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Romanticism in Spain Author(s): F. Courtney Tarr Reviewed work(s): Source: PMLA, Vol. 55, No. 1 (Mar., 1940), pp.

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The sublime poems of Leopardi. yet their writings were transformed into battlecries and Italy responded with the will to fight.F. and the Schlegels. Both kept aloof from political agitation. Manzoni's masterpiece is one of the great novels of world literature. by representing two different psychological states that were common to all Europe.the ballads. made as if to order in response to the demand of the moment for the picturesque and forcesand on surveystressis laidon trendsandcharacteristics. These may be foundin the Note standardmanualsand in the referenceworkslisted in the Bibliographical appended have been limited to the footnotesand other references to this paper. Both these writers. his "noia" is as significant in modern literature as the "sorrows" of Werther and the "ennui" of Rene.As a consequence. underlying factors.ratherthan on the details of literaryhistoryas such. a new and rich store of themes and settings. and the theatre of Calder6n-ammunition for their critical and anticlassical campaign. Courtney Tarr 35 cosmopolitan and general European character. with astonishment Europe saw this nation.Bibliographical not given or not easily locatedin the worksof Farinelli(1927)and Peers (1939). have been restrictedto those indications. as they imperfectly knew it-chiefly the Don Quixote. Tieck. are filled with the spirit of romanticism. England. legends and letters. classical in their perfection of form. their history. and reduced to a clear expression of reality the nebulous spirit of German romanticism. strictlynecessary.in particular. and France-especially Germanydiscovered in Spanish literature. while the creative writers of these countries found in the land and its people. which had been called the land of the dead. 1 In this brief . and the title of this play is appropriately Romanticismo. rise to throw off the shackles of foreign domination and affirm its independence. The theorizers of romanticism in Germany. In 1902 the popular dramatist Rovetta produced a play dealing with the revolt against the Austrians in northern Italy in 1854. while Leopardi romanticized the purity of the Greek attitude toward life and renewed the classic expression of the conflict of modern thought. The critic Carducci observes that Manzoni was attracted more by the art of Goethe and Schiller than by that of men like Novalis. KENNETH MCKENZIE Princeton University 5 ROMANTICISM IN SPAIN the romantic era1Spain enjoyed for perhaps the first time DURING in her history a genuine European vogue. became more universal than their immediate Italian predecessors.

The Spanish spirit and Spanish letters are individualistic. to any considerable extent. even mental action-the ingenio so characteristic of the race-that Spanish letters revolve. that in their recreations of Spain. but around action. and form. especially the dramatic.36 Romanticism in Spain the passionate. the essential genius of his creator. that "romantic" Spain best typified perhaps in the Carmen of Merimee and of Bizet. as is the rebellious Cid of the ballads. they recreated a conventional. over sentiment and feeling. the preponderance of the popular and the spontaneously creative over the aristocratic and the critical. and has served to obscure. the chivalresque and the medieval. is a one-sided distortion. one fundamental aspect of romanticism. those peculiar traits of Spanish culture and the Spanish temper which have increasingly come to be regarded (even among Spanish critics) as essentially romantic. and all forms of purely human authority. Nevertheless. but rarely in the form of Weltschmerzor mal du siMcle. started in Germany and England and carried to its zenith by Unamuno as late as 1905 (in his Vida de D. in some outstanding authors of the "generation of 1898. The romantic exaltation of Don Quixote as the rebellious dreamer. with greater accuracy. predominate over the lyric.) The epic and the dramatic. both artistic and vital-in the interplay of these two forces lies the key to the creative genius of Spain-lack. The original Spanish Don Juan is completely extrovert. even the romantic caricature of Spain. or culture. But having little interest in Spain for herself nor (Merimee excepted) any real knowledge of her language. sixty to seventy years later. the persistence of medieval and national themes and attitudes. It is not around the latter. the romantics in Germany. and especially. brings out for the first time. The "tragic sense of life" is ever present. as essentially unclassic: the co-existence and clash of extremes. in a few minor writers in the romantic period itself. for creative artists are hardly to be censured for not being exact historians or archeologists. not introvert. the intense individualism and resistance to rules. extrovert. history. may I add. England. or perhaps. desires and imaginations. Quijote y Sancho). (And. schools. or rather expression. and France should emphasize and . until quite recently.) Furthermore. but not subjective. It is not without significance. a conception which has persisted in the popular mind down to the present and against which Spaniards and Hispanophiles-then and now-have reacted more or less violently and in vain. to say nothing of the more sober and sounder vision of a few critics and travelers." the one really romantic generation in Spanish literature. not with complete justification. because of their very vitality. (Save in the best of Larra and Espronceda. the great creations of the Spanish spirit. as Unamuno reminds us. literary Spain according to their own needs. then.

