See Q.

“Sampler” on packet, pages 12-15 1st Lecture Exam on Tuesday, October 2nd (Multiple Choice)

EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE: GALAXIES - Milky Way o Democritus (450-370 BC) gave the first notion of the milky way o Galileo (1610 BC)  First to really develop the telescope  First to really look at space and the milky way o Georges Lemaitre (1927)  Came up with the idea of the big bang o 20-15 BYA: Big Bang o EP Hubble (1924)  Looked at the milky way and discovered that there were billions of galaxies beyond the MW o G. Gamow (1940s)  Looked into the evolution of protogalaxies o Expansion: atomic fusion & cooling o Gravitational attraction = galaxies formed - Solar System o Nebular Theory [Pierre Simon Marquis de LaPlace (1815)]  Matter became clustered in stars with the outer eddies condensed in chunks  A hypothesis concerning the origin of the solar system according to which a rotating nebula cooled and contracted, throwing off rings of matter that contracted into the planets and their moons, while the great mass of the condensing nebula became the sun. - Earth o Earth is about 4.6 billion years old o All planets circle sun in same direction and their orbits lie on the ecliptic plane o Earth’s formation:  Planetesimal (chunks of matter) accretion by coalescence  Internal melting due to  Gravitational compression  Impact heating  Radioactive decay  Differentiation into layers  Light material rises to the top (surface)  Heavy material sinks to the center (core)  4.2 to 3.7 billion years ago, crustal cooling & thickening start and continued until 1,000 million years ago, when crustal plates break up & begin migrating, initial mechanisms of plate tectonics  Sea-floor spreading  Subduction

so it’s only found under the continents  “Lower” crust (SIMA) is denser (about 3. only this “crust type” is present below oceans”  Continents “float” on a heavier (about 13% more) crust layer  SIAL: aluminum silicates  .By 600 million years ago. the earth already reached the structure of how it is today o 4 concentric layers of Earth  Inner core: 1250 km  Outer core: 2250 km  “NiFe” = High Density  5500 degrees Celsius? Molten?  Mantle: 2900 km  Si.65 g/cc) and “discontinuous”.0 g/cc) than continents and continuous. Fe: High Density  2800 degrees Celsius  Lower mantle is rigid** (under pressure)  Upper mantle is plastic** (100-700 km): Asthenosphere  Crust: 10-40 km o It actually moves o Behaves differently from the lower mantle  Differentiated into oceanic and continental crust  Oceanic crust: o Basaltic (SIMA) o Heavier o Younger  Continental crust: o Less dense (lighter) o Granitic (SIAL) o Doesn’t subduct o Thicker  Gutenberg discontinuity: lies at mantle base between mantle and outer core o Beno Gutenberg (1913)  Mohorovicic discontinuity: lies right below the crust base between the crust and the mantle o Andera “Moho” Mohorovicic (early 20th century) o Made of Basaltic Rocks (Sima)  Lithosphere = crust & uppermost mantle o Earth’s crust is thicker under continents  “Upper” crust (SIAL) is lighter (density: 2. so it’s found over the whole planet (therefore. Mg.

processes formation Rock Genesis  3 basic groups and 6 sub groups  Igneous (Intrusive aka plutonic or extrusive aka volcanic)  Sedimentary (Detrital aka clastic or chemical)  Metamorphic (foliated or non foliated) Definitions  Intrusive (igneous): form inside the crust of the earth = plutonic  Extrusive (igneous): form on surface of earth = volcanic  Detrital: chunks of rock from weathering and breaking down that clump up eventually  Chemical: non chunks  Foliated: cleavage. Classification. allows crust of the continents to extend deeper through the mantle) Rocks Formation. a lot of plutons = batholith)  Dike: vertical structure  Sill: horizontal structure . and Relationships  Pockets of magma approach surface and cool -> Igneous o Weathering: process of breaking down rocks o Transportation: moves downhill usually and clumps up  Sediments stack up and the bottom layers become compacted from high pressure (lithification) -> Sedimentary  Heat and pressure create Metamorphic o Deformed rocks from some previous cycle (magma) o Melting allow the process to start over Rock Formation  +/.100 elements -> 2000+ minerals -> combine to form rocks o Physical properties o Chemical properties o Origin. SIMA: magnesium silicates o Crust under mountains are thicker than any other areas (called mountain roots. parallel lines Igneous Rocks  Crystalline structure (even during cooling and solidification)  Location (internal/external)  Temperature (cooling rate)  Speed of formation  Size of crystals -> strength  Igneous intrusive rock (plutons.

