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Probability (Day 1 and 2) – Black Problems Independent Events 1. Michael will flip a coin nine times.

What is the probability that 2/3 or more of the flips will be heads? Express your answer as a decimal to the nearest thousandth. 2. Flip a fair coin. If it lands heads, write an H and the turn is done. If it lands tails, then flip it again – write H if it lands heads or T if it lands tails, and the turn is done. After five turns, what is the probability that 5 H’s have been written? Express your answer as a common fraction. 3. A fair coin is tossed four times, and at least one of the tosses results in heads. What is the probability that exactly two tosses result in heads? Express your answer as a common fraction. 4. In a coin tossing game, seven tosses result in heads. What is the probability that the next toss will also be a head? Explain your answer. 5. The exercise room at work is open Monday through Friday for use by employees. Jane exercises two days each week, and Richard exercises two days each week. They independently randomly decide which two days every week. What is the probability they will be there on the same day at least once in a given week? Express your answer as a common fraction. 6. Two numbers are chosen at random, with replacement, from the set {1, 2, 3, 4}. The two numbers are used as the numerator and denominator of a fraction. What is the probability that the fraction represents a whole number? Express your answer as a common fraction. 7. Six number cubes with faces numbered 1 – 6 are rolled. The sum of the numbers on the top faces is calculated. What is the most likely sum? 8. Manu and Janani are playing a coin toss game with a fair penny. Manu gets a point if the penny lands on heads, and Janani gets a point if the penny lands on tails. The score is Janani 9, Manu 7, in a game to 10 points. What is the probability that Janani will win the game? 9. A box contains two coins with a Head on both sides, one standard coin and one coin with a Tail on both sides. A coin will be randomly selected from these four coins and will be flipped twice. What is the probability that each of the two flips will result in a Head? Express your answer as a common fraction.

three 6s and one 9. The trick die and a standard die are rolled. If four tees are selected without replacement. Amazingly. 4. are randomly selected without replacement from the set {2. Two numbers. Steve has three quarters. In a bag are only red and white marbles. When a green marble is chosen. 16. 12. what is the probability that the total value is exactly 35 cents? Express your answer as a common fraction. similarly. 6 blue tees and 4 white tees.Dependent Events 10. . Three digits are randomly selected without replacement from two 2s. What is the probability that the fraction a is less than 1 and can be b 3 5 3 . 5. When the second green marble is selected. he continues to place all red marbles he selects into the first box until a green marble is chosen. The probability of choosing a red marble is . what is the probability that all four are different colors? Express your answer as a common fraction. 13. The probability of choosing two red marbles without replacement is many white marbles are in the bag? 15. Robyn selected three cards from a standard deck of 52 playing cards. What is the probability that it is a red ace? Express your answer as a common fraction. 11. He then selects and places red marbles in the second box until the second green marble is chosen. 6}. 3. If Steve selects three coins at random and without replacement. the probability of rolling a 3 or 4 is each probability of rolling a 5 or 6 is each 1 12 1 6 and the . he will put the second box aside and place all remaining red marbled in a third box. If he selects a red marble. six of which are red and two of which are green. Matt then randomly draws marbles without replacement. he puts it in the first box. he puts the first box aside. 5 green tees. what is the probability that each box contains two red marbles? Express your answer as a common fraction. 10 How expressed as a terminating decimal? Express your answer as a common fraction. After all marbles are drawn. a and b. 14. On a trick 6-sided die the probability of rolling a 1 or 2 is each ¼. 17. A box of golf tees contains 3 red tees. three nickels and three pennies. What is the probability what the sum of the three digits is a multiple of 2? Express your answer as a common fraction. all three were aces! She set those three cards aside and then chose one from the cards remaining in the deck. What is the probability of rolling a sum of 7? Express your answer as a common fraction. Matt is given a jar with eight marbles.