Literary romanticism comes late to Spain.3 In this juvenile outburst Larra upbraids the French for having abandoned." Review.Professor to 1833in the unpublished is N.1902). either in precept or in practice. K."Noteson Spanish Playsat the Beginning the RomanticPeriod. then not quite nineteen years of age. Hostile and naive. B. B. and from 1820 y of dissertation(North Carolina) Dr.-The Spanishtranslator Ducangewasnone other than the supposed"archclassicist"Gallego. A.31-46.." xvII (1926). It also reveals how little the latter. an increasingly large part of the repertory of the Madrid stage ever since the turn of the century. those external rules of literary and dramatic art and propriety for the violation of which the Frenchman Boileau had condemned the great Spanish dramatists of the seventeenth century. Romanic xxI (1930). as this article is in its conception of romanticism. (See the author's"Larra's y of tfricodeldia" in M. Courtney Tarr 37 exaggerate the external rather than the internal. It reveals the strong patriotic pride in the achievement of the Spanish neoclassicists and the equally strong anti-French feeling inherited from the eighteenth century and intensified by the War of Independence as vital forces in the critical opposition to romanticism. in the writers of the Romantic period in Spain itself. The faint breath of a native pre-romanticism (melancholy. along with sentimental and spectacle plays (also in translation) had formed. compilingthe repertoryfrom 1833 to 1850. 128-142. taking Ducange's play as a horrible example. An adequateintroductory J.and Dr. it is nevertheless representative of the critical attitude prevailing at the time in Spain. 27-51. of theatreat the time of the introduction romanticism may be gainedfromthe following: Romanic of N. and degenerate French fad. later even than to Italy. idea of the from 1850 to 1870.2 one of the translated melodramas which. Adams. Leslie. a feeling for nature. Shields. 3 The repertoryof the Madridstage from 1793 to 1819 will be found in E.F. Review. was understood or even known in Spain as late as 1828. republished E. published as his first article of dramatic criticism a scathing denunciation of Ducange's Trente ans ou la vie d'un joueur. Adams. xxvi (1928). of Northwestern. Larra ridicules romanticism as a silly. Rogers "The Drama of Pre-RomanticSpain. I. although in different tones and modes. K. In February of 1828 Mariano Jose de Larra. For this is precisely what occurs. and extols the Spaniard Moratin and his followers for continuing to uphold. not to say ignorant.1916). ephemeral. 574-837. despite the fulminations of the critics. 315-324. . Cotarelo number his journalElduende by DuendeSaMorfin his Postfigaro (Madrid. P. Cotareloy de MorfIsidoroMdiquez el teatro su tiempo(Madrid. And. P.of North Carolina. and a passion for liberty) discernible in the poets of the eighteenth century had been stifled by the declamatory ode on contemporary social and patriotic themes introduced by Quintana and 2 In the second del of satirico dia. and P.pp.