ejected. Mica is a very common mineral found in rocks. travel through air. from ash/cinder to volcanic bombs. All sizes. Laccoliths: dome shape Volcanic Rocks  Lava: magma at earth’s surface and flows. Sedimentary rocks have beds and bedding planes .Arranged in layers and develop in “sedimentary environments .. the older beds are on the bottom o Law of Original Horizontality: if beds are tilted. properties: basaltic and silicic. differ in chemical and physical. but 75% of all outcrops! .Economically important . SEDIMENTARY ROCKS .. they must have been moved into that position after their deposition .Deposition below slopes are called colluvial sediments .Sedimentary environments are just where materials have been collected .Only 5% of the earth.Contain fossils – sedimentary rocks are the only ways we can preserve fossils .Conglomerates are very common forms of sedimentary rocks Rock formation sequence: Weathering  Transport (Erosion)  Deposition (end of sedimentation)  Internal changes What leads to a rock? . Pyroclastic material: “broken by fire”.Nicholas Steno published Sedimentology (1669) o Law of Superposition: in undeformed sequences.

.Mineral crystals are visibly aligned.Deposition of dissolved materials in percolating water and grain residues Two possible components: 1) Rock Particles (grains) 2) Intergranular cement (also called matrix) *Their strength and other properties may be different from one another and may affect further weathering. Two Sedimentary Rock Types: 1) Detrital (aka Clastic): with rock fragments/grains and cement 2) Chemical: with soluble materials . especially along subduction zones  Hydrothermal metamorphism (least common): contact with thermal waters *For diagrams of the forms of metamorphism. infiltration.equal dimensions.Burial causes compaction .) 1. Mainly produced by Compressive Stress  Non-foliated . lots of heat  Regional metamorphism: occurs over extensive areas.Cleavage Plains  Foliated . chemical fluids)  Contact metamorphism: in close proximity to magma masses.Pressure solution along grain contacts . water storage.+.Metamorphic rocks are also divided by INTENSITY of metamorphism processes  Low grade metamorphism (minimal alternation)  High grade metamorphism (significant change) Metamorphic Rocks 1. see textbook . and minerals have equidemensional crystals (i. rock displays a banded aspect (2+ minerals must be present.e. heat.Metamorphic rocks have been subjected to processes of metamorphism (e. 2. Metamorphism Results in Specific Types of Rock (know this) . coal Detrital Sedimentary Chemical Organic Inorganic METAMORPHIC ROCKS .g. Metamorphic rocks are classified by Presence of Foliation  Foliation . etc.These may be precipitated by inorganic or organic (biological) processes . pressure.Rocks have one single mineral.Organic example: Coral limestone. and/or have minimal deformation (lowgrade).

solutes fill cavities of rocks creating pressures up to 125 kg/cm .Occur over Long time periods .Then.Produces small cavities called “Tafoni” o Many Tafoni result in honeycomb pattern . down to silt size (>.Solutes precipitated left behind . 2 types of weathering  Physical o Involves physical changes. up to 125 kg/cm pressure .Expansion up to 9%. Gneiss-----Migmatite  (Met) Phyllite-----Schist 3.Common in areas where salt is abundant. The resulting landforms are exfoliation domes       Insolation (=Thermal Weathering) .01 mm) o Major Components  Frost wedging .Intensity vs. that the may “revert” to molten Magma.Then water evaporates .First.Cracks.Schist. thus cycle is completer and new igneous rocks may form Rock Weathering 1.Best seen in Plutons. mainly fragmentation of rocks.Due to temperature changes . with high temperatures and in deserts  Pressure Release .Limestone----Marble Sandstone----Quartzite Granite-----Gneiss Coal----Anthracite Shale---. as igneous rocks slowly expand as pressure above gradually decreases (due to slow landscape erosion) . Frequency . Slate Metamorphism of metamorphic rock  (Met) Schist. Final Possibility in the Rock Cycle  Rocks may be so completely melted and thoroughly deformed.The Process is Exfoliation. water dissolves mineral: Solution . Fracture planes result .Most common at high latitudes and high altitudes  Salt (Crystallization) Weathering .