If their teacher randomly chooses two of these students.3). What is the probability that the product of the numbers on the top faces will be greater than 12? Express your answer as a common fraction.3 or 4 are equal. General Problems 23. A point is randomly selected from within the triangle having vertices at (0.0). Two number cubes. (Be careful to give the odds rather than the probability!). Four balls are randomly drawn without replacement. With this die. what are the odds she will choose the two girls? Express your answer in the form a : b. The unshaded regions are each a quarter of an inscribed circle. The probabilities of rolling a 5 or 6 also are equal to each other. 19. The odds of rolling a 5 on an unfair die are 1:3. 6’ . Odds 21. where a : b is the ratio of the probability of a successful event to the probability of an unsuccessful event. 24. A six-sided die is weighted so that the probabilities of rolling a 1. and one marble is randomly chosen. What is the probability of selecting a white ball followed by a black ball. The chosen marble is yellow. What is the probability that she will roll a 4? Express your answer as a common fraction.18. What is the probability that the dart lands in one of the shaded regions? Express your answer as a common fraction in terms of π. The odds of an event happening successfully are expressed as a : b. (2. and then selecting a black ball followed by a white ball? Express your answer as a common fraction. 2. are rolled. Saul. Kia is three times more likely to roll a 6 than a 2. What is the probability that the point is within one unit of (0. A yellow marble is added to the bag. A bag contains 20 black balls and 30 white balls. A dart is randomly thrown and lands within the boundaries of a 6 foot by 6 foot square. 26. Two different prime numbers less than 100 are randomly selected and multiplied. Bob and Carl want to represent their class on the student council. either green or yellow. A Bag contains one marble. each with the digits 1 – 6 on the six faces.0)? Express your answer as a common fraction in terms of π. Marissa. What is the probability that the marble left in the bag is yellow? Express your answer as a common fraction. What is the probability of rolling a 5 with this die? Express your answer as a percent. What is the probability that their product will be divisible by 9? 20. 25.0) and (0. 22. Naomi.

what is the probability it will hit the region outside the square but inside the circle? Express your answer as a percent to the nearest tenth. 28.-4). 29. A four-digit numeral is formed from the digits 1. A square is inscribed in a circle that forms a dartboard. what is the probability that the bottom faces are 1. (4. 2. and values for a and b are chosen at random. Each time he comes to a vertex. (-2.4). A magician designed an unfair coin so that the probability of getting a Head on a flip is 60%. If he flips the coin three times. yellow and green. A and red.2). respectively? Express your answer as a common fraction. (2. What is the probability that none of the digits are in the position corresponding to their value – that is. the faces of another tetrahedron are lettered A-D. 32. blue. Ben owns five pairs of socks. . what is the probability that he has only two complete pairs left? Express your answer as a common fraction.2) in a coordinate plane. If he loses three socks. and each pair is a different color. and 4 is not fourth? Express your answer as a common fraction. and the faces of a third tetrahedron are colored red. he randomly decides which of the available directions to travel. After he has traveled along six segments.4). what is the probability that he flips more Heads than Tails? Express your answer as a common fraction. Given that a and b are integers such that -3 ≤ a ≤ 1 and -1 ≤ b ≤ 3. The faces of a regular tetrahedron are numbered 1-4. Three faces of a cube are randomly selected. He never backtracks over the path he just took. what is the probability that ab is not negative? Express your answer as a common fraction. Alvin starts at point A and walks along the pictured graph. If these tetrahedrons are rolled. 3 is not third. and 4 written in random order. what is the probability that he is back at point A? A 30. what is the probability that the line containing the segment he draws will pass through the origin? Express your answer as a common fraction. 33. 34. If a dart randomly hits the dartboard. 3.-4). 31. If he randomly selects two of the points and connects them. (-2. Pedro graphed points (2. 35. 1 is not first. 2 is not second. What is the probability that they share a common vertex? Express your answer as a common fraction.27. but he may retrace a path later in his journey. Each digit is used only once. and (1.

