recommended to be inspected for every 3 months or after each rainfall event whichever is the less.

18 – Evaluating Scour At Bridges”. DSD Checking on the sign of damage or erosion of the river embankment should be included. Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Fourth Edition.5 Geotechnical Engineering Office. Second Edition.S. Stream Management Guide No. Water Planning. Federal Highway Administration. “Hydraulic Engineering Circular No.S.4 Tricardi. 15 – Gabion Revetments 8. the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region. Watershed Management – Use of Gabions in Small Hydraulic Works 8. Storm Water Best Management Practices Decision Support Tool #129 – Gabions 8. Department of Transportation.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. Civil Engineering Department. Stream Guide. May 2001. Reference Documents 8. “GEOGUIDE 1 – Guide to Retaining Wall Design”. October 2003.1 U.2 U. 8.S. 8. Date: November 2006 Page 11- .3 U. and Checking for the wires of panels/cages for any signs of rusting and wear should be included. Division of Water. Environmental Department of Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center.

DSD Date: November 2006 Page 12- .Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division.

A . designers should determine whether any ground treatment for foundation is required in consideration with sliding.82 0.13 ( θ < 90° if wall points downstream θ > 90° if wall points upstream ) L´ = Length of active flow obstructed by the wall.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. All dimensions are in millimeters unless otherwise specified. bearing or soil slip failures. DSD Drawing Notes: 1. m2 Fr = Froude Number of approach flow upstream of the wall = Ve/(gya)1/2 Ve = Qe/Ae. m L = Length of wall projected normal to the flow. m App. m Ae = Flow area of the approach cross section obstructed by the wall. 2. Determination of Potential Scour Depth by Froehlich's Live-Bed Scour Equation 3. Depending on the soil conditions. m3/s ya = Average depth of flow on the floodplain (Ae/L). m/s Qe = Flow obstructed by the wall and approach structure. m ys = Scour depth.55 K2 = Coefficient for angle of embankment to flow = ( θ / 90) 0. where: K1 = Coefficient for shape Shape Coefficients Description Vertical-wall Vertical-wall with wing walls Spill-through K1 1. at peak flow.00 0.1 .

82.31 13. galvanized and coated with PVC in a similar way to the mesh wire. K2 = ( 90 / 90) 0.01 7.97 5.34 11.75 3.25 2 4. 6.01 3. A .73 0.49 7. The gabion shall be formed from one continuous piece of mesh which includes the lid.59 8. 8.06 1 3.71 15.25 4.03 Ya 1 2 3 4 L´ 1. DSD Example: Assume K1 = 0.15 8.74 8. The diameter of the mild steel lacing wire and selvedge wire shall be 2.13 = 1 L´ and ya are the base width and retaining height of the gabion wall as shown in the sketches in the calculations in Appendix B. All edges of gabions.22 1.45 7.25 2.2 .25 2. diaphragms and end panels shall be mechanically selvedged App. 9. All wires shall be mild steel to BS 1052. has an average thickness of 0. The gabion mesh shall be formed with 2. hot dip galvanized to BS 443 and further coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC).35 6.4 mm.79 10.75 2. 10.7 mm diameter mild steel wires. 7. ys as follow: Fr 0. Mesh shall be hexagonal double twist and shall not ravel if damaged.0 mm respectively.72 6.2 mm and 3.32 10.78 5.71 11. 5.5 mm and nowhere less than 0.5 2.5 4. The PVC coating shall be dark green in colour.10 0.54 4. Computed Scour Depth.5 2.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. The dimensions of the hexagon shall be 80 x 100 mm.

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. App. 12. The gabion shall be divided by diaphragms into cells which length shall not be greater than 1m. All front and side faces of the gabion wall shall be fixed with hand packed square stones of approximately 300 x 200 x 200 mm in size. Infill to gabion shall be rock fill material of size 150 mm to 300 mm and shall be placed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. 13.3 . A . 11. DSD in such a way as to prevent ravelling of the mesh and to develop the full strength of the mesh.

DSD App.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. A .4 .

Annex E page 1 .

Annex E page 2 .

Annex E page 3 .

DSD Appendix C Sample Particular Specifications.Design of Gabion Wall Used in River Embankment RD 1045 Mainland North Division. Method of Measurement and Schedule of Rates for Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress .

