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the differences between both control strategies would not seem so abysmal: . The optimizer is another fundamental part of the strategy as it provides the control actions. there are many types of models used in various formulations. Notice that the MPC strategy is very similar to the control strategy used in driving a car.brakes and steering) to take in order to follow the desired trajectory. because more information (the reference trajectory) is used by MPC. and the procedure is again repeated for the next control decisions in a receding horizon fashion. although its main drawbacks are the large number of parameters needed and that only open-loop stable processes can be described this way. However the amount of time needed for the constrained and robust cases can be various orders of magnitude higher than that needed for the unconstrained case and the bandwidth of the process to which constrained wc can be applied is considerably reduced. Notice that if a future point in the desired reference trajectory is used as the setpoint for the PID. If the car driving analogy is extended. as has been done by one of the commercial MPC vendors (SCAP) [71] in their publicity. as it is a representation that requires only a few parameters and is valid for all kind of processes. most widespread in the academic community and is used in most control design methods. The State-Space Model is also used in some formulations. as it can easily describe multivariable processes. the PID way of driving a car would be equivalent to driving the car just using the mirror as shown in figure 1. It is widely accepted in industrial practice because it is very intuitive and can also be used for multivariable processes. If the cost function is quadratic. In the presence of inequality constraints the solution has to be obtained by more computationally taxing numerical algorithms. This analogy is not totally fair with PIDS. Closely related to this lund of model is the Step Response I Model. One of the most popular in industry is the Truncated Impulse Response Model. its minimum can be obtained as an explicit function (linear) of past inputs and outputs and the future reference trajectory. such as PIDS.to precisely predict the future outputs as well as being simple to implement and to understand. which is very simple to obtain as it only needs the measurement of the output when the process is excited with an impulse input. and by taking into account the car characteristics (mental model of the car) decides which control actions (accelerator. control actions are taken based on past errors. Only the first control actions are taken at each instant. As MPC is not a unique technique but a set o$ different methodologies. The Transfer Function Model is. The driver knows the desired reference trajectory for a finite control horizon. The size of the optimization problems depends on the number of variables and on the prediction horizons used and usually turn out to be relatively modest optimization problems which do not require sophisticated computer codes to be solved. Notice that when using the classical control schemes. perhaps. obtained when the input is a step.3.

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10 Chapter 1. although the relation between performance and robustness is not very clear. Because of its popularity. both structured and unstructured uncertainties are considered. Chapter 3 focuses on commercial Model Predictive controllers. Constant disturbance assumption: although perhaps the most reasonable assumption is to consider that the output disturbance will remain constant in the future. All other controllers can be detuned in order to improve robustness. In order to do this. the implementation of GPC is considerably simplified. better feedback would be possible if the distribution of the disturbance could be characterized more carefully. a: 1. The control law is in general time-varying and cannot be represented in the standard closed loop form. A brief reviewal of the the most outstanding methods is made. it is organized as follows. The robustness of the method is studied. systematic treatment of modelling error and uncertainty or such an open field as nonlinear model predictive control. especially in the constrained case. defining the uncertainty limits that preserve stability of the real process when it is being controlled by a GPC designed for the nominal model. By using these. Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) treated in greater detail in chapter 4. Introduction to Model Based Predictive Control Model uncertainty: although model identification packages provide uses estimates of model uncertainty. . is avoided. Two related methods which is have shown good stability properties (CRHPC and SGPC) also described. Analysis: a systematic malysis of stability and robustness properties of MPC is not possible in its original finite horizon formulation.4 Outline of the Chapters The book aims to study the most important issues of MPC with regards to its application to process control. especially for the adaptive case. that is. most of the plants in the process industry. are Chapter 5 shows how GPC can easily be applied to a wide variety of plants in the process industry by using some Ziegler-Nichols types of tuning rules. The technology is continually evolving and the next generation will have to face new challenges in open topics such as model identification. unmeasured disturbance estimation and prediction. and the computational burden and time that the implementation of GPC may bear. The rules have been obtained for plants that can be modelled by the reaction curve method and plants having an integrating term. Chapter 2 describes the main elements that appear in any MPC formulation and reviews the best known methods. In order to achieve this objective. The closed loop is studied. only one product (RMPCT) this information in the control design.