9

9.1

EXPOSURE ROOM

Introduction

For economic reason, manufacturers who employ radiographers for routine inspection of their products normally establish their own radiographic laboratory. In this case, radiography is performed in a specially designed exposure room, which provides adequate radiation protection to radiographers, as well as other personnel who work around the area. In general a radiographic exposure room must fulfil the following requirements: Capable of protecting radiation and non-radiation personnel from receiving excessive exposure (exceeds the maximum permissible dose rate). Equipped with warning lights and signs. Controlled by approved personnel. Approved by the competent authority e.g. The Atomic Energy Licensing Board.

9.2

X-ray Exposure Room

In designing the exposure room for x-rays, the following points must be considered: It should have enough space to house the equipment. It should have water and electric connection within it. If pipes, ducts, conduit or cables must pass through walls of an exposure room, then passages must be designed properly so that no significance radiation will escape through. Fig. 9.1 illustrates the method of designing this passage. There should be a separate place to house the control panel so that the operator is not exposed to the radiation. This should be outside the room in which the x-ray tube is placed. The thickness and the material for the wall should be appropriately chosedn to reduce the dose below the maximum level when direct beam hits it. Usually dense concrete walls of sufficient thickness are used for this purpose. Occurrence of voids in concrete during the construction must be avoided. The use of concrete block is not recommended to avoid streaming effect (Fig. 9.2).

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Fig. conduits or cables must pass through walls of exposure room. 102 . 9.1: Methods of shielding when pipes ducts. A switch may be used so that the tube will not operate unless the door is properly closed. Source Concrete block Fig.Lead pipes Cables Lead sheath Fig. 9.2: The schematic diagram of streaming effect It should have a door that provides adequate shielding against radiation.

103 . 9. Fig.9. 9.3: Lead door for the door entrance Fig.4: Interlock system for the doors entrance The door of x-ray room should be designed in such a way that it can easily be opened from inside.4 shows an interlocking system for the doors entrance.3 shows an example of a typical design of lead door whereas Fig. 9.

A blinking light (Fig 9. which can easily be manipulated from the inside and outside. An ideal situation would be that the wall.5) or a sound alarm should be used to indicate the operation of the X-ray machine Fig. floor and the ceiling are covered with the lead lining.6). The door should have a permanent lock and the key to it should always be with the authorised person.5: Warning light indicating radiation work in progress 9. The flooring and the ceiling of the room should be such as to give minimum backscatter (Fig. the following considerations must be taken into account: The shielding walls of the room must be such that the dose rate outside the room does not exceed the maximum permissible level. There should be a shielded apartment within the room preferably underground where radioisotopes can be stored while not in use. This is necessary in case a person get locked up inside accidentally. 104 . The key to this enclosure should be kept with care and responsibility.It should be possible to switch off the X-ray generating unit from inside the room. A survey meter that is required for checking the dose level before entering the room should be made available in the laboratory. The room should have a door. 9. There should be a facility to load and unload the radioactive sources.3 Gamma-ray Exposure Room For gamma ray exposure room. 9.

it is recommended that the following equipment and accessories are made available in the room. To facilitate the work in the exposure room. collimators or cones Filters and screens Masking material Penetrameters and shim stock Step wedges Film holders and cassettes Linear and angular measuring devices Lead markers Shielding material (lead shots and sheets) X-ray and gamma ray exposure charts Scattered radiation Scattered radiation Radiation source Fig. 9.Typical design of gamma exposure room is illustrated in Fig.6: Scatter of radiation through a roof 105 . Diaphragms. 9.7.

7: Labyrinth Design of Exposure Room. 106 .Radiation source Door Fig. 9.