You are on page 1of 24

INTRODUCTION TO COMMODITY FUTURES

Unknown to us the commodities that have always been a part of our day-to-day existence are also one of the finest investment avenues available. The wheat in our bread, the cotton in our clothes, our gold jewels, the oil that runs our cars, etc; are all traded across the world in major exchanges.

Over the ages, commodities have been the basis for trade and industry. They have spurred commerce, encouraged exploration and altered the histories of nations. Today, they play a very important role in the world economy with billions of dollars of these commodities traded each day on exchanges across the world.

Commodities today have become an attractive investment vehicle. In the current investment scenario, it is increasingly getting difficult for individuals and institutions to create a well-balanced investment portfolio. With uncertainty in interest ratio, it is tough for the investor to beat the ever-rising inflation. Averse to being over exposed to equity markets, the investors are left with limited choices... Well no more! Brief History of Commodity Trading and Commodity Exchange Trading in commodities futures has a long history. Though the modern trade in commodity futures could trace its origins back to the 17th century in Osaka, Japan, there is evidence to suggest that a form of futures trading in commodities existed in China 6000 years earlier. Organized trading on an exchange started in 1848 with the establishment of the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT).

The first milestone in the 125 years rich history of organized trading in commodities in India was the constitution of the Bombay Cotton Trade Association in the year 1875. India had a vibrant futures market in commodities till it was discontinued in the mid 1960's, due to war, natural calamities and the consequent shortages.

1|Page

Recent Developments in India The advent of economic liberalization helped the cause of laying emphasis on the importance of commodity trading. By the beginning of 2002, there were about 20 commodity exchanges in India, trading in 42 commodities, with a few commodities being traded internationally. Commodities futures contracts and the exchanges they trade in are governed by the Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952. The regulator is the Forward Markets Commission (FMC), a division of the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution. In 2002, the Government of India allowed the re-introduction of commodity futures in India. Together with this, three screens based, nation-wide multi-commodity exchanges were also permitted to be set up with the approval of the Forward Markets Commission. These are:  National Commodity & Derivative Exchange (www.ncdex.com) This exchange was originally promoted by ICICI Bank, National Stock Exchange (NSE), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) and Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC). Subsequently other institutional shareholders have been added on. NCDEX is popular for trading in agricultural commodities.  Multi Commodity Exchange (www.mcxindia.com) This exchange was originally promoted by Financial Technologies Limited, a software company in the capital markets space. Subsequently other institutional shareholders have been added on. MCX is popular for trading in metals and energy contracts.  National Multi Commodity Exchange of India (www.nmce.com) This exchange was originally promoted by Kailash Gupta, an Ahmadabad based trader, and Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC). Subsequently other institutional shareholders have been added on. NMCE is popular for trading in spices and plantation crops, especially from Kerala, a southern state of India.

In terms of market share, MCX is today the largest commodity futures exchange in India, with a market share of close to 70%. NCDEX follows with a market share of around 25%, leaving the balance 5% for NMCE.

2|Page

Commodity Futures exchanges use clearing houses to guarantee that the terms of the futures contract are fulfilled. The Clearing House guarantees that the contract will be fulfilled.Commodity Futures traders do not have to put up the entire value of a contract. COMEX etc. i. 3|Page . and delivery date. etc in India and NYMEX. ignoring all the changes in the market prices.  Facilitates Margin Trading . eliminating the risk of any default by the other party. being predetermined.g. Both the participants (Buyers & Sellers) are allowed to liquidate their respective positions by way of cash settlement of price between the contracted and liquidated price. The underlying physical commodities to be fungible.Commodity Futures contracts are highly standardized with the quality. they should be exchangeable. LME. Commodities traded in the commodity exchanges are required to be delivered at the contracted price. This facilitates taking of leveraged positions.e. no later than the last trading session of the specified expiry date.  Eliminates Counterparty Risk . they are required to post a margin that is roughly 4 to 8% of the total value of the contract (this margin varies across exchanges and commodities). e. Rather.  Standardized .Commodity Futures Contract A commodity futures contract is a commitment to make or accept delivery of a specified quantity and quality of a commodity during a specific month in the future date at a price agreed upon when the commitment is made. speculators and arbitrageurs). NCDEX. Large numbers of buyers and sellers with diverse risk profiles (hedgers.Commodity Futures contracts always trade on an organized exchange. Features of commodity futures  Organized . An effective and efficient market for trading in commodities futures requires:    Volatility in the prices of the underlying commodities. internationally. quantity. MCX.

