# Skid Resistance

Skid resistance is the force developed when a tire that is prevented from rotating slides along the pavement surface (Highway Research Board, 1972). Skid resistance is an important pavement evaluation parameter because:   

Major Topics on this Page 4.1 Measurement 4.2 Measurement Techniques

Inadequate skid resistance will lead to higher incidences of skid related accidents. Most agencies have an obligation to provide users with a roadway that is "reasonably" safe. Skid resistance measurements can be used to evaluate various types of materials and construction practices.

Skid resistance depends on a pavement surface's microtexture and macrotexture (CorleyLay, 1998). Microtexture refers to the small-scale texture of the pavement aggregate component (which controls contact between the tire rubber and the pavement surface) while macrotexture refers to the large-scale texture of the pavement as a whole due to the aggregate particle arrangement (which controls the escape of water from under the tire and hence the loss of skid resistance with increased speed) (AASHTO, 1976). Skid resistance changes over time. Typically it increases in the first two years following construction as the roadway is worn away by traffic and rough aggregate surfaces become exposed, then decreases over the remaining pavement life as aggregates become more polished. Skid resistance is also typically higher in the fall and winter and lower in the spring and summer. This seasonal variation is quite significant and can severely skew skid resistance data if not compensated for (Jayawickrama and Thomas, 1998).

4.1 Measurement
Skid resistance is generally quantified using some form of friction measurement such as a friction factor or skid number. Friction factor (like a coefficient of friction): f = F/L Skid number: SN = 100(f)

where:

F

= frictional resistance to motion in plane of interface

L = load perpendicular to interface
It is not correct to say a pavement has a certain friction factor because friction involves two bodies, the tires and the pavement, which are extremely variable due to pavement wetness, vehicle speed, temperature, tire wear, tire type, etc. Typical friction tests specify standard tires and environmental conditions to overcome this.

In general, the friction resistance of most dry pavements is relatively high; wet pavements are the problem. The number of accidents on wet pavements are twice as high as dry pavements (but other factors such as visibility are involved in addition to skid resistance). Table 9.3 shows some typical Skid Numbers (the higher the SN, the better). Table 9.3: Typical Skid Numbers (from Jayawickrama et al., 1996)

Skid Number
< 30

≥ 30 31 - 34 ≥ 35

Comments Take measures to correct Acceptable for low volume roads Monitor pavement frequently Acceptable for heavily traveled roads

4.2 Measurement Techniques
Skid testing in the U.S. may occur in a number of ways, this section covers some of the more common methods including:    The locked wheel tester The spin up tester Surface texture measurement

4.2.1 Locked Wheel Tester WSDOT uses the locked wheel tester.
The most commonly used method in the U.S. for skid resistance testing uses some form of a lock wheel tester (see Figure 9.13). Basically, this method uses a locked wheel skidding along the tested surface to measure friction resistance. A typical lock-wheel skid measurement system must have the following:   A test vehicle with one or more test wheels incorporated into it or as part of a towed trailer. A standard tire for use on the test wheel. The standardized skid-test tire, a tubeless, bias-ply G78x15 tire with seven circumferential grooves, is defined by AASHTO M 261 or ASTM E 501. A newer tire, one with no grooves, appears to be gaining acceptance as well. By defining the standard test tire, the tire type and design are eliminated as variables in the measurement of pavement skid resistance. A means to transport water (usually 750 to 1900 liters (200 to 500 gallons)) and the necessary apparatus to deliver it in front of the test wheel at test speed A transducer associated with the test wheel that senses the force developed between the skidding test wheel and the pavement Electronic signal conditioning equipment to receive the transducer output signal and modify it as required

  

. 1990). the friction force at the tire/pavement interface at any moment corresponds to that which would be present if the locked tire were pulled along the pavement at the testing speed (Wambold et al. the vehicle (or trailer) is brought to the desired testing speed (typically 64 km/hr (40 mph)) and water is sprayed ahead of the test tire to create a wetted pavement surface. the force can be computed by knowing the test wheel's moment of inertia and its rotational acceleration (Wambold et al. The test wheel braking system is then released and the test wheel is allowed to "spin up" to normal traveling speed due to its contact with the pavement. Mathematically..2. Force measuring devices for the locked wheel tester cost a significant amount of money. Instrumentation measures the friction force acting between the test tire and the pavement and reports the result as a Skid Number (SN). For a spin up tester. 1990). No force measurement is necessary. the vehicle (or trailer) is brought to the desired testing speed (typically 64 km/hr (40 mph)) and a locked test wheel is lowered to the pavement surface.13: Lock Wheeled Skid Tester To take a measurement. The spin up tester offers two advantages over the locked wheel tester: 1. Standard locked-wheel friction tests are:   AASHTO T 242: Frictional Properties of Paved Surfaces Using a Full-Scale Tire ASTM E 274: Skid Resistance of Paved Surfaces Using a Full-Scale Tire 4.2 Spin Up Tester A spin up tester has the same basic setup as a locked wheel tester but operates in an opposite manner.. The test tire braking system is then actuated to lock the test tire. Suitable analog and/or digital readout equipment to record either the magnitude of the developed force or the calculated value of the resulting Skid Number (SN) Figure 9.