It was Alcall Galianowho wrotethe unsignedprologue-advocatingin the name of the nationaltradition a compromise between neoclassicdoctrineand standardsand romanticforms and themes-to his friend the (later) Duque de Rivas' El MoroExp6sito(Paris. the Schlegels.followingB6hl. As later during the romantic period (which coincides roughly with the first Carlist war (1833-39) and subsequent strife until the "pacification" of 1843-45) politics was the primary preoccupation with intellectuals and writers.. the criticand scholar Augustfn collectionof the Spanishballadsand issuedhis famousDiscurso. Almost single-handed the great Hispanist Bohl von Faber. anarchy.in which. The political upheavals-foreign invasion.whichforhimmeansessentialbyEuropean contemporary and simply-freedom to followthe nationalgeniusand traditions.. The debate over the neoclassic esthetic in its relation to Spanish literature. (Paris. (As well as an anticipationof the later "eclectic" .the sameyear as Larra's but reviewof Ducange'smelodrama.Althoughby no means immediatelyaccepted or causing even a mild furoreamong critics. if not destroyed. later became"converts" the modified in Spain: the resuscitationof traditionallynational themes and forms. 6 In 1828. La qutrelle de caldronienne Johan Nikolas Bohl von Faber. Mme de Stael.4 inspired by Herder. are symbolicof the courseand character romanticism Spain. civil strife.It was Morawhocontributedwith a volume of Leyendas espanolas(1840) to the final triumphof the leyenda and balladform (see below). was largely stilled. which since 1737 had raged intermittently for nearly a century. and bloody repression-which had racked the country since 1808 had arrested. especiallyhis findingthe originsof European of (in the drama. consequently. when comparedwith its Frenchpredecessor betweenFrenchand Spanish roman"Pr6face Cromwell. The year 1828is a significant date in the historyof the attitude-both proand contra-in Spain towardsromanticism: but it recordsnot only one of the high-watermarksof the prestigeof neoclassicism. so the literarycareersof these two figures(AlcalU those of their more importantcontemporaries Martinezde la Rosa and the Duque de in of Rivas. Duran'sposition is romanticism the one soonto becomepopular. Grimm.of course)in the comedia the GoldenAge. German. the firstdefinitelyromantic poemof the longnarrativetype in Spanish. that notable revival of learning and letters which had taken place in the last decades of the eighteenth century. Just as AlcalI Galiano'stimid and middle-of-the-road proand (to someextent) counterpart the logue.he belaborsthe neoclassic preceptsand practice in the theatreas contraryto the Spanishnationalgenius (reflectedin the comedia the of GoldenAgeof Lopede Vegaand Calder6n) as. also the beginningof its ultimate decline. it should be formof romanticism that was to triumph to noted.38 Romanticismin Spain furthered by the War of Independence. He deploresthe lack of knowledgein Spainof romantic authorsanddoctrine. causeof the contemand the porarydecadenceof the Spanishstage. Both Alcali Galianoand Mora. severalmonths DurIn publishedthe firstvolumeof his monumental later."6 Although translations of English. and the Schlegels. Pitollet. strove to focus attention on the ancient folk poetry and to exalt the drama of the seventeenth century as superior to the revered "rules. 1909). and French pre4 The details of B6hl's polemicswith the young neoclassicists AntonioAlcalUGaliano and Jose Joaquinde Mor may be foundin C. 1834). Intellectual intercourse with the rest of Europe was largely cut off." eloquentof the differences de is Galianoand Mora).and Herder. as well as ticism.

