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Sodium silicate

Sodium silicate is the common name for a compound sodium metasilicate, Na2SiO3, also known as waterglass or liquid glass. It is available in aqueous solution and in solid form and is used in cements, passive fire protection, refractories, textile and lumber processing, and automobiles. Sodium carbonate and silicon dioxide react when molten to form sodium silicate and carbon dioxide:[1] Na2CO3 + SiO2 → Na2SiO3 + CO2 Anhydrous sodium silicate contains a chain polymeric anion composed of corner shared {SiO4} tetrahedral, and not a discrete SiO32− ion.[1] In addition to the anhydrous form, there are hydrates with the formula Na2SiO3·nH2O (where n = 5, 6, 8, 9) which contain the discrete, approximately tetrahedral anion SiO2(OH)22− with water of hydration. For example, the commercially available sodium silicate pentahydrate Na2SiO3·5H2O is formulated as Na2SiO2(OH)2·4H2O and the nonahydrate Na2SiO3·9H2O is formulated as Na2SiO2(OH)2·8H2O.[2] In industry, the various grades of sodium silicate are characterized by their SiO2:Na2O ratio, which can vary between 2:1 and 3.75:1.[3] Grades with this ratio below 2.85:1 are termed 'alkaline'. Those with a higher SiO2:Na2O ratio are described as 'neutral'.

Water Glass[4] was defined in Von Wagner's Manual of Chemical Technology (1892 translation) as any of the soluble alkaline silicates, first observed by Van Helmont circa 1640 as a fluid substance made by melting sand with excess alkali.[5][6] Glauber made what he termed "liquor silicum" in 1646 from potash and silica.[7] Von Fuchs, in 1818, obtained what is now known as water glass by treating silicic acid with an alkali, the result being soluble in water, "but not affected by atmospheric changes".[8][9] Von Wagner distinguished soda, potash, double (soda and potash), and fixing (i.e., stabilizing) as types of water glass. The fixing type was "a mixture of silica well saturated with potash water glass and a sodium silicate" used to stabilize inorganic water color pigments on cement work for outdoor signs and murals.

Sodium silicate is a white powder that is readily soluble in water, producing an alkaline solution. It is one of a number of related compounds which include sodium orthosilicate, Na4SiO4, sodium pyrosilicate, Na6Si2O7, and others. All are glassy, colourless and dissolve in water. Sodium silicate is stable in neutral and alkaline solutions. In acidic solutions, the silicate ion reacts with hydrogen ions to form silicic acid, which when heated and roasted forms silica gel, a hard, glassy substance.

which are sensitive to thermally induced surface deflection. making a temporary. and can be caused by many things including head-bolt stretching. Commonly used on aluminum alloy cylinder heads.wikipedia. brittle repair. When dissolved in water. over-heating. Sodium silicate (glass particulate) contamination of lubricants is detrimental to their function. Automotive repair Sodium silicate can be used to fill gaps within the head gasket. The silicate compounds that are left over have glass-like . sometimes longer. and allowed to circulate. along with magnesium silicate. deficient coolant delivery. high cylinder head pressure. vapor-lock. When the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine heats up to its operating temperature. and symptoms disappear instantly. The repair occurs rapidly. and magnesium silicate form a thick paste that is easy to apply. the heat drives out all of the excess water from the paste. A sodium silicate repair will last two years. "Liquid glass" (sodium silicate) is added to the system through the radiator.Uses Metal repair Sodium silicate is used. etc. Source : http://en. Contamination of engine oil is a serious possibility in situations in which a coolant-to-oil leak is present. This repair only works when the sodium silicate reaches its "conversion" temperature at 100–105 °C. in muffler repair and fitting paste. Sodium silicate is suspended in the coolant until it reaches the cylinder head. At 100– 105 °C sodium silicate loses water molecules to form a glass seal with a re-melt temperature above 810 °C. both sodium silicate.

They may have broken away from their source rocks millions or even hundreds of millions of years ago and have perhaps seen several lithification and weathering cycles.sandatlas. Quartz rich sand are found on the coasts of passive continental margins (margins of the continents without active volcanism). although it has competitors. The width of the view is 7 mm. and occurs in very many sand types but usually not exclusively.Quartz is the most important sand-forming mineral. USA. Long journey is required to allow weathering to break down weaker minerals that were initially present because they are abundant in rocks. Sand from Siesta Key beach is sometimes called the whitest in the world. sometimes thousands of kilometers. Similar sandstones are called quartz arenites or orthoquartzites. Fine-grained quartz sand from the St Peter formation (Ordovician sandstone) from Minnesota. Quartz is the most important sand-forming mineral because it is resistant to both physical and chemical . Source : http://www. In this sand type. Mineral grains that make up this kind of sand can be very old. quartz is almost the sole component of sand. Good examples of sand enriched in quartz can be found in Florida. Sand that is enriched in quartz is likely old (mature) and has travelled far from the source area.