A texture depth of about 1. When the sand cannot be spread any further. As the sand is spread. 4. and faulting (FHWA. Therefore.3 Surface Texture Measurement Because pavement skid resistance is tied to surface macrotexture.14) can be used for measuring texture.2.5 mm (0. it fills the low spots in the pavement surface. Because the test tire is in contact with the pavement while locked for a much shorter time than the locked wheel tester. the diameter of the resulting circle is measured. the Road Surface Analyzer (ROSAN). One particular device. correlation between surface macrotexture and skid resistance is often difficult to extrapolate into any general guidance.06 inches) is normally required for heavily trafficked areas. Some integrated analysis units can use surface texture measuring to estimate skid resistance. aggregate segregation. The test is carried out on a dry pavement surface by pouring a known quantity of sand onto the surface and spreading it in a circular pattern with a straightedge. ROSAN systems have been used in a number of NCHRP and FHWA sponsored studies. a series of non-contact pavement surface texture measurement devices. The ROSAN (see Figure 9. . tining. grooves. The simplest surface texture measurement is the sand patch test (ASTM E 965). which can be correlated to skid resistance. it significantly reduces test tire wear. This diameter can then be correlated to an average texture depth.14: Prototype ROSAN Device (circa 1998) The one drawback to this method is that a pavement's surface macrotexture does not entirely determine its skid resistance. Figure 9. joints. some methods seek to measure a pavement's macrotexture then correlate it with skid resistance as measured by some other. more traditional method. Laser or advanced image processing equipment are capable of determining surface macrotexture from a vehicle moving at normal travel speeds.2. 2001). has been developed by the FHWA's Turner Fairbanks Research Center Pavement Surface Analysis Laboratory.

1 Static Deflection Equipment Static deflection equipment measure pavement deflection in response to a static load. Measurement is made by placing the tip of the beam between the dual tires and measuring the pavement surface rebound as the truck is moved away (see Figure . developed at the Western Association of State Highway Organizations (WASHO) Road Test in 1952.2. The Benkelman Beam is used with a loaded truck .2.typically 80 kN (18.Figure 9. 5. WSDOT FWD Trailer 5.16).1 Benkelman Beam The Benkelman Beam (see Figure 9. is a simple device that operates on the lever arm principle.15: Deflection Measurement Schematic WSDOT Deflection Measurement Method WSDOT uses the FWD.000 lb) on a single axle with dual tires inflated to 480 to 550 kPa (70 to 80 psi).1.

Figure 9.17: Benkelman Beam in Use Standard Benkelman Beam tests are described in:   AASHTO T 256: Pavement Deflection Measurements ASTM D 4695: General Pavement Deflection Measurements . labor intensive and does not provide a deflection basin.9.16: Benkelman Beam Schematic Figure 9. The Benkelman Beam is low cost but is also slow.17).

19: Dynaflect Force Output Figure 9.Figure 9.20: Standard Location of Dynaflect Loading Wheels and Transducers .

23: FWD Figure 9.26: JILS FWD The standard impact load response test method is:  ASTM D 4694: Standard Test Method for Deflections with a Falling Weight Type Impulse Load Device .25: KUAB FWD Figure 9.Figure 9.22: FWD Impulse Loading Mechanism (foreground) and Sensors (background) Figure 9.24: Dynatest 8000 FWD Figure 9.

20 mils 5. 5.1 Benkelman Beam to FWD (based on unpublished data collected by the Washington State DOT Materials Laboratory in 1982-1983) BB = 1.000 lb. It appears that the best approach is to obtain pavement parameters (such as layer moduli) from the specific device being used.2 Benkelman Beam to Dynaflect (based on Hoffman and Thompson.86 Standard Error = 3.8-inch diameter plate Sample Size = 713 R2 = 0. load applied on a 11. 1981) .72 5. Too often.4. x 10-3) corrected to a 9. a correlation is developed for a specific set of conditions that may not be present for those using the correlation.3 Benkelman Beam to Road Rater (based on Hoffman and Thompson. that said.93748 (FWD) where: BB = Benkelman Beam deflection (inches x 10-3) FWD = FWD center-of-load deflection (inches.2.4 Correlations Between Deflection Measuring Equipment In general.2.5. 1981) BB = 20.63 (D) where: BB = Benkelman Beam deflection (inches x 10-3) D = Dynaflect center-of-load deflection (inches x 10-3) R2 = 0. However.4. a few of many such correlations that have been developed follow.4.2.2.33269 + 0. correlations between deflection devices should be used with caution.