by which they were indeed influenced.F.later (1830)took the initiativein deliberately del adaptingthe novel of Sir WalterScott to Spanishsoil and themesin his Caballero cisne o los bandos Castilla.the forcewhichresolvesand explainsthe contradicin tions and the courseof romanticism . (1846-80). 2epartie.muchmoreextensiveand significant politicaland socialquestions than in literature. moderate and conciliatory. A.. The best discussionwill be found in Blanco Garcfa.continued Professor xvimi(1931). published in the short-lived El Europeo (1823-24) of Barcelona. in Gallego'sanonymoustranslationof Ducange. A. in (first See E..6 Only sporadic references to romanticism as such are found prior to 1818. LV by panique.Anotherof the editors. are those of the Italian Monteggia and the Catalin Lopez Soler. Mariano of pp. CarlosAribau..) And it shouldbe noted that to bothLarra's opposition and Duran'sadvocacyof whateachconceivesto be romanticism have theirrootsin literarypatriotism. cal Note). 411-418. C.B. and Lamartine) are seen and heard in the last years of the eighteenth and early decades of the nineteenth century. Mario Casella." Goethe. Peers. Zellarsin Revista FilologiaEspanola. the Vicomte d'Arlincourt. and Cooper. and had devoured the romantic novels of Chateaubriand and the pseudo-historical and sentimental fiction of Mme de Genlis. the novels of Walter Scott. Peersand P. "The Term 'Romanticism' Spain.7and the first serious critical discussions. (1922).The 1-160. 7 The earliest(1814)formof the termis romancesco.. Gonzalez-Blanco's . 9 The romantic pre-romantic novelof Spainis oneof the manytopicsneedingfurther and Historiade la novela Espafa desdeel en investigationand synthesis.Alonso Cort6sand Peers (see Bibliography) with additionalmaterialin and Jost deLarra.1899).1938)providesthe most completestudy to date of the difficultproblemof Rousin in seau'sinfluence Spain. romanticismo (Madrid.andlaterarticlesby Peers(seeBibliographiBibliotechedegliArchivi.Hisp. J. R. in HisChurchman their "Surveyof the Influenceof Sir WalterScott in Spain"in Revue Peersalone. 164-165.Spain. followedby romanesco the Bohl(in Morapolemic-see note 4) andromdntico usedexclusively El Europeo-see note 8). vols. (see Cejador Bibliography) in M.played a leadingr61le in de the Catalan"Renaixensa"-not the least and one of the most lastingfruitsof romanticism in Spain-as well as being the moving spirit in the unique and monumentalcollection knownas the Biblioteca autores de 71 espanoles. de . See also W. see "Agli Albori del Romanticismoe del ModernoRinascimentoCatalano.81-120.L6pezSoler.1909) is of little value. "Ossian.The vogueand influence Scott have been studiedby E."Rivista delle e xxix (1918).9 And from 1825 on. (Sevilla. Courtney Tarr 39 romantics (Young. Chateaubriand.Lxvm (1926). 149-162. H. 8 For a discussionof El Europeo and its articles on romanticism. Radcliffe). (Rev. attitude.-One of the editors.227-310. Rousseau. they had no great popularity (save possibly Atala) and certainly little immediate influence. ChavesD. 6 For initial bibliography influences and translations Farinelliand Peers (Bibliosee of in 1833 (Austin graphical Note). and Miss Roche (to say nothing of the thrillers of Mrs.."RevueHispanique in IxxxI (1933).A. Mme Cottin. like those of the Italian Conciliatore. Spell'srecent Rousseau the SpanishWorldbefore [Texas].8 Yet the public had applauded for decades the type of play denounced by the youthful Larra and his contemporaries and predecessors.

