Child and Adolescent Trauma Measures: A Review

Children F.I.R.S.T.
Children and Families Institute for Research, Support and Training

Fordham University Graduate School of Social Service

A Member Of

The Children’s Trauma Consortium of Westchester
A Community Service Center Of

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Child and Adolescent Trauma Measures: A Review
Virginia C. Strand, D.S.W. Lina E. Pasquale, M.A. Teresa L. Sarmiento, M.S.W. Children F.I.R.S.T.
Children and Families Institute for Research, Support and Training

Fordham University Graduate School of Social Service

A Member Of

The Children’s Trauma Consortium of Westchester
Andrus Children’s Center, Behavior Health Center of Westchester Medical Center, Children F.I.R.S.T. and The Center for Preventive Psychiatry This project is supported by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration A Community Service Center Of

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This material was developed [in part] under grant number SM54316 from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The views, policies, and opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of SAMHSA or HHS.

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23 Survey of Children’s Exposure to Community Violence …………………………………. Adolescent.... 155 Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC) ……………………………… 156 Weekly Behavior Report (WBI) ………………………………………………………….162 4 . 110 Child Dissociative Checklist (CDC) ……………………………………………………… 111 Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) ……………………………………………………… 113 Child Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms/Parent Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms (CROPS/PROPS) …………………………………………………………………………. 157 Chart ……………………………………………………………………………………… 158 References …………………………………………………………………………………. CAPA -P) ……………………. 14 Attributions for Maltreatment Interview (AFMI)…………………………………………… 15 Checklist of Sexual Abuse and Related Stressors (C-SARS)………………………………... and Parent)…………………………... 5 Both Exposure and Symptoms Measures Adolescent Self-Report Trauma Questionnaire………………………………………………. 8 Children’s PTSD Inventory………………………………………………………………….. 148 Children’s Impact of Traumatic Events Scale –Revised (CITES-R) ……………………… 149 Feelings and Emotions Experienced During Sexual Abuse (FEEDSA) …………………... 117 Child Reaction to Traumatic Events Scale (CRTES) ………………………………………118 Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA) ………… 127 Los Angeles Symptom Checklist (LASC) ………………………………………………… 145 Multiple Trauma Symptom Measures Angie-Andy Cartoon Trauma Scale (ACTS) …………………………………………….Table of Contents Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………..Students & Parents …………………….. 20 History of Victimization Form (HVF) ……………………………………………………… 22 Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events (LITE) ....... 150 Negative Appraisals of Sexual Abuse Scale (NASAS) …………………………………. 9 My Worst Experience Scale (MWES)……………………………………………………… 10 UCLA PTSD Index for DSM-IV (Child.. 16 Checklist for Child Abuse Evaluation (CCAE)……………………………………………... 17 Child Abuse and Neglect Interview Schedule-Revised (CANIS-R)……………………….. 11 When Bad Things Happen (WBTH)………………………………………………………… 12 History of Exposure to Trauma Measures Abusive Sexual Exposure Scale (ASES)……………………………………………………. 86 Impact of Trauma – Symptoms and/or Distress Indices PTSD and Dissociative Measures Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale (A-DES) ……………………………………. 104 Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA-C. 26 Traumatic Events Screening Inventory (TESI) ……………………………………………. 152 Sexual Abuse Fear Evaluation (SAFE) …………………………………………………… 154 Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) ……………………………………….. 7 Childhood PTSD Interview (CPTSDI) (Child and Parent)…………………………………. 13 Anatomical Doll Questionnaire (ADQ)……………………………………………………..... 151 Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) ………………………………………………. 18 Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-I) ………………………………………………… 19 Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) ………………………………………………….

We want to accord special acknowledgement to Feindler. The reader is directed to that reference for a more complete discussion of family violence measures in general. Those instruments probing for both a history of exposure and an assessment of impact rely heavily on a measure of PTSD as the defining “impact” symptom. the author granted permission for the inclusion of an instrument or sample questions. The remaining measures target both children and adolescents. 2) those capturing a history of exposure alone. four explore for a history of child maltreatment. In some instances. their availability and contact information. (LITE . Direct communication was undertaken wherever possible with the authors to obtain the most updated versions of the instruments. The measures are divided into four categories: 1) those exploring for both a history of exposure to trauma and for symptoms of traumatic experiences. Rathus and Silver (2003) upon whose work we relied for supporting documentation in many instances. 2003 of those instruments which address a range of traumatic experiences and the impact on children and adolescents. Of these. The manual attempts a comprehensive review as of the fall. two are clinician administered and the remainder rely on parent reports. Fourteen measures are designed for children only. It is based on a review of published and unpublished information regarding measures specifically designed for the screening and assessment of trauma in children and adolescents. Of those in the PTSD and Dissociative Symptom category only two are specific to dissociative symptoms. five of these are self reports and one is a clinicianadministered measure. All thirty-five instruments are summarized in a quick reference chart at the end of the manual and a list of references is also provided.Introduction This manual has been developed as a guide for clinicians and researchers in their work with traumatized children and adolescents. three are self-report measures. Some generalizations can be made based on the universe of 35 instruments reviewed here. Six instruments are designed for adolescents only. In the Multiple Trauma Symptom category. It is more common for children to report internalizing symptoms and to tap behavioral symptoms from a parent report (Greenwald & Rubin. Five of the instruments in this review draw on information from both children and parents. TESI) and one in the category of PTSD and Dissociative Symptoms (CROPS/PROPS). two in the category of measures capturing both and symptoms (CPTSDI and UCLA PTSD Index) . five of the measures explore for trauma symptoms beyond PTSD. four for a history of sexual abuse and one for exposure to community violence. In the remaining cases contact information is provided. 3) those designed to capture symptoms of PTSD and dissociative disorder and 4) those which inquire about multiple trauma symptoms. The measures exploring for a history of exposure to trauma cluster in specific areas: three explore generally for any type of trauma. No instrument in the Multiple Trauma Symptom category has developed complementary self and parent reports. two in the category of History of Exposure. 1999). while four are concerned specifically with symptoms associated with the trauma of sexual abuse. Copies of the instruments are included for those measures which are available at no or minimum cost and for which we were able to obtain a copy. 5 .

The PEDS (a parent self report instrument) meet these criteria in the Multiple Trauma Symptoms category. they total six instruments representing each of the four domains which have strong psychometric properties or promise thereof. and 3) readily accessible. CPTSDI. ACTS).Almost half of the 35 instruments are client-self reports and about one-third are parent self reports. and some of these are instruments designed for children age 6 and older.g.g. including those for both children and adolescents. Symptoms or Both). fall into the Multiple Trauma Symptom category. Where psychometric information was available. the UCLA PTSD Index meets these criteria.e. others are new and also actively under development (e. Only six address the child aged 6 or younger. Together. DSW Associate Professor and Director. Two gaps are immediately noticeable: there are few measures designed for the very young child or solely for the adolescent. SAFE). Most of the child measures. Only nine of the 35 instruments have a cost associated with them as far as we could determine. are available at no or minimal cost and are readily accessible. but as a group these tended to have less well-developed and/or studied psychometric properties than the self report measures. the CDC (a parent report). for example. 2) free (or minimal cost). most authors reported good to very good reliability and validity. The majority of instruments are available at no cost.edu A member of the Children’s Trauma Consortium of Westchester 6 . TSCYC). easy access for “no cost” instruments appears to be an issue. TESI. begin at age 7 or 8. Some report published psychometric strengths but do not appear to be widely available or currently actively researched (e. Children FIRST Fordham University Graduate School of Social Service cfirst@fordham. the CROPS/PROPS (parent and child self report) and the CAPS-CA (a clinician-administered instrument) emerge. CAPS-CA. fairly evenly distributed across category of measure (History of Exposure. as can be seen from the fact that we were able to obtain only 12 instruments for inclusion in the manual. In the PTSD and Dissociative Symptom category. NASAS. the TESI stands out when these three criteria are applied. Further psychometric development is warranted for most measures. However. Copies of this manual may be obtained by contacting: Dr. In the History of Exposure category. All categories have at least one clinician-administered instrument. Virginia Strand. Worth commenting on are those measures that meet the three criteria of 1) rigorous or promising psychometric development. None of the adolescent-only measures. UCLA PTSD Index. Some of those with a history of robust psychometric properties in earlier versions are in the midst of major revisions (i. In the category of both History and Symptoms.

and 4) Had done to you. Exposure to violent events (Section 2) is classified in four categories: 1) Heard about. IL 60612. 312-355-1662. smweine@uic. Contact Information: Stevan Weine. serious accidents.edu Year: 1995 7 . The final section of the scale incorporates the PTSD Symptoms Scale (Foa. University of Illinois at Chicago. A second section explores for exposure to community and domestic violence with 14 items. 15% Hispanic and 3% White). 3) Done. Psychometrics Properties: Used in one study of 79 girls living in an urban environment (81% African American. Description: The first section of the measure gathers demographic information and information in five different areas of the adolescent’s life: family. drug and alcohol and alcohol use and sexuality. peers. 1993) and determines if the adolescent meets the criteria for a DSM diagnosis. forced unwanted sexual contacts. muggings and homicide. Weine & Jekel Population/Age Group: Adolescents. stabbings. exposure to community and domestic violence and to capture PTSD symptoms. beatings. al. Types of events queried include shootings.Adolescent Self-Report Trauma Questionnaire Author(s): Horowitz.. 589PI Chicago. intimate partner violence. Purpose: The Adolescent Self-Report Measure was developed to gather information on demographics. et. The questionnaire is read to the adolescent by the interviewer and reviewed immediately after to ensure accuracy. 2) Seen. there has been limited psychometric work undertaken to establish reliability and/or validity of the measure. 1601 West Taylor St.

