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“RETAIL FORMATS FOR MEN’S READYMADE APPAREL IN BURDWAN: A STUDY OF CONSUMER PREFERENCES AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION”
DIPANJAN SEN Enrollment No: 7NBBU018 INC BURDWAN
NILOY KUMAR BHATTACHERJEE (FACULTY SUPERVISOR)
1. COVER PAGE 2. TITLE PAGE
4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 5. CERTIFICATE 6. INTRODUCTION A.RETAIL IN INDIA
READYMADE GARMENTS: MARKET CHARECTERISTICS
C.CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR 7. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 8. METHODOLOGY 9. LIMITATION 10.REVIEW OF LITERATURE 11.EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
13.CONCLUSION 14.APPENDICES 15.REFERENCE
I hereby declare that this project work entitled “RETAIL FORMATS FOR MEN’S READYMADE APPAREL IN BURDWAN: A STUDY OF CONSUMER PREFERENCES AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION” is my work, carried out under the guidance of my Faculty Supervisor Mr. Niloy Kumar Bhattacherjee. This report neither in full nor in part has ever been submitted for award of any other degree of either this university or any other university.
Dipanjan Sen. Enrollment Number- 7NBBU018
It is privilege to express gratitude to my mentor, my respected faculty member and mentor Mr. Niloy Kumar Bhattacherjee, without whose support, encouragement and guidance this Management Thesis would not have been possible to prepare. It gives me immense pleasure to present this project report to “ICFAI NATIONAL COLLEGE”. As I have made special efforts to this project to cover each and every aspect of “Management Thesis”. I also thank my friends for their constant support encouragement, cooperation and valuable suggestion throughout the progress of project. Above all I thank to my family for their support and encouragement, which has always been a source of inspiration. I am also grateful to the faculty members of the ICFAI NATIONAL COLLEGE whose guidance & teachings have enabled me to understand the concept of making a project.
Place: Burdwan Date:
………………………… Dipanjan Sen.
This is to certify that the Management Thesis titled “Retail Formats for Men’s Readymade Apparel in Burdwan: A Study of Consumer Preferences and Customer Preferences and Customer Satisfaction” Submitted by Dipanjan Sen. Enrollment No. – 7NBBUO18 during Semester-III of the MBA Program (Class of 2009) embodies original work done by him.
Signature of the Faculty Supervisor
(Niloy Kumar Bhattacherjee)
Facult y Member INC Burdwan
My Management Thesis 1 is focused on “Retail Formats for Men’s Readymade Apparel in Burdwan: A Study of Consumer Preferences and Customer Satisfaction”. Burdwan is a growing town. Organized retail has developed rapidly in Burdwan. The Big Bazaar in Burdwan is one of the largest in eastern India. Many other large companies are also setting up their offices in the town. Several new lines of products have also made their entry in recent years. People in Burdwan have, simultaneously, become more fashion conscious. Many branded apparel lines have arrived in town through exclusive outlets and other retail arrangements. In some areas and some consumer segments, the demand patterns are still very conservative. But, in general, the fashion preferences of customers are changing with a change in lifestyles. Therefore, there is now new space for organized retailers operating in the men’s fashion segment. There is an emergence of private label brands where the profit margins are perceived to be higher even though price levels are generally lower. It was felt, therefore, that a very extensive study of this men’s fashion phenomenon in Burdwan was necessary. Hence the present exercise was taken up.
A.RETAIL IN INDIA:
Retailing in India is growing at the rate of about 18-20 per cent per annum. As part of its strategy to gradually open it up to foreign competition, the government is also in the process of increasing foreign direct investment in the retail sector. At the same time, the urban consumer is becoming more discerning and demanding as far as the lifestyle is concerned. Urban Indian household income and purchasing power are also on the rise. Under such circumstances, the success of organized retailing in India mainly depends on delivery of services through quality improvements. In service organizations, customer-perceived service quality is considered as one of the key determinants of business performance. So far, in the Indian context, there is a dearth of tested instruments which can measure customer-perceived service quality of a retail store. At the same time, instruments developed in other countries have not been tested for their applicability in the Indian retail industry. The retail sector in India is highly fragmented and organized retail in the country is at a very nascent stage. There are about 12 million retail outlets spread across India, earning it the epithet of a “nation of shopkeepers” More than 80% of these 12 million outlets are run by small family businesses which use only household labour. Traditionally, small store (kirana) retailing has been one of the easiest ways to generate self-employment, as it requires limited investment in land,
capital and labour. Consequently, India has one of the highest retail densities in the world at 6% (12 million retail shops for about 209 million households).India’s peers, such as China and Brazil, took 10-15 years to raise the share of their organized retail sectors from 5% when they began, to 20% and 38% respectively. India too is moving towards growth and maturity in the retail sector at a fast pace.