A bag contains six white marbles. Mary will pick a positive integer less than 80 that is a multiple of 7. What is the probability that they both will pick the same number? Express your answer as a common fraction. What is the probability that the cards are in the correct order? Express your answer as a common fraction. 45. Susan will pick a positive integer less than 80 that is a multiple of 9. If three different odd positive integers less than 50 are randomly selected. Wilhelm needs to fill out a form like the one here to indicate that there are broken seats. 46. Norka will reach into the bag and pull out three marbles at the same time. and the teacher has announced that she will be dividing the class into groups of 3. Ben and Jevon are in the same mathematics class. Ken. Joel was ready to give his speech when he dropped his seven note cards and they scattered randomly on the floor. 37. Four dimes and four pennies are randomly placed in a row. Four Maintenance Repot Door of the seats are broken. What is the probability that a randomly selected two-digit positive integer is a perfect square or a perfect cube? Express your answer as a common fraction.36. what is the probability none of the three are prime? 42. 38. 43.11). he quickly picked them up. What is the probability that a point randomly chosen inside the rectangle will be to the right of the line y = 2x + 5? Express your answer as a common fraction. What is the probability that the sum of their four numbers is 17? Express your answer as a common fraction. There are 24 students in the class. What is the probability that all three marbles will be the same color? Express your answer as a common fraction.11) and (-2. 39.3). What is the probability that all of the girls have written down a product greater than 10? Express your answer as a decimal to the nearest ten thousandth. Kerri. (8. What is the probability that Ronnie. Each of the girls rolls her pair of dice and writes down the product of the two numbers that she rolled. five red marbles and four blue marbles. Not paying attention to the order of the cards. 44. Kareem and Katisha each think of a single-digit prime number. Five girls are each given two standard dice. 40. If he randomly checks off four of the seats in the diagram. A European train compartment has six seats. It’s possible that some or all of them think of the same number.3). (8. A rectangle has vertices with coordinates (-2. what is the probability that he marked the correct seats? Express your answer as a common fraction. 41. What is the probability that the coins at the ends are both pennies? Express your answer as a common . Ronnie. Ben and Jevon will be in the same group? Express your answer as a common fraction.

One number is chosen from the first three prime numbers. Ten of the computers are selected at random. What is the probability that the tens digit is odd and the number is divisible by 4? Express your answer as a common fraction. Eighty percent of the class passed the math test. 90% of the class passed the English test. 3. The digits 2. 52.fraction. 53. some paths have no prizes at the end. 47. 4. for a total of 2997 tickets. What is the probability that none of the selected computers are infected? Express your answer as a decimal to the nearest hundredth. 7 and 8 are each used once to from a five-digit number. What is the probability that their sum is greater than or equal to 9? Express your answer as a common fraction. what is the probability of a friend getting to a prize? Express your answer as a common fraction. What is the probability that a randomly selected student in Mary’s class failed both tests? Express your answer as a percent. The prizes are distributed based on the table below. and a second number is chosen from the first three positive composite numbers. blue and green). Prize No Prize Start Prize No Prize Prize 51. Five of the 50 computers in a lab have a virus. A best-of-five series ends when one team wins three games. At each choice in a path. 50. there are three sets of tickets (red. each numbered 1 through 999. In a raffle. and 72% of the class passed both tests. If a ticket is chosen at random. The probability of team A defeating team B in any game is 4 9 . According to the map of the paths and prizes. However. Mary’s class took two tests on Friday. her friends are equally likely to choose either direction since they can’t see what is at the end of any path. 48. Lisa has hidden prizes at the ends of some paths in the woods. what is the probability of winning a small prize? Express your answer as a common fraction. Prize Size Required Ticket Large Prize Red and multiple of 7 Medium Prize Blue Small Prize Multiple 7 49. . What is the probability that team A will win the series? Express your answer as a common fraction.

or in other words. Since there are nine flips and each flip has two possible outcomes. namely HHTT. There are 24 = 16 possible outcomes when a coin is tossed 4 times.254. there are a total of 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 29 = 512 possible outcomes. six have exactly two heads. (One such outcome is THTTHTTHH). namely TTTT. the result is greater than 100 and less than 200? Express your answer as a common fraction. and six Heads. how many ways are there to pick seven of 8! x1! 9! the nine flips to result in Heads? We get the answer by performing 9 choose 7 = = 36 ways. The probability is thus 6/15 or 2/5. A scratch-off lottery ticket has six spaces that can be uncovered. Finally. If we know that at least one of the tosses resulted in heads. eight Heads. this is 130 ÷ 3 512 = 0. then we eliminate the one possibility that is all tails. 2. . Each turn is independent of the others. the other four are LOSE. THTH and TTHH. ⎟ = 4⎠ 1024 ⎝ 5 1/2 first flip H 1/2 T 1/2 second flip H 1/2 T 3. since we can choose any of the nine flips to be the single Tails (which explains why 9 choose 8 = 9 choose 1 = 9! = 9). she wins a large prize. If she uncovers one WIN and one LOSE she gets a small prize. 56. If she gets both WIN spaces. There are nine outcomes with eight Heads. THHT. so the probability that you write H on each of five consecutive turn is ⎜ ⎛3⎞ 243 . A player randomly uncovers two spaces. As a decimal to the nearest thousandth. as shown in the tree diagram. The probability that 2/3 or more of the nine flips result in Heads is equal to the sum of the probabilities of flipping nine Heads. HTTH. Obviously. What is the probability that if you multiply two randomly-selected two-digit whole numbers. Rodney use the following clues to try to guess a secret number: It is a two-digit integer The tens digit is odd The units digit is even The number is greater than 65 If Rodney guesses a number that has each of these properties. Of these. What is the probability that she gets a small prize? Express your answer as a common fraction. Probability (Day 1) – Black Solutions 1. there is only one outcome with nine Heads (HHHHHHHHH). That leaves 15 other outcomes.54. The probability that you write H in a given turn is ½ + ¼ = ¾. there 7 ! x2! are 9 choose 6 = 84 outcomes containing exactly six Heads. This is a total of 1 + 9 + 36 + 84 = 130 outcomes out of 512 that result in at least 2 of the nine flips being Heads. 55. HTHT. seven Heads. How many outcomes have seven Heads. Two of the six spaces are WIN. what is the probability that Rodney will guess the correct number? Express your answer as a common fraction.