High internal consistency was reported. Administration of the measure by a professional or paraprofessional is recommended. Psychometric Properties: The measure was validated with a small clinical sample of ten participants with a history of stress-exposure and 20 youth from a community setting with no history of significant-stress exposure. antisocial behavior. self-blame. the Childhood PTSD Interview-Parent (CPTSDI-P). and when the event(s) began and ended. Based on the results. North. The parent version includes additional questions about behavior symptoms that children are not asked. and changed eating behaviors (Carlson. Description: The CPTSDI are structured interviews that asks the child and parent to identify specific traumatic event or events. however there was variability in the alpha ranges for DSM-IV criteria B-D. selfdestructive behavior/thoughts. University of Massachusetts Medical Center. Ninety-three items in a dichotomous (yes/no) response format follow. survivor guilt. Spanish and French translated versions are in the process of development. and dissociation. Department of Psychiatry. Convergent validity with other measures developed by the author ranged from moderate to high. Purpose: The CPTSDI-C (Fletcher. The measures assess PTSD symptom domains of DSM-IV. The parent version has several response formats including a dichotomous (Yes/No) and a five to six point Likert scale. Worcester.fletcher@umassmed. Fletcher. Scoring is built into the interview format (Carlson. omens. depression. Contact Information: Kenneth E. 1996). along with a parallel parent version. Fletcher reported a high Kuder-Richardson-20 coefficients (Fletcher 1996). 1997).edu Year: 1996 8 . for a single or multiple identified traumatic events. The measure was moderately correlated with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (Carlson. as well as anxiety. 1997). 55 Lake Ave. 1997). MA 01655.Childhood PTSD Interview-Child (CPTSDI-C)/Childhood PTSD Interview-Parent (CPTSDI-P) Author(s): Kenneth Fletcher Population/Age Group: 7 and 18 years of age. Thirty to 40 minutes are needed to complete the interview (Carlson. fantasy denial. The traumatic event is identified first. is designed to measure PTSD symptoms adhering to DSM-IV criteria. 1997). kenneth. risk-taking.

et al.Children’s PTSD Inventory Author(s): Phillip A. 2001). Thorndike Hall. Halamandaris. it takes only 5 minutes to complete the test. Psychometrics Properties: Psychometrics were investigated with two samples consisting of exposed and unexposed youth (Saigh. Green. et. Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).com Year: 1996 9 . Scoring and instructions for each subtest are built into the measure. Green. Saigh. Training of the administrator entails 2 hours of professional supervised analog training with feedback (Yasik. Ten to 15 minutes are needed to complete the measure for youth with a history of trauma. The first subtest assesses for potential exposure to traumatic events and reactivity during stressexposure. Box 1. 2001). Columbia University. Oberfield. 2000). The last subtest probes for areas of significant distress in life. Yasik et. If the youth does not meet the criteria for significant stress-exposure. Five diagnoses can be made via the measure: PTSD Negative.al. and high internal consistency at the diagnostic level. Oberfield. Acute PTSD. resulting in the creation of five subscales. Children’s Depression Inventory. al. Test-retest reliability ranged from good to excellent (Yasik. NY. Chronic PTSD. avoidance and numbing. Description: The measure was initially field tested and developed with a 50 adolescent female rape victims in South Africa. and No Diagnosis (Saigh..1%. Halamandaris & McHugh. The second. 2001). (Saigh. An individual with a bachelor’s degree or equivalent can administer the measure. & McHugh. respectively. Delayed Onset PTSD. Inter-rater reliability was 98. and increased arousal. the interview is terminated. NY 10027. 2001). and the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory (JEPI) Neuroticism scale (Yasik. third and fourth subtests explore for symptoms of re-experiencing. such as in school. Halamandaris & McHugh. Teachers College. Oberfield. Purpose: The Children’s PTSD Inventory is designed to establish duration of distress for DSM-IV PTSD symptoms. Saigh. 2001). For youth with no history of trauma. Criterion validity was determined in relationship to the Diagnostic Interview for Children and adolescents-Revised (DICA-R) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) Contact Information: Philip A Saigh. 2000.. Results indicated moderate internal consistency for the five subtests. 525 W 120th Street. Saigh Population/Age Group: 7 to 18 years of age. pasaigh@aol. Green. Convergent validity was found with the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale. Saigh.

A child who reads at a 3rd grade level can complete the self-report measure in 20 to 30 minutes. 12031 Wilshire Blvd.My Worst Experience Scale (MWES) Author(s): Hyman. Oppositional Conduct. 800-648-8857. Description: MWSE was developed in the 1980 with a premise that childhood stressors. and a PTSD diagnose can be made. The MWES is comprised of two parts. Part II yields three scores: 1) a total score. and 3) DSM IV Criteria Scores (Impact of Event. Psychometrics Properties: Limited psychometric properties have been published. Six questions pertain to the nature of the experience. Hypervigilance. Symptoms associated with a traumatic event are assessed. as well as developmental issues. Part I requires the youth to indicate which of the 21 was their worst experience. & Kohr Population/Age Group: Ages 9 to 18. Test-Retest reliability ranged from good to excellent (alpha . Dissociation/Dreams. and behaviors experienced after the traumatic event. Purpose: The MWES gathers information pertaining to a traumatic event from the youth’s point of view. There was great variability with internal consistency (alpha .wpspublish. Los Angeles. Berna. and Symptom Subscales (Depression. Somatic Symptoms. If the trauma is school related. 2) inconsistent responding index score. Part II asks the youth to respond to the frequency and duration of 105 thoughts. Snook.91) (Violence Institute of New Jersey. 2002). and general maladjustment). feelings.95). Contact Information: Western Psychological Services. geographical. The measure has been used with diverse ethnic. and traumatized populations. a School Trauma and Alienation Survey can be completed. A broad definition for traumatic events was incorporated into the design of the measure including bullying and divorce.88 to . Standard scores and percentile ranks can be attained.. CA 90025-1251. 1996).com Year: 2002 10 . Hopelessness. DuCette. Scoring can be completed via computer or by hand. Re-experiencing the Trauma. such as corporal punishment and divorce can result in traumatization. www. Initial work began with clinical evaluation of children who experienced corporal punishment (Hyman.68 to .

& Pynoos.1998) is a revised version of the widely used and researched Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Reaction Index (CPTSD-RI) (Nader..edu 11 . 1990). Pynoos. assess for DSM-IV PTSD Criterion B. and parent. & Kutlaca. California (Saltzman. The structure of the measure facilitates scoring. In the United States. adolescent. Los Angeles. A 5-point Likert scale from 0 (none of the time) to 4 (most all the time) is used to rate PTSD symptoms (Slatzman. Stuber. Pynoos. Rodriguez. Purpose: To screen for the presence of any type of traumatic event and the frequency of DSM-IV PTSD symptoms. Steinberg. and D symptoms. adolescent (ages 13 or older). and Parent) Author(s): Pynoos. The measure was forward and back translated by experienced psychologists in for use in Armenia. Rodriguez. respectively) have also been administered in an interview format or in school classroom settings. Steinberg & Pynoos. Steinberg. The child and adolescent versions (20 and 22 items. Description: Three versions of this brief screening instrument exist: child.UCLA PTSD Index for DSM-IV (Child. Durakovic-Belko. Steinberg & Lane. Questions 13-19 assess Criterion A1. 2001). Contact Information: Robert S. It is not intended to establish a definitive PTSD diagnosis (Rodriguez. Pynoos. Stuber. and Fredrick. Adolescent. and the first 19 questions on the parent version. C. and parent. and 2023 assess for Criterion A2. the measure was forward and back translated for use with Spanish speaking students in Los Angeles. 1999). 310-235-2633 rpynoos@mednet. National Center for Child Traumatic Stress. 1999). and Frederick. and Hercegovina (Stuvland. 2001). Steinberg. The three versions of the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index can be administered via paperand-pencil.. and Frederick Year: 1998 Population/Age Group: Child (ages 7 through 12). Olympic Blvd. 11150 W.ucla. CA 90064. Fairbanks. The UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (Pynoos. Psychometric Properties: Psychometric properties are under investigation for the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (Rodriguez. Bosnia. 2001). The first 18 questions on the child and adolescent version. Suite 770. et al.

The latest version. only 10 to 20 minutes are needed to complete the instrument. Carlson. Worcester. criteria A through D. R4. Convergent Validity was assessed with other measures developed by Fletcher: High convergent validity with the CPTSDI-C is reported. 1996). A high Cronbach’s alpha was found for the total scale. survivor guilt. risk taking. antisocial behavior. 55 Lake Ave. 1996. Description: The WBTH is self-report measure that assesses children and adolescents’ response to a traumatic event (“bad thing”). a low convergent validity was found with the CPTSDI-P (parent form) (Fletcher. DSM-IV. Fletcher. Psychometric Properties: The CPTSDI and WBTH were validated in the same study of 10 children from a clinical sample with a history of stress-exposure and 20 children from community setting with no history of significant-stress exposure. North. and for PTSD. kenneth. and change in eating habits (Carlson. University of Massachusetts Medical Center. Department of Psychiatry. Purpose: The WBTH (Fletcher. The first part of the measure directs the child to describe the traumatic event or events.When Bad Things Happen Scale Author(s): Kenneth Fletcher Year: 1996 Population/Age Group: Children ages seven to 14 who have obtained at least a 3rd grade reading level. 1997). Some.fletcher@umassmed. anxiety. 1996) is designed to measure DSM-IV PTSD symptoms in children who have a single or multiple identified traumatic events.edu 12 . omens. Low convergent validity with subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist was also reported. children respond using a 3-point Likert scale of “Never.. Though there are 90 items. has 90 items measuring PTSD. self-destructive behavior/thoughts. selfblame. depression. MA 01655. fantasy denial. Contact Information: Kenneth E. 1997). All DSM-IV criteria are assessed by more than one item (Fletcher. Lots” format. dissociation. however. For each item.

Body parts are used to describe for each type of abuse. 1997). IL 60612 13 . To ensure the child understand the definition of each body part. 907 South Wolcott Ave. 1997). High face validity was established because items address two conditions used to define sexual abuse: 1) at least a 5 year difference between victim and perpetrator and 2) unwanted nature of sexual contact (Spaccarelli & Fuchs.. Department of Psychiatry. the follow up question “What person or persons have done that to you?” is asked. and 3) closest perpetrator named.Abusive Sexual Exposure Scale (ASES) Author(s): Spaccarelli Year: 1995 Population/Age Group: Sexually abused children and adolescents. Spaccarelli & Fuchs. If the child responds “yes” to any item. No training is needed is to administer the instrument. 2) total number of types of abuse reported. University of Illinois at Chicago. Rathurs & Silver. Responses are categorized into three variables: 1) severity of sexual exposure. the child is asked to identify the body parts on an anatomically correct doll (Feindler. Sexual abuse items include non-contact and contact sexual abuse. 2003. Purpose: The Abusive Sexual Exposure Scale (ASES) was developed to asses the occurrence of 14 types of sexual abuse and identify the relationship of each perpetrator to the different types of sexual abuse (Feindler. Contact Information: Steven Spaccarelli. Computer scoring facilitates the use of the measure. Institute for Juvenile Research. Rathurs & Silver. Description: The ASES is a self-report measure composed of 28 items. Psychometrics Properties: The measure has not been normed and reliability has not been published. 2003). Chicago.