but in the theatre and in narrative poetry. whose vogue in the rest of Europe was echoed in Spain. And it was under the direct example and even guidance of these men (Jovellanos. was at its peak in the first three decades of the nineteenth century. father and son) of writers and scholars imbued with the patriotic desire to reform and restore Spanish letters on the basis of the neoclassic precepts. were almost immediately accepted by the critics and men of letters who were still indifferent or hostile to romanticism in general. Moratin the younger. As seen in Larra's review. precisely because of its antiquarianism. initiated in 1830 by Lopez Soler and continued almost immediately by other writers-among them Larra and Espronceda-with the deliberate purpose of enriching the national literature by adapting this new and widely acclaimed form to Spanish soil and the Spanish spirit. The belated and limited. Quintana. But during and after the War of Independence the reformasame author'sLa novelahist6rica EspaAa. Thus not only did neoclassicism flower late in Spain. but the prestige of its exponents. there were deeper reasons for this opposition than a pardonable ignorance due to isolation and an understandable scorn for the vulgar taste in fiction and in the theatre. on doctrinal as on patriotic grounds-which took the form of a vigorous defense of the national drama and continuous satire of French culture and customs and of its supporters. 1938) adds little or en nothing to our knowledge. even more than of its precepts. at least not until the historical novels of Perez Gald6s.) that the literary generations of the first half of the nineteenth century grew up. And here the opposition to romanticism had first to be overcome. The vivid. etc. again. This prestige was political as well as literary. romanticism made its initial appearance in Spain in its newest and least romantic form-the first of the many paradoxes to be encountered in our survey-in the historical novel in the manner of Walter Scott. and dragged out a feeble existence in the thirties and forties. Lista. living recreation of the national past took place. not in the novel. yet sound and solid.1828-1850(New York. particularly the theatre. of the seventeenth century and its subsequent decadence. renaissance of culture in eighteenth-century Spain was in its literary aspects almost exclusively the work of two generations (symbolized by the Moratins. so congenial to historical and legendary themes and settings. But (again the paradox) the pseudo-archaeological novel proved alien to the Spanish temper. to the failure to observe which they attributed the shortcomings of the national literature.40 Romanticism in Spain too. at least in part. The eighteenth-century reformadoreshad met with great opposition-not so much. As a consequence. .

which had animated both the eighteenth-century neoclassicists and their opponents.undoubtedlycompiledby one of the groupperhapseven by AlcalhGalianoor the Duquede Rivas. identified as it was. played at the Porte-St. although to opposite ends. and even death was the portion of many of them in the reactions of 1814-20 and 1823-33. Courtney Tarr 41 dores and their followers. A. 1894. Not until the political and literary revolution of 1830 in France. 45)-is one of those which the author hopes to be able to are reprintwhen circumstances morefavorable. literary and political. the arch-enemy of liberal Spain.Martinez de la Rosa'sFrenchplay is cited below. No wonder. and finally in lyric. (This. took the lead. "The Literary Activities of the SpanishEmigrados English. the very opposite of their own principles of progress and reform. First. political and literary."L'emigration le romantismeespax comparte. The most complete contemporary of the remarkable scholarlyand literary productivityof this group was publishedin the last number(17. in Paris. by the Spanish emigrados. worked before 1830 against the introduction of romanticism. gnole.. in which some of them were participants. Madrid. Sarraith. 17-40. as they imperfectly knew it. Imprisonment. And then only in part. Peers.. . whowerebothconnectedwith this madride journal. next in the drama. also in Paris. Martin in June of 1830. ou la revoltede Maures sous Philippe II.)" In the same year Martinez de la Rosa published. Benftez. after the revolution of 1830 and among the liberal and neoclassicist exiles gathered there.accordingto Hartzenbusch(Apuntespara un catdlogo los peri6dicos lenos. 1834) of the rare and ephemeralMadriddaily Diario del comercio (later El de Mensajero las Cortes). with the figure of Chateaubriand.L. For them romanticism represented reaction. or in English. and." in list M. (1930). Mauryy J. his Conjuraci6n de Venecia. xix (1924). is by no means the only instance of literary composition in French. The most outstanding figure. composed-on the heels of his preceptist Poetica (1827) and his pseudoSophoclean Edipo (1828)-a historical drama in French. In these latter genres the first important essays in romanticism take place outside of Spain.This document.Previousto this anotheremigrado. had published (1826) his Espagnepottique. in their eyes."Revuede litttrature 1 See E. among them. then. with few exceptions. M.'? did their attitude change. by the way. Aben-Humeya.F. Thus it was that the patriotic impulse. that they and their disciples should oppose romanticism. Martinez de la Rosa.See also A.an anthology of Spanishverse in et Frenchmetricaltranslation. p. 315-324. for May 31. in the novel. the first Spanish historical drama with ex10Espronceda of fought in the barricades Paris duringthe July Revolution.R. just as after that date it was to further its conditional acceptance and its adaptation to national soil and literary traditions.. not only in resisting the invader. on the whole unsuccessfully. or rather narrative poetry. but also in the liberal and constitutional movements of 1810-14 and 1820-23. exile.