FUTURE OF RETAIL:
1. Domestic Apparels Market will grow at Compounded Annual Growth Rate 10-
12% 2. Brands will outperform the growth rate of overall industry due to shift from unbranded to branded garments
3. Multi Brand Outlet’s across the country will be important growth drivers, and
would play important role in semi-urban and rural markets 4. Organized retail share to grow to 30% in the next 5 years
STRATEGIES IN RETAIL:
1. Roll out various formats like Exclusive Brand Outlet’s, specialty and large format
stores 2. To increase sales per square foot 3. To induct proper inventory management systems to achieve 4 inventory turns a year 4. Events and promotions at the store to increase footfalls and ensure conversions
REASONS FOR BOOM:
• Rise in disposable income - burgeoning middle class • Fashion consciousness; etiquette, aesthetic appeal • Influence of western styles - media driven • Export markets : Western countries looking to developing countries to source cheaper
B.READYMADE GARMENTS: MARKET CHARACTERISTICS
KEY SUCCESS FACTORS • • • • • • Branding & sub branding Offering variety : current trends and patterns Coping with change in fashion quickly Quality standards - in material, stitching, cuts Moving up the value-chain - ensuring better returns Export market - Sticking to delivery schedules, honoring quality and quantity commitments, ability to interpret fashion changes MARKET CHARACTERISTICS • • Highly dynamic - designs changing frequently; Increasing competition in the branded segment Brand consciousness catching on-focus on quality, finish; price secondary a factor
Some major players target different customer segments within the same product line with different product offerings. For e.g., Arvind Mills has positioned its denims “Lee” at Premium casuals, “Flying Machine” at upper -end casuals and “Newport” as a value-for-money brand
Active Trade Channel - 4 types of channels used: Franchises or exclusive stores (Benetton)/ (Arvind Mills); Outright Sales to retailers (Louis Philippe); Company-owned stores (Color plus); Normal 3 - tier chain through stockiest, distributors, retailers (Louis Philippe). Some players opt for multiple channels also (Louis Philippe, Color plus)
Significant expenditure on marketing / brand building only for branded segment Local manufacturers have tied-up with foreign brands (Arvind Mills sells denims under ‘Lee’ label and “Arrow” shirts for Clue Peabody & Co., US; DCM supplies under ‘Benetton’)
READYMADE GARMENTS: FUTURE BUSINESS CONCERNS
• In garment exports, lower prices realization due to intense competition - Pakistan a
major force, has similar competitive edge in cost structure
Environmental issues : Ban on certain dyes and fabrics such as rayon and
insistence on usage of vegetable dyes have impacted exports
• Raw material prices: Fluctuation in cotton prices (a commodity product) has
• The future for blended garments appears to be bright at around 9% annually.
garments growth to stagnate. WTO implications could positively impact industry in the
Category, Range, and Some Brands:
Category Formal Wear Range Suits, Trousers, Shirts, Jackets Blazers, Neckties…... Some Brands Allen Solly, Arrow, Cambridge, Color plus, Louis Philippe, Peter England, Park Avenue, Reid & Taylor, San Frisco, Van Heusen Casual Wear Shirts, Trousers, Jeans, Tee Lee, Flying Machines, Parx, Shirts Shorts Weekender, Wear-house, Benetton Kids wear Shirts, Shorts, Frocks, Skirts, Jeans…. Under garments Knitwear Vests, Briefs, T-Shirts, etc. Byford, Crocodile, Jockey, Park Avenue, Tantex, VIP, Jockey. Lee, Ruff ‘n’ Tuff, Wearhouse, Weekender
Player & their Brands:
Players Arvind Mills Unit: Bangalore
Major Brands Casuals: Lee, Flying Machine, Newport, Ruff 'n' Tuff, Ruggers. Shirts: Arrow, Excalibur
Madura Coats, Bangalore
Shirts: Allen Solly, Louis Philippe, Peter England, Van Heusen; Trousers: San Frisco; T- Shirts & Socks – Byford, Elements
J K Synthetics
Park Avenue range of shirts, Trousers, TShirts, Under garments, Belts, etc. Parx range of casuals
C. CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR
Understanding the buying behavior of the target market is the essential task of marketing management under marketing concept. The consumer market consists of all the individuals and households who buy or acquire goods and services for personal consumptions. The buying behavior tries to find out the answers for the questions……… 1) Who buys? 2) How do they buy? 3) Where do they buy? 4) Do they buy?
FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR
There are four major factors that influence the buying behavior such as cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, and psychological factors.
a) CULTURAL FACTORS: Culture is the most fundamental determinant of a
person’s wants and behavior. Values, perceptions, preferences, and behavior are the main variables under culture of an individual. Each culture contains sub-cultures like nationality, religious group, geographical area, and linguistic divisions etc.
b) SOCIAL FACTORS: A consumer’s behaviour is also influenced by social
factors such as the consumer reference group family and social roles and status.
c) PERSONAL FACTORS: A buyer’s decision is also influenced by his or
personal characteristics, notably the buyers age, lifestyle, occupation, economic circumstances etc.
d) PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS: A person’s buying choices are also influenced
by four major psychological factors such as motivation, perception, learning, belief and attitudes.
BUYING DECISION PROCESS
It includes buying roles, types of buying and steps in buying process
A) BUYING ROLE The buying role could be classified into four parts. These are initiator, influencer, decider and buyer.
B) TYPES OF BUYING BEHAVIOUR Consumer decision taking varies with the type of buying decision. There are four types buying behavior such as Complex buying behavior, Habitual buying behavior, Variety seeking buying behavior.
c) STAGES IN BUYING DECISION PROCESS Here are five stages in buying decision process namely problem recognition search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision and post purchase behavior.
1. NEED RECOGNITION The buying process starts with the buyer’s recognition of a problem of need. The buyer senses a difference between his actual state and desired state. 2. INFORMATION SEARCH There are different sources from where a consumer can gather information like personal sources commercial sources, experimental sources.
3. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES After gathering information about different products the customer will be in a fuss as to which product to choose among the main alternatives. Consumer usually evaluates the alternatives on traditional basis, on the basis of utility function etc. from the many alternative consumers at last choose the best one for him.
4. PURCHASE DECISION A consumer who decides to execute purchase intention will be making up to five purchase decisions.
5. POST PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR
After purchasing the product and services the consumer will experience some level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the product and services that will influence subsequent behavior. If consumer is satisfied he may show the probability of buying the product the next time, satisfied customer will say good thing about the product, proving the statement that "satisfied customer is the best advertisement”. The dissatisfied customer may take some action against it. They may try to reduce the dissonance by abandoning or returning the product. Understanding consumer needs and buying process is the foundation of any company. By understanding how buyers go through problem recognition, information search evaluation of alternatives, the purchase decision and post purchase behavior, marketers can pick up many clues as to how to meet buyers’ need.
The main objectives of this study are to:
Explore the changing mindset among the average male consumer in Burdwan. Understand the dimensions of the impact of emergence of new product lines and new retail formats in men’s apparel on the minds of consumers.
Investigate the structure of reference groups, influencers and early adapters. Identify the dynamics of loyalty to older formats or shift to newer retail formats in terms of effectiveness of marketing and promotion efforts and eventual share of consumers’ wallet.
To achieve the above objectives, I plan to adopt the following methodology to collect the necessary information for the project report.
A. Research Design
My research is primarily exploratory in nature. However, for the purpose of deciding switching behaviour and effectiveness of marketing strategy in specific conditions, suitable hypothesis may be tested.
B. Sampling Plan & Survey Method
I will follow a definite plan for obtaining a sample from the given population. It depends on the systematic sampling procedure for retail outlets and urban households. I plan to sample every 15th household in the reasonably well-off localities and every 10th household in the identifiably better-off localities in Burdwan. I intend to interview the
heads of each household regarding their product and retail format awareness and/or consequent responses to marketers. I will also interview the managers/floor managers or proprietors in select medium and large apparel retail outlets.
Sampling Plan B
As an alternative plan or fall-back option, I intend to identify relevant socio-economic clusters of households based primarily on information about vocation or profession from the Burdwan telephone directory. Thereafter I intend to interview telephonically the heads of each household regarding their product and retail format awareness and/or consequent responses to marketers.