Differences in doll use were used to establish discriminant validity. & Torres Year: 1995 Population/Age Group: Child 2 to 7 who have or are suspect of being sexually abused. and 5) general observations (Levy. 44 percent of the children demonstrated sexual abuse acts with the doll compared to 14 percent of children where there was no confirmation of sexual abuse. Ahart & Torres. There was great variation between the interrater reliability of each of the five areas. Kalinowski. Chicago. Interrater reliability was high for reports of verbal abuse. for example (Feindler.0 = full agreement and 0=level of agreement no better than chance alone. Scoring is based on a response indicating whether an act or verbalization occurred. Psychometrics Properties: Interrater reliability was measured using the Phi statistic. Kalinowski. Purpose: Assessment of child sexual abuse. Interviewers record disclosure statements and spontaneous behaviors. Markovic. Five areas are explored: 1) type of abuse. (Levy. Markovic. 3) observation of child’s affective-expressive behaviors. 4) perceptions of interview quality. Boys rarely made verbal disclosures of sexual abuse. yet males who disclosed sexual abuse used dolls to demonstrate the abuse. Ahart & Torres. Grant Hosp. but varied considerably for demonstration of sexual abuse. Very poor interrater reliability was found for child affective expressions. Interviewers should have knowledge of child development and victimology. Dept of Pediatrics. Markovic. 2003). Description: The ADQ is a semi-structured child interview. Rathus & Silver. The child is first guided through an inventory of the names for body parts. 1995). Spontaneous doll usage is also recorded. Gender differences were found in reporting sexual abuse. using the dolls. where 1. In confirmed diagnosis of sexual abuse. 1995). 2) demonstration with dolls. IL. Ahart. 14 . Interviewers’ and observers’ observations and perceptions of the child’s responses are recorded and compared. Contact Information: Howard Levy. Kalinowski.Anatomical Doll Questionnaire (ADQ) Author(s): Levy.

as well as with criterion-related validity. (McGee.Attribution for Maltreatment Interview (AFMI) Author(s): McGee & Wolfe Year: 1990 Population/Age Group: Adolescent with a history of physical. 2001). and good test-retest reliability was again found. moderate internal reliability was ascertained. cognition. In another study with 160 adolescents from an open child protective caseload. Purpose: To assess an adolescent’s attribution for their maltreatment. and was stable across the types of maltreatment. self-excusing. Utilizing a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (do not agree) to 4 (strongly agree). moderate to high test-retest reliability was found. emotional. Psychometrics Properties: In a small sample of 33 adolescents. Factor analysis confirmed the conceptual structure of each of the five subscales. Contact Information: Vicky Wolfe. or sexually abuse. (Feindler. neglect. perpetrator blaming. Sexual abuse had the highest reliability and criterion validity. self-blaming effect. Wolfe & Olson. This results in scores on five subscales for each type of maltreatment (self-blaming. Description: The measure is comprised of four structured interviews. 800 Commissioners Road East. adolescents’ rating of 26 statement read aloud by the interviewer are scored. 519667-5755. 2003). Only interviews that are relevant to the adolescent’s experience are administered. Canada N6A 5C2. and perpetrator excusing).on. Ontario. or exposure to family violence. London. vicky.ca 15 . Rathus & Silver. Children’s Hospital of Western Ontario Department of Psychiatry.wolfe@lhsc.

Checklist of Sexual Abuse and Related Stressors (C-SARS)
Author(s): Spaccarelli Year: 1995

Population/Age Group: Children and adolescents who experienced sexual abuse. Purpose: Assesses both reports and degree of stressful events associated with a youth’s sexual abuse. Description: This is a 70-item self-report measure that assesses three types of stressful events (Abuse-Specific Events; Abuse-Related Events; and Public Disclosure Events) associated with sexual abuse by a specified perpetrator. A total score is achieved by summing all “yes” responses (Spaccarelli, 1995; Spaccarelli & Fuchs, 1997). Psychometrics Properties: With a sample of girls aged 11 to 18 internal consistency for the total measure was high (.93), however findings varied from low to high for each subscale. Construct validity was established by comparing total event scores on the CSARS with 1) therapist’s ratings (r=.36, p<.05),2) number of types of sexual abuse reported (r=.40, p<.05) and 3) total scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)c (Feindler, Rathus, & Silver, 2003; Spaccarelli, 1995). Concurrent validity was not supported since the C-SARS was not associated to symptoms of depression or anxiety. A high correlation was found with the Negative Appraisals of Sexual Abuse Scale (NASAS) (Spaccarelli, 1995; Spaccarelli & Fuchs, 1997). Contact Information: Steven Spaccarelli, Institute for Juvenile Research, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 907 South Wolcott Ave., Chicago, IL 60612.

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Checklist for Child Abuse Evaluation (CCAE)
Author(s): Petty Population/Age Group: Children and Adolescents. Purpose: The Checklist for Child Abuse Evaluation (CCAE) was designed to as a comprehensive measure to investigate and evaluate children and adolescents who may have been abused or neglected. Description: The interview consists of 264-items comprising 24 sections including: a) Child's Historical & Current Status, b) Emotional Abuse (child & witness reports), Sexual Abuse (child & witness reports), c) Physical Abuse (child & witness reports), d) Neglect (child & witness reports), e) Child's Psychological Status, f) Credibility/Competence of the Child, g) Conclusions in 6 Categories, and h) Case-specific Treatment Recommendations & Issues. The instrument collects information regarding the child, the alleged abuser, and the reporter of abuse. Information can also be collected from law enforcement, medical practitioners, attorneys and other professionals. The CCAE does not provide interview questions. A respondent’s answers are checked off on the checklist, and space is provided, if an answer does not correspond with the checklist (Feindler, Rathurs & Silver, 2003). The measure should be administered by a trained professional who has experience in the field of child abuse and neglect. The entire interview does not have to be completed. An interviewer can elect which sections are applicable to the specific situation (PAR, 2003). Psychometrics Properties: No psychometric properties have been published. Contact Information: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. 16204 N. Florida Ave., Lutz, FL 33549, 800-727-9329, parinc.com Year: 1990

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Child Abuse and Neglect Interview Schedule-Revised (CANIS-R)
Author(s): Ammerman, 1998; Ammerman, Van Hasselt, & Hersen (original) Year: 1988

Population/Age Group: Children and adolescents with current, historic, or at risk for abuse, neglect, or other family violence. Purpose: To assess a child’s exposure to maltreatment and family violence as well as measure parenting practices. Description: This semi-structured parent-interview consists of more than 100 items with four subsections: 1) Child Behavior Problems and Disciplinary Practices, 2) Parental Past and Current History of Family Violence, 3) Child’s Exposure to Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Neglect, and 4) Sexual Abuse. Demographic information is gathered at onset of the interview. Items do not have to read verbatim, and can be rephrased and reordered to maintain interviewer connection to the respondent. Approximately 45 minutes are needed to complete the interview, which should be administered by a qualified interviewer who has experience with working with maltreating parents and the family. Given the semi-structure and flexibility of the measure there is no formal scoring protocol. A total score for severity and frequency for each type of maltreatment can be calculated. Psychometrics Properties: The authors (Ammerman, Hersen, vanHasselt, Lubetsky & Sieck, 1994) report that high interrater reliability (unpublished study) and low internal consistency was found. No statistically significant correlation was found between the Disciplinary Practice subscale and Lie Scale of the Child Abuse Inventory (Milner, 1986), suggesting no systematic biases and withholding of information by the parent. Contact Information: Robert T. Ammerman, Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Psychology, 3333 Burnet Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45229, 513-636-8209, robert.ammerman@chmcc.org

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no relationship was found between a sexual abuse diagnose and sexual behavior problems (Drach. & Ricci. Inc. 2001). 2003). Among sexual abuse children. and Swedish translated versions are available. The changes in test-retest results were attributed to treatment. Spanish. Raw scores are converted into Tscores (Drach. & Silver. demonstrating discriminate validity (Feindler. 2001). The CSBI-I is formatted as a test booklet and a comprehensive manual is available. and 3) Sexual Abuse Specific Items (SASI) (Feindler. Wientzen & Ricci. Lutz . Convergent validity was found with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (Drach. The response format for each behavior is a 4-point Likert scale. parinc. The measure was developed by adapting items from the Child Behavior Checklist and with the addition of items pertaining to sexual aggression. Scores can be assessed for each subscale: 1) CSBI-I total scale. and gender behaviors.Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-I) Author(s): Friedrich Year: 1991 Population/Age Group: Parents of children (2 to 12) who may have been sexually abused. 16204 N. however reliability was low at 3 month retest.FL 33549 800-727-9329. Description: The Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-I) is female caregiver selfreport composed of 38 items assessing the child’s behavior over past 6 months. Psychometrics Properties: Normative data was established with a clinical and nonclinical sample of two to twelve year old children. French. Rathus & Silver. High internal consistency was found with both samples. 2001). Norms controlling for age and gender are provided. at a four week retest reliability was high. Wientzen & Ricci. Contact Information: Psychological Assessment Resources. Rathus. Florida Ave. 2) Developmental Related Sexual Behavior (DRSB). treatment should reduce sexual behaviors. German. Purpose: To determine the presence and intensity of children’s sexual behaviors. Wientzen. 2003). sexual inhibition..com 19 . Sexually abused children scored higher frequencies of sexual behavior then nonsexually abused children. Ten to 13 minutes are needed to complete and score the measure. In a sample of 247 child in a rural community.

Psychometrics Properties: Studies of reliability and validity were undertaken with clinical and non-clinical samples in seven studies involving a total of 2. Purpose: To screen rapidly for histories of child abuse and neglect. with psychiatrically referred groups reporting higher levels of abuse and neglect than non-clinical samples (Fink & Bernstein. Contact Information: The Psychological Corporation. 2) physical abuse. Construct validity was robust. Low. Harcourt. 4) emotional neglect. with the total scale achieving a Cronbach’s alpha of . 1998). Bernstein & Fink. and 5) physical neglect. and includes three items to screen for false-negative trauma reports. Scoring results in classification of the level of maltreatment (None. 1995.95. It can be given to both clinical and non-clinical respondents.201 respondents. Description: This is a 28-item self-report measure which takes 5 – 10 minutes to complete and inquires about five types of maltreatment: 1) emotional abuse.Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) Author(s): Bernstein & Fink Population/Age Group: Adolescents 12 and over and adults. Brace & Company. Texas. 3) sexual abuse. and administered either individually or in groups. The CTQ does not discriminate between current and past experiences of abuse. Moderate and Severe) for each of the five domains and/or can be converted to percentiles. Discriminant validity was also supported. San Antonio.com Year: 1994 20 . Internal consistency was satisfactory to high. psychcorp.