Commodity Futures Trading Commission in (CFTC) USA. Forward Markets Commission (FMC) in India.Futures markets are closely regulated by government agencies. and delivery date.Commodity Futures contracts are highly standardized with the quality.  Regulated Markets Environment . Closing a Position . being predetermined. e. etc. This ensures fair practices in these markets. 4|Page . Physical delivery requires the member to provide the exchange with prior delivery information and completion of all the delivery related formalities as specified by the exchange.g. quantity.  Physical Delivery .Actual delivery of the commodity can be made or taken on expiry of the contract.

trading in commodity futures is an investment option. Arbitrage involves simultaneous sale and purchase of the same commodities in different markets.They are traders who buy and sell to make money on price differentials across different markets. Market participants can be broadly divided into hedgers.Hedgers.  Speculators . The hedgers transfer this risk by foregoing the associated profit potential. Speculators and Arbitrageurs An efficient market for commodity futures requires a large number of market participants with diverse risk profiles.They are traders who speculate on the direction of the futures prices with the intention of making money.  Hedgers . Thus.  Arbitrageurs . They participate in the market to manage their spot market price risk. Commodity prices are volatile and their participation in the futures market allows them to hedge or protect themselves against the risk of losses from fluctuating prices. The market functions because of the differing risk profiles of the market participants. Arbitrage keeps the prices in different markets in line with each other. For example . The arbitrageurs make the process of price discovery more efficient. The market participants simply need to deposit sufficient money with brokerage firms to cover the margin requirements.Market Participants . 5|Page . rather they liquidate their positions before the expiry date of the contract. The fluctuation in commodity prices represents both. since it is exposed to the risk of falling copper prices. speculators and arbitrageurs. The speculators assume this risk in the hope of realizing profits by predicting price movements. Usually such transactions are risk free. Ownership of the underlying commodity is not required for trading in commodity futures.a copper smelter will hedge by selling copper futures. for the speculators. a risk and a potential for profit. Most Speculators do not prefer to make or accept deliveries of the actual commodities.They are generally the commercial producers and consumers of the traded commodities.

gold prices have historically shown a low correlation with most other asset prices (such as equities) and thus offer an excellent means for portfolio diversification. There is also another advantage of being able to use the profits from a trade elsewhere. without having to close the position. Some of the reasons that make investing in commodity futures an attractive preposition are described below:  Leverage .  Inflation Hedge . establishes that investments in commodity are an effective hedge against inflation. The investor only deposits a fraction of the value of the futures contract with the broker to cover the exchange specified margin requirements. In this product. which is reflected in the investor's de-mat account. in a safe deposit vault approved by the exchange. The main features of this are: o o Liquidity Assurance of purity 6|Page .As the commodity prices determine price levels and consequently inflation. investments in commodity futures offer high liquidity. The fact that the returns from most of the commodities in the last 53 years from 1951 to 2006 have been higher than the global inflation rate.Unlike investment vehicles like real estate.Commodity Futures as an Investment Avenue Commodity futures are globally recognized to be a part of every successful and diversified investment portfolio.  Physical Gold .  Liquidity . the investor can hold physical gold. For example.Investments in commodity markets are an excellent means of portfolio diversification.  Diversification . It is equally easy to both buy and sell futures and an investor can easily liquidate his position whenever required. This gives the investor greater leverage and thus the ability to generate higher returns.Physical Gold is a product by which retail and high net worth investors can take investment positions in dematerialized physical gold using the futures market. investing in commodity futures can act as a hedge against inflation.Commodity Futures trading is done on margins.

o o Transparency of rates Safety These features have attracted a large number of clients to the product since its introduction. Many brokers offer a full package of services associated with the Physical Gold contract. Commodities traded in Commodity Exchanges Large numbers of commodity are traded on commodity exchanges in around the world. Further classification is based on the characteristics of the commodity. The commodities are classified on the basis of their use and consumption. including acting as commission agent to take care of sales tax / VAT related issues. Some of the commodities traded on various futures exchanges are as follows – Food Stuffs            Coffee Sugar Cocoa Maize Rough rice Soybean Wheat Sunflower Oil Barley Orange Juice Industrial Metals        Copper Lead Zinc Tin Aluminum Nickel Recycled Precious Metals     Gold Platinum Palladium Silver   Energy Crude Oil Natural gas 7|Page .