acids are catalysts and speed up mineral solutions  Hydration (“water absorption) .Water is a POLAR liquid. and it is faster when Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is present  Chelation .Induced by plants . or even rain o Rain causes sudden rock cooling . etc. water and gravity  Chemical o Associated with chemical changes  Rock materials are altered. but some are more soluble than others  Carbonation . due to the gradual growth and expansion of roots . trees.Most common in deserts and hot/dry areas  Plant (root) pressure .Occurs in areas with hot days and colder nights .) o Lichens can break down rocks that ultimately accumulate to create soil o Lichens grow everywhere o Larger plants can pry apart layers/slivers of rock. fires.Lichens & larger plants (shrubs.Affects ALL minerals and elements.Caused by solar radiation.Rock expansion during heating (day).Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) dissolves. when rock breaks down (splits) .Organic acids from decomposing plants. elongation) & increase in pressure against rocks **ABRASION: weathering that can be done by wind. then pronounced contaction during cooling (night). including clays o Major Components  Solution (Very Important) . new chemical compounds may be formed and released. with + charges on one end and – charges on the other - .Root growth (thickening.

Occurs more frequently at high temperatures  Oxidation and Reduction . marine fans  Second order includes third order o Third-Order landforms  Examples: mountains.Water molecules also attach to other water molecules .Minerals react in the presence or absence of oxygen . large river valleys. domes. Minerals in rocks are altered and weathered o Expansion when wet. which falls in second…) * 1st and 2nd order landforms (continents.Water molecule splits into 2 ions . a rock Pedestal. pushing apart mineral particles. these have negatively charged particles . a group of exfoliated blocks *Orders of relief includes one another (fourth falls in third. streams o Fourth-Order landforms  Miniature relief: an area with Tafoni.Reduction: occurs in anaerobic (O-deficient) zones o Produces gray/dark brown/black colors  Weathering is needed for the development of different sediments and soils  Main elements in Earth’s crust o Oxygen (O) o Silicon (Si) o Aluminum (Al) o Calcium (Ca) o Magnesium (Mg) o Sodium (Na) o Potassium (K) o Iron (Fe) (SiAlOCaFeKNaMg) Order of relief: difference of elevation o First-Order landforms  Oceans and landscapes o Second-Order landforms  Features: Major oceans or continent subdivisions  Examples: mountain ranges.Oxidation: occurs in aerobic (O-rich) environments o Produces red/yellow/orange colors .Many water layers attach on mineral particles .These ions then combine with minerals . oceans) are caused by global dymanics (plate tectonics) over long time periods * 3rd and 4th order landforms caused by erosion and deposition of materials over shorter time periods - .H2O = HO + H . contraction when dry  Hydrolysis . deltas.Water is attracted to mineral particles.Water layers act like wedges. glaciers. ocean basins.

~200 million years ago [MYA] o Pangaea continent. ~50 MYA o Laurasia breaks apart into Eurasia.Subduction: oceanic plate goes under continent and melts away into the mantle . East Pacific Rise Processes of Plate Convergence (collisions) 2.Late Cenozoic. Australia. Continent/Ocean collision (C/O) .Early Cenozoic.Many ocean trenches are around the ring of the Pacific .Cretaceous.Ex: Western South American and the Andes) 3. West Africa and Europe might collide.Late Jurassic. Antarctica .Early Jurassic. ~20 MYA o Separation into Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. Pacific Coast . Red Sea opens up. Panama Isthmus forms . North America. Plate divergence Plate Boundaries Perpendicular to (main) Divergent Boundary Leads to continental break-up and seafloor spreading If the split is at a slow rate. Australia crosses the Equator moving north Processes of Plate Tectonics 1.20 last MYA to present o Gulf of California.Possible Future o North and South America move further. ~90 MYA o Gondwana breaks apart into South America.Alfred Wegener came up with the idea of the continental drift . surrounded by Panthalassa o ~750 MYA: Rodinia started splitting . the geography doesn’t have time to pile up and is more flat . the geography piles up If the split is at a fast rate. and Greenland .CONTINENTAL DRIFT AND PROCESSES OF PLATE TECTONICS .Formation of (Oceanic) volcanic islands - . ~150 MYA o Starts separation into Laurasia (North) and Gondwana (South) o ≥ 250 MYA: Gondwana’s glactiation occurred . Mid-Atlantic Ridge. India. Africa.Ex: East African Rift Zone. Ocean/Ocean collision (O/O) .