Demographic Limitations: Covering all possible segments of consumers e.g. those based on income, gender, age, occupations etc. may not be possible.
Geographical Limitations: The sample size is limited to the respondents in Burdwan.
Response Errors and Survey Design: I was aware that there existed a possibility of not always getting accurate information from the surveyed respondents due to reasons e.g. their bias against surveys and consequent refusal to co-operate. Due to recurrent error, random sampling strategy had to be discarded and purposive sampling had to be resorted to. As such, inference was based on nonparametric testing.
Time Limitations: The time period of the survey is limited to less than a semester, that too with regular classes running.
Size Restrictions: Consequent to all the above, a large sample survey becomes impossible.
Retailing involves the selling of goods and services to the final consumer. Retailers serve as middlemen or intermediaries between the consumption and production levels in the marketing channel of distribution. They are often categorized as goods or services retailers. The goods retailers sell products such as apparel and provide appropriate complimentary services (e.g., alterations, gift wrap). The services retailer sells service such as hair styling, insurance, and medical care & provides the complimentary goods that might be sold or given in support of services.
Over the years, retailing has changed to reflect the varying needs of consumers. Most often retailers are categorized by their product strategy (i.e. merchandising assortment) and pricing strategies
In an early conceptual article, Kotler, (1973) develops a systematic exposition of “atmosphere” as a buying influence. Kotler explores the notion that one of the most significant features of the total product is the place where it is bought or consumed.
“The atmosphere of the place is more influential than the product itself in the purchase decision" Kotler, (1973, p. 48). The term atmospherics is defined in Kotler, (1973) as the effort to design buying environments to produce specific emotional effects in the buyer that enhance his/her purchase probability. Atmosphere is experienced through the senses, primarily sight, sound, scent, and touch. Bitner used the term services capes to describe the idea of “atmospherics” in a service setting. Services capes also add the notion of the service personnel to physical setting (Bitner, 1992). Bitner elaborates on the neglect of the services cape as follows: “The effect of the atmospherics, or physical design and décor elements, on customers and workers is recognised by managers and mentioned in virtually all marketing, retailing, and organisational behaviour texts.
Yet, particularly in marketing, there is a surprising lack of empirical research or theoretically based frameworks addressing the role of physical surroundings in consumption settings. The services cape is describe as covering such elements as physical layout of the service facility, ambience, background music and that the services cape can also affect customer’s impressions of and satisfaction with service” (Lovelock, Patterson and Walker, 2001). Service quality or desired expectations are defined as a blend of what the customer believes can be and should be (Zeithaml and Bitner 1996). Service quality can be measured by the level of discrepancy between consumer expectations or desire and their perceptions of what they received as described by the SERVQUAL scale (Carman, J.M. 1990). Customer satisfaction occurs when the value and customer service provided through a retailing experience meet or exceed consumer expectations. If the expectations of value and customer service are not met, the consumer will be dissatisfied. Unfortunately for retailers, most consumers do not complain when dissatisfied, they just shop elsewhere (Jackson, 1999). Retailers should always keep in mind that customer expectations move continuously upward and that only satisfied customers are likely to remain loyal in the long run.
A retailer, typically, is someone who does not effect any significant change in the product execs breaking the bulk. He/ She is also the final stock point who makes products or services available to the consumer whenever require. Hence, the value proposition a retailer offers to a consumer is easy availabilities of the desired product in the desired sizes at the desired times.
In the developed countries, the retail industry has developed into a full-fledged industry where more than three-fourths of the total retail trade is done by the organized sector. Huge retail chains like Wal-Mart, Carr four Group, Sears, K-Mart, McDonalds, etc. have now replaced the individual small stores. Large retail formats, with high quality ambiance and courteous, and well-trained sales staff are regular features of these retailers.
Men’s apparel industry will increase at a CAGR of 14.86% during the two-year period from 2008 to 2010. The demand for ready-made garments in rural India will surge at a CAGR of 16.50% to reach Rs. 42918 Crore by 2010. Increasing at a CAGR of 24%, branded apparel industry for men will cross Rs. 25,000 Crore by 2010. Per capita GDP spending on apparel increased to 5.8% in 2006 from 4.9% in 2003. In 2007, men’s apparel industry was mainly dominated by shirts (in value terms) accounting for 36.5% of total men’s segment. The Indian fashion industry is expected to rise at a stupendous pace of 22.67% through 2012 from 2007.