giving 4 x 4 = 16 different possible fractions. The 1 2 3 4 1 1 1 2 8 1 = . There is also ¼ chance that the standard coin will be selected. However. the probability of getting a Head is ½ for each flip. for each flip. All of the sums between 6 and 36 are possible.4. The probability of these three events happening in succession is 5/6 x 4/5 x ¾ = ½. 1 1 2 2 7 10 Heads. The probability of three tails in a row is ⎜ ⎛1⎞ 1 1 7 ⎟ = . . In this case. Thus. 8. The median of the set of integers from 6 to 36 is the middle number. Hence. Thus. 6. 16 2 7. there are ⎜ ⎟ = 28 ways to choose the ⎜2⎟ 1 positions of the green marbles. the probability of Janani winning is 1 − = . Each coin toss is an independent event. 1 98 ⎛ 8⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 11. there is a ¼ chance that the coin with a Tail on both sides is selected. 8 of them are whole numbers: probability of choosing a whole number fraction is 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 4 . The least possible sum with the six cubes is 6 (a 1 on each cube) and the greatest possible sum is 36 (a 6 on each cube). Because there are eight marbles initially. the probability of getting a green on the second draw is 18 5 6 . there are 4! = 24 ways to get one of each color. then we simply cannot select the 9. and the probability of getting a white on the fourth 17 16 4 1 draw is . 8 8 8 ⎝2⎠ 3 9. the penny would have to land tails up on the next three tosses. . . the probability of getting a Head is 0. Therefore. the probability of getting a Head is 1 for each flip. . 16 2 16 Dependent Events 10. Multiplying these gives . the probability is . 21. In this case. the probability of getting a blue on the third draw is . The probability of not selecting the 9 on the first pick is 5/6. . 14. For Manu to win the game. The probability of not selecting the 9 on the second pick assuming that it was not selected on the first pick is 4/5. so the probability of choosing the two-Tailed coin and then having each of the two flips result in a Head is ¼ x 0 x 0 = 0. so the probability of choosing a two-Headed coin and then having each of the two flips result in a Head is 2/4 x 1 x 1 = ½. There are four possibilities for the numerator and four possibilities for the denominator. which is the only odd digit. . this is the probability that one of each color was selected in 15 204 the order stated. Finally. Of the 16 possibilities. If the sum of the three digits selected at random is to be a multiple of 2 (an even number). and the probability of choosing a red marble is 3 . In fact. 5. There is only one way for the final result to be two marbles in each of the three boxes: if both the third and sixth marbles drawn are green. 28 12. In this case. and the 5 . . and the median of these numbers is the most probable sum. We would have gotten one of each color in many different ways. so the probability of choosing the standard coin and then having each of the two flips result in a Head is ¼ x ½ x ½ = 1 16 . If there are red and white marbles in the bag. the overall probability of selecting a coin from this collection at random and then getting a Head on each of two flips is 9 1 1 + +0= . The probability of not selecting the 9 on the third pick (assuming it was not selected on the first or second pick) is ¾. the probability is 24x 1 2 . There is a 2/4 chance that a coin with a Head on both sides will be selected. The probability of getting a red on the first draw is 3 . = 204 17 13.