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Gentile & Bourdeon Population/Age Group: maltreated. physical abuse. vicky. 519667-5755. (based on a review in Feindler. neglect. 800 Commissioners Road East. The person completing the scale indicates whether the information is suspected (s) or confirmed (c). Psychometric Properties: None reported.History of Victimization Form (HVF) Author(s): Wolfe. The responses are captured on a 5-point Likert scale. Children’s Hospital of Western Ontario Department of Psychiatry. Each scale is designed to capture information about the severity of the abuse. Rathus & Silver.wolfe@lhsc. Year: 1987 Children who were or are suspected of having been Purpose: To summarize information gathered by social workers or therapists regarding all forms of maltreatment. the emotional closeness between the child and perpetrator and the time frame. 2003). Contact Information: Vicky Wolfe. witness to family violence and psychological abuse. the relationship between the child and suspected offender. Description: This is a 65-item instrument yielding information on five subscales: sexual abuse. Canada N6A 5C2. Ontario. London. Only the subscale relevant to the type of maltreatment is completed.ca 22 . frequency and duration of the maltreatment. Wolfe.on.

It was developed to be a brief and easy to use one-page measure to screen for stressful and/or traumatic events.org 23 . in groups or interview-administered faceto-face or by telephone. sidran.825-8249. Baltimore. It costs 12. MD 21286. 1999). including mental health settings.00 per packet.. The measure can be administered individually.Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events (LITE)Student and Parent Forms Author(s): Greenwald Year: 1999 Population/Age Group: Children age 8 and higher. Suite 207. and probes for descriptive information (how many times. 200 East Joppa Rd. Description: This is a 16-item one-page check list which covers a broad range of potential trauma and loss events. how old) as well as emotional impact (how upset and how much bothers now). 888. No reliability or validity data are available. schools and medical settings. includes five copies of each of the LITE-S and LITE-P Psychometrics Properties: The authors describe this as a screener and not an objectively scorable scale. Purpose: The LITE is a screening tool designed for both children (LITE-S) and their parents (LITE-P) in a wide range of clinical and normative settings. and their parents. although the authors describe one study in which the child and parent reports together formed the basis of a clinician rating which effectively predicted post traumatic stress symptoms (Greenwald & Rubin. There is no scoring system. Contact Information: Sidran Institute.

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Richters.Survey of Children’s Exposure to Community Violence Author(s): Richters & Saltzman Population/Age Group: 6 – 10 years old. internal consistency.a Full Version and a Screening Survey. with no assessment of test-retest reliability. jrichter@nih. It can be administered to parents individually or in groups. Contact Information: John E. 4104. Department of Human Development and Institute for Child Study. Benjamin Building. College Park. MD 20742. University of Maryland. 301-405-7354. inter-rater reliability or criterion validity available. Purpose: The purpose of this measure is to asses the frequency by which a child has been victimized by. witnessed or heard about 20 forms of violence and violence related activities in the community. Psychometrics Properties: One study has been undertaken with 165 low-income children from a moderately violence neighborhood in Washington. D.C. which is 54-item scale yielding information on two subscales: Direct Victimization by Violence and Witnessing Violence in Others. Psychometric information is modest. two forms exist . Description: This instrument is a parent self-report.gov Year: 1990 26 . Information is available only on the Full Version. Rm.

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Ford. Racusin. Any event subsequently endorsed as involving an extreme emotional reaction is rated as meeting Criterion A-2 of PTSD.Traumatic Events Screening Inventory (TESI-PRR / TESI-SRR) Author(s): Ippen. Description: This 24-item scale is available as a structured clinical interview measure for children 8 and older (TESI-SRR). Acker. The overall score sums the items for responses which meet both criteria. Contact Information: The National Center for PTSD (116-D). a parent version is available for children under 7 and can also be used with any age child (TESI-PRR). Lukovitz. whether the child’s emotional reaction includes extreme fear. including current and previous injuries.30 minutes to complete. Psychometrics Properties: Research is underway to examine the psychometric properties of the TESI-PRR and TESI-SRR.org 86 . horror. a child’s or parent’s endorsement of the event meets Criterion A of PTSD. and sexual abuse. White River Junction. hospitalizations. Both the TESI and the TESI-SPR probe for subsequent response to distinguish the traumatic events from other life events. Rogers. Purpose: The purpose of the TESI is to probe for a history of exposure to traumatic events and to distinguish these events from other negative life experiences. Cone. a parent report is also available for children under seven. domestic violence. physical. Subsequent questions examine whether the event involved threat to the child’s or other’s physical integrity and whether the child’s reactions rises to the level of Criterion B of PTSD (i. ncptsd@ncptsd. confusion or agitation). The TESI inquires about a variety of traumatic events. VT 05009. For any event. disasters.e. Ribbe. accidents. & Edwards Year: 2002 Population/Age Group: Children and adolescents aged 6 . Schiffman. Ellis. VA Medical & Regional Office Center. Bosquet. Each form takes 20 .18. community violence. helplessness.

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Year: 1990 Purpose: To screen for normal and pathological dissociative experiences in adolescents. and the instrument was able to distinguish normal adolescents from those with a variety of diagnoses. 2) absorption and imaginative involvement.93 for full scale and subscales ranged from . 3) passive influence.edu 104 . The four subscales are: 1) dissociative amnesia.7 years.Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale (A-DES) Author(s): Armonstrong.. Description: This is a 30 item self-report measure.72 to . CA 90401. increased scores were associated with a history of trauma. test items are at a reading grade level of 5.85). Psychometrics Properties: Reliability and validity have been studies with both a normal sample of adolescents and a clinical sample. 501 Santa Monica Blvd. Designed particularly to aid in diagnosis of pathological dissociation in clinical samples. Statements are worked to reflect experiences and coping skills and the respondent uses an 11-point rating system (0 = never to 10 = always) to respond. Contact Information: Judith Armstrong. A total score as well as scores on four subscales can be used. Putnam & Carlson Population/Age Group: Adolescents 12 – 18. Santa Monica. jarmstrong@mizar. Suite 402. Scale and sub-scale reliability were very good (Cronbach’s alpha reported at .usc. and 4) depersonalization and derealization.

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Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA-C. NC 27710. 1999). and a one-day training is needed for the Life Event/PTSD module. chronic.58 (parent) for low magnitude events. severity. Reliability of the PTSD symptoms was fair to excellent (kappa = 0. Duke University Medical Center. 919-687-4686. and 0. no date) Contact Information: Jane Duncan. Ascher & Angold.62 (child) and 0. Cox. Several modules comprise the PAPA. March .mc. DUMC Box 3454. The Life Events/ Posttraumatic Stress module collects data regarding risk that may result in psychopathology. The measure is divided into modules. Date of onset.Saigh & Yasik. DSM-III-R. add an additional 30 minutes for scoring. and from symptom onset data distinctions between PTSD acute. and frequency are assessed. The parent reports the child’s symptoms and impairments. CAPA -P) Author(s): Angold. Fairbank. Rutter.83 (parent) for high magnitude events. Durham. frequency. A parent interview is available. March & Fairbank.edu Year: 1995 110 . Description: The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment-Child Version (CAPAC) is a comprehensive interviewer-based structured diagnostic interview focusing on the three months preceding the interview. The measure was able to discriminate between a clinical sample and community sample.72 (child) and 0. Purpose: To obtain information on the onset dates. Psychometrics Properties: For the Life Events/Posttraumatic Stress module fair to excellent reliability were found. including a Life Events and PTSD module. To date. 1998.79). intensity. & Simonoff Population/Age Group: 9 to 17 years of age. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment-Parent Version (CAPA-P). Formal training is required to administer the CAPA. no psychometric properties have been investigated for the PAPA.duke. The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) is a structured interview for children aged 2 through 5 which was derived from the CAPA. jduncan@psych. (Egger. (Costello . and delayed are made (Costello. Developmental Epidemiology Program. Angold . Prendergast.40-0. duration. Intraclass correlations were 0. Approximately an hour is needed to complete the interview. and co-morbidity of symptoms for psychiatric diagnoses adhering to criteria of the DSM-IV. An hour and half is needed to complete the entire interview. 1998). or ICD-10. Compared with a general population sample (N = 1015) the clinically-referred subjects and their parents were twice as likely to report a traumatic event and up to 25 times as likely to report symptoms of PTSD.

1994). Identity Alterations. Low to moderate validity was found with other child dissociation scales. 1994). Rathus. The adult should be familiar with the child across a various contexts (Putnam & Peterson. A 3-point response format of 0 (not true) to 2 (very true) is summed to yield a total score. Contact Information: Frank W. Myers &Collett. 2002). gender. and mother’s rate boys higher than girls. Putnam. frank. and Aggression or Sexualized Behaviors.putnam@chmcc. but psychometric properties have not been evaluated (Ohan. 2003). 513-636-7001. Psychometrics Properties: Several studies have established the psychometric properties with non-clinical and clinical samples. 2002) Approximately five minutes are needed to complete the measure. Six domains of dissociation are assessed: Dissociative Amnesia. & Trickett. Moderate test-retest reliability at 2 to 4 weeks and 1 year. Myers. children with dissociation from psychiatrically healthy children. Purpose: To screen children for dissociate symptoms.Child Dissociative Checklist (CDC) Author(s): Putnam Year: 1990 Population/Age Group: Parent or caregiver of a 5 to 12 year old child. &Collett. A child self-report measure has been developed. and parental role difference were found. A reworded version of the CDC has been with children as a self-report measure. A score of 12 or higher is considered abnormal. Hallucinations. Rapid Shifts in Demeanor and Abilities. The measure is not a diagnostic tool. (Ohan. & Silver. Age.org 111 . and moderate to good internal reliability were found (Putnam & Peterson. The measure has discriminated between children who were maltreated. 1993) is a 20-item parent/adult-observer report of dissociative behaviors. Spontaneous Trance States. Helmer. Younger children and girls had higher symptoms than boys and older children. Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. No training is required to administer the measure (Feindler. Description: The Child Dissociative Checklist (CDC) (Putnam.