The Indian women apparel market has undergone a transformational phase over the past few years - growing number of working women, changing fashion trends, rising level of information and media exposure, and entry of large number of foreign brands have given the industry a new dimension. As a result, various industry majors operating in men apparel segment have now started to diversify themselves into women wear in order to exploit the highly lucrative market that was estimated at more than Rs. 37,000
Crore in 2007. The market, in the past five years, posted a growth rate of good 14%. And with the growing presence of organized retail and rapidly spreading mall culture, the industry is all set to grow further in future, according to "Women Wear Market Forecast to 2010”, a research report by RNCOS
Increasing at a CAGR of over 17%, women apparel market is expected to cross Rs. 61,000 Crore by 2010. Branded women apparel market is projected to rise at a rate close to 25% and surpass Rs. 18,000 Crore by 2010. Premium segment apparel is forecasted to account for close to 20% of total women apparel market by 2010. Western wear, along with lingerie, will emerge as the fastest growing segment. Organized players are expected to account for over 40% lingerie market by 2009. Demand for textile and apparel machinery is anticipated to increase at more than 100% till 2011. Demand for ready-made garments in rural market is projected to hit a CAGR of around 16.50% by 2010.
This section contains a detailed analysis of the data collected during the primary survey conducted for the study. It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the garment type preferences of different age groups. It was found that age 31-40 & above 40 is preferred shirts and trousers which is following in Table-1 and in Figure-1
Table-1: Preference of different types of garments among different age groups
Different types of age groups.
Types of differe nt garme nts
Shirts TShirts Trous ers Cargo
<20 years 32 22 38 25
20-30 years 39 18 37 11
31-40 years 40 13 40 5
above 40 yrs 40 4 40 1
Figure-1: Preference of different types of garments among different age groups
It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the different income group and their preferences of price range of shirt. It was found that <10000 income group preferred <Rs.295 shirt and >50000 income group preferred >Rs. 695 shirt. Which is following in Table: 2 and in Figure: 2.
Table-2: different income groups buying range of shirt
Price range of shirt
Different income group <10000 1000120000 2000130000 3000150000 >50000 <Rs 295 36 24 21 18 2 Rs 295-RS 495 14 21 4 15 11 RS 595695 5 19 20 29 32 >Rs695 2 6 12 23 38
Figure-2: different income groups buying range of shirt
It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the different income group and their preferences of price range of shirt. It was found that income group 20001-300000 & 30001-50000 there buying range of trousers is Rs.795-995. Which is following in Table: 3 & in Figure: 3.
Table-3: different income groups buying range of trousers
Price range of trousers <10000 1000120000 2000130000 3000150000 >50000 >495 35 28 24 28 15 >595 29 32 37 27 25 795-995 12 19 39 40 38
Different income group
Figure-3: different income groups buying range of trousers
It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the different income group and their preferences of price range of shirt. It was found that maximum age group preferred price &quality. Which is following in Table: 4 & in Figure: 4.
Table-4: different age groups preferences about features of choice
Different age group <20yrs 25 36 34 38 33 25 20-30yrs 38 31 37 39 35 37 31-40yrs 39 27 36 39 38 26 >40yr s 39 22 29 40 39 21
Features of choice
color style design price quality brand
Figure-4: different age groups preferences about features of choice
It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the different income group and their preferences of price range of shirt. It was found that pvt. Employee & student their weekend choice is informal dress and self employee their choice is semi-formals. Which is following in Table: 5 & in Figure: 5.
Table-5: different occupation groups weekend preferences of garments
semi formals 23 21 32 37 31 Choice of garments informa club/lounge l wear formal 37 11 1 23 39 36 12 21 24 29 3 17 13 3 31
Different occupatio n group
student Govt. service Pvt. employee self employed retired
Figure-5: different occupation groups weekend preferences of garments
It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the different income group and their preferences of price range of shirt. It was found that in weekend income group <10000 preferred informal dress & >50000, their choice club/lounge wear. Which is following in Table: 6 & in Figure: 6.
Table-6: different income group’s weekend preferences about garments
Choice of garments semi club/lounge formal informal wear 24 38 11 29 21 34 30 35 27 29 36 17 20 35 37
<10000 1000120000 2000130000 3000150000 >50000
formal 30 32 25 37 20
Figure-6: different income group’s weekend preferences about garments
It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the different income group and their preferences of price range of shirt. It was found that maximum income group preferred color, price, & quality. Which is following in Table: 7 & in Figure: 7.