the probability of choosing two red marbles. 3 2 = . The last one we want to pull is a white ball. there are 5 x 4 = 20 ways to select the numerator and denominator of the fraction. 5 4 10 15. . only six result in terminating decimals: 2 2 3 3 3 4 . There are five ways to choose a and four ways to choose b. Only half of the fractions have numerators that are less than the denominators. 2 white. or 6 red. is Hence. Trick die 1 2 3 4 5 6 Regular die 6 5 4 3 2 1 (1/4 x 1/6) = 1/24 (1/4 x 1/6) = 1/24 (1/6 x 1/6) = 1/36 (1/6 x 1/6) = 1/36 (1/12 x 1/6) = 1/72 (1/12 x 1/6) = 1/72 Total 1/6 A more efficient solution is to recognize that no matter what value is rolled on the trick die there is a 1/6 chance that the correct value to make a sum of 7 will be rolled on the regular die. . The three coins worth 35 cents must be a quarter and two nickels. there are 2 white marbles in the bag. = . . we have 49 19 19 black balls and 48 balls total. So the probability 4 5 4 5 6 5 6 3 of selecting two integers make a/b both less than 1 and terminating is .3n red and 2n white marbles in the bag. These outcomes are represented in a 6 x 6 chart below: 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 3 3 6 9 12 4 4 8 12 16 5 5 6 6 10 12 15 18 20 24 25 30 30 36 15 20 18 24 There are 2 + 3 + 4 + 4 = 13 products greater than 12. the probability is 13 . If there are 3 red and 2 white marbles in the bag. Multiplying these probability together gives the probability of drawing four balls in the 47 30i20i19i29 551 order stated. assuming no replacement. = 20 10 16.probability of choosing a white marble is 1 − or. 18. which is the desired probability. 4 white. . Since there are 36 possible outcomes. so the probability of pulling a black second is . 36 . There are 36 possible outcomes. more generally. 50i49i48i47 9212 19. For each of these three case. and the 48 29 probability of that is . There are now 20 black balls and 50 20 29 white balls remaining. 17. Thus. . the probability is 1/3 x 3/8 x 2/7 = 6/168 = 1/28. There are three orders in which Steve could choose them: QNN. Of these ten fractions. and 6 x 6 = 36. That means that there are 3 red. One way to solve this problem is to consider each situation on the trick die combined with the needed value on the regular die. The total probability is thus 3 x 1/28 = 3/28. 0 20. NQN or NNQ. so the probability is . 5 5 3 2 3 x = . For pulling a black ball again. because each cube has 6 faces. The probability of getting a white ball first is 30 (30 white balls out 50 total).