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and approximately 15 minutes are needed to complete the measure. Johnson. The measure has been translated into several languages for research in the United States: Spanish. Korean. Feeny & Treadwell. (1997) for adults. Good convergent validity was found with other PTSD measures. and for subscales moderate to good internal and test-retest reliability. 2002) the measure was used with Spanish. The response format is a 4-point Likert scale and results in a total PTSD symptom severity score. and Armenian Speaking immigrant children. Contact Information: Edna Foa. The items can be scored dichotomously to yield a diagnosis. Feeney. (Foa.upenn.med. Treadwell Population/Age Group: Children between the ages of 8 and 18. 2001). For the total scale. An additional seven items were included after the PTSD symptoms to gauge impaired functioning. Purpose: To probe for DSM-IV PTSD symptoms in children. University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. The measure can be administered individually or in a group format. Preliminary findings demonstrated high internal consistency. avoidance. severity scores for each of three symptom clusters can be calculated. Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety. 2001) is the child version of Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTSD) developed by Foa. Russian. There is one question for each of the DMS-IV PTSD symptoms in the three criteria clusters (re-experiencing. Psychometrics Properties: Preliminary psychometric properties were established with seventy-five school-aged children in California who experienced an earthquake.edu Year: 2001 114 . Department of Psychiatry. good internal and test-retest reliability were found. Philadelphia. yielding a score range from 0 to 7. and Armenian. and arousal). et al. Russian. foa@mail. Johnson. PA 10104.Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) Author(s): Foa. Feeney & Treadwell. 3535 Market Street. Description: The CPSS (Foa. Korean. In a later study (Jaycox. Sixth Floor. The self-report measure assesses the frequency of all PTSD symptoms within the past month for a child who has experienced a traumatic event. The response format for these seven questions is dichotomous (present or not present). Johnson. A strong correlation between exposure to violence and PTSD symptoms were found.

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200 East Joppa Rd. 888-825-8249. Morrell & Weishaar. and Scotland. 2=Lots). conversely. Rubin. Rubin. Jurkovic.Child Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms/Parent Report of Posttraumatic Symptoms (CROPS/PROPS) Author(s): Greenwald & Rubin Year: 1999 Population/Age Group: Children 6 through 18.. the respondent must be the same individual at each administration. Higher scores reflect more posttraumatic stress symptoms. Psychometrics Properties: The measures were validated for use with children in 3rd through 8th grade (ages 8 through 15). 1=Some. O’Connor. Sarac. Similar internal consistency was found for the CROPS with juveniles incarcerated at detention facilities in New York. Bosnia. Jurkovic. Description: The CROPS is a 25-item child self-report measure of posttraumatic symptoms for the previous seven days. Purpose: The Child Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms (CROPS) and Parent Report of Posttraumatic Symptoms (PROPS) (Greenwald & Rubin. & Rule. and parents. 1999). 1999). 1999) screen for posttraumatic symptoms in children who do or do not have an identified traumatic event (Greenwald & Rubin. Contact Information: Sidran Institute. MD 21286. Russell. The response format for both measures is a 3-point Likert scale (0=None. 2002). The scoring of measure takes approximately one minute. Excellent internal consistency was found for both measures in the United States. Approximately 5 minutes are needed to complete each measure. 2002) Good concurrent validity between the both the CROPS and the PROPS and the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events Scales were found (Greenwald & Rubin. Suite 207.org 117 . Wiedemann. 2002) have explored the psychometric properties of the test. Russell. sidran. Cutoff scores have been developed to indicate clinical concern (Soberman. (Greenwald. CROPS and PROPS were developed jointly to specifically address the issue that children are good reporters of their internal feelings. If the PROPS is administered at multiple time periods. Younger children need the measure read to them. O’Connor. The PROPS is 30-item self-report instrument designed to measure the parent’s report of the child’s posttraumatic symptoms for the previous seven days. Baltimore. Both instruments can be administered either by paper-and-pencil or verbally (in an interview format or via telephone). Sarac. 1999). Germany. Wiedemann. The total score is calculated by adding all the responses. To date five studies (Greenwald. Greenwald. are good reporters of a child’s behavior (Greenwald & Rubin. Morrell & Weishaar.

In a second study with 213 elementary and middle-school children in Florida exposed to Hurricane Andrew. However. symptom intensity and duration are assessed for the past seven days. Virginia Polytechnic University. Department of Clinical Psychology. Psychometrics Properties: A study of 71 African-American children in high crime. A total of 15 items comprise the parent self-report measure: six from the original IES and nine new items. 1994). designed to capture symptoms of avoidance and intrusion in adults. Stress and Coping Lab. The researchers attribute the finding to remainder were rampant and pervasiveness in the environment (Nader. Utilizing a 4-point scale.Child Reaction to Traumatic Events Scale (CRTES) Author(s): Jones Population/Age Group: Children 8 to 12 years of age. VA 246010436. 4102 Derring Hall. Contact Information: Russell Jones. was revised in 1994 and renamed the Child’s Reaction to Traumatic Events Scale (CRTES) (Nader. 1997). add five minutes for scoring. lowincome area yielded an acceptable Cronbach’s alpha for the total scale. The measure can be completed in five to ten minutes. the avoidance scale revealed no significant difference between the clinical and non-clinical samples.edu Year: 1994 118 . rtjones@vt. Blacksburg. Description: The Impact of Events Scale (IES-8). 1997). Purpose: To measure the impact of traumatic events. limited to intrusive thoughts and affects and avoidance behaviors in young children. low Cronbach’s alphas were found for Intrusion and Avoidance (Cunningham. et al.

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VT 05009. There is no validity measure other than asking the rater for their subjective assessment of the child’s accuracy. Kriegler. There is diagnostic requirement that the youth have experienced at least one traumatic event. a 17-item checklist used to identify traumatic events. Blake. dissociation. and eight additional associate features (i. Thirty-four items assess DSM-IV PTSD symptoms. ncptsd@ncptsd. Developers encourage researchers to share data to further assess psychometric properties.Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA) Author(s): Nader. Blake. Currently. Newman & Weathers Year: 1996 Population/Age Group: ages of 8 to 15. VA Medical & Regional Office Center. The CAPS-CA (Nader. and the impact of symptoms on social functioning. Newman. 1998) is a semi-structured clinical interview. et. Symptoms are explored after the Life Events Checklist. shame. The measure allows for the evaluation of the frequency and intensity of each PTSD symptoms. Thirty minutes to two hours are needed to complete the entire interview.org 127 . Kriegler. Purpose: The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA) assesses and diagnoses children’s and adolescent’s PTSD symptoms for up to three identified traumatic events (Nader. Pynoos. 1998). 1997). Description: The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA) was modeled after the adult measure Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. The design requires that a clinician or researcher who is knowledgeable about PTSD and experienced with interviewing children administer the measure (Carlson. changes in attachment behaviors and trauma-specific fears). Weathers. The protocol manual for administration and scoring is not currently available.e. Utilizing pictorial scales and cartoon faces children and adolescents are asked to respond frequency and intensity for each item. & Pynoos. psychometric properties for the CAPSCA are under investigation. Frequency and intensity are rated on a 4-point scale. The CAPS-C (children) preceded the CAPS-CA. Psychometrics Properties: The adult CAPS and CAPS-C are widely accepted due to their sound psychometric properties. White River Junction... guilt.al. Contact Information: The National Center for PTSD (116-D).

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On a Likert scale of 0 (not a problem) to 4 (extreme problem). 2000). At total score is achieved by summing responses. Pepperdine University. girlfriend/boyfriend problems. Leskin & Foy Population/Age Group: Adolescents (mean age 16). the adolescent endorses “how much of problem” each symptom is. King. Foy. pervasive disgust. Leskin & Foy. Wood. In a sample of 639 high school ethnically diverse males and females enrolled at three inner city and one suburban schools (Foy. 1994). 1997). A combination of the two studies resulted in high alpha for the entire measure. 1995) is a 43-item self-report checklist that provides an index of distress in addition to a subset of items. King. Graduate School of Education and Psychology. Bwanausi. CA 90230 Year: 1995 145 . 1991). & Resnick. Description: The LASC (King. and excessive eating) (Greenwald. Psychometrics Properties: One of the first studies examined psychometric properties with a small sample of incarcerated juvenile offenders (Burton. PTSD symptoms can be scored separately from the entire measure. For adolescent a version has been modified for reading level and age appropriateness. and a continuous score for PTSD can be obtained. and other items were developed based on clinical experience of more general stress-related problems for adolescents (abusive drinking. Culver City. Purpose: To measure Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and general distress in a variety of adult and adolescents traumatized populations. Foy. and a second study was completed with a small sample of male and female enrolled in alternative schools (Guevara. King. For this study the LASC was modified again.Los Angeles Symptom Checklist (LASC) Author(s): King. 400 Corporate Pointe. Some items adhere to DSM-IV PTSD criteria. King. Johnson & Moore. Results demonstrate the LASC possesses a high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. and for the continuous PTSD severity score. Contact Information: David W.

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NY 14120. the most severely traumatized group of children with exposure to multiple traumas manifested the most elevated scores on a majority of the scales. with a sample mean of 8 years. “just a few times”. P. reads the accompanying items and asks the child how often they feel. think or act like Angie or Andy. Scales three through six form a second composite scale – the Total Associated Symptom Scale.mhs. pointing to a picture of a thermometer – on four separate cards each filled in to varying degrees and labeled “never”. The items result in information on six scales: 1) Dysregulation of affect. The first two scales form one composite scale measuring the three main constructs (re-experiencing. This scale is based on an adult scale . avoidance and arousal) associated with posttraumatic stress.. The child uses a thermometer response format.95 for the Total Associated Symptom scale). 3) Self-Perception.the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES) (van der Kolk et al. 800-456-3003. www. 2) Attention or Consciousness. to provide a non-threatening format for the child to report subjective reactions to traumatic experience. Results of data collection geared to inform both construct and concurrent validity are reported (Praver et al.O. The scales differentiated between trauma and non-trauma groups in the predicted direction. It attempts. Psychometrics Properties: The authors report excellent internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha was . Promising construct and concurrent validity based on a study with three groups of traumatized children and one non trauma group were also reported. through the use of drawings.Angie-Andy Cartoon Trauma Scale (ACTS) Author(s): Praver. 4) Relations with others. The original 110 item Angie Andy test takes about 45 minutes to administer. 1993) which was designed to measure complex PTSD.to respond.e. Contact Information: Multi-Health Systems Inc. 5) Somatization and 6) System of meaning. Purpose: The Angie/Andy Cartoon Scale was designed to capture the inner experience of children exposed to repeated or chronic episodes of violence or other trauma. “some of the time” and “a lot of the time” .. Box 950. North Tonawanda. i. Pelcovitz & Deguiseppe Year: 1996 Population/Age Group: Designed for children 6 – 11. 2000).90 for the Total PTSD scale and . Children were predominantly Black and Hispanic.. Description: This instrument is designed in a cartoon-based format which presents drawings of a girl or boy who manifests traumatic stress symptoms.com 148 . The person administering the scale points to the picture.

sexualization and mediating factors in children who have been sexually abused.56 to . Construct validity was highest for the symptom scales (PTSD and Eroticism). Michienzi.73.ca 149 . Purpose: The purpose of this instrument is to assess PTDS. with a mean alpha of . Sas & Wolfe.79. London. 2) Eroticism.Children’s Impact of Traumatic Events Scale –Revised (CITES-R) Author(s): Wolfe. Construct validity for both the abuse attribution and social support domains was mixed (Wolfe. 1991).69 for the 11 scales. The strongest domain appears to be that of Social Support. 3) Abuse Attribution and 4) Social Reactions. 519667-5755. It is an interview which takes approximately ten to 40 minutes to administer. Canada N6A 5C2. with a range of . Gentile. However. Contact Information: Vicky Wolfe. but the predicted correlations were more modest than predicted. & Wolfe Year: 1991 Population/Age Group: The target population is sexually abused children aged 8 -16. Michienzi. The symptom scales were also largely uncorrelated with parent report measures and there was no significant correlation with behavioral severity of sexual abuse. Description: The CITES-R is comprised of 78 items that fall into 11 scales along four dimensions: 1) PTSD symptoms.wolfe@lhsc. Ontario. with an overall alpha of .on. there is some variability. Sas. 800 Commissioners Road East. vicky. Gentile. Children’s Hospital of Western Ontario Department of Psychiatry. Psychometrics Properties: Reliability is moderate.