(4) The PVC coating shall conform to the following requirements: tensile strength shall not be less than 210 kg/cm2 in accordance with ASTM D412-75. The PVC coating shall be dark green in colour. (2) Mesh shall be hexagonal double twist and shall not ravel if damaged. DSD Particular Specifications Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress 7.types of material employed.7 mm diameter mild steel wires. fixing and infilling with rocks.1 .4 mm. (b) a certificate for the material showing the manufacturer’s name. All wires shall be mild steel to BS 1052. and . (3) The gabion mesh shall be formed with 2. hot dip galvanized to BS 443 and further coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC). App. jointing. placing. 7. including details of: .45 Submissions of Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress (1) The following particulars of the proposed material together with the method of construction shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval at least 14 days before first delivery of gabion mesh and Reno Mattress mesh to site: (a) manufacturer’s literature for the gabion mesh and Reno Mattress mesh. C . has an average thickness of 0.recommendations of handling. including results of tests required in accordance with the Contract.2 mm and 3. The dimensions of the hexagon shall be 80 x 100 mm. The diameter of the mild steel lacing wire and selvedge wire shall be 2. storage.0 mm respectively.46 Gabion mesh (1) The mesh used in fabricating gabion shall be of a proprietary type approved by the Engineer.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division.5 mm and nowhere less than 0. galvanized and coated with PVC in a similar way to the mesh wire. the date and place of manufacture and details showing that the material complies with the requirements stated in the Contract.

The least nominal dimension of the hexagon opening shall be 64 mm. C .Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. The diameter of the mild steel lacing wire and selvedge wire shall be 2. (3) The gabion mesh shall be formed with 2.47Construction of Gabion Wall (1) The gabion shall be formed from one continuous piece of mesh which includes the lid. (5) All front and side faces of the gabion wall shall be fixed with hand packed square stones of approximately 300 x 200 x 200 mm in size. galvanized and coated with PVC in a similar way to the mesh wire. 7.2 mm diameter mild steel wires. Tying of mesh shall be in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation.19g in accordance with ASTM D1242-56(75).2 mm and 2. (2) Mesh shall be hexagonal double twist and shall not ravel if damaged. 7. hot dip galvanized to BS 443 and further coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC). and resistance to abrasion shall not be greater than 0.48Reno Mattress mesh (1) The mesh used in fabricating Reno Mattress shall be of a proprietary type approved by the Engineer. (3) All edges of gabions.4 mm.7 mm respectively.2 . DSD - elongation shall not be less than 200% and not greater than 280% in accordance with ASTM D412-75. (2) The gabion shall be divided by diaphragms into cells which length shall not be greater than 1m. has an average thickness of 0.5 mm and nowhere less than 0. The PVC coating shall be dark green in colour. diaphragms and end panels shall be mechanically selvedged in such a way as to prevent ravelling of the mesh and to develop the full strength of the mesh. (4) Infill to gabion shall be rock fill material of size 150 mm to 300 mm and shall be placed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. All wires shall be mild App.

and resistance to abrasion shall not be greater than 0.49Construction of Reno Mattress (1) The Reno Mattress shall be formed from one continuous piece of mesh excluding the lid. (3) All edges of Reno mattress. C . DSD steel to BS 1052.3 . (2) The Reno Mattress shall be uniformly partitioned by diaphragms into internal cells. (4) The PVC coating shall conform to the following requirements: tensile strength shall not be less than 210 kg/cm2 in accordance with ASTM D412-75. diaphragms and end panels shall be mechanically selvedged in such a way as to prevent unravelling of the mesh and to develop the full strength of the mesh. The diaphragms shall be secured in position to the base and shall be in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation. Tying of mesh shall be in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation. elongation shall not be less than 200% and not greater than 280% in accordance with ASTM D412-75. App.19g in accordance with ASTM D1242-56(75).Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. The lid shall be a separate piece made of same type mesh as basket. 7. The size of rock fill shall be such that a minimum of two layers of rock must be achieved when filling the mattress. (4) Infill to Reno Mattress shall be rock fill material of size 75 mm to 200 mm depending on the height of Reno Mattress and shall be placed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.

(9) providing. (8) providing and fabricating the gabion unit including cutting and folding mesh to form special units and shapes. C . (12) square stone facing. packing and compacting rubble filling. placing and typing together in position. (6) assembling. tensioning and jointing the units together. (13) in the case of watercourses and ponds. DSD Method of Measurement Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress 7. (14) placing additional steel wire mesh on the face of the gabions.84 Item Coverage The items for gabion wall shall include for: (5) levelling and preparation including but not limited to blinding concrete and/or rockfill. The measurement of gabion wall and Reno Mattress shall be the volume calculated by multiplying the crosssectional area of the gabion unit by the height as shown on Drawings or ordered by the Engineer. (10) overfilling to allow for settlement. (11) bracing wires and wiring lids after fillings. (15) all necessary tests including submitting results to the Engineer.82 Item Description 7.83 Measurement Gabion wall and Reno Mattress The unit of measurement shall be in cubic metre. work in and/or dealing with the flow of water.4 . (7) staking. 7.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. App.

5 . 072001 072002 Description Gabion wall Reno Mattress Unit m3 m3 Schedule Rate To be assessed when incorporating into contract SOR App. C . DSD Schedule of Rates 0720 Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress Item No.Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division.

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall RD 1045 Mainland North Division. DSD .