8|Page . Inverted Futures Market . which shows the prices of gold futures in a normal market. This is logically what should happen for all contracts since cost of insurance. The price difference between the futures contracts of different months is due to the cost of carry. This is illustrated by the figure below. the more distant the contract. the higher is the contract price. As shown in the figure below.In an inverted futures market. the price of the near contract is greater then the price of the distant contract. The more distant the contract month. It includes interest. resulting shortages. The cost of carry is the cost incurred in carrying a commodity to some future date. the lower is the price.Types of Commodity Futures Market The futures market for a commodity can be NORMAL or INVERTED. An inverted futures market is seen when there are short term supply disruptions. in a normal market. interest and storage will be a finite positive number. Normal Futures Market .A normal futures market is one where the price of the nearby contract is less than the price of the distant futures contract. insurance and storage costs.

then the basis is Rs. Thus it is possible for the futures price to be less than the spot price. 50/10gm (9450-9400). Basis = Spot price . 9400/10gm. The actual difference between the spot and the futures price may be different from the cost of carry and can vary based on the demand and supply of the underlying commodity at current and expected levels in the future. the futures price and the spot price are related in the following manner Futures price = Spot price + Cost of carry The cost of carry is the cost of carrying the commodity from the current month to the month of delivery. This includes costs of storage. Theoretically.Futures price For example. The basis can be positive or negative. insurance. The spot price of a commodity is the prevailing cash price in the market. the price of a futures contract is higher than the prevailing spot price. the copper futures on NYMEX have mostly been in backwardation since the 1950's. if the spot landed price of gold in March is Rs. 9|Page .The Concept of Basis in Commodity Futures Basis Defined The difference between the local spot price (cash price) and the relevant futures price of a commodity is called the commodity basis. Thus usually. interest etc. For example. The futures price is a representation of the market opinion of the spot price of the commodity on some future date. 9450/10gm and the April gold futures price is Rs. This condition is known as Contango. This condition is called Backwardation.

cash prices are lower than the nearby futures prices. Profit margins. the spot and future prices converge.Whether the market is in Contango or Backwardation. 10 | P a g e . Basis is usually a negative number because of carrying charges. as the futures contract approaches the expiry date. With the approach of delivery on the futures. Storage costs. Spot Prices < Futures Prices BASIS MARKET CONDITION Negative Contango or Normal Spot Prices < Futures Prices BASIS MARKET CONDITION Positive Backwardation or Abnormal The basis depends on the local spot market price and so it reflects the local market conditions. carrying charges diminish and the price difference between cash and futures will decrease. In normal market conditions. It is affected by the following factors:    Local supply and demand.

either increase or decrease. A decreasing basis means that the basis is becoming more negative or less positive.Weakening and Strengthening Basis The basis can change in two directions. This is called a weakening or widening basis. Strengthen Basis become more positive or less negative Weaken Basis become more negative or less positive Cash Price increasing faster relative to futures price Cash Price decreasing faster relative to futures price 11 | P a g e . This is called a strengthening or narrowing basis. An increasing basis means that the basis is becoming less negative or more positive.

the cash price will be lower than futures and hence the hedger's procurement price in the spot market will be less than the futures market. The short hedger or the producer of the commodity prefers for the basis to strengthen. The matrix of sale and purchase for producers and consumers on basis is given below: Long Hedge Strong Basis High cash price Delay Cash purchase No hedging required Weak Basis Purchase immediate Requirements only Low cash price   Delay Cash Purchase Hedge Long Future Purchase as much as possible & store or Hedge using futures Long Hedge Strong Basis High cash price Sell Product in Cash Low cash price   Sell Produce Re.own by going on long futures Weak Basis   Delay Cash Sales/Store Produce Hedge Short Futures Purchase as much as possible & store or Hedge using futures The long hedger or the consumer of the commodity prefers for the basis to weaken. In this scenario.Hedging and Basis Basis is a crucial factor on which hedging decisions are based. 12 | P a g e . In this scenario the cash price will be higher relative to the future and the hedger realizes a higher selling price in the spot market than the futures market.