Children’s Hospital of Western Ontario Department of Psychiatry. 800 Commissioners Road East. Description: The FEEDSA is a 54 item self-report measure. Psychometrics Properties: Limited psychometric properties are available. Rathurs & Silver. The response format is a 4 point Likert scale (0=none to 3= a lot) (Feindler. The measure has two subscales: 1) trauma and 2) dissociation.on.80) were reported.ca 150 .wolfe@lhsc. Rathurs & Silver. 2003). High reliability for the trauma subscale (alpha . Predictive validity was established by high trauma subscale scores and reports of dissociation (Feindler.Feelings and Emotions Experienced During Sexual Abuse (FEEDSA) Author(s): Wolfe & Birt Year: 1993 Population/Age Group: Sexually abused children. The measure has been used with abused girls only. vicky. Canada N6A 5C2. 519667-5755. London. Ontario. Purpose: Feelings and Emotions Experienced During Sexual Abuse (FEEDSA) was created to assess a child’s emotional reaction to a sexual abuse experience. 2003). Contact Information: Vicky Wolfe.95) and good reliability for the dissociation subscale (alpha .

IL 60612 151 . 5) Loss of Desired Resources. Then each item is answered according to a 4-point Likert scale (1=not at all to 4= a lot). and moderate to high internal consistency was found the subscales. 2) Negative Self-Evaluation. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were correlated with negative appraisals. 1995). Institute for Juvenile Research. harm.. Psychometrics Properties: For the total scale high internal consistency was found. or loss attributed to sexual abuse. thereby demonstrating concurrent validity. a correlation between the CBCL (parent report) and the NASAS (child report) was found. Negative SelfEvaluation. The scoring is built into the NASAS. Eight theoretical subscales comprise the NASAS: 1) Physical Pain/Damage. 3) Global. The youth is instructed to discuss their feelings and thoughts about what happened to the perpetrator. 7) Harm to Others. and a total score is achieved by summing all items. 1997. It was normed with 48 sexually abused girls aged 11 to 18 (Spaccarelli & Fuchs. and 8) Criticism of others. Convergent validity was established between the correlation between negative appraisal total scores and therapist ratting of abuse stress (Spaccarelli & Fuchs. 6) Harm to Relationships/Security. Chicago. Psychometric properties were assessed with same sample as the C-SARS. Department of Psychiatry. Purpose: Predict youth’s adjustment to sexual abuse via assessment of negative cognitive appraisals to threat. Spaccarelli. Spaccarelli. University of Illinois at Chicago. Description: The NASAS is a 56 item self-report that measures perception of threat or harm associated to sexual abuse. Contact Information: Steven Spaccarelli. 907 South Wolcott Ave.Negative Appraisals of Sexual Abuse Scale (NASAS) Author(s): Spaccarelli Year: 1995 Population/Age Group: Sexually abused children and adolescents. Additionally. 4) Sexuality. 1995). 1997.

Department of Psychology. conway.Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) Author(s): Saylor & Swenson Year: 1999 Population/Age Group: Children 2 – 10. The items focus on specific symptoms empirically related to childhood trauma (Saylor et.. Charleston. 1999). The Citadel. Purpose: The purpose of this instrument is to provide a brief screening measure that can be used to detect elevated levels of symptoms and behavior in children following exposure to a stressful an/or traumatic event without burdening parents. Cutoff scores are developed for the total scale and each of the subscales. the parent responds to 17 general behavior items and four trauma-specific items. Contact Information: Dr. child victims themselves or professionals.saylor@citadel. More detailed scoring information is contained in the referenced article. Employing a 4 – item Likert rating scale (1) Almost Never (2) Sometimes. 171 Moultrie Ave.. These are labeled Anxious/Withdrawn. SC 29409.edu 152 . Conway Saylor. Discriminant analyses distinguished between trauma exposure and non-trauma exposure groups. (3) Often and (4) Very Often). Total and subscale scores demonstrated good internal consistency and both test-retest and interrater reliability were at satisfactory levels. Description: This is a 21-item parent report scale. Psychometrics Properties: Factor analysis on the 21 items generated from four samples of two. Fearful and Acting Out.al. It is not intended to be a diagnostic instrument.to ten-year olds (traumatic event exposure and non-traumatic event exposure) yielded three reliable factors.

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on. Two subscales comprise the SAFE: Sexual Associated Fears and Interpersonal Discomfort.wolfe@lhsc. The response format may be root of the problem since it may not detect differences between sexual and non sexually abuse children. Validity could not be established. 519667-5755. Psychometrics Properties: High Internal Reliability was found for both subscales. London. The measure was not able to discriminate between identified children of sexual and non-abused children.ca Year: 1986 154 . Rathus & Silver. 800 Commissioners Road East. Ontario. Contact Information: Vicky Wolfe.Sexual Abuse Fear Evaluation (SAFE) Author(s): Wolfe & Wolfe Population/Age Group: Sexually abused children. 2003). Description: The Sexual Abuse Fear Evaluation (SAFE) is a 27-item scale that is part of a larger 80-item Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised. Children’s Hospital of Western Ontario Department of Psychiatry. vicky. Purpose: To assess abuse-related fears and distressing situation in sexually abused children. 2003). The 3point scale response format facilitates scoring (Feindler. (Feindler. Canada N6A 5C2. Rathus & Silver.

Description: The TSCC is a self-report measure with 54 items. 1994).. and is also available in a 44 item alternative version – the TSCC-A – minus items making reference to sexual issues.89). parinc. Anger.77). Friedrich & Jopwaski. Results indicate strong construct validity (Singer. 1994 & Elliot & Briere.al. 1996). 1995. Respondents answer questions directly into a booklet. 1996. which can be hand scored by the examiner.Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) Author(s): John Briere Population/Age Group: 8 – 16 years. The Sexual Concerns scale has slightly lower internal consistency (alpha=. Items are grouped into two rater validity scales and six clinical scales. Florida Ave. 800-727-9329. Evans et. Evans et. There is also a tear-off scoring sheet which can be computerscored if desired. and yields high internal consistency for five of the six scales (alpha range is from . Depression. providing norms on age and sex. T-scores are then calculated on sex and age groupings. Briere. Psychometrics Properties: This measure has the advantage of extensive administration with normative samples. 1995. The six clinical scales are Anxiety. Contact Information: Psychological Assessment Resources.82 to . 1995).. Inc.. 1994). 1994. and criterion (or predictive) validity (Diaz. convergent and discriminant validity (Briere & Lanktree. al. The measure takes 15 – 20 minutes to complete.FL 33549. It is standardized on a large sample of racially and economically diverse children. Lutz . Posttraumatic Stress. Purpose: This instrument was designed to evaluate the impact of trauma as manifest both in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and “related psychological symptomatology” (Briere..com Year: 1996 155 . 16204 N. Dissociation (with two subscales) and Sexual Concerns.

Lutz. The reported study found few rater variable effects. depression and anger). Data is not yet available on a normative population. It also has an item assessing the hours of weekly contact between the respondent and the child. 6) Anxiety . It contains two scales to help determine the validity or caretaker reports and eight clinical scales designed to measure the psychological consequences of exposure to trauma.Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC) Author(s): John Briere Population/Age Group: Children 3 – 12. despite good face validity. but not for the three mood-related scales (anxiety. (A composite scale Posttraumatic stressTotal) . a promising sign.Arousal. Psychometrics Properties: Findings reported on a multi-site analysis suggest good internal reliability with Alpha ranging from .87 across all scales (Briere et. The authors report good construct validity for the scales measuring post-traumatic stress. 3) Posttraumatic stress. 7) Depression.81 for sexual concerns to . al. The eight scales are 1) Posttraumatic stress-Intrusion. 2001). Description: This is a 90-item parent or caretaker report measure. sexual concerns and dissociation. Inc.1 years. Contact Information: Psychological Assessment Resources. parinc. Like other symptom measures. it does not gather data regarding specific trauma or “anchor “ events. and these scales may be less valid.93 for PTSD-Total. 800-727-9329. and 8) Anger/Aggression. The mean age in the study exploring reliability and association with abuse experiences was 7. 5) Dissociation. The latter were also not associated with abuse history in the study.com Year: Available 2004 156 . Purpose: This measure was designed to help address the gap in standardized trauma measures for children under age seven. 4) Sexual concerns. 16204 N. Florida Ave. with an average of . A testing of the ability of the scales to discriminate between abused and non-abused children awaits convergent validity studies using a mixed sample of abused and nonabused children. FL 33549.. 2) Posttraumatic stressAvoidance.

Cohen. Psychometrics Properties: At two-week test-retest good reliability was found for type of behaviors (. and low (. 8th Floor.88). 4 Allegheny Center. the type scores indicate the number of different behaviors that occurred at least once (Feindler. second. literature. Allegheny General Hospital.81) and number of behaviors (. Rathurs. During the course of week parents are required to record if a behavior (i.org Year: 1996 157 . 2003).e. a total score can be yield by summing all episodes. Parents record the exact number of times each behavior occurred and trace the occurrence in time blocks. Among the sexually abused population good internal consistency was demonstrated (. Pittsburgh. There is one item for each type of problematic behavior. and consultation were used to identify problem behaviors. Low to moderate correlations were found between the WBR and the Child Behavior Checklist (r=.80). & Silver. Purpose: The purpose of the Weekly Behavior Report (WBR) is document the frequency of problem behaviors associated with sexual abuse. First. The total number of types and number of episodes a behavior occurred over a week’s time periods are recorded. 412-330-4328. Two scores can be obtained. sleep difficulties.29 to r=. jcohen1@wpahs.Weekly Behavior Report (WBR) Author(s): Cohen & Mannarino Population/Age Group: Parents of sexual abused preschoolers.76) for the control group. Department of Psychiatry. Description: The parent-checklist consisting of 21 items.60). PA 15212. Contact Information: Judith A. and. Empirical data. The Center for Traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescent. anxiety symptoms. inappropriate sexual behaviors) occurred one or more times.