The size of the circle doesn’t matter since the probability is a ratio. = = 360 45(8) 8 8 27.2)/π ≈ 0. 4x = 100. Simplifying this expression is a 36 10 little tricky. P(3) = x. ½ · 2 · 3. and the original green is drawn.363 or 36. Together.2 square units. it must be equal to 2 units. A square is a rhombus with equal diagonals. This amount is ½ x π x 32 = (9/2) π = 4. be x . so we don’t actually have to find its side length. Let the probability of rolling a 4.The possible products range in value from 1 to 36. of the time. Of the remaining three scenarios. so the probability is ¼. the added marble is yellow. We can get rid of the decimal point by multiplying by . HHT. but rather. or • The original marble is green. we need to know the area of this square. so x = 1/10. Then the area of the circle is π square units. x = 25. The probability of rolling a 5 with this unfair die is 25%. Many students are familiar with the idea of probability. There are four possible scenarios for this situation: • The original marble is yellow. the added marble is yellow. this also can be understood as: “We can expect a 5 to be rolled once for every three times a 5 is not rolled” or “We can expect a 5 to be rolled once in every 1 + 3 = 4 rolls”. The odds are then 1:9 that the two girls will be chosen. Then P(1) = x. The two quarter-circles together have the area of half a circle with a radius of 3 feet. We are told that the odds of rolling a 5 with this particular weighted die are 1:3. For the next selection.5 π. The solution to this question of geometric probability is the ratio of the area of the quarter circle. The area of shaded region is thus 36 – 4. which is . For the probability question. P(5) = 3x and P(6) = 3x. Next. The entire square has an area 6 x 6 = 36 square feet.3% 28. the added marble is yellow. but the odds of rolling a 5 are 1:5). The expression is the simplest common fraction in terms of π. to the 1 π iπ i1 π 4 area of the triangle. which is a form of 1. The probability that the selection is something other than the two girls is the other 9/10.5π 360 − 45π = . The region outside the square but inside the circle has an area for π . 3 Odds 21. Since the diagonal of the square is the diameter of the circle. The chosen marble is yellow. (On a standard die. 3 26.5π . and one leaves a green marble in the bag. and the added yellow is drawn. but the outcomes are not equally likely since the coin is unfair. HTH. the probability of getting HHH is 3/5 x 3/5 x . 24. ¼ · π · 12. it seems reasonable that the probability 3 1 . This gives us 10 10 36 − 4. = 4 = 1 3 12 i2i3 2 25. the added marble is yellow. 1:3 does not mean that a 5 will occur one out of every three rolls. the probability of rolling a 5 is 1:6. THH. Note that if the odds of rolling a 5 are 1:3. 22. P(2) = x. The sum of these probabilities is 10x and must equal 1. or 3/5. so that rules out the third scenario. Since the coin lands Heads 60%. The probability that a dart that hits the board lands in this region is (π . so the area can be found with the formula for the area of a rhombus: A = (1/2)(d1)(d2) → (1/2)(2)(2) = 2 square units. TTH and TTT. Four of these eight possibilities show more Heads than Tails. two leave a yellow marble in the bag. eight different things can happen: HHH. • The original marble is yellow. • The original marble is green. Thus the probability is 2 . these two situations cover 100% of the possibilities so 1x + 3x = 100. the probability of rolling a 5 is 1x% and the probability of not rolling a 5 is 3x%. P(4) = x. though very much related. The probability is 2/5 that the first student selected to represent the class will be one of the two girls from the group of five students. The probability that these two girls will be chosen together is 2/5 x ¼ = 1/10. Let’s make the radius of the circle equal 1 unit. HTT. there is only one girl left of the four people. As it was explained in the problem. Because 12 is is close to 1 of 36. and the added yellow is drawn. we can factor out the factor of 45 as follows: x 10 36 360 360 − 45π 45(8 − π ) 8 − π 8 −π . General Problems 23. and the original yellow is drawn. When a coin is flipped three times.5 π and the probability that a dart lands in one of the shaded region is 36 − 4. but the “odds” of an event happening is slightly different. THT. or P(4).

80 10 . If he is to have only two complete pairs left. The rectangle is 10 units wide and 8 units tail. for which the probability is 8/9. 29. Each tetrahedron has four sides. Each of the other two possibilities involving one Tail and two Heads also has a probability of 18/125. Finally. The probability then. the second face chosen must share an edge with this face. The probability that Ben will have only two complete pairs left is 1 x 8/9 x 6/8 = 2/3. The probability of getting HHT is 3/5 x 3/5 x 2/5 = 18/125. ⎟ = 4⎠ 64 ⎝ 3 33. a ¼ probability of the second having an A on the bottom. so the total probability of getting more Heads than Tails is (27 + 18 + 18 + 18)/125 = 81/125. The second sock he loses can be any of the eight socks remaining in the pairs. Ben can lose any of the socks first. but not the other sock like the one he already lost. is 48 2 = . the probability is ⎜ ⎛1⎞ 1 . To solve a problem like this. and four of the other five faces remaining share an edge with the first face. for which the probability is 6/8. to guarantee that three chosen faces share a vertex. Then. 36. 1 3 4 15 30. he can lose any of the six socks in the pairs of the eight socks remaining. 31. There are 6 • 5 • 4 = 120 ways to choose three faces from the six faces of a cube. That gives 6 • 4 • 2 = 48 ways to choose three faces that share a vertex. then he cannot lose any two socks from the same pair. there are two choices for the third face chosen that will result in all three faces sharing a common vertex. for which the probability is 10/10 = 1. so there is a ¼ probability of the first having a 1 on the bottom. y Y= 2x +5 x We are asked how much of the rectangle lies to the right of the line. so its area is 80 square units. Finally. 3 8 3 5 34.3/5 = 27/125. Now. The area of the shaded region can be found by combining a 5 x 8 unit rectangle and a right triangle with legs of 4 and 8 units. choose any of the six faces to start. Five pairs of socks are ten individual socks. Thus the area of the shaded region is 40 + 16 = 56 square units. and a ¼ probability of the third having red on the bottom. it is best to draw the graph. Combined. The ratio of the areas is 56 7 = . 120 5 32. Thus we need the ratio of the area of the shaded region to the area of the entire rectangle. 35.