Trading in commodity futures comprises of three simple steps.  Step One: Choosing a Broker The broker you choose should be a member of the exchanges you wish to trade in. In fact less than 1% of the total traded volume involves the transfer of physical commodities. one should keep the following factors in mind while choosing a broker:       Competitive edge provided by the broker. a new avenue has been thrown open for Indian investors. Credibility of the broker. Thus there must be a strong rapport. These exchanges have electronic trading and settlement systems making it easy to trade in commodity futures. 13 | P a g e . Other than this. Net-worth of the broker. and mutual trust between the client and the broker. Further. Broker's knowledge of commodity markets. Further. Trading on these exchanges does not require the investor to possess physical stocks. etc. the client must communicate clearly to the broker his needs and objectives for trading in commodities. investment. Quality of broker's trading platforms. your objectives for entering the market provide you with a valuable parameter to judge whether a broker fits your needs. The relationship between the broker and the client is long-term. whether they are for the purpose of hedging. Experience of the broker.COMMODITY MARKET IN INDIA How to Trade in Commodity Futures in India? With the setting up of nation-wide multi commodity exchanges.

These margin requirements vary across commodities and exchanges but typically. The investor should have access to the prevailing prices on the exchanges as well as market information that can help predict price movements. Margin requirements are of two types. Such a trading plan can be developed in consultation with the broker. The investor's position is marked to market daily and any profit or loss is adjusted to his margin account. the initial margin and the maintenance margin. if the account falls below the maintenance margin. Further. Other information sources are financial dailies. 14 | P a g e . a margin call is generated from the broker and the investor needs to replenish his account to the initial level. the investor has to remember to ride his profits and cut his losses by using stop loss orders. Step Two: Depositing the Margin To begin trading. The maintenance margin is usually lower than the initial margin. In any case. the initial margin ranges from 5-10% of the contract value. specialized magazines on commodities and the internet. Brokers provide research and analysis to their clients. Also. The investor has the option to withdraw any extra funds from his margin account if his position generates a gain. their performance needs to be monitored. an investor requires a trading plan.  Step Three: Access to Information and a Trading Plan As commodity futures are not long-term investments. the investor needs to deposit a margin with his broker.

The amount is the difference in the traded price and the settlement price. the settlement price is used as the base price. At the end of the day. Again. The dealer puts the order in exchange trading system. As the spot market prices changes every day. a settlement price is determined by the clearing house (Exchange). a new settlement price is determined at the end of every day. a price is set and initial margin money is deposited in the account. Process Flow In Commodity Futures Trading After the process of opening account is done the investor may want to trade in commodity. IT is important to understand the process after the trade is placed. 15 | P a g e . the account will be adjusted by the difference in the new settlement price and the previous night's price in the appropriate manner. At the initiation of the trade. Depending on if the markets have moved in favor or against the investors' position the funds are either being drawn from or added to the client's account. On next day. An investor places a trade order with the broker (at the dealing desk) on phone.

 Dematerialization of commodity contracts Some basics for giving and taking delivery of commodities in the Indian commodity futures markets – Dematerialization is the process of recording physical holdings (warehouse receipts) in electronic form. credits the ICIN (a unique number allotted by NSDL for identification purposes) balance into the De-mat account of the client. The goods are assayed and the information is given to the NSDL via the Registrar and Transfer Agent (R&TA). The warehouse accepts goods for storage and delivery. upon confirmation from the R&TA. It facilitates the easy transfer of holdings through electronic mode. The investor opens an account with a depository participant (DP) of NSDL.  Entities in Dematerialization 16 | P a g e . The R&TA is the link between the warehouse and the depository. NSDL. gets the goods to the warehouse and makes a request for De-mat credit.

The Depository Participants (DP) are market intermediaries between the client and National Securities Depository Ltd (NSDL). In process of Dematerialization of the Commodity. NSDL handles most of the securities and commodities held and settled in dematerialized form in the Indian market. brokers. She/he will have to go through a defined process of Dematerialization. Registrar & Transfer Agents control the number of commodities in de-mat form on a daily basis and daily reconciliation between NSDL and client. the client has to submit the commodities and a request form to the exchange accredited warehouse. Once NSDL receives the confirmation from R&T agent. Registrar & Transfer Agents (R&T) is a mean of continuous electronic communication between NSDL and issuer. Once the assaying is successfully done. assaying and information given to NSDL via R&T agents. The warehouse checks the quality and quantity by assaying. custodians. the warehouse sends the acceptance information to NSDL (DP) via the registrar and transfer agent (R&T). it credits ICIN (a 17 | P a g e . as shown in the chart above. Exchange accredited warehouse accepts goods for storage / delivery.  Process Flow in Dematerialization If the Client/investor wants to deliver goods on futures exchange. DP can be organizations involved in the business of providing financial services like banks.Once the Client/investor wants to deliver goods on futures exchange s/he will come across various entities in the process. financial institutions etc.