Child & Adolescent Trauma Measures
Format
Psychometrics YES

Both Exposure and Symptoms Measures
Construct(s) Measured
Violence Self-Report 12-21 20 YES

Measure

Author(s)

Age Group

Time to Administer (minutes)

Corresponds to DSM Criteria

Published

Cost / Contact

Adolescent Self-Report Trauma Questionnaire PTSD Interview Interview PTSD

Horowitz, Weine & Jekel Fletcher

No Cost smweine@ uic.edu No Cost kenneth. fletcher@ umassmed.edu

Childhood PTSD Interview Child (CPTSDI-C) Parent (CPTSDI-P) Children’s PTSD Inventory

Saigh

Interview Self-Report 9-18 20-30

7-18 Parent 7-18

30-45 30-60 5 (no history) 15-20 (w/ history)

YES YES YES

YES YES YES

43.00 for 25 psychcorp.com

YES

YES

115.00 / Kit
wpspublish.com

My Worst Experience Scale (MWES)
PTSD Self-Report

Hyman, Snook, PTSD Berna, DuCette & Kohr 20 Children 7-12 Adolescents 13 + Parent 8-13 10-20

YES

YES

No Cost

Rodriquez, Steinberg, Pynoos

rpynoss. mednet.ucla
.edu

UCLA PTSD Index for DSM-IV (Child, Adolescent, Parent)

When Bad Things Happen Scale (WBTH)
Sexual Abuse Sexual Abuse Interview Self-Report Children & Adolescents 2-7

Fletcher

PTSD

Self-Report

YES

YES

No Cost kenneth . fletcher@ umassmed.edu

Spaccarelli

N/A N/A NO NO YES YES

N/A N/A

Abusive Sexual Exposure Scale (ASES) Anatomical Doll Questionnaire (ADQ) Hostile Maltreatment Sexual Abuse Self-Report Interview Adolescents

Levy, Markovic Kalinowski, Ahart, & Torres McGee & Wolfe

N/A

NO

YES

No Cost vicky.wolfe@ lhsc.on.ca

Attributions for Maltreatment Interview (AFMI) Checklist of Sexual Abuse and Related Stressors (C-SARS)

Spaccarelli

Children & Adolescents

N/A

NO

YES

N/A

Checklist for Child
Neglect

Petty

Abuse &

Interview

Children &
Adolescents

N/A

NO

NO

Abuse Evaluation (CCAE)

126.00 Manual & 25 checklists

parinc.com

158

History of Exposure to Trauma Measures
Construct(s) Measured Format Age Group Time to Administer (minutes)
45 NO YES

Measure

Author(s)

Corresponds to DSM Criteria

Published Psychometrics

Cost / Contact

Ammerman, Van Hasselt & Herson Sexual Abuse/ Sexual Behavior Parent-Report 2-12 10-13 NO YES

Maltreatment & Abuse

Parent Interview

Children & Adolescents

N/A

Child Abuse and Neglect Interview Schedule-Revised (CANIS-R) Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-I) Abuse & Neglect Maltreatment & Abuse Self-Report Children N/A Self-Report 12 and older 5 NO YES

Friedrich

Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)

Bernstein & Fink

robert. ammerman@ chmcc.org 139.00 Manual & 50 Booklets parinc.com 105.00 25 Copies & Manual psychcorp.com

vicke.wolfe @lhsc.on.ca ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

History of Victimization Form (HVF)

Wolfe, Wolfe, Gentile & Bourdeau

NO

YES

No cost

Greenwald
10

Trauma

8 and older

10

NO
NO

YES
YES

Lifetime Incidence of Exposure to Traumatic Events (LITE)- Students & Parents Parent-Report 6-10 N/A

Self-Report Parent-Report

Each form
12.00/ 5 Sidran.org

Survey of Children’s Exposure to Community Violence Traumatic Events Screening Inventory (TESI) Self-Report Revised 6-18 8 or younger Self-Report or Interview Parent- Report or Interview

Richters & Saltzman

NO

YES

Exposure to Community Violence Lifetime Exposure To Traumatic Events

20-30 20-30

YES YES

NO NO

No Cost jrichter@ nih.gov No Cost ncptsd@ ncptsd.org

Parent-Report Revised

Ippen, Ford, Racusin, Acker Bosquet, Rogers, Ellis, Schiffman, Ribbe, Cone, Lukovitz & Edwards

159

Impact of Trauma – Symptoms and/or Distress Indices PTSD and Dissociative Measures
Construct(s) Measured
Self-Report 11-18 15-30 NO YES

Measure

Author(s)

Format

Age Group

Time to Administer (minutes)

Corresponds to DSM Criteria

Published Psychometrics

Cost / Contact

Adolescent Dissociative Experience Survey (A-DES) Interview 9-18 90 YES YES

Armonstrong, Normal & Putnam & Carlson Pathological Dissociation

Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA-C) PTSD Symptoms Dissociative Symptoms PTSD Symptoms PTS Symptoms PTS Symptoms Psychological Response to Self-Report 8-12 5-10 Intrusion & Avoidance Parent-Report 6-18 Self-Report 6-18 5-10 Self-Report 8-18 15 Parent-Report 5-12 5 Interview 9-18 60 YES

Angold, Cox Symptoms for Prendergast, Psychiatric Rutter & Simonoff Diagnoses

YES

3.00 for Printing & Mailing jarmstrong@ mizar.usc.edu 65.00 jduncan@ psych.mc. duke.edu 919-687 4686

The Life Events/ Posttraumatic Stress Module of CAPA-C Child Dissociative Checklist (CDC)

Putnam

NO

YES

No Cost
frank.putnam @chmcc.org

Child PTSD Symptom Scale

Foa, Johnson, Feeny &

YES

YES

(CPSS)

Tredwell

No Cost foa@mail.med. upenn.edu

Child Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms (CROPS) Parent Report of

Greenwald & Rubin

YES

YES

12.00 5 Copies of Each Form

5-10

YES

YES

sidran.org

Post-Traumatic Symptoms (PROPS) Child Reaction to Traumatic Events Scale

Jones

YES

No Cost

rtjones@vt.edu

(CRTES) ClinicianAdministered Interview PTSD

Nader, Kriegler Blake, Pynoos,

Stressful Life Stress, Trauma Adaptation &

7-18

30-120

Only YES

YES

No Cost National for PTSD ncptsd@ ncptsd.org

Center

PTSD Scale for Children & Adolescents (CAPS-CA)

Newman & Weathers

Los Angeles Symptom Checklist (LASC)

Foy, King PTSD King & Resnick

Interview

Adolescents & Adults

10-20

Re-experience, Avoidance, Numbing & Hyperarousal

YES

No Cost dfoy@ pepperdine. edu

160

Eroticism Interview Perceptions of Support & Abuse 8-16 20-40 YES Praver.com Briere Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC) Weekly Behavior Report (WBI) Posttraumatic Stress.wolfe@ lhsc.saylor@ citadel. Gentile Michienzi.wolfe@ lhsc.ca Negative Appraisals of Sexual Abuse Scale (NASAS) Spaccarelli NO YES N/A Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) Saylor & Swenson Negative Cognitive Appraisals Associated with Sexual Abuse Symptoms Following a Stressful/ Traumatic Event Parent-Report 2-10 N/A Abuse-Related Fears Posttraumatic Stress.org 161 . PTSD Symptoms NO YES No Cost conway. PTSD.edu Sexual Abuse Fear Evaluation (SAFE) Self-Report Wolfe & Wolfe Self-Report Children N/A NO YES Briere 8-16 10-20 NO YES No Cost vicky.com No Cost vicky. & Deguiseppe Violence & Abuse Children’s Impact of Traumatic Events Scale Revised (CITES-R) Wolfe.ca Feelings and Emotions Experienced During Sexual Abuse (FEEDSA) Self-Report Children & Adolescents N/A Wolfe & Birt Emotional Reactions to Sexual Abuse Self-Report Children N/A YES YES No Cost vicky.00 Intro Kit CaretakerReport Parent-Report 3-12 10-20 NO YES parinc.wolfe@ lhsc.Impact of Trauma – Symptoms and/or Distress Indices Multiple Trauma Symptom Measures Construct(s) Measured Self-Report 6-12 45 NO YES Measure Author(s) Format Age Group Time to Administer (minutes) Corresponds to DSM Criteria Published Psychometrics Cost / Contact Angie/Andy Cartoon Trauma Scale (ACTS) PTS.on.on.on. Pelcovitz.ca 127.00 Reusable Booklet and Scoring sheets mhs. Sas & Wolfe YES 36. PTSD Symptoms Behavior Associated with Sexual Abuse Cohen & Mannarino Preschool aged Children N/A NO YES N/A jcohen1@ wpahs.com Available parinc.

& Lanktree. R. 10011014. Foy. Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). (1995). Professional Manual. Van Hasselt. 25. Briere.. M.. W. M. 185. Carlson. family dysfunction.. Ammerman. Development and validation of a measure of adolescent dissociation: The Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Bwanausi. &. Putnam. M. Hersen. 33. D.. Briere. (1994)... Pittsburgh. S.. Briere.. Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources. R.References Ammerman. and posttraumatic stress symptoms in juvenile offenders.. The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC): Preliminary psychometric characteristics. Armstrong... Johnson. Libero. Unpublished manuscript. &.. Johnson. Damon. Child Abuse & Neglect. Maltreatment in psychiatrically hospitalized children and adolescents with developmental disabilities: Prevalence and correlates. & Moore.. (1997).. VanHasselt.. L. E.. Crouch. Burton. J. The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC): reliability and association with abuse exposure in a multi-site study. E. Department of Psychiatry. V. The Child Abuse and Neglect Interview Schedule-Revised. D. L. V. 567-576. Hersen. J. Smith. J. J. J. A. (1993). University of Southern California School of Medicine. Hanson.. Bissada.. 162 . F. Journal of the American Academy of Children and Adolescent Psychiatry. 491-497. D. B. 7.. & Ernst. K. C. The relationship between traumatic exposure.. Gil.. (1996).. Sieck. V. R. Lubetsky. (2001). 83-89. Journal of Traumatic Stress.. C. &. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders.. (1994). J. Western Pennsylvania School for Blind Children..