The four people could each have chosen any one of these four primes. We get (17/36) x (17/36) x (17/36) x (17/36) x (17/36) or (17/36)5 ≈ 0. or 2 + 5 + 5 + 5. To calculate the probability that all five of the girls roll their dice and each of them gets a product greater than 10. 5.0235 to the nearest ten thousandth. 49. there are six spots in between. There are two possible combinations that will give a sum of 17: either 2 + 3 + 5 + 7. and three for his fourth choice. 5 and 7. Seventeen of these 36 products are greater than 10. so there are only 7 distinct numbers. The probability of a random arrangement having a penny at each end. There are 90 integers between 10 and 99. 43. 5} could have been chosen in 4 ways. This leaves five seats for his second choice. Therefore. then. 3. so there are only 360 ÷ 24 = 15 different ways to choose four of the six seats. each of the five girls has a 17/36 probability of getting a product greater than 10. four for his third choice. The units digit must be even. we multiply their individual probabilities. Adding these three different ways to get three marbles of the same color. The two-digit square are 16. This a combination question: How many ways can four things be chosen from a group of six when the order does not matter? Wilhelm could choose any one of the six seats first. The probability that Wilhelm randomly checked the correct seats is just one of these 15 different possibilities or 1/15. then there would be 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 = 360 different ways to pick the seats. The probability of getting three white is 6/15 x 5/14 x 4/13 = 120/2730. The probability that they both pick 63 is (1/11) x (1/8) = 1/88. But he could have chosen the same four seats in any of 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 24 different ways. 5. but 64 appears on both lists. any of the remaining two chosen third. 64 and 81. 70 14 47. 25. 256 64 45. The probability of getting three blue is 4/15 x 3/14 x 2/13 = 24/2730. There are. (Any of the four could have been chosen first. There are three 36 ways that two standard dice and land. (The number 2 could have been chosen first. and four of these ⎜4⎟ ⎝ ⎠ in-between spots will be filled with dimes. If a penny is at each end. namely 2. therefore. The possible products of the two dice range from 1 x 1 = 1 to 6 x 6 = 36. The probability of getting red is 5/15 x 4/14 x 3/13 – 60/2730. three red or three blue. The two-digit cubes are 27 and 81. 4 • 4 • 4 • 4 = 256 possible sets of the four numbers that could be chosen. 40. There are two odd digits. The set {2. There are eight spots in which to place coins and four of these spots will be filled with pennies. There are 6 + 2 = 8 numbers listed. then any of the remaining three chosen second. thus. There are four one-digit primes. There is a 1/11 chance that Mary will pick 63 and a 1/8 chance that Susan will pick 63. 41. second. so the probability that the tens digit is odd is 2/5. 44. 39. 5. 38. is 15 3 = . Norka will be happy is she gets three white. If the order mattered. The probability of choosing one of these integers is 7/90. and then the one remaining chosen last). The only multiple of both 7 and 9 that is less than 80 is 63. 33 460 1 5040 1 253 42. there are ⎛8 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 70 ways to arrange the coins. The set {2. third or fourth). The probability is 28 7 = . there are 24 + 4 = 28 ways to get the sum 17 and there are 256 ways to choose four numbers. we get a total probability of (120 + 60 + 24)/2730 = 204/2730 = 34/455. Either of . 46. It may have been easier to count the 15 pairs of seats he could leave “not checked”. 3. there are ⎜ ⎟ = 15 ways to arrange the coins with a penny at each ⎜4⎟ ⎛6 ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ end. Hence. The tens digit of our number must be 3 or 7. There are 11 multiple of 7 less than 80 and eight multiple of 9 less than 80.37. 7} could have chosen in 4 • 3 • 2 • 1 = 24 ways. There are 6 + 5 + 4 = 15 marbles in the bag. So. 36. since divisibility by 4 means the number is also divisible by 2.