Bid .An expression indicating a desire to buy a commodity at a given price.The difference between the current cash price and the futures price of the same commodity. or between members and customers. the price of the nearby futures contract month is generally used to calculate the basis. Broker . Bull .The simultaneous purchase and sale of similar commodities in different markets to take advantage of a price discrepancy.The procedure of settling disputes between members.     Bear .See Futures Commission Merchant.unique number allotted by NSDL for identification purposes) balance into the De-mat account of the client. Unless otherwise specified.Someone who thinks market prices will decline. Bear Market .Someone who thinks market prices will rise. Glossary of Commodity Market Terms  Arbitrage . low.A company or individual that executes futures and options orders on behalf of financial and commercial institutions and/or the general public.     Brokerage Fee . Bull Market .A chart that graphs the high.A period of declining market prices.See Commission Fee. 18 | P a g e .  Basis .  Arbitration . opposite of offer.  Bar Chart .A period of rising market prices. Brokerage House . and settlement prices for a specific trading session over a given period of time.

clearing trades.  Clearing Member . and sets and adjusts clearing member firm margins for changing market conditions.A place where people buy and sell the actual commodities. gold. 19 | P a g e .An agency or separate corporation of a futures exchange that is responsible for settling trading accounts. Clearing members are responsible for the financial commitments of customers that clear through their firm. regulating delivery.An independent corporation that settles all trades made at an exchange acting as a guarantor for all trades cleared by it.The use of charts to analyze market behavior and anticipate future price movements.  Cash Market . etc. Carrying Charge .  Charting . low. the cost of storage space. Two basic price charts are bar charts and point-and-figure charts.A member of an exchange clearing house. and settlement prices.   Closing Price .. Also called spot market.An actual physical commodity someone is buying or selling. and open interest. volume. By companies. collecting and maintaining margin monies.See Settlement Price. palm oil.  Clearing House . and finance charges incurred by holding a physical commodity. e.A range of prices at which buy and sell transactions took place during the market close.For physical commodities such as grains and metals. reconciles all clearing member firm accounts each day to ensure that all gains have been credited and all losses have been collected.g. Also referred to as actual. average price movements. and reporting trading data. Also referred to as cost of carry or carry. insurance. silver. Those who use charting as a trading method plot such factors as high. Clearing houses act as third parties to all futures and options contracts acting as a buyer to every clearing member seller and a seller to every clearing member buyer. Closing Range . soybeans.  Clearing Corporation .  Cash Commodity .

The standard grades of commodities or instruments listed in the rules of the exchanges that must be met when delivering cash commodities against futures contracts. products traded on an authorized commodity exchange. Deferred (Delivery) Month .The transfer of the cash commodity from the seller of a futures contract to the buyer of a futures contract.See Carrying Charge. In a narrow sense.A term referring to cash and futures prices tending to come together (i.  Commodity . Commission Fee . The types of commodities include agricultural products.A specific month in which delivery may take place under the terms of a futures contract. Each futures exchange has specific procedures for delivery of a cash commodity.. base metals. as distinguished from the nearby (delivery) month.Speculators who take positions in futures and liquidate them prior to the close of the same trading day. 20 | P a g e .  Convergence .  Deliverable Grades . Grades are often accompanied by a schedule of discounts and premiums allowable for delivery of commodities of lesser or greater quality than the standard called for by the exchange. Some futures contracts.  Day Traders . the basis approaches zero) as the futures contract nears expiration. Also referred to as contract grades. Daily Trading Limit .The more distant month(s) in which futures trading is taking place.  Delivery .e. Also referred to as brokerage fee.An article of commerce or a product that can be used for commerce.A fee charged by a broker for executing a transaction.  Delivery Month .The maximum price range set by the exchange each day for a contract. such as stock index contracts. Also referred to as contract month. are cash settled.    Cost of Carry (or Carry) . bullion and energy products.