Presented at the 7th Annual Research Conference. 2002.. 4 April). The Weekly Behavior Report: A parent-report instrument for sexually abused preschoolers. (1999). Egger. Jones.Carlson. H. March). H. (1994. Child Maltreatment.. Angold. &. Wientzen. from ScienceDirect. Mannarino. V. E. R. 1. (unpublished Interview Schedule). L. J. J. (1999). Florida. Ascher. Crouch. B. Carrion. Cohen. D. March. &. The diagnostic utility of sexual behavior problems in diagnosing sexual abuse in a forensic child abuse evaluation clinic. 25(4). Columbia University. &.. Psychological Medicine.. Ezzell. Child Maltreatment. Life events and post-traumatic stress: The development of a new measure for children and adolescents.1..com. A. Smith.. The Preschool Aged Psychiatric Assessment: Version 1. Impact of community violence on African American children and adolescents in high violent crime neighborhoods: Preliminary findings. W.. (1997). C.. B. Center for Developmental 163 . & Angold. Diaz.. Retrieved November 26. Yang. 1275-1288. B. G.. May). 28. (2001. from Findarticles.. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.. A. 4(5).. J. & Saunders... E. Retrieved 18/8/2003. Cunningham. K. Trauma assessment:. Child Abuse & Neglect. L. Costello.. (1994). Ricci. (1998). Trauma and dissociation in delinquent adolescents. 255-263. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescents. Measuring Reactions to Sexual Trauma Among Children:. J. A. New York. 353-360. Drach. & Fairbank. L. J. (1996). P.. The impact of sexual abuse on adolescent females: Factors influencing subsequent psychological adjustment and sexual behavior. E. &. New York: The Guilford Press. J. (2002. E. 39(3). B.

722-727. & Faupel. Rathus.. University of Massachusetts Medical Center. & Treadwell. Paper presented at the San Diego Conference on Responding to Child Maltreatment. N. 30(3). Fletcher. (2003). A. Instructions for use of four measures of childhood PTSD and the Dimensions of Stressful Events (DOSE) Rating Scale. (2001).K. Elliot. Fletcher. Farrington. K. & Briere. D. W. The Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale: Psychometric properties and differences in scores across age groups. K. Evans. E. Fletcher. Presented at the International Research Conference on Trauma and Memory.... Foa. (1994. M.. Feindler. Briere. M. (1992).. CA.. L.. G. Boggiano. & Barrett. K. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. J. Silver. Washington. University of Massachusetts Medical Center. (1994). Psychiatry Department. When bad things happen. R. J. J.. J. Behavioral Sciences and the Law. D. A.. 164 . A. K. Duke University Medical Center. Preliminary Psychometrics of Four New Measures of Childhood PTSD. (2002). Journal of Clinical Child Psychology..C. Smerden.Epidemiology. J. &.. San Diego. Assessment of family violence: A handbook for research and practitioners. K.: American Psychological Association. (2001). 12. Forensic sexual abuse evaluations of older children: Disclosures and symptomatology.. The child PTSD symptom scale: A preliminary examination of its psychometric properties.. Johnson.. E. 376-384. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders. January). Feeny. Waller. Psychiatry Department. 261-277. Reliability and validity of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children in a normal sample. J. 189. (1996).

Foa. 165 .. R... A. Journal of Traumatic Stress. T. C. et al..html. W. (2000. 9(1). D. Friedrich. 6.com.. Rothbaum.. E. King. Lang. Riggs. &.. Retrieved 30 October 2002.. & Jaworski.. 61-75. (1999). B.dartmouth. D. Rochester. Los Angeles Symptom Checklist: Psychometric evidence with an adolescent sample. June 1999. 377-384. (1997). 2002. Brief assessment of children's post-traumatic symptoms: Development and preliminary validation of parent and child scales. &.. Koverola. L. Psychological Assessments. R. & Goguen.childtrauma. L. J. Greenwald. Community violence-related PTSD in children and adolescents. Damon. (1993). Greenwald. Reliability and validity of a brief instrument for assessing post-traumatic stress disorder. PTSD Research Quarterly. MN. C. (1995). Measuring dissociation and sexual behaviors in adolescents and children. Friedrich. 4(4). 9(4).. A. W. & Rubin. P. S. 9.. (1992). R. Dancu. Hewitt. (1999. (1998).. King.mezpost. Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: Normative and clinical comparisons. Retrieved 12 November. D.. June). January). 459-473. M. Wood. Child Trauma Measures For Research and Practice. Research on Social Work Practice. from http://www... 4(3). R. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. W. H. Assessment of posttraumatic symptoms in children: Development and preliminary validation of parent and child scales. from htttp://www. Research on Social Work Practice. Grambsch. N.edu/dms/ptsd. 61-76. Assessment. &. Rubin. Foy. 20.. Foy. Mayo Clinic. Unpublished manuscript. D. D. Resnick.... Greenwald.

trauma.. Weine.. September). from Findarticles.. L. K. G. D. Markovic. Ahart. M. J. Journal of American Academy of Adolescent Psychiatry. Lutherville. G. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescents. 212-213).. O'Connor. H. &.. (2002. Stamm (Ed. 2. J. Horowitz. D.. J. L. & Foy. (1995). (1995. Levy. A. (1995). Markovic... and adaptation (pp.. 1353-1361. CA. from http://www. and depressive symptoms among recent immigrants school children. Russell. Measurement of stress. Retrieved 15/10/02. 166 . King. PTSD Symptoms in urban adolescent girls: Compounded community trauma. posttraumatic stress disorder. 334-353. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.. Retrieved 12/2/2003. Pasadena. (1996). 10(3). 334-353.com. Kalinowski. Psychometric reviews of My Worst Experience and My Worst School Experience Scale.com/postrops. Fuller Theological Seminary. M. Kalinowski. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.. The Los Angeles Symptom Checklist: A selfreport measure of posttraumatic stress disorder. S. 34(10). Lesking. Jaycox... 10. Levy. October).html. Exposure to gang violence and the development of PTSD in continuation school youth. Ahart.childtrauma. & Torres. R. &.... M. In B. & Torres. H. et al.. Jekel. Rubin. (2002).. 1-17. MD: Sidran Press. S. A. M. (1995). J. Child sexual abuse interviews: The use of anatomical dolls and the reliability of information. H. I.).. S. Jurkovic. H. Psychometrics of the CROPS & PROPS in multiple cultures/translation. Violence exposure. Wiedemann. King.Greenwald. Hyman. Guevara... Child sexual abuse interviews: The use of anatomical dolls and the reliability of information. (1991). Assessment..

Nader. Child Maltreatment. 273-285. J. Petty. Blake... NC: Psytech. Keane (Eds. W.. J.. D. R.. Development of a record of maltreatment experiences. R.. Toronto. Milner. D. (1997). Kriegler. & Weather.. DiGuiseppe. J. National Center for PTSD and UCLA Trauma Psychiatry Program. Ohan. K. Kriegler. New York: Guilford Press. 5(3). D. Pynoos.. Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources. K. &. A preliminary study of a cartoon measure for children's reactions to chronic trauma. Dissociation in children and adolescents: A Developmental perspective.McGee... F. (2000. K. R. Praver. D. F... October). (1986). Checklist for Child Abuse Evaluations. August). Blake. The Institute for the Prevention of Child Abuse. (1998. Nader. Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD (pp. Nader. & Collett. E. K. F. Putnam.). Weathers. Myers. F. Newman. New York: Guilford Press. Mandel. E.. The ClinicianAdministered PTSD Scale. (2002). F. &. J. W. &. Gaines. et al. National Center for PTSD. O. Ten-Year review of rating scale. Kaloupek. 41(12).. VT. D. (1990).. (2002). Wilson & T. Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale For Children and Adolescents for (DSM-IV) (CAPS-CA). Academy Child Adolescent Psychiatry. G. &. Canada. Pelcovitz. Child and Adolescent Version (CAPS-CA). Newman. Assessing traumatic experiences in children. Wolfe..... Webster. D. IV: Scales assessing trauma and its effects. 167 ... R. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory manual (2nd ed). 291-348). 1401-1422.. In J. J. (1990)... B. A. (1997).

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Pelcovitz. Searchable Inventory of Instruments. G. Measurement of stress. Greenwald. B. Feldman. victims of and witnesses to violence. B. 26. C. NY: The Haworth Maltreatment & Trauma Press. &. van der Kolk. Stamm. (1994). Maryland: Sidran.. Lutherville. Violence Institute of New Jersey.). A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for boys with conduct problems. S. research. Variability in symptoms expression among sexually abuse girls: Developing multivariate models. (1993). Wherry. 7-21. and negative cognitive appraisals in child sexual abuse: Validity data on two new scales. and intervention (pp. Spaccarelli. 56. 51-66...edu. stress. Greenwald (Ed. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. 24-35. R. trauma. (2002). Trauma and juvenile delinquency: Theory. Adam. S. Herman. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Spaccarelli. Assessing Violent Behavior and Related Constructs in Children and Adolescents: My Worst Experience Scale.. The structured interview for complex PTSD. (1996).Soberman. Spitzer.umdnj. 703-726. (1997). 169 . Kaplan.. & Manjanatha. & Fuchs. Retrieved Electronically on 25 November 2003 from http:vinst. R.. J. J.. & Rule David L. 23(6). and adaptation. J.. The child dissociative checklist: Preliminary Finding of a Screening Measure... Jolly. Psychiatry. D. Measuring abuse. S. (1995). 3(3). 217-235). Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. S. Interpersonal. et al. H... In R. and Biological Processes. S. (2002). J. Roth... B.

Michienzi. (1991). Green B. (1986).... P. V. Oberfield. V. 14. Wolfe. (2001). R. (1993). London.. London Health Sciences Center.. London. Sas. 359-383. T. Behavioral Assessment. &. London Health Sciences Center. Wolfe. J.. The Feelings and Emotions Experienced During Sexual Abuse Scale. McHugh. The Sexual Abuse Fear Evaluation. Wolfe.. C. Saigh. A. Canada. D. Journal of Traumatic Stress.. et al. Gentile. The Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale: A measure of post-sexual abuse PTSD symptoms. Wolfe... Ontario.. Yasik. D. 170 . 13(4). Halamandaris...Wolfe. & Birt. 81-94.. P. L.. The validity of the Children's PTSD Inventory. M. Ontatrio Canada. V.