54. If 10 is selected first. Also. To get a small prize. That means that the remaining 100% . only one. There are two ways to choose the tens and units digits and there are 3 x 2 x 1 = 6 ways to arrange the other three digits. there are 2 x 6 = 12 ways to arrange the digits. 120 10 48.31 x x x x x x x x x 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 53. or they can win in four games in three ways: AABA. There are only three ways to obtain a sum less than 9: 2 + 4. There are 5! = 120 numbers that could be formed from the five digits. AAA. the possibilities are 72. The series ends when one team wins three games. the probability that none were infected is 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 ≈ 0. 12 has 7 options. 9 9 3 50. The probability that the sum is greater than or equal to 9 is equal to 1 minus the probability that the sum is less than 9. the possibilities are 32. there are 9 possibilities for the second two-digit number. is divisible by 4. If the tens digit is 3. so there are 3 x 3 = 9 possible combinations. ABABA. There are three ways to pick a prime and three ways to choose a composite. = 8100 675 . 32. W2L3. The probability of “win” followed by “lose” is 2/6 x 4/5 = 8/30 and the probability of “lose” followed by “win” is 4/6 x 2/5 = 8/30. Similarly. 51. There are 90 x 90 = 8100 possible ways to randomly select and multiply 2 two-digit whole numbers. which is 8/30 + 8/30 = 16/30 = 8/15. the probability that the sum is greater than 9 is 1 − 3 6 2 = = . Consequently. ¼ and ¼. BABAA and BAABA. BBAAA. The first three primes are 2. 13 has 6 options. The chance that the first computer tested is uninfected is 3 3 3 2 45 44 45 44 . Each time Lisa’s friends come to a choice in the road they have a ½ chance of going left and ½ chance of going right. there are 142 multiples of 7. The probability of getting a prize is thus 1/8 + ¼ + ¼ = 5/8. is: ⎛4⎞ ⎛4⎞ ⎛5⎞ ⎛4⎞ ⎛5⎞ 7808 ⎜ ⎟ + 3⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + 6⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 9⎠ 9⎠ 9⎠ 9⎠ ⎝9⎠ 19. these two probabilities give us the probability that she gets a small prize. This gives us 48 total possibilities so the probability that the product of two randomly selected two-digit whole numbers is one of these possibilities is thus 48 4 . only one. The probabilities of each of these. 74 and 78. Team A can win three games in one way. Adding the percentages of those who passed just math. Of these three. x 50 49 50 49 Continuing in the same way. There are 90 two-digit whole numbers from 10 to 99. 999 49. W2L4. 683 ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ 52. if we consider a x b to be different than b x a. If 11 is selected first. Together. W2L2.these could be paired with any of the three even units digits and then the number could be checked for divisibility by 4. W1L2. all numbers formed must have the last two digits either 32 or 72 to be divisible by 4. 16 has 3 options. there are 9 possible two-digit numbers that it could be multiplied with for a product within the necessary range. there are 8 pairs that work: W1L1. so team A must win exactly three games in order to win the series. is divisible by 4. If the virus is not detected by the test. 55. 2 + 6 and 3 + 4. Let assume the player uncovers one space and then the other. The probability of coming to the end of any particular path is the product of the probabilities along the way. then none of five infected computers were among the ten tested. Thus. 14 has 5 options. ABAA and BAAA. 15 has 4 options. Hence. ABBAA. 18 has 2 options. that the second is also uninfected and that both are uninfected is . we find that 8% + 18% + 72% = 98% of the class passed at least one of the tests. the probability of choosing a number divisible by 4 is 12 1 = . 17 has 2 options. 34 and 38.72% = 18% of the class who passed the English test but not the math test. just English and both. and the first three composite numbers are 4. W1L4. If 80% of Mary’s class passed the math test and only 72% passed both tests then there must be 80% . She might get “win” followed by “lose” or “lose” followed by “win”. W1L3. there must be 90% . The probability of getting a small prize in 142 . 3 and 5. 6 and 8. It is not necessary to consider the colors of the tickets since there will be three times as many multiples of 7 in three times as many tickets. If the tens digits is 7. From 1 to 999. Three of the paths end in prizes and their probabilities are 1/8.72% = 8% of the class who passed the math but not the English test. there are 6C2 = 15 pairs that can be chosen. 72.98% = 2% of the class must have failed both tests. they can win in five games in six ways: AABBA. or. in order. W2L1. As a result. Of these three. and 19 has 1 option. That means that the ten tested computer were among the 45 uninfected ones.

he has a 1/10 chance of guessing the correct number. 90. 74. 92. 72. 76. 94.56. 78. The possible numbers that satisfy all four conditions are 70. . and 98. 96. If Rodney guesses one of these 10 numbers.

Bibliography Information Teachers attempted to cite the sources for the problems included in this problem set.org) . sources were not known. Problems Bibliography Information all Math Counts (http://mathcounts. In some cases.