 Futures Exchange . made on the trading floor of a futures exchange.  Full Carrying Charge Market . insurance. and concerned that the cost of the commodity may change.Options on futures generally expire on a specific date during the month preceding the futures contract. etc.A central marketplace with established rules and regulations where buyers and sellers meet to trade futures and options on futures contracts.  Hedging . quantity. soybeans. and storage. Futures contracts are standardized according to the quality.  Expiration Date .  Hedger .A futures market where the price difference between delivery months reflects the total costs of interest.A method of anticipating future price movement using supply and demand information.The market price at which the quantity supplied of a commodity equals the quantity demanded. silver.The highest price of the day for a particular futures contract. to buy or sell a commodity or financial instrument sometime in the future. Hedgers use the futures markets to protect their businesses from adverse price changes. While holding it a hedger achieves protection against changing cash prices by purchasing (selling) futures contracts of the same or similar commodity.A legally binding agreement. Equilibrium Price . and delivery time and location for each commodity. which is discovered on an exchange-trading floor. Initial Margin .  Fundamental Analysis .  Futures Contract .The amount a futures market participant must deposit into his margin account at the time he places an order to buy (sell) a futures contract. The only variable is price.The practice of offsetting the price risk inherent in any cash market position by taking an equal but opposite position in the futures market.   High .An individual or company owning or planning to own a cash commodity such as gold. 21 | P a g e . See Selling (Short) Hedge and Purchasing (Long) Hedge.

opposite of bid. selling an equal number and type of futures contracts as those that were initially purchased closes the open futures position.  Margin Call . At the time the cash commodities are bought.The lowest price of the day for a particular futures contract.One who has bought futures contracts or owns a cash commodity.  Liquidate .An expression indicating one's desire to sell a commodity at a given price. Also referred to as spot month  Offer . See Offset.Selling (or purchasing) futures contracts of the same delivery month purchased (or sold) during an earlier transaction or making (or taking) delivery of the cash commodity represented by the futures contract.   Long .The futures contract month closest to expiration.Buying futures contracts to protect against a possible price increase of cash commodities that will be purchased in the future.To debit or credit on a daily basis a margin account based on the close of that day's trading session. 22 | P a g e .  Marking-to-Market .   Low . Inverted Market . buyers and sellers are protected against the possibility of contract default.A call from a clearing house to a clearing member or from a brokerage firm to a customer. In this way. Maintenance Margin .A set minimum margin (per outstanding futures contract) that a customer must maintain in his margin account. Long Hedge .  Nearby (Delivery) Month .A futures market in which the more distant the contract month. the lower is the futures price.  Market Order . to bring margin deposits up to a required minimum level.An order to buy or sell a futures contract of a given delivery month to be filled at the best possible price and as soon as possible.

the settlement close out price is determined by averaging those prices.  Position . a seller of futures contracts is said to have a short position. only one side of the contract is counted.One who has sold futures contracts or plans to purchase a cash commodity.A market commitment. margin requirements. See Liquidate.  Open Interest .The maximum advance or decline from the previous day's settlement price permitted for a contract in one trading session by the rules of the exchange. but for calculation of open interest. A buyer of a futures contract is said to have a long position and. At the time the cash commodities are sold.The generation of information about "future" cash market prices through the futures markets.  Short .  Short Hedge . Offset .The last price paid for a commodity on any trading day. based on each futures and options contract settlement price. and the next day's price limits.Selling futures contracts to protect against possible declining prices of commodities that will be sold in the future.  Settlement Close Out Price . Selling futures contracts or initiating a cash forward contract sale without offsetting a particular market position.  Price Discovery . Each open transaction has a buyer and a seller. The exchange clearing house determines a firm's net gains or losses.  Price Limit . 23 | P a g e .The total number of futures contracts of a given commodity that have not yet been offset by an opposite futures transaction nor fulfilled by delivery of the commodity or option exercise. If there is a closing range of prices.Taking a second futures position opposite to the initial or opening position. conversely. purchasing an equal number and type of futures contracts as those that were initially sold closes the open futures position.

The number of purchases or sales of a commodity futures contract made during a specified period of time.  Volume . 24 | P a g e .  Warehouse Receipt . Speculators assume market price risk and add liquidity and capital to the futures markets.Document guaranteeing the existence and availability of a given quantity and quality of a commodity in storage.The price difference between two related markets or commodities or between contracts of different maturities of same commodity.  Volatility .  Spread .Usually refers to a cash market price for a physical commodity that is available for immediate delivery.  Spot . commonly used as the instrument of transfer of ownership in both cash and futures transactions.A market participant who tries to profit from buying and selling futures and options contracts by anticipating future price movements. It is often expressed as a percentage and computed as the annualized standard deviation of percentage change in daily price. often the total transactions for one trading day. Speculator .A measure of the change in price over a given time period.