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# Probability (Day 1 and 2) – Black Problems Independent Events 1. Michael will flip a coin nine times.

giving 4 x 4 = 16 different possible fractions. The 1 2 3 4 1 1 1 2 8 1 = . There is also ¼ chance that the standard coin will be selected. However. the probability of getting a Head is ½ for each flip. for each flip. All of the sums between 6 and 36 are possible.4. The probability of these three events happening in succession is 5/6 x 4/5 x ¾ = ½. 1 1 2 2 7 10 Heads. The probability of three tails in a row is ⎜ ⎛1⎞ 1 1 7 ⎟ = . . In this case. Thus. 8. The median of the set of integers from 6 to 36 is the middle number. Hence. Thus. 6. 16 2 7. there are ⎜ ⎟ = 28 ways to choose the ⎜2⎟ 1 positions of the green marbles. the probability of Janani winning is 1 − = . Each coin toss is an independent event. 1 98 ⎛ 8⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 11. there is a ¼ chance that the coin with a Tail on both sides is selected. 8 of them are whole numbers: probability of choosing a whole number fraction is 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 4 . The least possible sum with the six cubes is 6 (a 1 on each cube) and the greatest possible sum is 36 (a 6 on each cube). Because there are eight marbles initially. the probability of getting a green on the second draw is 18 5 6 . there are 4! = 24 ways to get one of each color. then we simply cannot select the 9. and the probability of getting a white on the fourth 17 16 4 1 draw is . 8 8 8 ⎝2⎠ 3 9. the penny would have to land tails up on the next three tosses. . . the probability of getting a Head is 0. Therefore. the probability of getting a Head is 1 for each flip. . 16 2 16 Dependent Events 10. Multiplying these gives . the probability is . 21. In this case. the probability of getting a blue on the third draw is . The probability of not selecting the 9 on the first pick is 5/6. . 14. For Manu to win the game. The probability of not selecting the 9 on the second pick assuming that it was not selected on the first pick is 4/5. so the probability of choosing the two-Tailed coin and then having each of the two flips result in a Head is ¼ x 0 x 0 = 0. so the probability of choosing a two-Headed coin and then having each of the two flips result in a Head is 2/4 x 1 x 1 = ½. There are four possibilities for the numerator and four possibilities for the denominator. which is the only odd digit. . this is the probability that one of each color was selected in 15 204 the order stated. Finally. Of the 16 possibilities. If the sum of the three digits selected at random is to be a multiple of 2 (an even number). and the probability of choosing a red marble is 3 . In fact. 5. There is only one way for the final result to be two marbles in each of the three boxes: if both the third and sixth marbles drawn are green. 28 12. In this case. and the 5 . . and the median of these numbers is the most probable sum. We would have gotten one of each color in many different ways. so the probability of choosing the standard coin and then having each of the two flips result in a Head is ¼ x ½ x ½ = 1 16 . If there are red and white marbles in the bag. the overall probability of selecting a coin from this collection at random and then getting a Head on each of two flips is 9 1 1 + +0= . The probability of not selecting the 9 on the third pick (assuming it was not selected on the first or second pick) is ¾. the probability is 24x 1 2 . There is a 2/4 chance that a coin with a Head on both sides will be selected. The probability of getting a red on the first draw is 3 . = 204 17 13.

the probability of choosing two red marbles. 3 2 = . The last one we want to pull is a white ball. there are 5 x 4 = 20 ways to select the numerator and denominator of the fraction. 5 4 10 15. . only six result in terminating decimals: 2 2 3 3 3 4 . There are five ways to choose a and four ways to choose b. Only half of the fractions have numerators that are less than the denominators. 2 white. or 6 red. is Hence. Trick die 1 2 3 4 5 6 Regular die 6 5 4 3 2 1 (1/4 x 1/6) = 1/24 (1/4 x 1/6) = 1/24 (1/6 x 1/6) = 1/36 (1/6 x 1/6) = 1/36 (1/12 x 1/6) = 1/72 (1/12 x 1/6) = 1/72 Total 1/6 A more efficient solution is to recognize that no matter what value is rolled on the trick die there is a 1/6 chance that the correct value to make a sum of 7 will be rolled on the regular die. . The three coins worth 35 cents must be a quarter and two nickels. there are 2 white marbles in the bag. = . . we have 49 19 19 black balls and 48 balls total. So the probability 4 5 4 5 6 5 6 3 of selecting two integers make a/b both less than 1 and terminating is .3n red and 2n white marbles in the bag. These outcomes are represented in a 6 x 6 chart below: 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 3 3 6 9 12 4 4 8 12 16 5 5 6 6 10 12 15 18 20 24 25 30 30 36 15 20 18 24 There are 2 + 3 + 4 + 4 = 13 products greater than 12. the probability is 13 . If there are 3 red and 2 white marbles in the bag. Multiplying these probability together gives the probability of drawing four balls in the 47 30i20i19i29 551 order stated. assuming no replacement. = 20 10 16.probability of choosing a white marble is 1 − or. 18. which is the desired probability. 4 white. . Since there are 36 possible outcomes. so the probability of pulling a black second is . 36 . There are 36 possible outcomes. more generally. 50i49i48i47 9212 19. For each of these three case. and the 48 29 probability of that is . There are now 20 black balls and 50 20 29 white balls remaining. 17. Thus. . the probability is 1/3 x 3/8 x 2/7 = 6/168 = 1/28. There are three orders in which Steve could choose them: QNN. Of these ten fractions. and 6 x 6 = 36. That means that there are 3 red. One way to solve this problem is to consider each situation on the trick die combined with the needed value on the regular die. The total probability is thus 3 x 1/28 = 3/28. 0 20. NQN or NNQ. so the probability is . 5 5 3 2 3 x = . For pulling a black ball again. because each cube has 6 faces. The probability of getting a white ball first is 30 (30 white balls out 50 total).