but much the same. and of Victor Hugo-the variegated fountain heads of inspiration for the period-dominate the scene. This turn was the one finally to triumph: one more distinctly historical and legendary in subject-matter. of the theatrical repertory. as a part. the return of the emigradosto aid the cause of Isabel II. Espronceda died in 1842 and the field was left to the bard Zorrilla and lesser poets. and the ill-advised attempt of the same group to convert the death and funeral of Larra into a public glorification of . had only a year (183536) of precarious existence. more superficial and declamatory in expression. and the elevation of Martinez de la Rosa to head the government. trimmings. the outstanding poet was the ex-revolutionary Espronceda. the organ of the small group sworn to advance the cause. The romantic drama in Spain. much more definitely modelled on the old ballads (romances). Garcia Gutierrez and Hartzenbusch. had little direct influence until followed in 1840 by the author's Romances historicos. freedom from the "rules. El Artista. a jeunesse doree of young intellectuals and artists. of Quintana. In the meantime. Doctrinaire romanticism gained little or no headway in Spain. although not the dominant one. after the death of Ferdinand VII in 1833 had given rise to the Carlist revolt. Yet by the year 1837 the romantic drama was firmly established. or melodramatic. in whose meagre yet magnificent verses (not published in collected form until 1840) is to be found the almost perfect fusion of Spanish forms and themes with those of foreign inspiration (Byron. It was initiated by Zorrilla in his Poesias (1837-39) and sealed by the same poet's Cantos del Trovador(1841). This was not played in Madrid until 1834. But only when purged of some of its "excesses" and garbed in native dress." exuberance of rhetoric and varied versification-Lope and Calder6n brought "up to date"! In lyric poetry the course of events was slower.42 Romanticism in Spain ternal romantic. of Becquer and Rosalia de Castro. represents a cross between the French drame romantique and the Spanish comedia of the seventeenth century. The years 1840-41 also saw the appearance of numerous other volumes of the leyenda and ballad type. Hugo. of two young and relatively unknown poets. For two decades and more the rhetorical reverberations of the national ballad. The long narrative poem (El Moro Exp6sito). published in 1834 in Paris by the former liberal exile and neoclassicist Duque de Rivas. but stressing the elements present in the latter: themes from national history and legend. however. Beranger). after 1837. as initiated by El Trovador (1836) and Los amantes de Teruel (1837). the exquisitely simple and poignant verses. to drown out the timid and tardy but genuinely romantic voices. more directly Spanish and Catholic in spirit. respectively. perhaps its year of greatest vitality.

after the revolution of 1830. it would seem that literary romanticism should flourish there as in few countries. in its main lines. Courtney Tarr 43 suicide met with crushing disapproval. just nine years after his first review. Scott had any influence. the German romantics were at best mere names in the Peninsula. Only in the forties and beyond are Hugo and Lamartine-never Vigny or Musset-definitely incorporated into the stream of Spanish poetry. of qualified success. But only because it had been seen-and after it had been made -to conform to the national temper and tradition. The dyed-in-the-wool romantic dramas of Hugo and Dumas and their Spanish counterpartsnotably the Don Alvaro o lafuerza del sino (1835) of the Duque de Rivas . like the land itself and the genius and culture of the race. a self-created victim of political persecution and of unrequited love. Thus romanticism in Spain presents. of the youthful Zorrilla. to judge from the apparently romantic qualties inherent in the great enterprises and creations of the Spanish spirit. comprehended but imperfectly. The ideas of the Conciliatore were echoed almost immediately and. Indeed. were unconsciously fulfilled in Spain perhaps more completely than in Italy. Until the eighteen sixties and after. In February of 1837. especially. Of the English romantics only Byron and. a veritable panorama of paradox. England. and France. is to strike the dominant note in the romanticism of the forties and beyond: the historical. and the rhetorical. and this was by no means decisive. Yet the contrary is rather the case. the legendary. the history of romanticism in Spain has more direct analogies. literary and political. To judge from the popularity of Spanish themes and settings among the romantics of Germany. in the decisive interplay of literary and political factors. at best. Yet even French romanticism made a late entry. At first opposed by intellectuals and men of letters in the name of patriotism. Mariano Jos6 de Larra shot himself. in utter despair (despite his unparalleled success as a critic and satirist) at his country's desperate plight and his own (to him) hopeless situation. and had in the theatre only a brief moment. was combated or. accepted (with reservations) and practiced (with modifications) by the very same group and for the same patriotic motives. although almost immediately forgotten. This genuine Wertherian gesture and the scandal of his funeral mark the turning point in the history of Spanish romanticism: the disappearance of the most profoundly romantic temperament of his times and the theatrical emergence. although it is French romanticism alone that exercises any important literary influence. in the late thirties. romanticism of the French variety was. both dramatic and narrative. with the situation in Italy than even with that in France.F. whose poetry. reciting verses at his very grave.