Hot Spot interaction – plates poke through the crust (like a bubble rising through the mantle from the core) . seafloor spreading) and hot spots Magma sources & types define: .Ex: Hawaii. Puerto Rico Trench 4.Ex: India and the Himalayas Additional processes 1.Formation of folded mountains .Eventually reaches the surface of the planet.Silicic magma o From melting of subducted rocks  Main sources: subduction zones @ continental edges & island arcs o SIAL. creating flood basalts . when still under high pressure o High viscosity = low fluidity (due to high SiO2% & low temperature) .Basaltic magma o Calm eruptions o From upper mantle (“new” magma) o Main sources: mid-oceanic ridges. in the Western Pacific Ocean. with high silica % o Lower temperatures = ~900 degrees C o **High gas %.200 degrees C o Very low gas %.Ex: Guam-Marianas Islands and Marianas Trench. Silicic Volcanism .Nature of the eruption .  Include water vapor (most abundant)  Gases remain dissolved in the melt o Low viscosity = high fluidity (due to low SiO2% and high temperature) o Little or NO explosive activity o Volcanic products: fluid lava  Main type: Pahoehoe = travels far .The Hawaiian Islands are a perfect example of how islands are created by hot spots .Types of landforms created Basaltic vs. areas of crustal rift & hotspots o SIMA with low silica % o Very hot = ~1.The plates are moving. mostly water vapor  Gases separate below surface. Galapagos. Continent/Continent collision (C/C) . Canary Islands - VOLCANIC PROCESSES & LANDFORMS Volcanism: related to tectonic – plate boundaries (subduction. so the stationary hot spot plume creates an island chain .

with a broken. CO2.)  Formation of crater “lake” (Caldera)  Collapse of mountain into magma chamber o Plug dome  Always associated with silicic lava with very high content of SiO2 (~70-80%)  Produced by highly silicic lavas that flow slowly and solidify quickly  All the previous plug domes are formed of dacite Cinder cones o Steep conical hill of tephra (volcanic debris) that accumulates around and downwind from a volcanic vent o Made of pyroclastic material o Magma exploded into the air and cooled quickly to form cinder cones - . N.Basaltic: Shield volcanoes (flood) lava plateaus Silicic (aka Andesitic): Composite (strato-) volcanoes. Cl. cinder. H… o Fissure Eruption on Shield volcano  Lava fountaining  Basaltic lava flows  Fissure Volcanic Landforms . S. calderas. jagged surface  Pyroclastic (which means broken by fire) material: ASH. CO. volcanic bombs. Mazama (~7700 ±150 years B. “tephra”  Gases: H2O.P. pumice. and plug domes o Collapse calderas (indentation/depression in the middle of volcano) o Collapse of Mt.o Extremely explosive activity  Chain reactions due to gas pressure  Gas bubbles (lava vesicles) are produced o Numerous volcanic products:  Viscous Lavas. main type: AA. blocky.

Basaltic o Shield volcanoes o Lava plateaus .Silicic (Andesitic) o Composite (strato-) volcanoes o (collapse) Calderas o Plug domes Plus: Cinder Cones (present in basaltic. but more common in silicic volcanic areas) .4 Zones of Vulcanism 1) Seafloor spreading 2) O/C subduction 3) O/O subduction 4) Hot spots Summary of Volcanic Landforms: .