# Work

Work is defined as the scalar product of a force, F, and a distance,L.

This is equivalent to the product of the force and the distance moved in the direction of the force. For instance, when a boundary of a system moves in the direction of the force acting on it, the surroundings do work on the system. If the direction of the movement is reversed, then the work is done by the system on its surroundings. The SI unit of work is joule (J) that is the same unit as energy.

1 J= 1 N.m= 1 W.s

Other units are:
• •

1 kpm= 9.80665 J 1 ft.lbf= 1.35582 J

Velocity
The dimension of velocity is distance/time. The SI unit of velocity is m/s (meter per second). Other units are:
• • • • • •

1 mm/s= 0.001 m/s 1 cm/s= 0.01 m/s 1 km/s= 1000 m/s 1 in/s= 0.0254 m/s 1 ft/s= 0.3048 m/s 1 mph (mile per hour)= 0.4471 m/s

System
A system is a collection of matter within defined boundaries. The boundaries may be flexible. There are two types of system: closed system and open system.

Closed System

the change of pressure. As an example. Open System In open systems there is a mass transfer across the system's boundaries. for instance the steam flow through a steam turbine at any instant may be defined as an open system with fixed boundaries. as in a thermocouple. the change in electric resistance. such as length of a mercury column. the radiation. Temperature Temperature is a measure of hotness and can be related to the kinetic energy of molecules of a substance. An instrument used for measuring temperature is called a thermometer and is constructed by using one of the following principles: • • • • • • the change of length. as in radiation pyrometers. Notice that the boundaries move as the piston moves. the flow of electricity due to Seebeck effect. nothing leaves the system boundaries. such as pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume. the change of volume.In closed systems. consider the fluid in the cylinder of a reciprocating engine during the expansion stroke. as in a thermistor. . A number of physical phenomena can be used for measuring the temperature of an object. such as volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure. The system boundaries are the cylinder walls and the piston crown.

For instance the Centigrade scale has been defined from the melting (0 C) and boiling (100 C) points of pure water at atmospheric pressure. If the pressure of a system is below atmospheric. F.8 c+32 There is also another temperature scale. This scale should be defined by easily repeatable circumstances or fundamental properties.69 Absolute temperature or thermodynamic temperature (degree kelvin. K.The SI unit of pressure is pascal (Pa): • 1 Pa=1 N/m "bar" is used in many industrial applications: • 1 bar=0. called Rankine (symbol R). it is called vacuum pressure. It can be related to the energy possessed by matter and is an SI base unit. Pressure The pressure of a system is defined as the force exerted by the system on unit area of its boundaries. Po=atmospheric pressure. the Rankine scale will show: f+459.15 the Fahrenheit scale will show: 1. K for kelvin and F for Fahrenheit. For temperature the following units can be used: C. If the temperature is f on the Fahrenheit scale. then the absolute temperature on the kelvin scale will be: c+273. This is called gauge pressure and can be stated by the following equation: P=Pg+Po P=absolute pressure. If the temperature is c on the Centigrade (or Celsius) scale. Pg=gauge pressure. Often in measurements a gauge is used to record the pressure difference between the system and the atmospheric pressure. This is the definition of the absolute pressure.1 MPa . where symbol C is for Centigrade (or Celsius). K) is a fundamental dimension.All thermometers require a scale.

65 Pa Many gauges use Mercury (Hg) as the measurement medium. • 1 mmHg=133.01325 bar= 101325 Pa In hydraulic "m of water" is common: • 1 m of water=9806.879 Pa in (H2O)=249.gal)= 119.8947 MPa Density Density Density of a system is the mass of the unit volume of the system.7 Pa ksi=1000 psi=6.08 Pa in (Hg)=3386. The SI unit of density is kg/m • • • • • • • (kilogram per cubic meter).018 kg/m 1 lbm/ft 1 lbm/(U.4 Pa Other units are: • • • • • • • dyn/cm =0.K.94 kg/m 1 U.gal)= 99. Other units are: 1 t/m = 1000 kg/m = 16.776 kg/m 1 lbm/(U.This unit is approximately equal to atmospheric pressure: • Standard atmospheric pressure=1.K.ton/yd .S.4 Pa psi=lbf/in =6894.83 kg/m 1 slug/ft 1 g/cm = 515. The density of gases and vapors is dependent on temperature and pressure while density of most solids and liquids is dependent only on temperature with good precision for many engineering applications.38 kg/m = 1000 kg/m = 1328. Note that the density is reciprocal of specific volume i.1 Pa kgf/cm =kp/cm =at=98067 Pa lbf/ft =47.e.

• 1 U. Any system at a given set of conditions (e.6E6 J 1 MWh= 3.16021E-18 J 1 erg= 1E-7 J Enthalpy Enthalpy of a system is defined as the mass of the system.8 J 1 Btu (British thermal unit)= 1055.ton/yd = 1186. Other units are: • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 cal (calorie)= 4.6845E6 J 1 kWh= 3.S. The SI unit of energy is joule (J). u= Specific internal energy P= Pressure v= Specific volume Specific enthalpy has the same dimension as [energy/mass]. is a property of the fluid which is defined as: h=u+P v where.5 kg/m Energy Energy is an inherent property of a system.hour)= 2. pressure and temperature) has a certain energy content.6E9 J 1 eV (electron volt)= 0. The concept of energy invented to describe a number of processes such as conversion of work to heat.h (horsepower.lbf= 1.g.1868 J 1 kcal= 4186.35582 J 1 kJ= 1000 J 1 MJ= 1E6 J 1 hp. H=m h Specific Enthalpy Specific enthalpy of a working fluid.e. h. multiplied by the specific enthalpy of the system. m. h i.184E6 J 1 ft. Other units are: • • • • 1 kJ/kg= 1000 J/kg 1 erg/g= 1E-4 J/kg 1 Btu/lbm= 2326 J/kg 1 cal/g= 4184 J/kg .05 J 1 thermie= 4. The SI unit of specific enthalpy is J/kg.

The SI unit of specific entropy is J/(Kg .K= 1000 J/(Kg .Entropy Entropy of system.K= 1E-4 J/(Kg .8 J/(Kg .8 J/(Kg . This concept was formally used to define the second law of thermodynamics.F= 4186. Other units are: • • • • • 1 KJ/kg.C= 4186. K) . A system with high entropy can do less useful work. K) 1 Btu/lbm. Specific Entropy Specific entropy of a system is the entropy of the unit mass of the system and has the dimension of energy/ mass/temperature. is a measure of the avaialability of its energy. K) 1 erg/g. K) 1 cal/g. K).