whereit exists in its most pronounced form). of course) and once the European vogue of Spanish themes and letters had been tardily appreciated-and speedily exaggerated-quickly to be regarded and practiced as a peculiarly national heritage. rarely the spirit. Romantic lyric poetry gained no great foothold until after the revival of the romanceor ballad. which was in its first Spanish phases largely an international. once it was established in Spain (in modified form. to Addison and Steele-and romantic only in its preoccupation. Thus romanticism. Rosalia de Castro). incarnate in the figure of Zorrilla. the one originaland popularcreationof the eighteenthcentury theatre in Spain). those in which he distills his own satiric despair. Shelley. the historical novel. not the pure romanticism he absorbed in Spain as a boy.and languageto the sainete(the shortdramatic and of Madridtypes sketch. were on the whole disappointing. dramatic and narrative verse. The genuine romantic personalities either disappear early (Larra. identifying. Its chief vehicle is.in Don Alvaroof the Duquede Rivas. like the true romantic he is. his own and his country's plight. romantic in feeling. The outstanding prose genre is the articulo (later cuadro) de costumbres(humorous and satirical sketches of manners and customs). manifestation-witness the activities of the emigradosin France and England-came. an eighteenth-century form in origin-it goes back. Significant works of thought and criticism are conspicuously absent. too-is not derivedfromabroad. scenes.l2 Only in the later articulos of Larra. the feeling for nature -are few and limited.as is likewisethe "localcolor"of the romanticdramas(e. picturesque and scenes. small as it is. of the past. Espronceda) or are obscure or belated figures (B ecquer. is at best external and rhetorical.g. if not frankly unsuccessful. as early as 1837 Victor Hugo is accused (by Mesonero Romanos in his satiric sketch El romanticismoy los romdnticos)of having propagated. but not in form or theme. Of true lyricism there is little. Yet their product. it reflects only the husks. Divorced from contact with newer literary currents and with the realities of the times. u The "localcolor"of the articulo-and. It is distinctlyrelatedin types. is the artfculo romantic. . is rathera manifestation continuation the "comicrealism" but and of of so characteristic Spanish letters. Indeed.44 Romanticism in Spain -awakened more opposition than applause. with picturesque and popular scenes and types. to a largeextent. but a deliberately false and adulterated version! But this Spanish brand of romanticism. the direct descendant of the ballads and of the comedia of the Golden Age.humorous satirical.. Earlier attempts to acclimate a new genre. of course. Wordsworth. naturally enough. Characteristic romantic themes and attitudes-for instance. that of the cuadro. is not without distinction. Spanish literature of the romantic period can boast no Byron. in the cuadro stage. not to say cosmopolitan.