Table-7: different income group’s preferences about features of choice
Income group 1000120000 20001-30000 38 39 31 37 34 36 39 39 35 37 25 36 3000150000 39 22 29 34 39 37 >5000 0 37 35 26 32 38 39
Features of choice
color style design price quality brand
<10000 25 36 25 38 27 20
Figure-7: different income group’s preferences about features of choice
1. It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the garment type preferences of different age groups. It was found that age 31-40 & above 40 is preferred shirts and trousers which is following in Table-1 and in Figure-1 2. It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the different income group and their preferences of price range of shirt. It was found that <10000 income group preferred <Rs.295 shirt and >50000 income group preferred >Rs. 695 shirt. Which is following in Table: 2 and in Figure: 2. 3. It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the different income group and their preferences of price range of shirt. It was found that income group 20001300000 & 30001-50000 there buying range of trousers is Rs.795-995. Which is following in Table: 3 & in Figure: 3. 4. It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the different income group and their preferences of price range of shirt. It was found that maximum age group preferred price &quality. Which is following in Table: 4 & in Figure: 4. 5. It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the different income group and their preferences of price range of shirt. It was found that pvt. Employee & student their weekend choice is informal dress and self employee their choice is semi-formals. Which is following in Table: 5 & in Figure: 5. 6. It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the different income group and their preferences of price range of shirt. It was found that in weekend income group <10000 preferred informal dress & >50000, their choice club/lounge wear. Which is following in Table: 6 & in Figure: 6. 7. It was observed that there are clear distinctions in the different income group and their preferences of price range of shirt. It was found that maximum income group preferred color, price, & quality. Which is following in Table: 7 & in Figure: 7.
Q1.Name-……………………………………………………………………………. Q2.Age- (a)below 20 years (b)20-30 years (c)31-40 years (d)above 40 years Q3.Household income in Rs.(per month)(a)Less than 10,000 (b)10,001-20,000 (c)20,001-30,000 (d)30,001-50,000 (e)More than 50,000 Q4.Occupation(a) Student (b) Govt. Service (c) Pvt. Employee (d) Self-employed (e)Retired Q5.Would you like to purchase readymade garments? (a)Yes (b) No Q6. What is the/your general purchase of informal apparels? □Shirts □T-shirts □Trousers □Cargos
Q7. What apparels do you generally prefer wearing on weekends? □Semi-formals □Formal □Informal □Club/Lounge Wear
Q8. What feature do you look for while purchasing apparels? □Color □Style □Design □Price □Quality □Brand
Q9. What price range would you prefer for your shirt? □Rs 295 □Rs 295-Rs 495 □Rs 595 □Rs 595 and upwards
Q10. What price range would you prefer for your trousers? □Rs 495 and upwards □Rs 595 and upwards □Rs 795- Rs 995
Q11. Can you please kindly suggest the best price range for the trouser or shirt you purchased today?
Q12. For purchasing clothes what kind of retail outlet do you prefer (mark out of 100)?
To complete my ‘Interim Thesis’, I took the help from following book & web sites.
• “Booming men’s apparel market in India” - just-style.com
Consumer Behaviour. ICFAI University Press.
Case Studies on Consumer Behaviour. ICFAI University Press.
Case Studies on Retail Management. ICFAI University Press.
Carman, J.M. (1990) Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality: An Assessment of the SERVQUAL Dimensions. Journal of Retailing, Vol 66, spring, pp 33-55.
Kotler, Philip. (1973) Atmospherics as a Marketing Tool. Journal of Retailing. Vol. 49 (4), 48-64.
Lovelock, Christopher H., Patterson, Paul G., and Walker, Rhett H. (2001) Services Marketing-an Asia-Pacific Perspective, 2nd edition. Pearson Education Australia Pty Limited.
Marketing Management: - ‘Philip Kotler’
Parasuraman, A., Valerie A. Zeithaml and Leonard L. Berry. (1985). A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Further Research. Journal of Marketing 49(4), 41-50.
Parasuraman, A., Valerie A. Zeithaml and Leonard L. Berry. (1991). Understanding Customer Expectation of Service. Sloan Management Review (Spring), pp39-48
Retail Management. ICFAI University Press.
The above list is expected to be populated with more (relevant) entities as the project progresses. .