0 acceptable and a PSR of 2. Pavement performance can then be defined as "The serviceability trend of a . Since this type of rating is not practical for large-scale pavement networks. By combining pavement condition scores for an entire road network. About one-half of the panel of raters found a PSR of 3. A pavement condition index is simply the scale.  Determine a network condition index. a transition to a non-panel based system was needed. This information was then correlated to various pavement measurements (such as slope variance (profile). The proper pavement condition index depends upon the objectives of whatever system is used to manage a particular pavement network (called a Pavement Management System or PMS).. a single score can be obtained that gives a general idea of the network condition as a whole. . the raters were asked to provide an opinion as to whether a specific pavement assessed for PSR was "acceptable" or "unacceptable" as a primary highway (see Figure 9. etc. This section presents two pavement condition index methods. although PSI is based on the same 5-point rating system as PSR it goes beyond a simple assessment of ride quality. Since a pavement condition score accounts for all types of pavement performance measures it can be used to compare two or more pavements with different problems on an equal footing. Minnesota. Thus.1).) to develop PSI equations.27 further demonstrates this concept. used to describe a pavement condition. It is interesting to note that the original AASHO Road Test rater opinions are based on car ride dynamics. cracking. To transition from a PSR serviceability measure (panel developed) to a PSI serviceability measure (no panel required). and Indiana for PSR. Typical pavement condition indices may be based on a scale of 0 to 5 or perhaps 0 to 100. a panel of raters during 1958 to 1960 rated various roads in the states of Illinois. Further. Such information was useful in selecting a "terminal" (or failure) serviceability (PSI) design input for empirical structural design equations. 6. Figure 9. the PSR was a ride quality rating that required a panel of observers to actually ride in an automobile over the pavement in question. Allow equal comparison of different pavements. Basically. 1962)..1 Present Serviceability Index (PSI) The present serviceability index (PSI) is based on the original AASHO Road Test PSR. it is unclear whether such levels are acceptable for trucks. (pavement segment) with increasing number of axle applications" (Highway Research Board. or series of numbers.5 unacceptable.

vary from state to state a 2 Roughness Pavement roughness is generally defined as an Major Topics on this Page expression of irregularities in the pavement surface that 2. user cost (UMTRI. severity.2 Measurement Techniques characteristic because it affects not only ride quality but also vehicle delay costs. or score. These points can then be summed and subtracted from some upper limit or maximum value (100 in Washington State's case) to give an overall rating of a pavement's structural condition. 1948) 6. 1998). Roughness is an important pavement 2. Roughness is also referred to as "smoothness" although both terms refer to the same pavement qualities.27: Concept of Pavement Performance Using Present Serviceability Index (PSI) (Hveem and Carmany. and extent combinations. fuel consumption and maintenance costs.Figure 9. .2 Other Pavement Condition Rating Systems One common method for evaluating pavements is to establish a pavement condition rating system that associates deduct (penalty) points with specific distress type.1 Measurement adversely affect the ride quality of a vehicle (and thus the user). The equations that describe how to convert from severity and extent of a certain distress type to an index number. The World Bank found road roughness to be a primary factor in the analyses and trade-offs involving road quality vs.

WSDOT measures IRI data in accordance with ASTM E 950 using a 91. 1962).1. PSR is defined as "The judgment of an observer as to the current ability of a pavement to serve the traffic it is meant to serve" (Highway Research Board. 2. WSDOT Pavement Roughness Measurement WSDOT uses IRI to quantify pavement roughness in accordance with AASHTO PP 37-02. international roughness index (IRI) or other index with IRI being most prevalent.1 Present Serviceability Rating (PSR) The AASHO Road Test (Highway Research Board. Specifically. the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) maintains an excellent Web page on roughness and all related aspects at http://www. it generally reflects road roughness because roughness largely determines ride quality. roughness is typically quantified using some form of either present serviceability rating (PSR). Since PSR is based on passenger interpretations of ride quality. . that is based on individual observation. observers rode around the test tracks and rated their ride using the quantitative scale shown in Figure 9. To generate the original AASHO Road Test PSR scores. This subjective scale ranges from 5 (excellent) to 0 (essentially impassable).More Information on Pavement Roughness For detailed information. 1962) developed a definition of pavement serviceability.1 Measurement Today.1. the present serviceability rating (PSR).edu/erd/roughness. 2.44 m (300 ft) wave length filter and uses terminology consistent with ASTM E 867.umtri.umich.