Although these latter actually predominate from the quantitative standpoint. is carried to fruition in poetry. save for a brief moment and then only in a few extreme cases. of neoclassical principles and personages. although in reverse order. But in the group known as the "generation of '98" (in whom the Silver Age of Spanish literature. Spanish letters of the romantic period form the first considerable body of literature of respectable stature since the golden days of Lope and Cervantes. Introduced by a generation steeped in the liberal and neoclassical traditions. Schiller. in Espronceda and B 6cquer. and is manifest in that blend of personal and national introspection. especially the most . Yet by 1840 many of its externals have been assimilated and continue to flourish. but with emphasis increasingly on the former. the age of Cervantes and Lope and that of Jovellanos and Moratin. represents no complete rejection. as well as a prose artist of the first rank. the period still deserves the label "romantic" (or "pseudo-romantic") because the major literary achievements were in that mode. But in Spain as elsewhere. In literature. of the creative and the critical. that fusion of the intellectual and the passionate. begun in the novel by Gald6s and his contemporaries. they. as in politics. but rather a compromise with them. in the poetry and the theatre of the entire second half of the nineteenth century. Although some aspects of romanticism (notably literary patriotism and the reaction against the "rules") go far back into the eighteenth century. And. between national tradition and universal standards advocated since the end of the eighteenth century. not even a Hugo or a Vigny.F. were both respected. in increasingly modified form. Courtney Tarr 45 or Keats. then. The romantic period in Spain. literary productivity is not wholly. Taken as a whole. yet it does have. there came to reign. or Heine. no Goethe. in the romantic mode. not formal or rhetorical. and in Larra a profoundly romantic personality. which constitutes the peculiarhall-mark of their genius as individuals and as a generation. two poets of genuine accent and expression. the very compromise. and the essay as well) are to be found some of the most genuinely romantic personalities and attitudes in Spanish letters. romantic drama and poetry were continued by a younger group brought up in the same ideals and who consequently alternated their romantic compositions with the literary types and practices of the preceding era. drama. It lies at the root of their attitude toward life and of letters. inspired both by contemporary European currents and fundamental national realities. The two literary traditions. Their romanticism is vital and functional. no Leopardi. it does not enter Spain as a conscious literary force until 1830. nor even predominantly. a sort of justo medio (juste milieu). after a short flurry of revolt even less fundamental in literature than in politics.

then. which seems to share in all the manifold characteristics of romanticism as a general European literary phenomenon and to manifest and combine them in ways of its own. therefore. The co-existence of the past and the present so peculiar to Spain. Espronceda and Becquer. in one form or other. and. is the chronological differential. in one direction or other. The student of English literature of the period commonly known as romantic is inclined to believe that his problem is far less simple than that of the students of other literatures. with reservations. Spanish history and culture with respect to those of England and France. Corollary to this is the patriotic preoccupation which. I confine myself to a suggestion of the complexity of English romanticism. excepting only Larra (in whom they saw a forerunner). Baroja. from the eighteenth century on. from the historical rather than the esthetic angle. and also comparisons and contrasts as such between individual writers or even. to any extent. to be . Rosalia de Castro. I must disregard. as elsewhere. a subject full of danger unless one has time to bolster each statement. COURTNEY TARR Princeton University 6 ROMANTIC PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS IN ENGLAND IN any brief consideration of the implications for English romanticism of the five papers just presented. between nations. save for occasional moments and individuals. it is necessary to choose one method of treatment. to the understanding of romanticism in Spain. the external and the superficially historical. But first I must say what I understand by romanticism. Fundamental. is the distinction between the external and the internal between "romantic" and "romanticist. English romanticism seems to be based on a less formulated revolutionary criticism than the French. international influences. F. the "time lag" of roughly fifty years or more which. permeates the warp and woof of modern Spanish intellectual activity. Azorin-deliberately repudiate the literary romanticism of the nineteenth century with its stress on the verbal. the struggle between the weight of the past and the pressure of the present-the tragic dilemma lying at the core of modern Spanish history-is reflected throughout modern Spanish letters and nowhere more clearly than in the nature and course of romanticism in Spain. has characterized." Fundamental too.46 Permutations and Combinations in England profoundly romantic among them-Unamuno.