IRI is used to define a characteristic of the longitudinal profile of a traveled wheeltrack and constitutes a standardized roughness measurement. 1986) .Figure 9.2 International Roughness Index (IRI) The international roughness index (IRI) was developed by the World Bank in the 1980s (UMTRI. mi.. The open-ended IRI scale is shown in Figure 9. Figure 9.2.1.) divided by the distance traveled by the vehicle during the measurement (km. inches.1: Individual Present Serviceability Rating Form 2.000. The IRI is based on the average rectified slope (ARS). The commonly recommended units are meters per kilometer (m/km) or millimeters per meter (mm/m).2: IRI Roughness Scale (replotted from Sayers et al. 1998). which is a filtered ratio of a standard vehicle's accumulated suspension motion (in mm. etc.). IRI is then equal to ARS multiplied by 1. etc.

1. Table 9. Michigan.1: Roughness Measuring Equipment Equipment / Technique Rod and level survey Dipstick profiler Profilographs Response type road roughness meters (RTRRMs) Profiling devices Complexity most simple simple complex more complex . SEE = 0. 2. New Mexico.73.2 Measurement Techniques The equipment for roughness survey data collection can be categorized into the four broad categories shown in Table 9. and Ohio for both flexible and rigid pavements. and n = 332 sections.39.3 Correlations Between PSR and IRI Various correlations have been developed between PSR and IRI.2.1. The associated regression statistics are R2 = 0. Correlations are highly dependent upon the data that are used. Louisiana. Two are presented here. One was reported in 1986 by Paterson: where: PSR = present serviceability rating IRI = international roughness index Another correlation was reported in a 1992 Illinois funded study performed by Al-Omari and Darter (1992): where: PSR = present serviceability rating IRI = international roughness index This study used data from the states of Indiana.

005 in. Readings are recorded sequentially as the operator traverses the section.3 Profilographs Profilographs have been available for many years and exist in a variety of different forms. one at each end of the instrument.4) consists of an inclinometer enclosed in a case supported by two legs separated by 305 mm (12 in.3 and 9. 2. The use of surveys for large projects. is impractical and cost prohibitive. Due to their design they are not practical for network condition surveys. The dipstick is commonly used to measure a profile for calibration of more complex instruments.).2 Dipstick Profiler The dipstick profiler can be used to collect a relatively small quantity of pavement profile measurements. Each display reads the elevation of the leg at its end relative to the elevation of the other leg. 2. and acceptance. The operator then "walks" the dipstick down a premarked pavement section by alternately pivoting the instrument about each leg.127 mm (� 0. configurations. A strip can be surveyed by a single operator in about one-half the time of a traditional survey crew. quality control. Software analysis provides a profile accurate to � 0. The device records 10 to 15 readings per minute.). however. 2. The Dipstick Profiler (see Figures 9.The following discussion with a few modifications was taken directly from the "Pavement Condition Data Collection Equipment" article in the FHWA Pavement Notebook (1989).2. Their most common use today is for rigid pavement construction inspection.1 Survey A survey (performed by a survey crew) can provide an accurate measurement of the pavement profile.2. The major differences among the various profilographs . Two digital displays are provided. and brands.2.

involve the configuration of the wheels and the operation and measurement procedures of the various devices.6). After a careful survey. Profilographs have a sensing wheel. was developed by the California Division of Highways starting in 1956. The blanking band significantly reduced the data analysis effort since only "scallops" (deviations or excursions of roughness above or below zero) that exceeded the blanking band would be significant and have to be analyzed. Scofield recognized that "�the blanking band precluded faulting up to 0. Figure 9. The measured parameter. The goal was to develop a relationship between a calculated index and a subjectively obtained panel rating of road roughness.6: Profilograph Output WSDOT uses the California Profilograph to check rigid pavement construction smoothness (WSDOT Test Method 807). Although considered .5). mounted to provide for free vertical movement at the center of the frame (see Figure 9.2 inches. called a "profile index".5: Profilograph WSDOT Profilograph Information Figure 9. Profilographs can detect very slight surface deviations or undulations up to about 6 m (20 ft) in length.2 inch "blanking band" as illustrated below. the profile index was developed based on 0. is recorded (automatically on some models) on graph paper from the motion of the sensing wheel (see Figure 9. established from the profilograph frame. The deviation against a reference plane.